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CRAIG A. NEWBY (NSBN 8591)
McDONALD CARANO WILSON LLP
2300 West Sahara Avenue, Suite 1200
Las Vegas, NV 89102
Telephone: 702.873.4100
Facsimile: 702.873.9966
cnewby@mcdonaldcarano.com

RYAN G. BAKER (to be admitted pro hac vice)
BAKER MARQUART LLP
10990 Wilshire Boulevard
Fourth Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Telephone: 424.652.7800
Facsimile: 424.652.7850
rbaker@bakermarquart.com

Attorneys for Plaintiffs
Hologram USA, Inc., Musion Das Hologram
Limited and Uwe Maass


UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT

DISTRICT OF NEVADA


HOLOGRAM USA, INC., a Delaware corporation;
MUSION DAS HOLOGRAM LIMITED, a
corporation organized under the laws of the United
Kingdom; and UWE MAASS, an individual,
Plaintiffs,
v.
PULSE ENTERTAINMENT, INC., a Georgia
corporation; J OHN C. TEXTOR, an individual;
PROMETHEUS GLOBAL MEDIA, LLC, a
Delaware limited liability company; DICK CLARK
PRODUCTIONS, INC., a Delaware corporation;
J OHN BRANCA and J OHN MCCLAIN, Executors
of the Estate of Michael J . J ackson; MJ J
PRODUCTIONS, INC., a California corporation,
and DOES 1 through 10,

Defendants.

Case No.:


