Sei sulla pagina 1di 77

7.5W NON-ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER

PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE

AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

IN

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

K.HARIBABU

M.SRINIVAS

J.BHEEMARAY

BY

(07241A0234)

(08245A0203)

(08245A0206)

Under the guidance of Ms. U.VIJAYA LAXMI Assistant Professor Department of EEE

Ms. U.VIJAYA LAXMI Assistant Professor Department of EEE Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology

(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University) Hyderabad

2011

GOKARAJU RANGARAJU INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University) Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project report

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report entitled

7.5W NON ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER

is being submitted by

K.HARIBABU

M.SRINIVAS

J.BHEEMARAY

(07241A0234)

(08245A0203)

(08245A0206)

In partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad during the academic year 2010-2011 is a bonafide record of work carried out by them under our guidance and supervision.

Head of Department

Prof.P. M. SARMA

Professor

External Examiner

Internal Guide

U.VIJAYA LAXMI

Assistant Professor

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

It would be a great pleasure for us to express our thanks to Dr. S.N. Saxena, Professor and Dean of placements, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology, who has supported us through the project work and thesis.

We express our sincere thanks to Prof.P.M Sarma, head of the department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology, for his suggestions, motivation and encouragement to work with this project.

We are greatly indebted to our guide Ms.U.Vijaya Laxmi, Assistant professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology, for her valuable guidance in presenting this project both in theoretical and practical aspects and rendering us moral support.

We heartly thankful to all staff members in Electrical and Electronics Engineering who helped us in preparing working model.

K.Haribabu

M.Srinivas

J.Bheemaray

ABSTRACT

This project covers a closed loop controlled non-isolated flyback converter with switching element MOSFET is switched ON and OFF using PWM controller UC494 with switching frequency of 100kHz. The converter is operating from 25V battery (15V to 25V) providing regulated output power at 15V (0.5A).

The flyback converter is a DC to DC converter in which the energy is received from the input source when the switch is ON and then pumps energy into the output side during flyback of the switch. Energy flow from the input side to output side when the switch is turned OFF that is, when it is made to flyback, hence the name flyback converter. The non-isolated has no transformer or electrical isolation, allowing it to be smaller and less expensive. Non-isolated units which make up the majority of POL (point of load) converters, come in assorted board- friendly compact package styles and are typically used in computing applications such as memory motherboards. Non-isolated POLs offer a lower price for a given voltage and current output. Further, they're usually housed in small-size formats like single-in-line packages (SIPs), dual-in-line packages (DIPs), or surface-mount (SMT) modules. Their more compact packaging yields significant real estate savings on the pc board and allows them to be placed close to their loads. In turn, their close load placement reduces I 2 R copper losses on the board and improves transient response.

startup circuit, maximum pulse width circuit,

controller circuit, power circuit of power converter, feedback circuit. This circuits are used to

control of switching pulse width using feedback circuit and controller by PWM technique.

This

project

consist of a combination of

Advantages of this project are Most flexible low cost, low-power topology, with constant Multiple DC voltage. Disadvantages of this project are switching losses are more, and cannot be designed for high power rating due to isolation problems.

Applications of flyback converter are Low power switch-mode power supplies(cell phone charger), High voltage generation(xenon flash lamps, lasers), High voltage supply for the CRT in TVs, monitors, Low cost multiple-output power supplies(main pc supply less than

250W).

R T

C

T

N

N

V

1

2

1

V

2

ABBREVIATIONS

Timing Resistor

Timing Capacitor

Number of Primary Turns

Number of Secondary Turns

Primary voltage of Inductor

Secondary voltage of Inductor

PWM Pulse Width Modulation

T

ON

On Time of The Switch

T

OFF

Off Time of The Switch

T

Time Period

f

Frequency

S

Switch

V REF

Reference voltage

MOSFET

Metal oxide semi conductor field effect transistor

D

Diode

PCB

Printed circuit board

V 0

Output voltage

TP

Test point

V

Volts

A

Amperes

MMF

Magneto Motive Force

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Abbreviations

Contents

List of Figures

List of Figures

1. INTRODUCTION

CONTENTS

1.1. Switch mode conversion

1.2. Types of converters

1.2.1. Non-Isolated converter

1.2.2. Isolated converter

2. FLYBACK CONVERTERS

2.1. Fly-Back Converter 2.1.1. Basic Topology of Flyback converter 2.1.2. Principle of Operation of Flyback converter

2.2. Flyback circuit Waveforms

2.3. Practical Flyback converter

3. PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION

3.1. Block diagram of project Circuit (Non-Isolated flyback Converter)

4. START-UP AND MAXIMUM PULSE WIDTH CIRCUIT

4.1. Start-up circuit 4.1.1 Operation of start-up circuit

4.2. Maximum pulse width circuit

i

ii

iii

iv

viii

ix

1

2

3

3

4

5

5

5

6

11

12

14

14

15

15

16

16

5.

CONTROLLER CIRCUIT

17

5.1 Pulse width modulation Technique

17

5.2 UC494c Controller

18

 

5.2.1. Pin configuration of UC494C controller

18

5.2.2. Features of UC494C controller IC

19

5.3 Controller circuit

19

 

5.3.1.

Operation of controller circuit

20

6. Feedback circuit

21

6.1 Closed loop control

21

6.2 Compensator(LEAD/LAG)

22

7. POWER CIRCUIT

 

24

7.1 Main components of power circuit

24

7.2 MOSFET

 

24

 

7.2.1. MOSFET as a switch

25

7.2.2. MOSFET characteristics curve

26

7.3 Couple Inductor

30

7.4 Voltage regulator(LM7815)

34

 

7.4.1.

Features of LM7815

35

7.5 Diode(MUR110)

35

7.6 Circuit diagram of non-Isolated Flyback converter

36

Power circuit

36

 

7.6.1.

Operation of Power circuit

 

37

8. SIMULATION OF NON-ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER CIRCUIT IN MATLAB SOFTWARE

37

8.1.

Simulation circuit description

37

8.1.1. Simulation circuit diagram

38

8.1.2. Simulation waveforms

9.

NON-ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER HARDWARE KIT

40

 

9.1. Hardware kit PCB layout

40

9.2. PCB with components soldered

41

9.3. Practical output waveforms for 15Volts input supply

42

9.4. Practical output waveforms for 25Volts input supply

44

9.5. Tabulation of input voltage and output voltage With voltage regulator(LM7815) on load side

47

10.

APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATION

48

10.1 Applications of Non-Isolated Flyback converter

48

10.2 Limitations of Non-Isolated Flyback converter

48

11:

CONCLUSION

50

11.1 Conclusion

50

11.2 Results

50

11.3 Difficulties encountered during the Project

50

12.

SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

51

12.1

Scope for future work

51

References

52

Appendix

53

A: List of Project Components

53

B: Data sheet of UC494C

54

C: Data sheet of MOSFET (IRFZ44)

58

D: Datasheet of Voltage regulator(LM7815)

60

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig.2.1

Flyback converter

5

Fig.2.2(a)

Current path during Mode-1 of circuit operation

7

Fig.2.2(b)

Equivalent circuit in Mode-1

7

Fig.2.3(a)

Current path during Mode-2 of circuit operation

8

Fig.2.3(b)

Equivalent circuit in Mode-2

8

Fig.2.4(a)

Current path during Mode-3 of circuit operation

10

Fig.2.4(b)

Equivalent circuit in Mode-3

10

Fig.2.5

Flyback circuit waveforms under continuous magnetic flux

11

Fig.2.6

Fly-back circuit waveforms under discontinuous magnetic Flux

11

Fig. 2.7

Practical Fly Back Converter

12

Fig.3.1

Block diagram representation of Project Circuit

14

Fig.4.1

Startup circuit

15

Fig .4.2

Maximum pulse width circuit

16

Fig.5.1

Pulse width modulation technique

17

Fig.5.2

Pin configuration of UC494 controller

18

Fig 5.3

Controller circuit

19

Fig.5.4

Connections of amplifier

20

Fig.6.1

Closed loop block diagram

21

Fig.6.2

Feedback Circuit

23

Fig.7.1

Power MOSFET

(a) Schematic , (b)Transfer characteristics,

(c)Device symbol

25

Fig.7.2

Symbol of MOSFETs

26

Fig.7.3

MOSFET characteristics curves

27

Fig.7.4

Cut-off region equivalent diagram

27

Fig.7.5

Saturation region equivalent diagram

28

Fig.7.6

MOSFET as a Switch

29

Fig.7.7

Couple inductors

33

Fig.7.8

Voltage regulator LM7815

35

Fig.7.9

Power circuit

36

Fig. 8.1

Simulation circuit of flyback converter

37

Fig. 8.2

Gate pulses

38

Fig. 8.3

Output voltage(16.6V)

