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Q. What is the difference between unit operation and unit process?

A. Unit operations are reversible and unit process is irreversible. Unit operations involve
physical changes while unit process involve chemical changes

Heat transfer
Q. You have two layer of material to provide insulation. They have heat transfer co-efficient
(k1>k2).How will you obtain better insulation? Arrangement around cylindrical/spherical
material.
A. The material with smaller heat transfer coefficient i.e. k2 to be placed inside and k1 on
the outside.

Q. Why we use flaring in the crude oil refining industry?

Q. What is Joule Thomson Effect? Define.
Q. What are the different ways of reducing pressure in a fluid process line?
A. pressure reducing valve (joule Thomson effect) and turbine.

Q. What is coking?

Q. What is the significance of minimum flow required by a pump?
A. The minimum flow that a pump requires describes the flow below which the pump will
experience shutoffcondition. At shutoff, most of the pumps work is converted to heat
that can vaporise the fluid and cause cavitation.

Q. Draw the pump performance curve and system curve and show the operating point, shut
off point and run out point.


Q. What is pump run out point?
A.A performance curve is a plot of Total Head vs. flow rate. The plot starts at zero flow. The
head at this point corresponds to the shut-off head of the pump. Starting at this point,
thehead decreases until it reaches its minimum. This point is sometimes called the run-out
point and represents the maximum flow of the pump. Beyond this, the pumpcannot
operate. The pump's range of operation is from shut off point to run out point.


Q. How are pumps in parallel different from pumps in series?


Q. What is approach of cooling tower?
A. Difference between the wet bulb temperature at that location and the outlet
temperature of water.

Q. Why is make up water used in cooling tower?
A. The three major types of water losses in cooling tower are windage losses, drift losses
and blow down (draw off). Blow down is done to maintain concentration of salts in water.
To mitigate all above mentioned three losses make up water is used.

Q. What is difference between LNG and CNG?
A. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Natural Gas which has been liquefied at (Minus) 160
degree Centigrade. Natural Gas is liquefied to facilitate transportation in large volumes in
cryogenic tankers across sea.
Compressed Natural gas, CNG - Natural Gas compressed to a pressure of 200-250 kg/cm2
used as fuel for transportation. CNG decreases vehicular pollution on the virtue of being
cleaner fuel than liquid fuels.

Q. What are the recommended selection criteria, based on area, among shell and tube,
double pipe, and coil types of heat exchangers?
A. Heat exchange area <2m
2
, select a coiled heat exchanger.
2m
2
<Area<50m
2
, select a double pipe heat exchanger.
Area>50m
2
, select a shell and tube heat exchanger.

Q. Define (i) capacity and (ii) economy of an evaporator.
A. Capacity is quantity evaporated per unit time.
Economy is quantity vaporized per unit quantity of steam consumed.
Q. What is a ton of refrigeration?
A. Heat equivalent to melting 1 ton (2000 lb or 907 kg) of ice in 24 h. It is equal to 12,700
kJ/h (12,000 Btu/h).

Q. Define LEL and flash point.
A. The lower explosive limit (LEL) is the minimum concentration of a vapor in air that will
support a flame when ignited. The flash point is the lowest temperature of a liquid that
produces sufficient vapor for an open flame to ignite in air.

Q. What is Tank Blanketing?
A. Inert gas is used to blanket certain fixed-roof tanks for safety. This is chiefly done in
hydrocarbon storages to prevent any contact with air(oxygen). Nitrogen is mostly used as
tank blanketing gas.

Q. How to calculate Net Positive Suction Head available, NPSHa

NPSHa = HA HZ - HF + HV - HVP

HA - The absolute pressure on the surface of the liquid in the supply tank
HZ - The vertical distance between the surface of the liquid in the supply tank and the
centerline of the pump
Can be positive when liquid level is above the centerline of the pump (called static head)
Can be negative when liquid level is below the centerline of the pump (called suction lift)

HF - Friction losses in the suction piping
Piping and fittings act as a restriction, working against liquid as it flows towards the pump
inlet.

HV - Velocity head at the pump suction port
Often not included as its normally quite small.

HVP - Absolute vapor pressure of the liquid at the pumping temperature
Must be subtracted in the end to make sure that the inlet pressure stays above the vapor
pressure.
Remember, as temperature goes up, so does the vapor pressure.

Q. What is difference between plant air and instrument air?

Q. What is dew point?


Q. What are advantages of a multi stage compressor over a single stage compressor?
A. Advantages of Multi-stage compression:
1. The work done in compressing the air is reduced, thus power can be saved
2. Prevents mechanical problems as the air temperature is controlled
3. The suction and delivery valves remain in cleaner condition as the temperature and
vaporization of lubricating oil is less
4. The machine is smaller and better balanced
5. Effects from moisture can be handled better, by draining at each stage
6. Compression approaches near isothermal
7. Compression ratio at each stage is lower when compared to a single-stage machine
8. Light moving parts usually made of aluminum, thus less cost and better maintenance
Refer to the diagram of a multi-stage compressor, where it is evident that the work done by
the compressor is less when compared to a single-stage machine for same delivery pressure.