COMPLAINT; and

DEMAND FOR JURY TRIAL


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INTRODUCTION
1. In 1862, J ohn Pepper and Henry Dircks invented Peppers Ghost, an illusion
technique, which, over the last 150 years, has appeared in movies, concerts, magic shows and
amusement park rides. Many of us have sat with Peppers Ghost in Disneylands Haunted Mansion.
Today a new incarnation of Peppers Ghost exists Musion Eyeliner. Musion Eyeliner uses a
patented system to project three-dimensional images virtually indistinguishable from real-life bodies.
Musion Eyeliner has gained notoriety around the world for the quality of its holographic projections.
2. In 2012, Musion Eyeliner was used at the Coachella Music Festival to create a three-
dimensional image of deceased rapper Tupac Shakur, a performance that is still widely discussed
and has been viewed almost 30 million times on YouTube. Employing Musion Eyeliner to produce
a similar image of Michael J ackson during the international television broadcast of the Billboard
Music Awards will undoubtedly garner even greater attention around the globe. Because that
planned performance has not been authorized and will infringe Plaintiffs patents, Plaintiffs seek this
Courts assistance in foiling Defendants infringing conduct.
3. On or about May 15, 2014, it was reported in the press that Defendants plan to
misappropriate the Musion Eyeliner technology and infringe the Patents At Issue by creating a
hologram of Michael J ackson who would dance across the stage at the Billboard music awards, on
May 18, 2014. Plaintiffs have never authorized any of the Defendants to use their patented Musion
Eyeliner technology. But that has not stopped Defendants from flagrantly exploiting Plaintiffs
intellectual property rights to prominently promote the unauthorized display of J ackson like youve
never seen him before.
4. Musion Eyeliner is protected by U.S. Patent No. 5,865,519 (the 519 patent) and
U.S. Patent No. 7,883,212 (the 212 patent and, along with the 519 patent, the Patents At
Issue). Plaintiff Uwe Maass holds the 519 patent. Plaintiff Musion Das Hologram holds the 212
patent. Maass and Musion DH have licensed certain rights to practice the Patents At Issue to
Plaintiff Hologram USA, Inc.
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5. Defendants infringement of the Patents At Issue has damaged and continues to
damage Plaintiffs. Plaintiffs seek to enjoin Defendants wrongful conduct. Plaintiffs also seek
damages they have incurred as a result of Defendants infringing conduct.
THE PARTIES
6. Plaintiff Hologram USA, Inc. also known as Musion (Hologram USA) is a
corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, having a principal place
of business at 301 N. Canon Drive, Beverly Hills, California 90210.
7. Plaintiff Musion Das Hologram Limited (Musion DH) is a corporation organized
and existing under the laws of the United Kingdom, having a principal place of business at 90 High
Holborn, London, United Kingdom WC1V 6XX.
8. Plaintiff Uwe Maass is a citizen of Germany and an individual residing in Dubai in
the United Arab Emirates.
9. On information and belief, defendant Pulse Entertainment, Inc. (Pulse) is a
corporation organized and existing under the laws of State of Georgia, having a principal place of
business at 2886 Bob White Dr., Atlanta, Georgia 30311.
10. On information and belief, defendant J ohn C. Textor is citizen of the United States
residing in Florida. He is the Chief Executive Officer of Pulse.
11. On information and belief, Prometheus Global Media, LLC (Prometheus) is a
Delaware limited liability company with its principal place of business in New York City. The
Billboard Music Awards is run by the Magazine Billboard, which is a division of Prometheus.
12. On information and belief, defendant Dick Clark Productions, Inc. (Dick Clark
Productions) is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware,
having a principal place of business in Santa Monica, California. Dick Clark Productions is the
producer of the 2014 Billboard Music Awards, which is being held at the MGM Grand Hotel &
Casino in Las Vegas on May 18, 2014.
13. On information and belief, defendants J ohn G. Branca and J ohn McClain are
individuals residing in Los Angeles, California, who have been appointed as the Executors of the
Estate of Michael J . J ackson (the Estate). They are being sued in their capacities as executors of
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the Estate.
14. On information and belief, defendant MJ J Productions, Inc. is a corporation organized
and existing under the laws of California, having a principal place of business in Hollywood,
California.
15. The true names and capacities, whether individual, corporate, associate, or otherwise,
of the defendants sued in this complaint as DOES 1-10 (collectively, the Doe Defendants)
(collectively with Pulse, Textor, Prometheus, Dick Clark Productions and the Estate, the
Defendants), are presently unknown to Plaintiffs, who therefore sue them by fictitious names.
Plaintiffs will amend the complaint to allege their true names and capacities when ascertained.
Plaintiffs are informed and believe and therefore allege that all Defendants, which include the Doe
Defendants, were or are, in some way or manner, responsible for and liable to Plaintiffs for the
events, happenings, and damages alleged in this complaint.
16. Plaintiffs are informed and believe and thereon allege that at all times mentioned each
Defendant was the agent, servant, employee, co-venturer, representative, or co-conspirator of each of
the other defendants, and acted with the knowledge, consent, ratification, authorization and/or at the
direction of each defendant, or is otherwise responsible in some manner for the occurrences alleged
in this complaint.
JURISDICTION AND VENUE
17. This is a civil action for patent infringement arising under the Patent Laws of the
United States of America, 35 U.S.C. 101, et seq.
18. This Court has jurisdiction over the subject matter of this Complaint pursuant to 28
U.S.C. 1331 and 1338.
19. This Court has personal jurisdiction over Defendants for at least the following
reasons: (i) Defendants regularly do business or solicit business, engage in other persistent courses
of conduct, and/or derive substantial revenue from products and/or services provided to individuals
in this District and in this State; (ii) and Defendants have purposefully established substantial,
systematic, and continuous contacts with this District and expect or should reasonably expect to be
in court here. Thus, this Courts exercise of jurisdiction over Defendants will not offend traditional
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notions of fair play and substantial justice.
20. Venue is proper in this judicial district pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 1391(b)-(c) and
1400(b) because Defendants do business in this District, Defendants are subject to personal
jurisdiction in this District and a substantial portion of the events giving rise to the claims for relief
stated in this Complaint occurred in this district.
FACTUAL ALLEGATIONS
A. Musion Eyeliner
21. The Musion Eyeliner system is an amazing new technique of projecting video to
create the illusion of life-size, full color, 3D moving images. All of the images used in this system
are three-dimensional, but are projected as two-dimensional images into a three-dimensional stage
set.
22. Musion Eyeliner is protected by patents in the United States. As described in the
519 and 212 patents, Musion Eyeliner is a proprietary high definition video projection system that
allows moving images to appear within a live stage setting. A white projection screen or other
reflecting surface is placed on the floor of the stage. An image source (preferably, a computer-
controlled intelligent light amplifier) projects an image onto the reflecting surface, which projects
the image onto a thin transparent foil arranged on stage at an angle of about 45 degrees. From the
audiences perspective, the image produced on the foil appears as a life-like three-dimensional
image.
23. Hologram USA has licensed the exclusive right to exploit the Musion Eyeliner
system (including the Patents At Issue) in all markets in the United States and Canada, with the
exception of adult entertainment. Accordingly, Hologram USA has the exclusive right to use the
Musion Eyeliner system and to sublicense its use to third parties in those territories for use in
performances such as the performance at issue in this case.
B. The 2014 Billboard Music Awards
24. On Sunday, May 18, 2014, the Billboard Music Awards are scheduled to take place at
the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada. This music awards ceremony, which will air
live on ABC, is a major media event. It is scheduled to include performances by popular and
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acclaimed entertainers, including Miley Cyrus, Ricky Martin, J ennifer Lopez, Pitbull, 5 Seconds of
Summer, Florida Georgia Line, J ason Derulo, Imagine Dragons, Luke Bryan, J ohn Legend,
OneRepublic, Miranda Lambert and Carrie Underwood.
25. On or about May 8, 2014, Billboard issued a press release in which it promised to be
one the years stand-out music events. Although Billboard did not disclose that a hologram-like
image of Michael J ackson would perform at the awards ceremony, it promised to raise the bar even
higher with a world premier experience featuring the late King of Pop. It announced that [t]he
Estate of Michael J ackson created the spot, which will present the superstar like youve never seen
him before. Its sure to be a thriller, but the finer details remain under lock-and-key. See
http://www.billboard.com/articles/events/bbma-2014/6077688/michael-jackson-to-unleash-world-
premiere-experience-at-billboard.
26. Several days later, beginning on or about May 15, 2014, various media outlets began
to report on a rumor swirling that a Michael J ackson hologram will appear at the 2014 Billboard
Music Awards for a performance of a new, never-before released J ackson song called Slave to
the Rhythm. See http://www.idolator.com/7518371/michael-jackson-hologram-billboard-music-
awards-rumor. Another report stated that [a] hologram of Michael J ackson will reportedly dance
across the stage at Sundays Billboard music awards. The digital rendering of the late pop star has