38

Fig. 8.4

Output current(0.43A)

38

Fig.9.1

PCB layout of hardware kit

40

Fig.9.2

Hardware kit PCB with components

41

Fig.9.4

Gate voltage(12V) for 15V input voltage

42

Fig.9.5

Output voltage(15.2V) for 15V input voltage

43

Fig. 9.7 Secondary Inductor Voltage for 15V input voltage

44

Fig. 9.8

Ramp voltage(3V)

for

25V input voltage

44

Fig. 9.9

Gate voltage(20V)

for

25V input voltage

45

Fig.9.10 Output voltage(15.2V)

for 25V input

45

Fig. 9.11Primary Inductor voltage for 25V input voltage

46

Fig. 9.12Secondary Inductor voltage for 25V input voltage

46

LIST OF TABLES

Table 8.1 Tabulation of input voltage and output voltage without voltage regulator on the load side

 

39

Table 9.1 Tabulation of input voltage and output voltage

47

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Power electronic converters are a family of electrical circuits which convert electrical energy from one level of voltage/current/frequency to another using semiconductor-based electronic switches. The essential characteristic of these types of circuits is that the switches are operated only in one of two states - either fully ON or fully OFF - unlike other types of electrical circuits where the control elements are operated in a (near) linear active region. As the power electronics industry has developed, various families of power electronic converters have evolved, often linked by power level, switching devices and topological origins. The process of switching the electronic devices in a power electronic converter from one state to another is called modulation and the development of optimum strategies to implement this process has been the subject of intensive international research efforts for at least 30 years. Each family of power converters has preferred modulation strategies associated with it that aim to optimize the circuit operation for the target criteria most appropriate for that family. Parameters such as switching frequency, distortion, losses, harmonic generation and speed of response are typical of the issues which must be considered when developing modulation strategies for a particular family of converters.

DC to DC converters are important in portable electronic devices such as cellular phones and laptop computers, which are supplied with power from batteries primarily. Such electronic devices often contain several sub-circuits, each with its own voltage level requirement different from that supplied by the battery or an external supply (sometimes higher or lower than the supply voltage). Additionally, the battery voltage declines as its stored power is drained. Switched DC to DC converters offer a method to increase voltage from a partially lowered battery voltage thereby saving space instead of using multiple batteries to accomplish the same thing.

Most DC to DC converters also regulate the output voltage. Some exceptions include high-efficiency LED power sources, which are a kind of DC to DC converter that regulates the current through the LEDs and simple charge pumps which double or triple the input voltage.

Linear regulators can only output at lower voltages from the input. They are very inefficient when the voltage drop is large and the current is high as they dissipate heat equal to the product of the output current and the voltage drop; consequently they are not normally used for large-drop high-current applications.

The inefficiency wastes power and requires higher-rated and consequently more expensive and larger components. The heat dissipated by high-power supplies is a problem in itself as it must be removed from the circuitry to prevent unacceptable temperature rises.

They are practical if the current is low, the power dissipated being small, although it may still be a large fraction of the total power consumed. They are often used as part of a simple regulated power supply for higher currents: a transformer generates a voltage which when rectified, is a little higher than that needed to bias the linear regulator. The linear regulator drops the excess voltage, reducing hum-generating ripple current and providing a constant output voltage independent of normal fluctuations of the unregulated input voltage from the transformer or bridge rectifier circuit and of the load current.

Linear regulators are inexpensive, reliable if good heat sinking is used and much simpler than switching regulators. As part of a power supply they may require a transformer, which is larger for a given power level than that required by a switch-mode power supply. Linear regulators can provide a very low-noise output voltage and are very suitable for powering noise- sensitive low-power analog and radio frequency circuits. A popular design approach is to use an LDO, Low Drop-out Regulator, that provides a local "point of load" DC supply to a low power circuit.

1.1 SWITCHED-MODE CONVERSION

Electronic switch-mode DC to DC converters convert one DC voltage level to another, by storing the input energy temporarily and then releasing that energy to the output at a different voltage. The storage may be in either magnetic field storage components (inductors, transformers) or electric field storage components (capacitors). This conversion method is more power efficient (often 75% to 98%) than linear voltage regulation (which dissipates unwanted power as heat). This efficiency is beneficial to increasing the running time of battery operated devices. The efficiency has increased since the late 1980s due to the use of power FETs, which

are able to switch at high frequency more efficiently than power bipolar transistors, which incur more switching losses and require a more complicated drive circuit. Another important innovation in DC-DC converters is the use of synchronous rectification replacing the flywheel diode with a power FET with low "On" resistance, thereby reducing switching losses.

Most DC to DC converters are designed to move power in only one direction, from the input to the output. However, all switching regulator topologies can be made bi-directional by replacing all diodes with independently controlled active rectification. A bi-directional converter can move power in either direction, which is useful in applications requiring regenerative braking. Drawbacks of switching converters include complexity, electronic noise (EMI / RFI) and to some extent cost, although this has come down with advances in chip design.

DC to DC converters are now available as integrated circuits needing minimal additional components. DC to DC converters are also available as a complete hybrid circuit component, ready for use within an electronic assembly.

In these DC to DC converters, energy is periodically stored into and released from a magnetic field in an inductor or a transformer, typically in the range from 300 kHz to 10 MHz. By adjusting the duty cycle of the charging voltage (i.e., the ratio of on/off time), the amount of power transferred can be controlled. Usually, this is applied to control the output voltage, though it could be applied to control the input current, the output current, or maintain a constant power. Transformer-based converters may provide isolation between the input and the output. In general, the term "DC to DC converter" refers to one of these switching converters. These circuits are the heart of a switched-mode power supply. Many topologies exist.

1.2 TYPES OF CONVERTERS

1.2.1 Non-Isolated Converters: Also called Point of Load converters, these step up or step down voltage by a low ratio. These have ICs specifically meant for the purpose and a DC path between its output and input. The four main types of non isolated converters are: Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost and Cuk converters. While the Buck steps down the voltage, Boost steps it up. Buck-Boost and Cuk are able to step up as well as step down the voltage.

Types of Non-Isolated converters

1. Buck Converter (Step-Down Converter)

2. Boost Converter (Step-Up Converter)

3. Buck-Boost Converter

4. Cuk Converter

1.2.2 Isolated Converters: These converters are characterized by the presence of an

electrical barrier between the input and output. The barrier is provided by a high frequency transformer, which can withstand a few hundred volts to several thousand volts. The output of an isolated converter can be positive or negative and are useful in medical applications. These devices are available in different types and configurations. The two basic types are flyback and forward. Both these use the energy stored in the inductor's magnetic field for their operation.

Types of Isolated converters

1. Flyback converter

2. Forward converter

1.2.2a Flyback converter: In this type of power supply converter, a transformer is used to store energy, rather than a single inductor. It has two discrete phases for energy storage and output delivery. The magnetic flux of the transformer core never reverses in polarity; hence, to avoid the resultant magnetic saturation the core must be large enough for the given power level. These are used in lower power applications, such as Cathode ray tubes and Geiger counter tubes which draw lesser current.

1.2.2b Forward converter: The transformer transfers the energy between the input and the output in a single step. This power supply converter can step-up or step-down voltage or offer a combination of the two. For multiple outputs, all one needs to do is manipulate the turns on the secondary winding. Applications include car amplifiers, where low battery voltage is stepped up to obtain higher output for the amplifiers.

CHAPTER 2

FLYBACK CONVERTER

2.1 FLYBACK CONVERTER

Fly-back converter is the most commonly used SMPS circuit for low output power applications where the output voltage needs to be isolated from the input main supply. The output power of flyback type SMPS circuits may vary from few watts to less than 100 watts. The overall circuit topology of this converter is considerably simpler than other SMPS circuits. Input to the circuit is generally unregulated dc voltage obtained by rectifying the utility ac voltage followed by a simple capacitor filter. The circuit can offer single or multiple isolated output voltages and can operate over wide range of input voltage variation. In respect of energy- efficiency, fly-back power supplies are inferior to many other SMPS circuits but its simple topology and low cost makes it popular in low output power range.

The commonly used fly-back converter requires a single controllable switch like, MOSFET and the usual switching frequency is in the range of 100 kHz. A two-switch topology exists that offers better energy efficiency and less voltage stress across the switches but costs more and the circuit complexity also increases slightly. The present lesson is limited to the study of fly-back circuit of single switch topology.

2.1.1 Basic Topology of Flyback Converter: Fig.2.1 shows the basic topology of a

fly-back circuit. Input to the circuit may be unregulated dc voltage derived from the utility ac supply after rectification and some filtering.

dc voltage derived from the utility ac supply after rectification and some filtering. Fig.2.1 Flyback converter

Fig.2.1 Flyback converter

The ripple in dc voltage waveform is generally of low frequency and the overall ripple voltage waveform repeats at twice the ac mains frequency. Since the SMPS circuit is operated at much higher frequency (in the range of 100 kHz) the input voltage, in spite of being unregulated, may be considered to have a constant magnitude during any high frequency cycle. A fast switching device (‘S’) like a MOSFET, is used with fast dynamic control over switch duty ratio (ratio of ON time to switching time-period) to maintain the desired output voltage. The transformer in Fig.2.1, is used for voltage isolation as well as for better matching between input and output voltage and current requirements. Primary and secondary windings of the transformer are wound to have good coupling so that they are linked nearly by same magnetic flux. That will be shown in the next section the primary and secondary windings of the fly-back transformer don’t carry current simultaneously and in this sense fly-back transformer works differently from a normal transformer. In a normal transformer, under load primary and secondary windings conduct simultaneously such that the ampere turns of primary winding is nearly balanced by the opposing ampere-turns of the secondary winding (the small difference in ampere-turns is required to establish flux in the non-ideal core). Since primary and secondary windings of the fly-back transformer don’t conduct simultaneously they are more like two magnetically coupled inductors and it may be more appropriate to call the fly-back transformer as inductor-transformer. Accordingly the magnetic circuit design of a fly-back transformer is done like that for an inductor. The details of the inductor-transformer design are dealt with separately in some later lesson. The output section of the fly-back transformer, which consists of voltage rectification and filtering, is considerably simpler than in most other switched mode power supply circuits. As can be seen from the circuit (Fig.2.1), the secondary winding voltage is rectified and filtered using just a diode and a capacitor. Voltage across this filter capacitor is the SMPS output voltage.

2.1.2 Principle of Operation

During its operation fly-back converter assumes different circuit configurations. Each of these circuit configurations have been referred here as modes of circuit operation. The complete operation of the power supply circuit is explained with the help of functionally equivalent circuits in these different modes. As may be seen from the circuit diagram of Fig.2.1, when switch ‘S’ is on, the primary winding of the transformer gets connected to the input supply with its dotted end connected to the positive side. At this time the diode ‘D’ connected in series with the secondary winding gets

reverse biased due to the induced voltage in the secondary (dotted end potential being higher).

Thus with the turning on of switch ‘S’, primary winding is able to carry current but current in the

secondary winding is blocked due to the reverse biased diode. The flux established in the

transformer core and linking the windings is entirely due to the primary winding current. This

mode of circuit has been described here as Mode-1 of circuit operation.

has been described here as Mode-1 of circuit operation. Fig.2.2(a): Current path during Mode-1 of circuit

Fig.2.2(a): Current path during Mode-1 of circuit operation

Fig.2.2(b): Equivalent circuit in

Mode-1

Fig. 2.2(a) shows the current carrying part of the circuit and Fig. 2.2(b) shows the circuit

that is functionally equivalent to the fly-back circuit during mode-1. In the equivalent circuit

shown, the conducting switch or diode is taken as a shorted switch and the device that is not

conducting is taken as an open switch. This representation of switch is in line with our

assumption where the switches and diodes are assumed to have ideal nature, having zero voltage

drop during conduction and zero leakage current during off state.

In Mode-1 the input supply voltage appears across the primary winding inductance and

the primary current rises linearly. The following mathematical relation gives an expression for

current rise through the primary winding:

E dc = L pri ×

through the primary winding: E d c = L p r i × - - -

- - - -(2.1)

where E dc is the input dc voltage, L pri is inductance of the primary winding and i pri is the

instantaneous current through primary winding.

At the end of switch-conduction (i.e., end of Mode-1), the energy stored in the magnetic

field of the fly back inductor-transformer is equal to L p I 2 p /2 , where I p denotes the magnitude of

primary current at the end of conduction period. Even though the secondary winding does not

conduct during this mode, the load connected to the output capacitor gets uninterrupted current

due to the previously stored charge on the capacitor. During mode-1, assuming a large capacitor

the secondary winding voltage remains almost constant and equals to V sec =E dc ×N 2 /N 1 . During

mode-1, dotted end of secondary winding remains at higher potential than the other end. Under

this condition voltage stress across the diode connected to secondary winding (which is now

reverse biased) is the sum of the induced voltage in secondary and the output voltage

(V doide =V o + E dc ×N 2 /N 1 ).

Mode-2 of circuit operation starts when switch ‘S’ is turned off after conducting for some

time. The primary winding current path is broken and according to laws of magnetic induction,

the voltage polarities across the windings reverse. Reversal of voltage polarities makes the diode

in the secondary circuit forward biased.

makes the diode in the secondary circuit forward biased. Fig.2.3(a): Current path during Mode-2 of circuit

Fig.2.3(a): Current path during Mode-2 of circuit operation

Fig.2.3(b): Equivalent circuit in Mode-2

Fig. 2.3(a) shows the current path during mode-2 of circuit operation while Fig. 2.3(b) shows the

functional equivalent of the circuit during this mode.

In mode-2, though primary winding current is interrupted due to turning off of the switch

‘S’, the secondary winding immediately starts conducting such that the net MMF produced by

the windings do not change abruptly (MMF is magneto motive force that is responsible for flux

production in the core. MMF in this case, is the algebraic sum of the ampere-turns of the two

windings. Current entering the dotted ends of the windings may be assumed to produce positive

MMF and accordingly current entering the opposite end will produce negative MMF).

Continuity of MMF, in magnitude and direction is automatically ensured as sudden change in

MMF is not supported by a practical circuit for reasons briefly given below.

MMF is proportional to the flux produced and flux in turn, decides the energy stored in

the magnetic field (energy per unit volume being equal to B 2 /2µ , B being flux per unit area and

µ is the permeability of the medium). Sudden change in flux will mean sudden change in the

magnetic field energy and this in turn will mean infinite magnitude of instantaneous power, something that a practical system cannot support. For the idealized circuit considered here, the secondary winding current abruptly rises from zero to I p N 1 /N 2 as soon as the switch ‘S’ turns off, N 1 and N 2 denote the number of turns in the primary and secondary windings respectively. The diode connected in the secondary circuit as shown in Fig.2.1 allows only the current that enters through the dotted end. It can be seen that the magnitude and current direction in the secondary winding is such that the MMF produced by the two windings does not have any abrupt change. The secondary winding current charges the output capacitor. The ‘+’ marked end of the capacitor will have positive voltage. The output capacitor is usually sufficiently large such that its voltage doesn’t change appreciably in a single switching cycle but over a period of several cycles the capacitor voltage builds up to its steady state value. The steady-state magnitude of output capacitor voltage depends on various factors, like input dc supply, fly-back transformer parameters, switching frequency, switch duty ratio and the load at the output. Capacitor voltage magnitude will stabilize if during each switching cycle, the energy output by the secondary winding equals the energy delivered to the load. As can be seen from the steady state waveforms of Fig.2.4(a) and Fig.2.4(b), the secondary winding current decays linearly as it flows against the constant output voltage (V O ).

The linear decay of the secondary current can be expressed as follows:

L sec ×

current can be expressed as follows: L s e c × = -V o - -

=

-V o

- - - -(2.2)

Where L sec and i sec are secondary winding inductance and current respectively. V o is the stabilized magnitude of output voltage. Under steady-state and under the assumption of zero on-state voltage drop across diode, the secondary winding voltage during this mode equals V o and the primary winding voltage is

V O N 1 /N 2 (dotted ends of both windings being at lower potential). Under this condition, voltage

stress across switch ‘S’ is the sum total of the induced emf in the primary winding and the dc supply voltage (V switch = E dc +V o N 1 /N 2 ).

In secondary winding while charging the output capacitor (and feeding the load) transferring energy from the magnetic field of the flyback transformer to the power supply output is in electrical form. If the off period of the switch is kept large, the secondary current gets

sufficient time to decay to zero and magnetic field energy is completely transferred to the output

capacitor and load. Flux linked by the windings remain zero until the next turn-on of the switch

and the circuit is under discontinuous flux mode of operation. Alternately, if the off period of the

switch is small the next turn on takes place before the secondary current decays to zero. The

circuit is then under continuous flux mode of operation.