been booked to perform one of his new songs, Slave to the Rhythm. See
http://www.theguardian.com/music/2014/may/15/michael-jackson-hologram-billboard-music-
awards-2014.
27. Based on information and belief, the producer for the Billboard Music Awards, Dick
Clark Productions, hired Pulse to create the hologram-like image of Michael J ackson. Indeed, one
news source reported that Pulses Chief Executive Officer, J ohn Textor, is said to be digitally
resurrecting the late pop star. See http://www.theguardian.com/music/2014/may/15/michael-
jackson-hologram-billboard-music-awards-2014.
28. Textor is no stranger to Musion Eyeliner. In 2012, Textor was CEO of Digital
Domain. Although he was fired that same year, at or about the time Digital Domain went bankrupt,
Textor served as CEO of Digital Domain when the company, along with AV Concepts, produced the
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Tupac Shakur hologram for the Coachella Music Festival. Textor does not conceal his familiarity
with Musion Eyeliner to potential investors. In attempting to raise money for Pulse, he circulated an
investor memo that falsely claimed a company called VFX had produced the Tupac hologram while
Textor served as Chairman and CEO. A copy of that investor memo is attached as Exhibit D.
Further, in the weeks and months leading up to the 2014 Billboard Music Awards, Textor sent
numerous emails to Plaintiffs, seeking to license Musion Eyeliner. Plaintiffs refused those requests.
Undeterred, Textor has now concocted the story he will employ a different technology to achieve the
same result. That illusion does not withstand scrutiny.
29. Based on information and belief, Defendants will use the patented Musion Eyeliner
system to create the three-dimensional projection of Michael J ackson during the 2014 Billboard
Music Awards. Textor is familiar with that technology and he has recently actively sought to license
it.
30. Defendants did not obtain any authorization from Hologram USA to use the patented
Musion Eyeliner technology. Hologram USA has placed Defendants on notice of their infringing
activities, but Defendants refuse to stop using Musion Eyeliner.
31. Based on information and belief, Defendants are infringing on one or more of the
claims of the Patents At Issue.
32. Defendants infringement of the 519 and 212 patents has caused and will continue
to cause monetary and other damages to Plaintiffs.
FIRST CLAIM FOR RELIEF Against All Defendants
(Infringement of Patent No. 5,865,519)
33. Plaintiffs incorporate by reference the preceding averments set forth in the preceding
paragraphs.
34. U.S. Patent No. 5,865,519 (the 519 patent) duly and lawfully issued on February 2,
1999, to Uwe Maass and is titled Device For Displaying Moving Images In The Background Of A
Stage. The claims of the 519 patent are directed at a device or apparatus for representing three-
dimensional moving images in the background of a stage or the like using an image source. A true
and correct copy of the 519 patent is attached as Exhibit A.
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35. Maass is the owner of the 519 patent, and Hologram USA has licensed the exclusive
right to exploit this patent in all markets in the U.S. and Canada with the exception of adult
entertainment. Maass and Hologram USA have the right to bring this suit for injunctive relief and
damages.
36. On information and belief, Defendants have been, are currently and, unless enjoined,
will continue to directly infringe one or more claims of the 519 patent by making, using, offering to
sell, and selling within the United States the patented invention. Defendants products and services
embody and/or practice one or more claims of the 519 patent.
37. Defendants infringing activities have caused and will continue to cause Plaintiffs
irreparable harm, for which it has no adequate remedy at law, unless Defendants infringing
activities are enjoined by this Court in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 283.
38. Plaintiffs have been and continue to be damaged by Defendants infringement of the
519 patent in an amount to be determined at trial.
39. Defendants willfully and deliberately infringe the 519 patent in disregard of
Plaintiffs rights.
SECOND CLAIM FOR RELIEF Against All Defendants
(Infringement of Patent No. 7,883,212)
40. Plaintiffs incorporate by reference the preceding averments set forth in the preceding
paragraphs.
41. U.S. Patent No. 7,883,212 (the 212 patent) duly and lawfully issued on February 8,
2011, to Ian OConnell and J ames Rock and is titled Projection Apparatus And Method For
Peppers Ghost Illusion. The claims of the 212 patent are directed at a projection apparatus
arranged to project an image of an object upon an inclined, partially reflective screen so as to give a
false perception of depth and a method for constructing such an apparatus. A true and correct copy
of the 212 patent is attached as Exhibit B.
42. In or about September 2006, Ian OConnell and J ames Rock assigned all their
interests in the anticipated application for the 212 patent to Musion Systems Limited. A true and
correct copy of the Patent Assignment Abstract of Title is attached as Exhibit C.
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43. In or about September 2013, Musion Systems Limited assigned all its interests in the
212 patent to Musion DH.
44. Musion DH is the owner of the 212 patent, and Hologram USA has licensed the
exclusive right to exploit this patent in all markets in the U.S. and Canada with the exception of adult
entertainment. Musion DH and Hologram USA have the right to bring this suit for injunctive relief
and damages.
45. On information and belief, Defendants have been, are currently and, unless enjoined,
will continue to directly infringe one or more claims of the 212 patent by making, using, offering to
sell, and selling within the United States the patented invention. Defendants products and services
embody and/or practice one or more claims of the 212 patent.
46. Defendants infringing activities have caused and will continue to cause Plaintiffs
irreparable harm, for which it has no adequate remedy at law, unless Defendants infringing
activities are enjoined by this Court in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 283.
47. Plaintiffs have been and continue to be damaged by Defendants infringement of the
212 patent in an amount to be determined at trial.
48. Defendants willfully and deliberately infringe the 212 patent in disregard of
Plaintiffs rights.
THIRD CAUSE OF ACTION Against All Defendants
(PRELIMINARY AND PERMANENT INJUNCTION)
49. Plaintiffs incorporate by reference the preceding averments set forth in the preceding
paragraphs.
50. Immediate and irreparable injury will result to Plaintiffs unless this Court enters a
Temporary Restraining Order and Injunction, pursuant to FRCP 65, enjoining all Defendants and
their agents, servants, employees, attorneys, subsidiaries and any other individual or entity in active
concert or participation with them who receives actual notice of the order, from infringing, inducing
others to infringe, or contributing to the infringement of the 519 and 212 Patents, including the
manufacture, use, sale, importation, and offer to sell any holographic equipment or services related
to the use of such holographic equipment subject to the 519 and 212 Patents.
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51. Plaintiffs have a likelihood of success on the merits given that there is no dispute that
Defendants have directly infringed and continue to infringe the 519 and 212 Patents, by using and
selling this patented technology to create a holographic-like image of Michael J ackson who will
perform a never-before released song for the 2014 Billboard Music Awards. Defendant Textors
attempts to acquire rights to Musion Eyeliner in the days leading up to the Billboard Music Awards
belie any self-serving attempt to now claim another technology will be employed.
52. As a result of Defendants unlawful activities, Plaintiffs have suffered and will suffer
irreparable harm. Hologram USA has spent several million dollars building the Hologram USA
name and brand. For instance, Hologram USA spent millions of dollars to build a Beverly Hills
showroom to display and market the Eyeliner technology to potential customers.
53. The acts of the Defendants have already caused Plaintiffs significant harm. By
advertising and promoting a Michael J ackson holographic image at the 2014 Billboard Music
Awards, Defendants have created significant confusion in the marketplace. That confusion has
diluted the value of the Hologram USA brand by causing confusion among potential customers. The
actions of the Defendants have interfered with numerous potential business deals between Hologram
USA and potential customers.
54. If Defendants are permitted to continue their infringing conduct, including but not
limited to the display of a Michael J ackson holographic image at the 2014 Billboard Music Awards,
the irreparable harm suffered by Hologram USA will be immeasurable. The publicity associated
with such a display cannot be reduced to monetary terms.
55. Defendants actions will irreparably harm Plaintiffs business reputation and brand by
creating consumer confusion as to the true owner of the patented technology. No adequate remedy
at law will alleviate this harm.
REQUEST FOR RELIEF
WHEREFORE, Plaintiffs respectfully request that:
a. J udgment be entered that Defendants have infringed one or more claims of the 212
and 519 patents;
b. J udgment be entered permanently enjoining Defendants, their directors, officers,
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agents, servants, and employees, and those acting in privity or in concert with them, and their
subsidiaries, divisions, successors and assigns, from further acts of infringement of the 212 and
519 patents;
c. J udgment be entered that Defendants infringement has been willful;
d. J udgment be entered awarding Plaintiffs all damages adequate to compensate it for
Defendants infringement of the 212 and 519 patents, including all pre-judgment and post-
judgment interest at the maximum rate permitted by law, and including a trebling of such damages
due to Defendants willful infringement.
e. For reasonable attorneys fees incurred in bringing and litigating this action;
f. For costs of suit herein; and
g. J udgment be entered awarding all other relief as the Court deems proper.