During discontinuous mode, after complete transfer of the magnetic field energy to the

output the secondary winding emf as well as current fall to zero and the diode in series with the

winding stops conducting. The output capacitor however continues to supply uninterrupted

voltage to the load. This part of the circuit operation has been referred to as Mode-3 of the circuit

operation.

Mode-3 ends with turn ON of switch ‘S’ and then the circuit again goes to Mode-1 and

the sequence repeats.

the circuit again goes to Mode-1 and the sequence repeats. Fig.2.4(a): Current path during Mode-3 of

Fig.2.4(a): Current path during Mode-3 of circuit operation

Fig.2.4(b): Equivalent circuit in

Mode-3

Figs.2.4(a) and 2.4(b) Respectively shows the current path and the equivalent circuit during

mode-3 of circuit operation.

2.2 FLYBACK CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS

2.2 FLYBACK CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS Fig.2.5 Flyback circuit waveforms under continuous magnetic flux Fig.2.6 Flyback circuit

Fig.2.5 Flyback circuit waveforms under continuous magnetic flux

Flyback circuit waveforms under continuous magnetic flux Fig.2.6 Flyback circuit waveforms under discontinuous

Fig.2.6 Flyback circuit waveforms under discontinuous magnetic flux

2.3 PRACTICAL FLY-BACK CONVERTER

The flyback converter discussed in the previous sections neglects some of the practical aspects of the circuit. The simplified and idealized circuit considered above essentially conveys the basic idea behind the converter. However a practical converter will have device voltage drops and losses. The coupling between the primary and secondary windings will not be ideal. The loss part of the circuit is to be kept in mind while designing for rated power. The designed input power (P in ) should be equal to P o /η, where P o is the required output power and η is the efficiency

of the circuit. A typical value for η may be taken close to 0.6 for first design iteration. Similarly one needs to counter the effects of the non-ideal coupling between the windings. Due to the non- ideal coupling between the primary and secondary windings when the primary side switch is turned-off some energy is trapped in the leakage inductance of the winding. The flux associated with the primary winding leakage inductance will not link the secondary winding and hence the energy associated with the leakage flux needs to be dissipated in an external circuit (known as snubber). Unless this energy finds a path, there will be a large voltage spike across the windings which may destroy the circuit.

spike across the windings which may destroy the circuit. Fig. 2.7 Practical Fly Back Converter Fig.2.7

Fig. 2.7 Practical Fly Back Converter

Fig.2.7 shows a practical fly-back converter. The snubber circuit consists of a fast recovery diode in series with a parallel combination of a snubber capacitor and a resistor. The leakage-inductance current of the primary winding finds a low impedance path through the snubber diode to the snubber capacitor. It can be seen that the diode end of the snubber capacitor

will be at higher potential. To check the excessive voltage build up across the snubber capacitor a resistor is put across it. Under steady state this resistor is meant to dissipate the leakage flux energy. The power lost in the snubber circuit reduces the overall efficiency of the fly-back type SMPS circuit. A typical value for efficiency of a fly-back circuit is around 65% to 75%. In order that snubber capacitor does not take away any portion of energy stored in the mutual flux of the windings, the minimum steady state snubber capacitor voltage should be greater than the reflected secondary voltage on the primary side. This can be achieved by proper choice of the snubber-resistor and by keeping the RC time constant of the snubber circuit significantly higher than the switching time period. Since the snubber capacitor voltage is kept higher than the reflected secondary voltage, the worst-case switch voltage stress will be the sum of input voltage and the peak magnitude of the snubber capacitor voltage. The circuit in Fig.2.7 also shows, in block diagram a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control circuit to control the duty ratio of the switch. In practical fly-back circuits, for closed loop output voltage regulation one needs to feed output voltage magnitude to the PWM controller. In order to maintain ohmic isolation between the output voltage and the input switching circuit the output voltage signal needs to be isolated before feeding back. A popular way of feeding the isolated voltage information is to use a tertiary winding. The tertiary winding voltage is rectified in a way similar to the rectification done for the secondary winding. The rectified tertiary voltage will be nearly proportional to the secondary voltage multiplied by the turns-ratio between the windings. The rectified tertiary winding voltage also doubles up as control power supply for the PWM controller. For initial powering up of the circuit the control power is drawn directly from the input supply through a resistor (shown as R S in Fig.2.6) connected between the input supply and the capacitor of the

tertiary circuit rectifier. The resistor ‘R s ’ is of high magnitude and causes only small continuous power loss. In case, multiple isolated output voltages are required the fly-back transformer will need to have multiple secondary windings. Each of these secondary winding voltages are rectified and filtered separately. Each rectifier and filter circuit uses the simple diode and capacitor as shown earlier for a single secondary winding. In the practical circuit shown above, where a tertiary winding is used for voltage feedback it may not be possible to compensate exactly for the secondary winding resistance drop as the tertiary winding is unaware of the actual load supplied by the secondary winding.

CHAPTER 3

PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION

The entire Circuit of 7.5W Non-isolated flyback converter is combination of following circuits.

Start-up circuit

Maximum pulse width

 

circuit

Controller circuit

Power circuit

Feedback circuit

3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION OF PROJECT

The following figure represents the block diagram of 7.5W Non-isolated flyback

converter.

the block diagram of 7.5W Non-isolated flyback converter. Fig.3.1 Block diagram representation of Project Circuit

Fig.3.1 Block diagram representation of Project Circuit

CHAPTER 4

START-UP CIRCUIT AND MAXIMUM PULSE WIDTH CIRCUIT

4.1 START-UP CIRCUIT

The startup circuit is a scheme for high power DC/DC converters to minimize the effect of in-rush current during start-up. A single pulse width modulation controller (PWM) is possible for the present invention for not only start-up but also normal boost modes. A primary circuit can have a clamping switch or at least two choke diodes. The choke diode can include “push-pull” and “L”-type configurations. A resistor can be used to dissipate energy clamped from the voltage spike. A startup circuit can be used to eliminate the in-rush current experienced during start-up. Since the present invention eliminates the need to match characteristics of multiple controllers, it significantly reduces the cost associated with implementing this type of technology.

A system to DC-DC converter, the system comprising a primary circuit comprising at least one bridge leg component; a secondary circuit comprising at least two bridge leg components, a transformer coupling the primary circuit and the secondary circuit; the primary circuit further comprising a clamping switch; and a start-up circuit comprising a high frequency rectifier diode, a high frequency capacitor electrically coupled across the high frequency rectifier diode and an output capacitor electrically coupled across an output of the secondary circuit, whereby at least one bridge leg component of the primary circuit is protected from in-rush current in a Start-up mode.

bridge leg component of the primary circuit is protected from in-rush current in a Start-up mode.

Fig.4.1 Start-up circuit

4.1.1 Operation:

The start-up circuit consist of power supply, diode, capacitor and voltage divider (R 1 and R 2 ). The supply voltage is obtained from a battery or DC regulated power supply from (0V to 30V).The voltage is smoothened by capacitor and given to voltage divider. The voltage divider divides the voltage into 50:1 ratio and the TP3 is connected in between this two resistors which is connected to the Dead time control pin of the controller. The Diode blocks the reverse voltage to the supply.

4.2 MAXIMUM PULSE WIDTH CIRCUIT

The maximum pulse width circuit consist of clamper which clamps amplifier output voltage that is compensation pin by connecting the base of Q1 to compensation pin.

pin by connecting the base of Q1 to compensation pin. Fig .4.2 Maximum pulse width circuit

Fig .4.2 Maximum pulse width circuit

The amplifier output (Compensation pin) is compared with the internal ramp to generate the duty ratio. The amplifier output requires to be clamped below the peak of the ramp in order that the maximum duty ratio is well below 3 V, which is the peak of the ramp. For this purpose, the amplifier output is provided with a clamp circuit consisting of Q1 (2N2222), R6 (10k ), R7 (10k) and Q2 (2N2907). The clamp level is obtained from a biased diode network consisting of D2, D3, D4 and D5 (1N4148).