DEMAND FOR JURY TRIAL
Please take notice that Plaintiffs demand trial by jury in this action.

DATED this 15th day of May, 2014.
McDONALD CARANO WILSON LLP

By: /s/ Craig A. Newby
CRAIG A. NEWBY (#8591)
2300 W. Sahara Avenue, #1200
Las Vegas, Nevada 89102
Telephone: 702.873.4100
Facsimile: 702.873.9966
cnewby@mcdonaldcarano.com

RYAN G. BAKER (to be admitted pro hac vice)
BAKER MARQUART LLP
10990 Wilshire Boulevard
Fourth Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Telephone: 424.652.7800
Facsimile: 424.652.7850
rbaker@bakermarquart.com

Attorneys for Plaintiffs
Hologram USA, Inc., Musion Das Hologram
Limited and Uwe Maass
US005865519A
Ulllted States Patent [ 19] [ 11] Patent N u m b er : 5, 865, 519
Maass [ 4 5] Date o f Patent: F eb . 2 , 1999
[ 54 ] DEVICE F OR DISPLAYIN G MOVIN G 5, 57 3 , 3 2 5 11/ 1996 Leko wski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 53 / 2 8
IMAGES IN THE BACKGROUN D OF A 5, 669, 685 9/ 1997 Ko tau i et al. 3 53 / 2 8
STAGE 5, 685, 62 5 11/ 1997 Beaver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 53 / 2 8
F OREIGN PATEN T DOCUMEN TS
[ 7 6] Invento r : UWe Maass, Lindlar er Str asse 107 ,
D-514 91, Over ath , Ger m any 3 89185 9/ 1908 F r anc e .
4 08191 3 / 1910 F r anc e .
[ 2 1] Ap p l. N o . : 83 6, 911 2 7 14 7 4 1 7 / 1995 F r anc e .
. _ 2 03 9680 8/ 1980 United Kingdo m .
[ 2 2 ] PCT F lled- Au g- 3 1 1996 WO 89/ 05682 6/ 1989 WIPO .
[ 86] PCT N O. Z OTHER PUBLICATION S
3 7 1 Date: J u l 7 1997 Rasc h e et al. , Bu h nentec h nic h e Ru ndsc h au ( 1990) BTR
102 ( 6) Date: J u l. 7 , 1997 3 12 4 4
[ 87 ] PCT Pu b N O; W097 / 114 05 Pr im ar y Ex am iner William Do Wling
Atto r ney, Agent, o r F ir m Klau b er & J ac kso n
PCT Pu b . Date: Mar . 2 7 , 1997
[ 57 ] ABSTRACT
[ 3 0] F o r eign Ap p lic atio n Pr io r ity Data
An ar tic le su c h as f o r ex am p le a m o to r veh ic le at a p u b lic ity
Sep . 2 0, 1995 [ DE] Ger m any . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 95 15 07 3 U f u nc tio n is to b e r ep r esented in f r o m o f dif f er ent Viewer s
[ 51] Int. Cl? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G03 B 2 1/ 2 8 ( 3 919916 b ac kgr o u nd o f a Stage ( 2 8) in th e f o r m o f a Vir tu al
[ 52 ] U S C] 3 53 / 2 8, 3 59/ 63 0 4 7 2 / 58 im age ( 2 6) . Ap r esenter ( 4 0) is to stand in th e im age and give
[ 58] F ield 01' . " " " " " " " " " " 3 53 / 2 8 98 3 0 ex p lanatio ns. Disp o sed ab o ve th e stage ( 2 8) is an im age
4 7 2 / 55; 61 63 so u r c e ( 12 , 14 ) . It p r o j ec ts an im age, a ?lm , o n to a r e?ec ting
su r f ac e ( 18) o n th e ?o o r ( 3 0) o f th e stage ( 2 8) . Beh ind th at
56 R f C-t d r e?ec ting su r f ac e ( 18) a tr ansp ar ent sm o o th f o il ( 2 0) ex tends
[ 1 e er enc es l e at 4 5 f r o m th e c eiling ( 3 2 ) to th e ?o o r ( 3 0) . Th e im age
U. S. PATEN T DOCUMEN TS p r o du c ed b y th e im age so u r c e ( 12 , 14 ) ap p ear s to th e
vieWer s ( 3 8) as a vir tu al im age ( 2 6) b eh ind th e f o il ( 2 0) . Th e
lsj f enstiac gc p r esenter ( 4 0) stands b eh ind th e f o il ( 2 0) and in th e m iddle
2 , 198, 815 4 / 194 0 Haskin . o f th e m age
3 , 03 5, 83 6 5/ 1962 Mc Cu lley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 53 / 2 8
4 , 805, 895 2 / 1989 Ro ger s . 15 Claim s, 5 Dr awing Sh eets
1 , 11 /
[ ~11 \ - I
' . v " k ' - v- \
g ' 1 2 5
/ / / 3 E\ \ ' _
/ \
j 18 E
U.S. Patent F eb . 2 , 1 9 9 9 Sh eet 1 o f 5 5 , 865 , 5 1 9
F IG]
U.S. Patent F eb . 2 , 1 9 9 9 Sh eet 2 o f 5 5 , 865 , 5 1 9
5 , 8 6 5 , 5 1 9
U.S. Patent F eb . 2 , 1 9 9 9 Sh eet 3 o f 5
5 , 8 6 5 , 5 1 9
1
DEVICE FOR DISPLAYING MOVING
IMAGES IN THE BACKGROUND OF A
STAGE
The i n v en t i o n c o n c er n s a n a p p a r a t u s f o r r ep r es en t i n g
mo v i n g i ma g es i n t he b a c k g r o u n d o f a s t a g e o r t he l i k e u s i n g
a n i ma g e s o u r c e.
Tr a n s p a r en c y l ec t u r es o r p r es en t a t i o n s a r e k n o Wn , a n d
t ha t eX p r es s i o n i s a Wel l - es t a b l i s hed p i ec e o f t er mi n o l o g y . In
a t r a n s p a r en c y p r es en t a t i o n t he p r es en t er p r o j ec t s s t i l l
i ma g es o r p i c t u r es o n t o a p r o j ec t i o n s c r een . The p r es en t er
hi ms el f s t a n d s o u t s i d e t he l i g ht c o n e b et Ween t he p r o j ec t o r
a n d t he p r o j ec t i o n s c r een a n d c o mmen t s o n t he i ma g es .
In s t ea d o f t he t r a n s p a r en c y p r o j ec t o r t he p r es en t er c a n a l s o
u s e a ?l m a p p a r a t u s . In t ha t c a s e mo v i n g i ma g es a p p ea r o n
t he p r o j ec t i o n s c r een a n d t he p r es en t er c o mmen t s t her eo n . In
b o t h c a s es t he p r es en t er s t a n d s o u t s i d e t he l i g ht c o n e. He
d o es n o t a p p ea r o n o r i n t he i ma g e hi ms el f . If he Wer e t o
mo v e i n t o t he l i g ht c o n e he Wo u l d ma s k o f f a p a r t o f t he l i g ht
b ea m. In s t ea d o f t he i ma g e, t he s ha d o W o f t he p r es en t er
Wo u l d t hen a p p ea r o n t he p r o j ec t i o n s c r een . If t he p r es en t er
Wa n t s t o d i r ec t t he a t t en t i o n o f hi s v i eWer s t o a g i v en p o i n t
i n t he i ma g e he u s es f o r t ha t p u r p o s e a p o i n t er o r a l i g ht Wi t h
a s ha r p l y f o c u s s ed l i g ht b ea m.
The f o r eg o i n g k i n d o f p r es en t a t i o n i s s u f ?c i en t f o r i ma g e
a n d ?l m p r es en t a t i o n s f o r p ho t o g r a p hi c a n d ?l m a ma t eu r s .
Tr a v el l er s Who s ho W ?l ms o r t r a n s p a r en c i es o f t hei r t r a v el s
t o a Wi d e c i r c l e o f v i eWer s c a n a l s o u s e t ha t k i n d o f
p r es en t a t i o n Wi t ho u t d et r i men t . The v i eWer s a r e o n l y i n t er
es t ed i n t he ?l m o r t he t r a n s p a r en c i es a n d t he Wo r d s o f t he
p r es en t er . They a t t r i b u t e o n l y s l i g ht s i g n i ?c a n c e t o t he
ma n n er o f p r es en t a t i o n a n d t he t ec hn i c a l equ i p men t
i n v o l v ed .
The p o s i t i o n i s d i f f er en t i f t he v i eWer s d o n o t ha v e a n y
p a r t i c u l a r i n t er es t i n t he a r t i c l es t o b e s ho Wn a n d a n i n t er es t
?r s t ha s t o b e a r o u s ed . The p o s i t i o n i s a l s o d i f f er en t When t he
?l m p r es en t a t i o n i s t o t a k e p l a c e a t a hi g h t ec hn i c a l l ev el , f o r
o v er r i d i n g r ea s o n s . The s i t u a t i o n i s a l s o d i f f er en t i f t he ?l m
p r es en t a t i o n i s t o b e ma d e mo r e r el a X ed a n d l es s mo n o t o
n o u s a n d l i n k ed t o s o - c a l l ed d i s p l a y ef f ec t s .
A t hea t r e p r o d u c t i o n i s d es c r i b ed a s a g ho s t t r i c k i n t he
l i t er a t u r e ( f o r eX a mp l e Bi i hn en t ec hn i s c he Ru n d s c ha u , BTR
3 / 1 9 9 0 , p a g es 2 4 a n d 2 5 ) , i n v o l v i n g d i s p o s i n g a p a n e o f
g l a s s i n c l i n ed l y i n t he f r o n t r eg i o n o f t he s t a g e. An a c t o r i s
p o s i t i o n ed b en ea t h t he p a n e o f g l a s s a n d i n a l o Wer ed p a r t o f
t he s t a g e. He i s b ed ec k ed Wi t h Wi d e Whi t e g a r men t s a n d
r ep r es en t s t he g ho s t . He i s l i t b y a s p o t l i g ht Whi c h i s a l s o
d i s p o s ed u n d er t he s t a g e. The i ma g e o f t ha t a c t o r r ep r es en t
i n g t he g ho s t i s p r o j ec t ed o n t o t he p a n e o f g l a s s a n d a p p ea r s
t o t he v i eWer s b ehi n d t he p a n e o f g l a s s a v i r t u a l i ma g e. In
t ha t t hea t r e p r es en t a t i o n a s ec o n d a c t o r i s o n t he s t a g e. He
r ep r es en t s a her o o r s o r c er er Who c o n j u r es u p t he g ho s t .
On t he b a s i s t her eo f , t he o b j ec t o f t he p r es en t i n v en t i o n
i s a n a p p a r a t u s Wi t h Whi c h ?l m a n d i ma g e p r es en t a t i o n s c a n
b e ma d e r el a X ed a n d t he p r es en t er hi ms el f c a n mo v e i n t o t he
i ma g e Wi t ho u t t her eb y i n t er f er i n g Wi t h r ep r o d u c t i o n o f t he
i ma g e o n a p r o j ec t i o n s c r een o r g en er a l l y o n a s u r f a c e. In
a c c o r d a n c e Wi t h t he i n v en t i o n , t ha t o b j ec t i s a t t a i n ed i n a n
a p p a r a t u s o f t he k i n d s et f o r t h i n t he o p en i n g p a r t o f t hi s
s p ec i ?c a t i o n , i n t ha t a r e?ec t i n g s u r f a c e i s a r r a n g ed o n t he
?o o r o f t he s t a g e i n t he c en t r a l r eg i o n t her eo f , a t r a n s p a r en t
s mo o t h f o i l eX t en d s b et Ween t he ?o o r a n d t he t o p o r c ei l i n g
o f t he s t a g e o v er t he en t i r e Wi d t h t her eo f i n s u c h a Wa y t ha t
i t s l o Wer en d i s hel d t o a p o s i t i o n b et Ween t he r e?ec t i n g
s u r f a c e a n d t he b a c k g r o u n d a n d i t s u p p er en d i s hel d t o t he
c ei l i n g a t a p o s i t i o n Whi c h i s d i s p o s ed f u r t her f o r Wa r d l y , a n d
t he i ma g e s o u r c e i s a r r a n g ed a t t he c ei l i n g i n f r o n t o f t he
1 0
1 5
2 0
2 5
3 0
3 5
4 0
4 5
5 0
5 5
6 0
6 5
2
u p p er en d o f t he f o i l Whi c h i s hel d t her e, a n d i s d i r ec t ed o n
t o t he r e?ec t i n g s u r f a c e.
The a p p a r a t u s a c c o r d i n g t o t he i n v en t i o n ma k es u s e o f
t he p hy s i c a l p r i n c i p l e t ha t a n y mo t o r c a r d r i v er ex p er i en c es
o n t he Wi n d s hi el d o f hi s v ehi c l e. An a r t i c l e l y i n g o n t he
s t o r a g e s u r f a c e i n f r o n t o f t he Wi n d s hi el d i s r e?ec t ed t her ei n
i n s u c h a Wa y t ha t i t s eems t o t he mo t o r c a r d r i v er t o b e
d i s p o s ed i n f r o n t o f t he Wi n d s hi el d , a s v i eWed i n t he
d i r ec t i o n o f t r a v el . In t he c a s e o f t he a p p a r a t u s a c c o r d i n g t o
t he i n v en t i o n t he a r t i c l e t o b e r ep r es en t ed i s p r o j ec t ed b y t he
i ma g e s o u r c e o n t o t he r e?ec t i n g s u r f a c e Whi c h c o r r es p o n d s
t o t he a b o v e- men t i o n ed s u p p o r t s u r f a c e, a n d i t i s t hen
r e?ec t ed i n t he t r a n s p a r en t s mo o t h f o i l i n s u c h a Wa y t ha t i t
a p p ea r s t o t he v i eWer o n t he b a c k g r o u n d o f t he s t a g e. The
f o i l Whi c h eX t en d s o v er t he en t i r e Wi d t h o f t he s t a g e a n d
Whi c h i s hel d t o t he ?o o r a n d c ei l i n g t her eo f a c t s l i k e t he
Wi n d s hi el d i n a mo t o r v ehi c l e. Av i eWer a t a n y p o i n t i n t he
a u d i t o r i u m b el i ev es t ha t he i s s eei n g a n y a r t i c l e r e?ec t ed b y
t he r e?ec t i n g s u r f a c e o n t o t he f o i l , b ehi n d s a me. The
p r es en t er s t a n d s o n t he s t a g e o u t s i d e t he l i g ht c o n e o f t he
i ma g e s o u r c e. As v i eWed f r o m t he a u d i t o r i u m, he s t a n d s
b ehi n d t he r e?ec t i n g s u r f a c e. Tha t mea n s t ha t hi s i ma g e i s
n o t f o r med o n t he b a c k g r o u n d , n o r d o es he d i s t u r b t he i ma g e
r ep r es en t a t i o n t her eo n . He c a n d r a W t he a t t en t i o n o f t he
v i eWer s t o g i v en d et a i l s i n t he i ma g e r ep r es en t a t i o n , Wi t ho u t
ma k i n g u s e o f a p o i n t er o r a l i g ht . He c a n l i k eWi s e mo v e
Wi t h t he i ma g es a n d i n t er p r et t he r ep r o d u c t i o n t her eo f b y
v i r t u e o f hi s b o d y l a n g u a g e.
Des i r a b l y t he f o i l eX t en d s a t a n a n g l e o f a b o u t 4 5
r el a t i v e t o t he ?o o r o f t he s t a g e. The i ma g e s o u r c e c a n b e a
d i s p l a y s c r een t u b e Wi t h a v er y hi g h d eg r ee o f r es o l u t i o n . It
c a n b e c o n t r o l l ed b y a c o mp u t er . Tha t mea n s t ha t t he i ma g e
c a n a l s o b e el ec t r o n i c a l l y i n ?u en c ed . Des i r a b l y a c o mp u t er
c o n t r o l l ed i n t el l i g en t l i g ht a mp l i ?er ( a l s o k n o Wn a s a n ILA)
i s u s ed a s t he i ma g e s o u r c e. It i s o r i en t ed ho r i Z o n t a l l y a n d
emi t s l i g ht i n t he d i r ec t i o n o f t he a u d i t o r i u m. Ac c o r d i n g l y i t s
l o n g es t eX t en t l i es i n t he ho r i Z o n t a l a n d i t c a n b e ea s i l y
c o n c ea l ed f r o m t he v i eWer s . So t ha t t he l i g ht Whi c h i t
r a d i a t es r ea c hes t he r e?ec t i n g s u r f a c e, a f u r t her emb o d i men t
p r o v i d es t ha t a mi r r o r i s a r r a n g ed i n f r o n t o f t he c o mp u t er
c o n t r o l l ed l i g ht a mp l i ?er a n d t he l a t t er i s d i r ec t ed o n t o t he
mi r r o r a n d t he mi r r o r r ec ei v es t he l i g ht emi t t ed b y t he l i g ht
a mp l i ?er , i s d i r ec t ed o n t o t he r e?ec t i n g s u r f a c e a n d p r o j ec t s
t he l i g ht o n t o s a me.
If p o s s i b l e t he v i eWer s ho u l d n o t n o t i c e ho W t he i ma g e i n
t he b a c k g r o u n d o f t he s t a g e i s p r o d u c ed . Ther ef o r e t he l i g ht
a mp l i ?er a n d t he mi r r o r a r e d es i r a b l y c o v er ed o v er f o r
Wa r d l y b y a c u r t a i n o r a b o a r d Whi c h eX t en d s o v er t he en t i r e
Wi d t h o f t he s t a g e. The f o i l i t s el f i s u n d er a v er y hi g h t en s i l e
s t r es s o f u p t o St . In t ha t Wa y i t i s hel d t a u t l y s mo o t h a n d t he
i ma g e i s n o t d i s t o r t ed . The f o i l i s p r ef er a b l y Wi t ho u t a n y
i n c l u s i o n s . It i s a l s o t o b e v er y s mo o t h o n i t s f r o n t s i d e a n d
i t s r ea r s i d e. It i s a l s o t o b e v er y t hi n . Fi n a l l y t he f o i l i s t o
r e?ec t b et Ween 3 0 a n d 5 0 % , p r ef er a b l y 3 0 % , o f t he l i g ht
i mp i n g i n g o n i t . Su c h a f o i l i s p a r t i c u l a r l y Wel l s u i t ed f o r t he
p u r p o s es a c c o r d i n g t o t he i n v en t i o n . The a b s en c e o f i n c l u
s i o n s a n d t he s mo o t h f r o n t a n d r ea r s i d es t her eo f r es u l t i n
v er y s l i g ht a n d i mp er c ep t i b l e d i s t o r t i o n ef f ec t s . The f a c t t ha t
t he f o i l i s v er y t hi n s er v es t he s a me p u r p o s e. Re?ec t i o n
p hen o men a a t t he f r o n t a n d r ea r s i d es t her eo f t hu s c o i n c i d e.
The f o i l u s ed f o r t he p u r p o s es a c c o r d i n g t o t he i n v en t i o n i s
g en er a l l y s u b j ec t ed t o f u r t her p r o c es s i n g a s t r a n s p a r en c y o r
3 5 mm ?l ms . When u s ed a s a t r a n s p a r en c y ?l m, i t i s c u t u p
i n t o t he f o r ma t o f t he t r a n s p a r en c y o r 3 5 mm ?l ms . When i t
i s u s ed f o r t he i n v en t i o n t he f o i l ha s a s u r f a c e a r ea o f a t l ea s t
3 m t i mes 4 m.
In a d es i r a b l e emb o d i men t t he f o i l i s r o l l ed o n t o a
Wi n d i n g t u b e. It i s s u s p en d ed t her eWi t h a t t he c ei l i n g o f t he
5 , 8 6 5 , 5 1 9
3
s t a g e . D e s i r a b l y i t i s ? x e d t o t h e c e i l i n g , t o g e t h e r W i t h t h e
i n t e l l i g e n t l i g h t a m p l i ? e r . Th e f r e e e n d o f t h e f o i l c a n b e
p u l l e d o f f t h e W i n d i n g t u b e a n d i s ? x e d t o t h e ? o o r o f t h e
s t a g e . A s u p p o r t m o u n t i n g a r r a n g e d o n t h e ? o o r o f t h e s t a g e
i s u s e d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e .
Th e r e ? e c t i n g s u r f a c e m a y b e a W h i t e p r o j e c t i o n s c r e e n
W h i c h i s t o b e l a i d o n t o t h e ? o o r o f t h e s t a g e . Th e r e ? e c t i n g
s u r f a c e h o W e ve r m a y a l s o b e a s i m p l e W h i t e c o a t o f p a i n t .
A s t h e p r e s e n t e r m o ve s o u t s i d e i t a n d m o r e s p e c i ? c a l l y
b e h i n d i t , i t r e t a i n s i t s r e ? e c t i n g p r o p e r t i e s f o r a ve r y l o n g
p e r i o d o f t i m e .
Th e a p p a r a t u s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n ve n t i o n i s a d va n t a
g e o u s l y u s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n W i t h a s t a g e W i t h a ? o o r W h i c h
c a n b e r a i s e d a n d l o W e r e d . Th e r e ? e c t i n g s u r f a c e , t h e
p r o j e c t i o n s c r e e n , t h e c o a t o f p a i n t o r t h e l i k e , i s d i s p o s e d o n
t h a t p a r t o f t h e ? o o r , W h i c h c a n b e r a i s e d a n d l o W e r e d . W h e n
t h e ? o o r i s l o W e r e d t h e s p a c i n g b e t W e e n t h e i m a g e s o u r c e
a n d t h e r e ? e c t i n g s u r f a c e i s i n c r e a s e d . A s a r e s u l t t h e vi r t u a l
i m a g e W h i c h a p p e a r s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e s t a g e i s
d i s p l a c e d r e a r W a r d l y .
Th e a p p a r a t u s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n ve n t i o n i s t o b e e a s y t o
t r a n s p o r t f r o m o n e l o c a t i o n t o a n o t h e r a n d t o s e t u p a t
d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . Fo r t h a t p u r p o s e , i n a d e s i r a b l e