CHAPTER 5

CONTROLLER CIRCUIT

5.1 PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUE

From the derivations for the boost, buck and inverter (flyback) it can be seen that changing the duty cycle controls the steady-state output with respect to the input voltage. This is a key concept governing all inductor-based switching circuits. The most common control method shown in figure 5.1 is pulse-width modulation (PWM). This method takes a sample of the output voltage and subtracts this from a reference voltage to establish a small error signal (V ERROR ). This error signal is compared to an oscillator ramp signal. The comparator outputs a digital output (PWM) that operates the power switch. When the circuit output voltage changes, V ERROR also changes and thus causes the comparator threshold to change. Consequently, the output pulse width (PWM) also changes. This duty cycle change that moves the output voltage to reduce to error signal to zero, thus completing the control loop.

voltage to reduce to error signal to zero, thus completing the control loop. Fig.5.1 Pulse Width

Fig.5.1 Pulse Width Modulation technique

5.2 UC494C CONTROLLER:

The controller circuit consist of UC494 Advanced Regulating Pulse Width Modulator. This entire series of PWM modulators each provide a complete pulse width modulation system in a single monolithic integrated circuit. These devices include a 5V reference accurate to ±1%, two independent amplifiers usable for both voltage and current sensing, an externally synchronisable oscillator with its linear ramp generator and two uncommitted transistor output switches. These two outputs may be operated either in parallel for single ended operation or

alternating for push-pull applications with an externally controlled dead-band. These units are internally protected against double pulsing of a single output or from extraneous output signals

The UC494A is packaged in a 16-pin DIP.

The UC494A is specified for operation over the full military temperature range of -55°C to

+125°C, while the UC494C is designed for industrial applications from 0°C to +70°C.

when the input supply voltage is below

5.2.1 Pin Configuration of UC494 Controller

voltage is below 5.2.1 Pin Configuration of UC494 Controller Fig.5.2 Pin configuration of UC494 controller 5.2.2

Fig.5.2 Pin configuration of UC494 controller

5.2.2 Features

1. Dual Uncommitted 40V, 200mA Output Transistors

3.

Dual Error Amplifiers

4. Wide Range, Variable Deadtime

5. Single-ended or Push-pull Operation

6. Under-voltage Lockout With Hysteresis

7. Double Pulse Protection

8. Master or Slave Oscillator Operation

5.3 CONTROLLER CIRCUIT

Master or Slave Oscillator Operation 5.3 CONTROLLER CIRCUIT Fig 5.3 Controller circuit 5.3.1 Operation: The controller

Fig 5.3 Controller circuit

5.3.1 Operation:

The controller circuit is shown in figure 5.2. The V cc pin of the controller is connected to the D 1 cathode(15V to 25V). The most common control method, shown in adjacent figure is

pulse-width modulation. This method takes a sample of the output voltage and subtracts this from a reference voltage to establish a small error signal (V ERROR ). This error signal is compared to an oscillator ramp signal.

The ramp voltage is generated by C t (pin 5) and R t (pin 6) of 3V using oscillator circuit with switching frequency of 100kHz. The switching frequency is given by 1.11/R t C t . The controller has two internal amplifiers a and b. The amplifier outputs are wired such that the higher of the two outputs will prevail (wired OR). The amplifier b is not used and hence it is biased (non-inverting input to ground and inverting input to 2.5 V) such that its output is low.

and inverting input to 2.5 V) such that its output is low . Fig.5.4 Connections of

Fig.5.4 Connections of amplifier The amplifier a non-inverting pin is given to reference voltage of 2.5V and inverting pin connected to feedback loop with PI controller at TP6. The output feedback is compensated by using lead/lag compensator and given to compensation pin. The output of amplifier with compensation and the ramp voltage signal is given to comparator which compares both voltage signal and generates the output pulses. The controller has two uncommitted transistor output switches. These two outputs may be operated either in parallel for single ended operation or alternating for push-pull applications with an externally controlled dead-band. The output control pin is connected to the ground to work the output in single ended or parallel operation. The emitter pins of the two transistors are tied together and connected to ground and the collector pins are tied together and given to the gate of MOSFET .

CHAPTER 6

FEEDBACK CIRCUIT

6.1 CLOSED LOOP CONTROL

This is also often termed as Automatic Control, Process Control, Feedback Control etc. Here the controller objective is to provide such inputs to the plant such that the output y(t) follows the input r(t) as closely as possible, in value and over time. The structure of the common control loop with its constituent elements, namely the Controller, the Actuator, the Sensor and the Process itself is shown. In addition the signals that exist at various points of the system are also marked. These include the command (alternatively termed the set point or the reference signal), the exogenous inputs (disturbances, noise). The difficulties in achieving the performance objective is mainly due to the unavoidable disturbances due to load variation and other external factors, as well as sensor noise, the complexity, possible instability, uncertainty and variability in the plant dynamics, as well as limitations in actuator capabilities.

dynamics, as well as limitations in actuator capabilities. Fig.6.1 Closed loop block diagram Most industrial control

Fig.6.1 Closed loop block diagram Most industrial control loop command signals are piecewise constant signals that indicate desirable levels of process variables, such as temperature, pressure, flow, level etc., which ensure the quality of the product in Continuous Processes. In some cases, such as in case of motion control for machining, the command signal may be continuously varying according to the dimensions of the product. Therefore, here deviation of the output from the command signal

results in degradation of product quality. It is for this reason that the choice of the feedback signals, that of the controller algorithm (such as, P, PI or PID), the choice of the control loop structure (normal feedback loop, cascade loop or feedforward) as well as choice of the controller gains is extremely important for industrial machines and processes. Typically the control configurations are well known for a given class of process however, the choice of controller gains have to be made from time to time, since the plant operating characteristics changes with time. This is generally called controller tuning.

6.2 COMPENSATOR(LEAD/LAG)

Generally the purpose of the Lead-Lag compensator is to create a controller which has an overall magnitude of approximately 1. The lead-lag compensator is largely used for phase compensation rather than magnitude. A pole is an integrator above the frequency of the pole. A zero is a derivative above the frequency of the zero.

Adding a pole to the system changes the phase by -90 deg and adding a zero changes the phase by +90 deg. So if the system needs +90 deg added to the phase in a particular frequency band then you can add a zero at a low frequency and follow that zero with a pole at a higher frequency.

Lead and lag control are used to add or reduce phase between 2 frequencies. Typically these frequencies are centered around the open loop crossover frequency. A lead filter typically has unity gain (0 dB) are low frequencies while the lag provides a non unity gain at low frequencies.

while the lag provides a non unity gain at low frequencies. Where X is the input

Where X is the input to the compensator, Y is the output, s is the complex Laplace transform variable, z is the zero frequency and p is the pole frequency. The pole and zero are both typically negative. In a lead compensator, the pole is left of the zero in the complex plane | z | < | p | , while in a lag compensator | z | > | p | . A lead-lag compensator consists of a lead compensator cascaded with a lag compensator.

The overall transfer function can be written as

The overall transfer function can be written as Typically | p 1 | > | z

Typically | p 1 | > | z 1 | > | z 2 | > | p 2 | , where z 1 and p 1 are the zero and pole of the lead

compensator and z 2 and p 2 are the zero and pole of the lag compensator. The lead compensator

provides phase lead at high frequencies. This shifts the poles to the left, which enhances the

responsiveness and stability of the system. The lag compensator provides phase lag at low

frequencies which reduces the steady state error.

lag at low frequencies which reduces the steady state error. Fig.6.2 Feedback Circuit The dc gain

Fig.6.2 Feedback Circuit

The dc gain from duty ratio to output voltage consists of modulator gain and converter

gain. The modulator gain is the reciprocal of the ramp peak in the modulator. In UC494, it is

1/3.5.

of the ramp peak in the modulator. In UC494, it is 1/3.5. This gain varies from

This gain varies from 72 to 66. The overall gain is therefore 20.47 to 18.87 for the converter. The lower gain is at higher voltage. The closed loop control used is a PI controller with lead/lag compensator. The PI corner frequency [1=(R16C8)] is chosen at 3030 rad/sec. The lead/lag compensator frequencies [1=(R 15 C 7 )] are chosen as 2220 rad/sec and [1=(C 7 R 3 R 4 R 15 )]22000 rad/sec .

CHAPTER 7

POWER CIRCUIT

7.1 MAIN COMPONENTS OF POWER CIRCUIT:

MOSFET (IRFZ44)

Flyback transformer(couple inductor)

Diode(MUR110)

Voltage regulator (LM7815C)

7.2 MOSFET

The power MOSFET is commonly presented and regarded as a voltage driven device and as such there is a natural expectation that it can be driven from any pulse source, irrespective of that source’s energy or current capability. This assumption is partly justified if the system in question only pulses or switches the MOSFET at a low frequency or in pure DC circuits, where the transistor may only be used in a toggled state. However, for typical switching frequencies from several kHz upwards attention must be paid to the gate drive requirements to ensure efficient and “saturated” switching of the MOSFET. This must be considered as the gate-source (g-s) circuit is to a first approximation, essentially a CR network; comprising the g-s capacitance and the resistance of the metallic/silicon interconnects. To this network must be added the effective resistance or source impedance of the gate driver circuitry and for true assessments consideration of the drain-gate (d-g) capacitance and the Miller effect. Due to this network, the g-s voltage follows an exponential curve as the C elements charge and so either sufficient time must be given to allow this voltage to reach it’s target value (thus limiting the operating frequency and increasing the time spent in the linear region thereby producing high switching losses), or the “R” element must be minimised. The MOSFETs are of two types N-channel MOSFET and P-channel MOSFET. The N-channel MOSFET is made ON using positive gate voltage and N-channel MOSFET is made ON with negative gate voltage. The N-channel MOSFETs are most commonly used in the power electronics field.