e m b o d i m e n t , t h e i n ve n t i o n p r o vi d e s t h a t i t s c o m p o n e n t s a r e
e n c l o s e d b y a l a t t i c e f r a m e a n d c a n b e s e c u r e d t h e r e t o .
D e s i r a b l y , t h e l a t t i c e f r a m e h a s u n i t s W h i c h c a n b e s e t u p o n
t h e t W o s i d e s o f t h e a p p a r a t u s o r t h e s t a g e t h e r e o f a n d W h i c h
e a c h h a ve a l o W e r g i r d e r p o r t i o n , a n u p p e r g i r d e r p o r t i o n , a
f r o n t g i r d e r p o r t i o n a n d a b a c k g i r d e r p o r t i o n . Th e l a t t i c e
f r a m e u n i t s W h i c h c a n b e s e t u p o n t h e t W o s i d e s o f t h e
a p p a r a t u s o r s t a g e c a n b e c o n n e c t e d t o g e t h e r b y t r a n s ve r s e l y
e x t e n d i n g s t r u t s .
D e s i r a b l y t h e W i n d i n g t u b e i s s e c u r e d t o t h e u p p e r g i r d e r
p o r t i o n s b y W a y o f b r a c k e t s W h i l e t h e m o u n t i n g s u p p o r t
W h i c h h o l d s t h e f r e e e n d o f t h e f o i l i s ? x e d t o t h e l o W e r
g i r d e r p o r t i o n s .
Th e i n ve n t i o n W i l l n o W b e f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d b y W a y o f
t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e e m b o d i m e n t s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e d r a W i n g i n
W h i c h :
FI G . 1 i s a s i m p l i ? e d d i a g r a m m a t i c s i d e vi e W o f t h e
a p p a r a t u s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n ve n t i o n ,
FI G . 2 i s a m o r e d e t a i l e d d i a g r a m m a t i c s i d e vi e W o f t h e
a p p a r a t u s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n ve n t i o n , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s h o W
i n g t h e a u d i t o r i u m ,
FI G . 3 i s a s i d e vi e W o f t h e s t a g e s i m i l a r l y t o t h e
i l l u s t r a t i o n i n FI G . 2 W i t h t h e ? o o r l o W e r e d ,
FI G . 4 i s a vi e W o f t h e a u d i t o r i u m a n d t h e s t a g e l o o k i n g
i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e l i n e I VI V i n FI G . 2,
FI G . 5 i s a s i d e vi e W o f t h e a p p a r a t u s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
i n ve n t i o n W h e n u s i n g t h e l a t t i c e f r a m e s s u r r o u n d i n g i t , a n d
FI G . 6 i s a vi e W i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e l i n e VI VI .
FI G . 1 s h o W s t h e p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e o f t h e a p p a r a t u s
a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n ve n t i o n W i t h t h e c o m p u t e r - c o n t r o l l e d
i n t e l l i g e n t l i g h t a m p l i ? e r 1 2 W h i c h a c t s a s a n i m a g e s o u r c e ,
t h e m i r r o r 1 4 W h i c h i n t h e vi e W i n FI G . 1 i s a r r a n g e d t o t h e
l e f t i n f r o n t o f i t a n d W h i c h p r o j e c t s t h e l i g h t r a d i a t e d o n t o
i t f r o m t h e l i g h t a m p l i ? e r 1 2 o n t o t h e r e ? e c t i n g s u r f a c e 1 8
i n t h e f o r m o f a l i g h t c o n e 1 6 a s i n d i c a t e d b y t W o b r o k e n
l i n e s , t h e f o i l 20 W i t h i t s l o W e r h o l d i n g m e a n s i n t h e f o r m o f
a m o u n t i n g b r a c k e t 22 a n d i t s u p p e r h o l d i n g m e a n s i n t h e
f o r m o f a W i n d i n g t u b e 24 a n d t h e vi r t u a l i m a g e 26 W h i c h
i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e s t a g e . Th e c o m p u t e r
c o n t r o l l e d i n t e l l i g e n t l i g h t a m p l i ? e r 1 2 p r o j e c t s a m o vi n g
i m a g e o n t o t h e m i r r o r 1 4 . Th i s p r o j e c t s i t o n t o t h e r e ? e c t i n g
s u r f a c e 1 8 W h i c h p r o j e c t s i t o n t o t h e f o i l 20. Fr o m t h e p o i n t
o f vi e W o f a vi e W e r W h o i s a t t h e l e f t i n FI G . 1 s e e FI G .
2a m o vi n g i m a g e a p p e a r s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d a s a vi r t u a l
i m a g e 26 .
1 5
25
3 5
4 5
5 5
6 5
4
FI G S . 2 a n d 3 s h o W a p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e
a p p a r a t u s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n ve n t i o n a t a p r e s e n t a t i o n o r
l e c t u r e f u n c t i o n . Mo r e s p e c i ? c a l l y FI G . 2 a g a i n s h o W s t h e
s t a g e 28 , t h e ? o o r 3 0 t h e r e o f a n d t h e c e i l i n g 3 2 t h e r e o f .
E x t e n d i n g u n d e r t h e c e i l i n g 3 2 o f t h e s t a g e 28 o ve r t h e e n t i r e
W i d t h t h e r e o f i s a c u r t a i n o r a c o ve r r a i l o r b o a r d 3 4 . I t c o ve r s
o ve r i n a f o r W a r d d i r e c t i o n t h e c o m p u t e r - c o n t r o l l e d i n t e l l i
g e n t l i g h t a m p l i ? e r 1 2 a n d t h e m i r r o r 1 4 . Th e vi e W e r s 3 8 s i t
i n t h e a u d i t o r i u m 3 6 . Th e p r e s e n t e r o r l e c t u r e r 4 0 s t a n d s o n
t h e s t a g e 28 b e h i n d t h e r e ? e c t i n g s u r f a c e 1 8 . Th e r e ? e c t i n g
s u r f a c e 1 8 i s f o r e x a m p l e a p r o j e c t i o n s c r e e n o r a c o a t o f
W h i t e p a i n t . Th e d o u b l e - h e a d e d a r r o W s h o W n u n d e r t h e ? o o r
3 0 i s i n t e n d e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t c a n b e r a i s e d a n d l o W e r e d .
FI G . 2 s h o W s t h e ? o o r 3 0 a t i t s n o r m a l h e i g h t . Th e vi r t u a l
i m a g e 26 a p p e a r s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e s t a g e 28 a t a
g i ve n l o c a t i o n . FI G . 3 s h o W s t h e s a m e s t a g e 28 W i t h t h e ? o o r
3 0 l o W e r e d . W h e n t h e ? o o r 3 0 i s l o W e r e d t h e vi r t u a l i m a g e
26 m o ve s r e a r W a r d l y , t o W a r d s t h e r i g h t W h e n l o o k i n g a t
FI G S . 2 a n d 3 .
FI G . 4 s h o W s a p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a p p a r a t u s
a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n ve n t i o n i n a p r e s e n t a t i o n f u n c t i o n r e l a t i n g
t o m o t o r ve h i c l e s . FI G . 4 s h o W s a p r e s e n t a t i o n a r t i c l e 4 2, i n
t h i s e x a m p l e b e i n g a m o t o r ve h i c l e . Th e vi e W e r s 3 8 s e e i t i n
t h e b a c k g r o u n d a s a vi r t u a l i m a g e . Th e y d o n o t r e c o g n i s e
t h a t t h i s i n vo l ve s a r e ? e c t i o n a t t h e r e ? e c t i n g s u r f a c e 1 8 a n d
t h e f o i l 20. Th e y o n l y s e e h o W t h e p r e s e n t e r 4 0 m o ve s f r e e l y
i n f r o n t o f t h e m o t o r ve h i c l e , p o i n t s W i t h h i s a r m s a n d h a n d s
t o t h e m o t o r ve h i c l e a n d p a r t s t h e r e o f , e x p l a i n s d e t a i l s i n
W o r d s , a n d i n s o d o i n g n e i t h e r i n t e r f e r e s W i t h n o r i n a n y W a y
i n ? u e n c e s t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e m o t o r ve h i c l e i n t h e
b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e f o r m o f t h e vi r t u a l i m a g e 26 .
FI G S . 5 a n d 6 s h o W t h e t r a n s p o r t a b l e e m b o d i m e n t o f t h e
a p p a r a t u s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n ve n t i o n , W h i c h c a n b e s e t u p a t
a n y d e s i r e d l o c a t i o n . L a t t i c e f r a m e s 4 4 W h i c h c a n b e s e t u p
a t b o t h s i d e s o f t h e a p p a r a t u s s e r ve f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . E a c h
l a t t i c e f r a m e c o m p r i s e s a l o W e r g i r d e r p o r t i o n 4 6 , a n u p p e r
g i r d e r p o r t i o n 4 8 , a f r o n t g i r d e r p o r t i o n 5 0 a n d a b a c k g i r d e r
p o r t i o n 5 2. L a t t i c e f r a m e s o f t h a t k i n d a r e k n o W n . E a c h
g i r d e r p o r t i o n c o m p r i s e s a p l u r a l i t y o f p a r t s W h i c h c a n b e
r e l e a s a b l y c o n n e c t e d t o g e t h e r . Fo r t h e p u r p o s e s o f e r e c t i n g
t h e a p p a r a t u s , t h e p a r t s o f t h e g i r d e r p o r t i o n s a r e ? t t e d
t o g e t h e r a n d j o i n e d t o g e t h e r . Fo r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p u r p o s e s
t h e y a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r a n d c a n b e t r a n s p o r t e d i n
t h e f o r m o f c o m p a r a t i ve l y s m a l l u n i t s o n a t r u c k o r t h e l i k e .
A s s h o W n i n FI G . 5 t h e c o m p u t e r - c o n t r o l l e d i n t e l l i g e n t l i g h t
a m p l i ? e r 1 2 a n d t h e W i n d i n g t u b e 24 a r e ? x e d t o a b r a c k e t .
Th e b r a c k e t i s i n t u r n ? x e d t o a t r a n s ve r s e s t r u t W h i c h
c o n n e c t s t h e t W o u p p e r g i r d e r p o r t i o n s 4 8 . Th e s a m e a p p l i e s
i n r e g a r d t o t h e m i r r o r 1 4 . W h e n t h e a p p a r a t u s i s e r e c t e d t h e
f o i l 20 i s p u l l e d o f f t h e W i n d i n g t u b e 24 , ? x e d t o t h e
m o u n t i n g b r a c k e t 22 a n d t h e n t e n s i o n e d . Th e r e ? e c t i n g
s u r f a c e 1 8 i s l a i d o n t h e ? o o r i n t h e f o r m o f a p l a t e o r t h e
l i k e W h i c h i s c o a t e d o r p a i n t e d W h i t e , o r i n t h e f o r m o f a
p r o j e c t i o n s c r e e n . Th e s t a g e 28 o n W h i c h t h e p r e s e n t e r 4 0
s t a n d s W h e n m a k i n g h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n i s c o m p o s e d o f p a r t s
W h i c h a r e k n o W n p e r s e o n t h e i r o W n a n d i t i s e r e c t e d i n t h e
r e a r W a r d r e g i o n o f t h e a p p a r a t u s .
I c l a i m :
1 . A p p a r a t u s f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g m o vi n g i m a g e s i n t h e b a c k
g r o u n d o f a s t a g e u s i n g a n i m a g e s o u r c e , s a i d s t a g e i n c l u d
i n g a ? o o r , a c e i l i n g d i s p o s e d ve r t i c a l l y a b o ve s a i d ? o o r a n d
a b a c k g r o u n d d i s p o s e d t h e r e b e t W e e n , s a i d a p p a r a t u s c h a r
a c t e r i s e d i n t h a t a r e ? e c t i n g s u r f a c e ( 1 8 ) i s a r r a n g e d o n s a i d
? o o r ( 3 0) o f s a i d s t a g e ( 28 ) i n t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n t h e r e o f , a
t r a n s p a r e n t s m o o t h f o i l ( 20) e x t e n d s b e t W e e n s a i d ? o o r ( 3 0)
a n d s a i d c e i l i n g ( 3 2) a t a p o s i t i o n W h i c h i s d i s p o s e d f u r t h e r
f o r W a r d l y , a n d t h e i m a g e s o u r c e i s a r r a n g e d a t t h e c e i l i n g
5 , 8 6 5 , 5 1 9
5
( 3 2 ) i n f r o n t o f t h e u p p e r e n d o f t h e f o i l ( 2 0 ) Wh i ch i s h e l d
t h e r e , a n d i s d i r e ct e d o n t o t h e r e ? e ct i n g s u r f a ce ( 1 8 ) .
2 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 1 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
t h e f o i l ( 1 8 ) e x t e n d s a t a n a n g l e o f a b o u t 4 5 r e l a t i v e t o t h e
? o o r ( 3 0 ) o f t h e s t a g e ( 2 8 ) .
3 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 1 o r cl a i m 2 ch a r a ct e r
i s e d i n t h a t t h e i m a g e s o u r ce i s a co m p u t e r - co n t r o l l e d
i n t e l l i g e n t l i g h t a r n p l i ? e r ( 1 2 ) .
4 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 3 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
a m i r r o r ( 1 4 ) i s a r r a n g e d i n f r o n t o f t h e co r n p u t e r - co n t r o l l e d
l i g h t a r n p l i ? e r ( 1 2 ) a n d s a i d l i g h t a r n p l i ? e r i s d i r e ct e d o n t o
t h e m i r r o r ( 1 4 ) a n d t h e m i r r o r ( 1 4 ) r e ce i v e s t h e l i g h t r a d i a t e d
f r o m t h e l i g h t a r n p l i ? e r ( 1 2 ) , i s d i r e ct e d o n t o t h e r e ? e ct i n g
s u r f a ce ( 1 8 ) a n d p r o j e ct s t h e l i g h t o n t o s a i d r e ? e ct i n g
s u r f a ce .
5 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 4 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
t h e l i g h t a r n p l i ? e r ( 1 2 ) a n d t h e m i r r o r ( 1 4 ) a r e co v e r e d o v e r
f o r Wa r d l y b y a cu r t a i n e X t e n d i n g o v e r t h e e n t i r e Wi d t h o f t h e
s t a g e ( 2 8 ) .
6 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 1 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
t h e f o i l i s s u b j e ct t o a t e n s i l e s t r e s s .
7 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 6 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
t h e f o i l ( 2 0 ) h a s a s u r f a ce a r e a o f a t l e a s t 3 I n t i m e s 4 I n .
8 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 7 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
t h e f o i l ( 2 0 ) i s r o l l e d o n a Wi n d i n g t u b e ( 2 4 ) a n d ca n b e
p u l l e d o f f s a m e a n d ca n b e ? x e d Wi t h i t s f r e e e n d i n a s u p p o r t
r n o u n t i n g ( 2 2 ) .
1 5
2 5
6
9 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 1 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
t h e r e ? e ct i n g s u r f a ce ( 1 8 ) i s a co a t o f Wh i t e p a i n t .
1 0 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 1 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
t h e r e ? e ct i n g s u r f a ce ( 1 8 ) i s a Wh i t e p r o j e ct i o n s cr e e n .
1 1 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 1 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
t h e ? o o r ( 3 0 ) o f t h e s t a g e ( 2 8 ) ca n b e r a i s e d a n d l o We r e d .
1 2 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 4 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
l i g h t a r n p l i ? e r ( 1 2 ) , m i r r o r ( 1 4 ) , r e ? e ct i n g s u r f a ce ( 1 8 ) , f o i l
( 2 0 ) a n d s t a g e ( 2 8 ) a r e e n cl o s e d b y a l a t t i ce f r a m e ( 4 4 ) a n d
ca n b e ? x e d t h e r e t o .
1 3 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 1 2 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
t h e l a t t i ce f r a m e ( 4 4 ) i n cl u d e s t Wo u n i t s Wh i ch ca n b e s e t u p
o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e s t a g e ( 2 8 ) a n d e a ch u n i t h a s a l o We r
g i r d e r p o r t i o n ( 4 6 ) , a n u p p e r g i r d e r p o r t i o n ( 4 8 ) , a f r o n t
g i r d e r p o r t i o n ( 5 0 ) a n d a b a ck g i r d e r p o r t i o n ( 5 2 ) .
1 4 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 1 3 ch a r a ct e r i s e d i n t h a t
t h e t Wo l a t t i ce f r a r n e u n i t s Wh i ch ca n b e s e t u p o n b o t h s i d e s
o f t h e s t a g e ( 2 8 ) ca n b e co n n e ct e d b y t r a n s v e r s e l y e X t e n d i n g
s t r u t s .
1 5 . Ap p a r a t u s a s s e t f o r t h i n cl a i m 4 ch a r a ct e r i s e d t h a t t h e
l i g h t a r n p l i ? e r ( 1 2 ) a n d t h e m i r r o r ( 1 4 ) a r e co v e r e d o v e r
f o r Wa r d l y b y a co v e r b a r ( 3 4 ) e x t e n d i n g o v e r t h e e n t i r e
Wi d t h o f t h e s t a g e ( 2 8 ) .
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Str eet London ( GB) WC2H 9 1A; Ja mes 4 , 019 , 6 5 6 A * 4 / 19 77 Sp ea r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222/ 103
Roc k , c / o Mus ion Sys tems Limited, 4 , 805 , 89 5 A 2/ 19 89 Rog er s
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( 6 5 ) Pr ior Pub lic a tion Da ta ( 5 7) ABSTRACT
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( ) n ( 106 ) , a f r a me ( 108) , a nd a p a r tia lly tr a ns p a r ent s c r een ( 110) .
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A6 3] 5 / 00 ( 2006 - 01) th e p r oj ec tor ( 106 ) is r e? ec ted th er ef r om. Th e p r oj ec tor ( 106 )
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6 , 3 6 4 , 4 9 0
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6 , 8 1 7 , 7 1 6
US. P ATENT DOCUMENTS
A
A
A
A
A
B1
B1
B1
B1
9 / 1 9 9 8
2 / 1 9 9 9
8 / 1 9 9 9
1 0 / 1 9 9 9
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9 / 2 0 0 3 Wh i t e
2 / 2 0 0 4 Wood e t a 1 .
FOREIGN P ATENT DOCUMENTS
EP 0 9 1 9 2 5 8 A2 6 / 1 9 9 9
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US. Patent F eb . 8 , 2 0 1 1 Sh eet 3 0 1 4 US 7 , 8 8 3 , 2 1 2 B2
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1
PROJECTION APPARATUS AND METHOD
FOR PEPPERS GHOST ILLUSION
Th i s i n v e n t i o n r e l a t e s t o a p r o j e c t i o n a p p a r a t u s a n d
m e t h o d. Mo r e p a r t i c u l a r l y , b u t n o t e x c l u s i v e l y , i t r e l a t e s t o a
p r o j e c t i o n a p p a r a t u s a r r a n g e d t o p r o j e c t a n i m a g e o f a n o b j e c t
u p o n a n i n c l i n e d, p a r t i a l l y r e ? e c t i v e , s c r e e n s o a s t o g i v e a
f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n o f de p t h a n d a m e t h o d f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g s u c h
a n a p p a r a t u s .
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Th e p r o j e c t i o n o f a n i m a g e u p o n a p a r t i a l l y r e ? e c t i v e