7.2.1 MOSFET as a Switch

The N-channel, Enhancement-mode MOSFET operates using a positive input voltage and has an extremely high input resistance (almost infinite) making it possible to interface with nearly any logic gate or driver capable of producing a positive output. Also, due to this very high input (Gate) resistance we can parallel together many different MOSFETs until we achieve the current handling limit required.

until we achieve the current handling limit required. Fig.7.1 Power MOSFET (a) Schematic (b)Transfer

Fig.7.1

Power MOSFET

(a) Schematic (b)Transfer characteristics (c)Device symbol

While connecting together various MOSFETs may enable us to switch high currents or high voltage loads, doing so becomes expensive and impractical in both components and circuit board space. To overcome this problem Power Field Effect Transistors or Power FET's were developed.

P-channel in enhancement and depletion mode N-channel in enhancement and depletion mode Fig.7.2 Symbol of

P-channel in enhancement and depletion mode

P-channel in enhancement and depletion mode N-channel in enhancement and depletion mode Fig.7.2 Symbol of MOSFETs
P-channel in enhancement and depletion mode N-channel in enhancement and depletion mode Fig.7.2 Symbol of MOSFETs

N-channel in enhancement and depletion mode

Fig.7.2 Symbol of MOSFETs

We now know that there are two main differences between field effect transistors, depletion-mode only for JFET's and both enhancement-mode and depletion-mode for MOSFETs. In this project we will look at using the Enhancement-mode MOSFET as a Switch as these transistors require a positive gate voltage to turn "ON" and a zero voltage to turn "OFF" making them easily understood as switches and also easy to interface with logic gates.

The operation of the enhancement-mode MOSFET can best be described using its I-V characteristics curves shown below. When the input voltage, ( V IN ) to the gate of the transistor is zero, the MOSFET conducts virtually no current and the output voltage, ( V OUT ) is equal to the supply voltage V DD . So the MOSFET is "fully-OFF" and in its "cut-off" region.

7.2.2 MOSFET Characteristics Curves

The minimum ON-state gate voltage required to ensure that the MOSFET remains fully- ON when carrying the selected drain current can be determined from the V-I transfer curves below. When V IN is high or equal to V DD , the MOSFET Q-point moves to point A along the load line. The drain current I D increases to its maximum value due to a reduction in the channel resistance. I D becomes a constant value independent of V DD and is dependent only on V GS . Therefore, the transistor behaves like a closed switch but the channel ON-resistance does not reduce fully to zero due to its R DS(on) value, but gets very small.

Fig.7.3 MOSFET characteristics curves Likewise, when V I N is LOW or reduced to zero,

Fig.7.3 MOSFET characteristics curves

Likewise, when V IN is LOW or reduced to zero, the MOSFET Q-point moves from point A to point B along the load line. The channel resistance is very high so the transistor acts like an open circuit and no current flows through the channel. So if the gate voltage of the MOSFET toggles between two values, HIGH and LOW the MOSFET will behave as a "single-pole single- throw" (SPST) solid state switch and this action is defined as

7.2.2.1. Cut-off region

Here the operating conditions of the transistor are zero input gate voltage ( V IN ), zero drain current I D and output voltage V DS = V DD Therefore the MOSFET is switched "Fully-OFF".

Cut-off Characteristics

Therefore the MOSFET is switched "Fully-OFF". Cut-off Characteristics Fig.7.4 Cut-Off region equivalent diagram

Fig.7.4 Cut-Off region equivalent diagram

The input and Gate are grounded (0V)

Gate-source voltage less than threshold voltage V GS < V TH

MOSFET is "fully-OFF" (Cut-off region)

No Drain current flows ( I D = 0 )

V OUT = V DS = V DD = "1"

MOSFET operates as an "open switch"

Then we can define the "Cut-Off region" or "OFF mode" of a MOSFET switch as being, gate voltage, V GS < V TH and I D = 0. For a P-channel MOSFET, the gate potential must be negative.

7.2.2.2. Saturation region

Here the transistor will be biased so that the maximum amount of gate voltage is applied to the device which results in the channel resistance R DS(on) being as small as possible with maximum drain current flowing through the MOSFET switch. Therefore the MOSFET is switched "Fully-ON".

Saturation Characteristics

is switched "Fully-ON". Saturation Characteristics Fig.7.5 Saturation region equivalent diagram • The input

Fig.7.5 Saturation region equivalent diagram

The input and Gate are connected to V DD

Gate-source voltage is much greater than threshold voltage V GS > V TH

MOSFET is "fully-ON" (saturation region)

Max Drain current flows ( I D = V DD / R L )

V DS = 0V (ideal saturation)

V OUT = V DS = 0.2V (R DS .I D )

MOSFET operates as a "closed switch"

Then we can define the "Saturation region" or "ON mode" of a MOSFET switch as gate-source voltage, V GS > V TH and I D = Maximum. For a P-channel MOSFET, the gate potential must be positive.

By applying a suitable drive voltage to the gate of an FET, the resistance of the drain- source channel, R DS(on) can be varied from an "OFF-resistance" of many hundreds of k's, effectively an open circuit, to an "ON-resistance" of less than 1, effectively a short circuit. We can also drive the MOSFET to turn "ON" faster or slower, or pass high or low currents. This ability to turn the power MOSFET "ON" and "OFF" allows the device to be used as a very efficient switch with switching speeds much faster than standard bipolar junction transistors.

An example of using the MOSFET as a switch

transistors. An example of using the MOSFET as a switch Fig.7.6 MOSFET as a Switch In

Fig.7.6 MOSFET as a Switch

In this circuit arrangement an Enhancement-mode N-channel MOSFET is being used to switch a simple lamp "ON" and "OFF" (could also be an LED). The gate input voltage V GS is taken to an appropriate positive voltage level to turn the device and therefore the lamp either fully "ON", ( V GS = +ve ) or at a zero voltage level that turns the device fully "OFF", ( V GS = 0 ).

If the resistive load of the lamp was to be replaced by an inductive load such as a coil, solenoid or relay a "flywheel diode" would be required in parallel with the load to protect the MOSFET from any self generated back-emf.

Above figure7.6 shows a very simple circuit for switching a resistive load such as a lamp or LED. But when using power MOSFETs to switch either inductive or capacitive loads some form of protection is required to prevent the MOSFET device from becoming damaged. Driving an inductive load has the opposite effect from driving a capacitive load. For example, a capacitor without an electrical charge is a short circuit resulting in a high "inrush" of current and when we remove the voltage from an inductive load we have a large reverse voltage build up as the magnetic field collapses, resulting in an induced back-emf in the windings of the inductor.

For the power MOSFET to operate as an analogue switching device it needs to be switched between its "Cut-off Region" where V GS = 0 and its "Saturation Region" were V GS(on) = +ve. The power dissipated in the MOSFET ( P D ) depends upon the current flowing through the channel I D at saturation and also the "ON-resistance" of the channel given as R DS(on) .

In this project we are using IRFZ44, the main features of this power MOSFET has dynamic dv/dt rating, 175 o operating temperature, fast switching, ease paralleling, simple drive requirements. The power MOSFET has the current carrying capacity of 1A and block about minimum 55V.

7.3 COUPLE INDUCTOR

The coupled inductors are of crucial importance as models in many practical applications, like in electrical transformers, motors and generators. In most cases, such devices are modeled `from the electrical point of view' without the necessity (or possibility) of modeling detailed structure of the magnetic field inside the device. Mutual inductance occurs when the change in current in one inductor induces a voltage in another nearby inductor. It is important as the mechanism by which transformers work, but it can also cause unwanted coupling between conductors in a circuit. The mutual inductance M, is also a measure of the coupling between two inductors. The mutual inductance by circuit i on circuit j is given by the double integral Neumann formula,

The mutual inductance also has the relationship,

The mutual inductance also has the relationship, where M 2 1 is the mutual inductance and

where

M 21 is the mutual inductance and the subscript specifies the relationship of the voltage

induced in coil 2 due to the current in coil 1.

N 1 is the number of turns in coil 1,

N 2 is the number of turns in coil 2 and P 21 is the permeance of the space occupied by the flux.

The mutual inductance also has a relationship with the coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient is always between 1 and 0, and is a convenient way to specify the relationship between a certain orientation of inductor with arbitrary inductance:

a certain orientation of inductor with arbitrary inductance: where k is the coupling coefficient and 0

where

k is the coupling coefficient and 0 k 1,

L 1 is the inductance of the first coil and

L 2 is the inductance of the second coil.

Once the mutual inductance M, is determined from this factor it can be used to predict the behavior of a circuit:

factor it can be used to predict the behavior of a circuit: where V 1 is

where

V 1 is the voltage across the inductor of interest,

L 1 is the inductance of the inductor of interest,

dI 1 /dt is the derivative with respect to time of the current through the inductor of interest,

dI 2 /dt is the derivative with respect to time of the current through the inductor that is coupled to the first inductor and M is the mutual inductance.

The minus sign arises because of the sense the current I 2 has been defined in the diagram. With both currents defined going into the dots the sign of M will be positive. When one inductor is closely coupled to another inductor through mutual inductance, such as in a transformer, the voltages, currents and number of turns can be related in the following way,

and number of turns can be related in the following way, where V s is the

where

V s is the voltage across the secondary inductor, V p is the voltage across the primary inductor (the one connected to a power source), N s is the number of turns in the secondary inductor and N p is the number of turns in the primary inductor.

Conversely the current:

of turns in the primary inductor. Conversely the current: where I s is the current through

where

I s is the current through the secondary inductor, I p is the current through the primary inductor (the one connected to a power source), N s is the number of turns in the secondary inductor and N p is the number of turns in the primary inductor.

Note that the power through one inductor is the same as the power through the other. Also note that these equations don't work if both transformers are forced (with power sources).

When either side of the transformer is a tuned circuit, the amount of mutual inductance between the two windings determines the shape of the frequency response curve. Although no boundaries are defined this is often referred to as loose-, critical- and over-coupling. When two

tuned circuits are loosely coupled through mutual inductance, the bandwidth will be narrow. As the amount of mutual inductance increases, the bandwidth continues to grow. When the mutual inductance is increased beyond a critical point the peak in the response curve begins to drop and the center frequency will be attenuated more strongly than its direct sidebands. This is known as overcoupling.

than its direct sidebands. This is known as overcoupling. ( ) Pair of interacting coils, (
than its direct sidebands. This is known as overcoupling. ( ) Pair of interacting coils, (

(

than its direct sidebands. This is known as overcoupling. ( ) Pair of interacting coils, (

) Pair of interacting coils, ( ) coupled electrical inductors.

Pair of interacting coils, ( ) coupled electrical inductors. Fig.7.7 Couple inductors The couple inductor is
Pair of interacting coils, ( ) coupled electrical inductors. Fig.7.7 Couple inductors The couple inductor is

Fig.7.7 Couple inductors

The couple inductor is used as a flyback transformer in this project. Flyback transformer utilizes the "flyback" action of an inductor or flyback transformer to convert the input voltage and current to the desired output voltage and current. Modern flyback transformer and circuit design now permit use in excess of 300 watts of power, but most applications are less than 50 watts. By definition a transformer directly couples energy from one winding to another winding. A flyback transformer does not act as a true transformer. A flyback transformer first stores energy received from the input power supply (charging portion of a cycle) and then transfers energy (discharge portion of a cycle) to the output, usually a storage capacitor with a load connected across its terminals. An application in which a complete discharge is followed by

a short period of inactivity (known as idle time) is defined to be operating in a discontinuous mode. An application in which a partial discharge is followed by charging is defined to be operating in the continuous mode. this project the main inductor of primary 33 turns and secondary 48 turns is used the rated current is 1.11A.The ripple current is chosen as 0.22A with maximum ON time of 6 µsec,

at input voltage of 15V, this gives an inductor value of approximately 400 µH with turns ratio of

0.691.

7.4 VOLTAGE REGULATOR (LM7815)

A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may

include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or

DC voltages.

Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. In automobile

alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line. The linear regulator is the basic building block of nearly every power supply used in electronics. The IC linear regulator is so easy to use and so inexpensive

that it is usually one of the cheapest components in an electronic assembly.

Fig.7.8 Voltage regulator LM7815 The voltage regulator LM7815 is used in this project and connected

Fig.7.8 Voltage regulator LM7815

The voltage regulator LM7815 is used in this project and connected to the output of flyback converter to maintain the constant voltage of 15V for variation of output voltage with in limit for a input voltage of 15V to 25V. Maximum ratings of LM7815C, 35V input voltage, power dissipation internally limited, operating junction temperature range is 0 to +150 o c.

7.4.1 Features of LM7815

Output current in excess of 1A.

No external components required

Internal thermal overload protection

Internal short-circuit current limiting

Output transistor safe- area compensation

Output voltage offered in 4% tolerance.

7.5 DIODE (MUR110)

The diode MUR110 is used in the power circuit. The diode carries 0.5A average current and blocks about 20V and suitable for 100kHz switching. The reverse recovery time has to be better than 50ns. Therefore MUR110 is selected.

7.6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF POWER CIRCUIT OF NON- ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER

DIAGRAM OF POWER CIRCUIT OF NON- ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER 7.6.1 Operation of Circuit Fig.7.9 Power circuit

7.6.1 Operation of Circuit

Fig.7.9 Power circuit

The above figure7.9 is the circuit diagram of 7.5W Non-isolated flyback converter power circuit. Operation of power circuit of 7.5W non-isolated fly back converter is same as that the operation of fly back converter. When supply voltage is given to the converter and gate pulses are applied to the gate of MOSFET it starts conducting. The gate pulses are obtained from the IC UC494 controller which is a PWM controller.

But due to reverse polarities of transformer, the diode in the secondary circuit will get reverse biased and does not conduct and therefore the capacitor C 4 which is already charged in previous stage will get discharge and maintains the supply to the load.

When MOSFET is in off position, the energy stored in the inductor of the transformer will make the diode in the secondary circuit forward bias, charges the capacitor C 4 and also supplies current to load. By this way it maintains the load. The voltage across the capacitor C 5 (17V) is more than what we require(15V). In order to get constant desired voltage we are using LM7815C which gives the constant output voltage of 15V.

CHAPTER 8

SIMULATION OF FLYBACK CONVERTER USING MATLAB

8.1 SIMULATION CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

The flyback converter circuit is simulated in MATLAB software. The switching pulses to the MOSFET is given from the comparator. The ramp signal and error voltage is given as input to the comparator inputs. The error voltage is obtained by subtracting the output voltage and reference voltage. This error voltage, ramp signal and comparator from a pulse width modulation technique. As the error voltage is generated from output voltage and reference voltage it act as a closed loop flyback converter. No voltage regulator is used in the power circuit, therefore the output voltage is not constant on the output side.

8.1.1 Simulation Circuit

is used in the power circuit, therefore the output voltage is not constant on the output

Fig. 8.1 Simulation circuit of flyback converter

8.1.2 Output Wave Forms

Fig. 8.1 Simulation circuit of flyback converter 8.1.2 Output Wave Forms Fig. 8.2 Gate Pulses

Fig. 8.2 Gate Pulses

Fig. 8.1 Simulation circuit of flyback converter 8.1.2 Output Wave Forms Fig. 8.2 Gate Pulses

Voltage(16.6V)

Fig. 8.3 Output

Voltage(16.6V) Fig. 8.3 Output Fig. 8.4 Output Current(0.43A) 8.1.3 Tabulation of Input Voltage and Output Voltage

Fig. 8.4 Output Current(0.43A)

8.1.3 Tabulation of Input Voltage and Output Voltage Without Voltage Regulator on the Load Side

Table 8.1 The output voltage for variation of input voltage

INPUT VOLTAGE

OUPUT VOLTAGE

(VOLTS)

(VOLTS)

15

11.5

16

12.4

17

12.6

18

13.24

19

13.81

20

14.37

21

14.9

22

15.5

23

16

24

16.63

25

17.2

The above table shows the variation of output voltage for different input voltages. The output voltage is not constant as the voltage regulator is not connected on the load side of the power circuit.

CHAPTER 9

NON-ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER HARDWARE KIT

9.1 HARDWARE KIT PCB LAYOUT

CHAPTER 9 NON-ISOLATED FLYBACK CONVERTER HARDWARE KIT 9.1 HARDWARE KIT PCB LAYOUT Fig.9.1 PCB layout of

Fig.9.1 PCB layout of Hardware kit

9.2 HARDWARE KIT

9.2 HARDWARE KIT Fig.9.2 Hardware kit PCB with components

Fig.9.2 Hardware kit PCB with components

9.3 PRACTICAL OUTPUT WAVEFORMS FOR INPUT VOLTAGE OF 15VOLTS

9.3 PRACTICAL OUTPUT WAVEFORMS FOR INPUT VOLTAGE OF 15VOLTS Fig.9.3 Ramp Voltage (3V) Fig.9.4 Gate Voltage(12V)

Fig.9.3 Ramp Voltage (3V)

FOR INPUT VOLTAGE OF 15VOLTS Fig.9.3 Ramp Voltage (3V) Fig.9.4 Gate Voltage(12V) Scale X-axis 1unit- 10µsec

Fig.9.4 Gate Voltage(12V)

Scale

X-axis 1unit- 10µsec

Y-axis 1unit- 2V

Scale

X-axis 1unit- 20µsec

Y-axis 1unit- 10V

Fig.9.5 Output Voltage(15.2V) Fig.9.6 Primary Inductor Voltage Scale X-axis 1unit- 10µsec Y-axis 1unit- 10V Scale

Fig.9.5 Output Voltage(15.2V)

Fig.9.5 Output Voltage(15.2V) Fig.9.6 Primary Inductor Voltage Scale X-axis 1unit- 10µsec Y-axis 1unit- 10V Scale

Fig.9.6 Primary Inductor Voltage

Scale

X-axis 1unit- 10µsec

Y-axis 1unit- 10V

Scale

X-axis 1unit- 20µsec

Y-axis 1unit- 20V

Fig. 9.7 Secondary Inductor Voltage Scale X-axis 1unit- 20µsec Y-axis 1unit- 20V 9.4 PRACTICAL OUTPUT

Fig. 9.7 Secondary Inductor Voltage

Scale

X-axis 1unit- 20µsec

Y-axis 1unit- 20V

9.4 PRACTICAL OUTPUT WAVEFORMS FOR INPUT VOLTAGE OF 25VOLTS

1unit- 20V 9.4 PRACTICAL OUTPUT WAVEFORMS FOR INPUT VOLTAGE OF 25VOLTS Scale X-axis 1unit- 10µsec Y-axis

Scale

X-axis 1unit- 10µsec

Y-axis 1unit- 2V

Fig. 9.8 Ramp Voltage(3V)

Fig. 9.8 Ramp Voltage(3V) Fig. 9.9 Gate Voltage(20V) Fig.9.10 Output Voltage(15.2V) Scale X-axis 1unit- 20µsec Y-axis

Fig. 9.9 Gate Voltage(20V)

Fig. 9.8 Ramp Voltage(3V) Fig. 9.9 Gate Voltage(20V) Fig.9.10 Output Voltage(15.2V) Scale X-axis 1unit- 20µsec Y-axis

Fig.9.10 Output Voltage(15.2V)

Scale

X-axis 1unit- 20µsec

Y-axis 1unit- 10V

Scale

X-axis 1unit- 10µsec

Y-axis 1unit- 10V

Fig. 9.11 Primary Inductor Voltage Scale X-axis 1unit- 20µsec Y-axis 1unit- 20V Scale X-axis 1unit-

Fig. 9.11 Primary Inductor Voltage

Fig. 9.11 Primary Inductor Voltage Scale X-axis 1unit- 20µsec Y-axis 1unit- 20V Scale X-axis 1unit- 20µsec

Scale

X-axis 1unit- 20µsec

Y-axis 1unit- 20V

Scale

X-axis 1unit- 20µsec

Y-axis 1unit- 20V

Fig. 9.12 Secondary Inductor Voltage

9.5 TABULATION OF INPUT VOLTAGE AND OUTPUT VOLTAGE

Table 9.1 The output voltage for variation of input voltage

INPUT VOLTAGE

OUPUT VOLTAGE

(VOLTS)

(VOLTS)

15

15.2

16

15.2

17

15.2

18

15.2

19

15.2

20

15.2

21

15.2

22

15.2

23

15.2

24

15.2

25

15.2

The above table shows the variation of output voltage for different input voltages. The output voltage is as the voltage regulator LM7815 is connected on the load side of the power circuit.

CHAPTER 10 APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

10.1

APPLICATIONS:

Non-isolated units, which make up the majority of POL(point of load) converters, come in

assorted board-friendly compact package styles and are typically used in computing applications such as memory motherboards Their more compact packaging yields significant real estate savings on the pc board and allows

them to be placed close to their loads. Low-power switch-mode power supplies (cell phone charger, standby power supply in PCs)

Low cost multiple-output power supplies (e.g., main PC supplies <250 W)

High voltage supply for the CRT in TVs and monitors (the fly-back converter is often combined

with the horizontal deflection drive). High voltage generation (e.g., for xenon flash lamps, lasers, copiers, etc).

The ignition system in spark-ignition engines is also a fly-back converter, the ignition coil being

the transformer and the contact breaker forming the switch element. Isolated gate driver.

10.2

LIMITATIONS:

For higher switching frequencies the switching power loss increases due to which the efficiency is decreased. The soft switching technique is used for higher switching frequencies.

As this are non-isolated higher power rating converters is not easy. Increase in power rating more than 200W the isolation should be provide for control circuit. Discontinuous mode has the following disadvantages, which limit the efficiency of the converter:

High RMS and peak currents in the design

High flux excursions in the inductor

Continuous mode converter:

has

the

following disadvantages,

which complicate

the control of the

The voltage feedback loop requires a lower bandwidth due to a zero in the response of the converter.

The current feedback loop used in current mode control needs slope compensation in cases where the duty cycle is above 50%.

The power switches are now turning on with positive current flow.

CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION

11.1. CONCLUSION:

The operation, functioning and applications of Non-Isolated flyback converter is studied.

The working of Hardware kit is successful and the constant output voltage is obtained.

The circuit is simulated in MATLAB 8.1 software and the waveforms of output voltage, output current and gate pulses across MOSFET are obtained.

The function and operation of UC494C is studied

11.2. RESULTS:

The output voltage of the Non-Isolated Flyback converter (Hardware kit) is 15.2V, while the input voltage applied to the circuit varies is varied from 15V to 25V. This is obtained by the variation of duty ratio by closed loop control.

The gate pulses are controlled by closed loop circuit with PI an LEAD/LAG controller so that desired output is obtained.

Accurate switching of MOSFET with dead time control and constant output voltage is obtained.

11.3 DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED DURING THE PROJECT

The simulation difficulties occurred due to non availability of IC PWM controller UC494C in the MATLAB software.

The output voltage is not constant in the simulation circuit results as the voltage regulator is not available in the software used.

CHAPTER 12 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

12.1 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK:

For designing the Non-Isolated Flyback converter with very high frequency of 250 kHz dc-dc power conversion, the soft switching methods are used like Active clamp and Resonant circuit for soft switching.

Resonant switching techniques reduce the switching losses to practically zero; the switching frequency then may be increased to hundreds of kHz to achieve higher power densities. Such converters in general are classified as Soft switching converters. In these converters, the switching transitions occur with zero loss.

With the Active clamp circuit, the transistor turn-off voltage spike is clamped, the transformer leakage energy is recycled, and zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) of the MOSFET switches becomes a possibility.

The replacement of MOSFET switches in parallel with a single(less expensive) IGBT, without a compromise of the switching frequency.

Designing for high power ratings the isolation should be provided for control circuit.

BOOKS

1. Keng Chih Wu

REFERENCES

Pulse Width Modulated DC/DC Converters

2. M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,

NJ. 3. N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics:

Converters, Applications and Design, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, NewYork, 1995 4. Billings, Keith (1999), Switch mode Power Supply Handbook, McGraw-Hill 5. A. I.Pressman, Switching Power Supply Design, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill,New York, 1998

WEBSITES

Flyback Converter

DC-DC Converter

SMPS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flyback_converter

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC-to-DC_converter

http;//en.nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/

/L21(DP)(PE)

%20((EE)NPTEL).pdf

Data sheets of components www.alldatasheet.com

SMPS, DC-DC converter www.educypedia.be/electronics/circuitssmps

APPENDIX A COMPONENTS LIST WITH THEIR RATINGS

APPENDIX A COMPONENTS LIST WITH THEIR RATINGS

APPENDIX B DATA SHEET OF UC494C

APPENDIX B DATA SHEET OF UC494C

APPENDIX C DATA SHEET OF MOSFET (IRFZ44)

APPENDIX C DATA SHEET OF MOSFET (IRFZ44)
APPENDIX C DATA SHEET OF MOSFET (IRFZ44)

APPENDIX D DATA SHEET OF LM7815

APPENDIX D DATA SHEET OF LM7815