s c r e e n s u c h t h a t i s o b s e r v a b l e b y a v i e W e r p o s i t i o n e d i n f r o n t
o f t h e s c r e e n i s kn o W n , t h e s o - c a l l e d Pe p p e r s g h o s t a r r a n g e
m e n t t h a t i s kn o W n f o r m f a i r g r o u n d s h o W s .
Th i s h a s b e e n a p p l i e d t o p u b l i c i t y a n d p r o m o t i o n a l di s
p l a y s W h e r e a p r e s e n t e r r e s i de s b e h i n d a n i n c l i n e d, p a r t i a l l y
r e ? e c t i v e s c r e e n , t y p i c a l l y a t e n s i o n e d f o i l , o n t o W h i c h a n
i m a g e o f , f o r e x a m p l e , a m o t o r v e h i c l e i s p r o j e c t e d, v i a a t
l e a s t o n e r e ? e c t i v e s u r f a c e , s e e f o r e x a m p l e EP 07 9943 6. Th e
l o c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t e r b e h i n d t h e p r o j e c t e d i m a g e h a s a
n u m b e r o f i n h e r e n t a dv a n t a g e s o v e r s y s t e m s W h e r e t h e p r e
s e n t e r s t a n ds i n f r o n t o f a s c r e e n , n o t l e a s t o f W h i c h i s t h a t t h e
p r e s e n t e r do e s n o t o b s c u r e t h e p r o j e c t e d i m a g e W h e n W a l ki n g
a c r o s s t h e p r o j e c t e d i m a g e . Addi t i o n a l l y , t h e u s e o f a n
i n c l i n e d s c r e e n r e s u l t s i n a v i e W e r o f t h e i m a g e p e r c e i v i n g t h e
i m a g e a s h a v i n g de p t h r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y b e i n g a t W o di m e n
s i o n a l i m a g e , f o r e x a m p l e W h e r e a m o t o r v e h i c l e i s s e e n t o
r o t a t e u p o n a t u r n t a b l e .
Ho W e v e r , c u r r e n t i m a g e p r o j e c t i o n a p p a r a t u s do h a v e a
n u m b e r o f p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d W i t h t h e m , f o r e x a m p l e ,
m o u n t i n g o f t h e f o i l c a n p r o v e di f ? c u l t W h i c h i n t u r n l e a ds t o
u n e v e n t e n s i o n i n g o f t h e f o i l a n d W r i n kl e s u p o n t h e f o i l , t h a t
i m p a i r t h e v i e W e d q u a l i t y o f t h e i m a g e p r o j e c t e d o n t o t h e f o i l .
Al s o , i n m o u n t i n g t h e f o i l t h e f o i l m u s t b e l a i d o u t u p o n a
c l e a n du s t f r e e p i e c e o f c l o t h o r p l a s t i c s h e e t , W h i c h i s l a r g e r
t h a n t h e f o i l , i n o r de r t o p r e v e n t p a r t i c l e s a dh e r i n g t o t h e f o i l ,
s u c h p a r t i c l e s c a n s c r a t c h t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e f o i l a n d i m p a i r t h e
v i e W e d q u a l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t e d i m a g e o r a c t a s s c a t t e r i n g
c e n t r e s f r o m W h i c h p r o j e c t e d l i g h t i s i n c o h e r e n t l y s c a t t e r e d,
t h e r e b y de t r a c t i n g f r o m t h e v i e W e d q u a l i t y o f t h e i m a g e a s
t h i s s c a t t e r e d l i g h t do e s n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e v i e W e d i m a g e .
Al s o , a s t h e i l l u s i o n o f p e p p e r s g h o s t r e l i e s o n t h e r e ? e c t e d
i m a g e f o r m e d b y l i g h t c o n t r a s t i n g W i t h i t s i m m e di a t e s u r
r o u n di n g s a n d b a c kg r o u n d. Th e s t r o n g e r t h e r e ? e c t e d i m a g e ,
t h e m o r e s o l i d t h a t r e ? e c t e d i m a g e l o o ks , t h e m o r e v i b r a n t t h e
c o l o u r s W i l l b e , a n d t h e m o r e v i s i b l e t h e r e ? e c t e d i m a g e i s t o
a n a u di e n c e . In c i r c u m s t a n c e s W h e r e t h e p r e s e n t e r m a y b e
u n a b l e t o c o n t r o l h i g h l e v e l s o f a m b i e n t l i g h t f o r W a r d o f t h e
f o i l , e g f r o m a n a u di t o r i u m a t a t r a de s h o W , t h e h i g h l e v e l o f
a m b i e n t l i g h t r e s u l t s i n s i g n i ? c a n t l e v e l s o f r e ? e c t i o n o f t h e
a m b i e n t l i g h t f r o m t h e s c r e e n de t r a c t i n g f r o m t h e s t r e n g t h o f
t h e r e ? e c t e d i m a g e o v e r t h e b a c kg r o u n d. In t h e s e c i r c u m
s t a n c e s a b r i g h t p r o j e c t o r ( 8 000 l u m e n s + ) i s de s i r a b l e . Ho W
e v e r , t h e u s e o f a b r i g h t p r o j e c t o r r e s u l t s i n u n W a n t e d l i g h t
h i t t i n g t h e p r o j e c t i o n s u r f a c e a n d r e ? e c t i n g t h r o u g h t h e f o i l t o
c r e a t e a m i l ky h u e u p o n t h e s t a g e a n d a r o u n d t h e a r e a W h e r e
t h e r e ? e c t e d i m a g e a p p e a r s .
An o t h e r p r o b l e m W i t h c u r r e n t i m a g e p r o j e c t i o n a p p a r a t u s
i s t h a t p r o j e c t o r s u s e d W i t h s u c h a p p a r a t u s a r e v e r y p o W e r f u l ,
t y p i c a l l y 8 , 000 t o 2 7 , 000 l u m e n s a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o j e c t a
s i g n i ? c a n t a m o u n t o f l i g h t i n t o a r e a s o f a n i m a g e W h e r e t h e r e
i s n o o b j e c t W i t h i n t h e i m a g e . Th i s i s a n i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e o f
p r o j e c t o r s a n d r e s u l t s i n l o W c o n t r a s t r a t i o s W h i c h l e a ds t o a
m i l ky h u e s p r e a d o v e r t h e p a r t o f t h e ? l m W h e r e t h e p r o j e c t o r
i s c r e a t i n g a n i m a g e W h e n t h e p r o j e c t o r i s s W i t c h e d o n . Th e
2 0
2 5
3 0
3 5
40
45
50
55
60
65
2
m i l ky h u e i s c l e a r l y u n de s i r a b l e a s i t de t r a c t s f r o m t h e v i e W
e r s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s n o s c r e e n p r e s e n t .
Th e l e v e l o f t h e m i l ky h u e r e l a t i v e t o t h e b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e
i m a g e i s , a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , de t e r m i n e d b y t h e l e v e l o f c o n t r a s t
r a t i o o f f e r e d i n t h e p r o j e c t o r . Th e h i g h e r t h e c o n t r a s t r a t i o ,
t h e n t h e b r i g h t e r t h e i m a g e c a n b e r e l a t i v e t o t h e b r i g h t n e s s
l e v e l o f t h e m i l ky h u e . Ev e n p r o j e c t o r s W i t h c o n t r a s t r a t i o n s
a s h i g h a s 3 000: l s t i l l e m i t a m i l ky l i g h t h u e W h e n u s e d i n a
Pe p p e r s Gh o s t a r r a n g e m e n t .
A f u r t h e r p r o b l e m a s s o c i a t e d W i t h s o m e p r o j e c t o r s i s t h e
ke y s t o n e e f f e c t , i n W h i c h di s t o r t e d, t y p i c a l l y e l o n g a t e d,
i m a g e s ( u p a n d do W n ) o c c u r du e t o a n g l e d p r o j e c t i o n . Th i s i s
o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e W h e r e de p t h p e r c e p t i o n i s o f i m p o r
t a n c e . Th e s o l u t i o n e m p l o y e d i n m o de r n , e x p e n s i v e p r o j e c
t o r s i s t o e m p l o y di g i t a l c o r r e c t i o n o f ke y s t o n e di s t o r t i o n s .
Ho W e v e r , o l de r , l e s s - e x p e n s i v e o r e v e n s o m e s p e c i a l i s t Hi g h
De ? n i t i o n p r o j e c t o r s do n o t e m p l o y s u c h di g i t a l ke y s t o n e
c o r r e c t i o n a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e di ? i c u l t t o c o n ? g u r e f o r u s e W i t h
c u r r e n t i m a g e p r o j e c t i o n a p p a r a t u s . Hi g h de ? n i t i o n ( HD)
p r o j e c t o r s do n o t o f f e r ke y s t o n e a dj u s t m e n t b e c a u s e W h e n
ke y s t o n e c o r r e c t i o n i s a t t e m p t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n W i t h t h e
i n c r e a s e d n u m b e r o f p i x e l s a b o u t a n i m a g e s e dg e c a u s e s t h e
p i x e l s a b o u t t h e e dg e o f t h e i m a g e t o a p p e a r c r u n c h e d.
Addi t i o n a l l y , W h e n p r o c e s s i n g m o v i n g i m a g e s HD p r o j e c t o r s
c o m p r o m i s e p r o j e c t o r p r o c e s s i n g s p e e d. W h e n t h e p r o c e s s
i n g p o W e r i s u s e d t o c a r r y o u t b o t h ke y s t o n e c o r r e c t i o n a n d
m o t i o n p r o c e s s i n g t h e i m a g e i s s e e n t o j e r k du r i n g m o v e
m e n t s , a n e f f e c t kn o W n a s c h o kki n g . In g e n e r a l , i t c a n b e
s a i d t h a t t h e u s e o f e l e c t r o n i c ke y s t o n e c o r r e c t i o n t o a l t e r a
v i de o i m a g e W i l l r e s u l t i n t h e de g r a da t i o n o f p i c t u r e q u a l i t y
c o m p a r e d t o a n i m a g e W h i c h i s n o t s u b j e c t t o s u c h a p r o c e s s .
Addi t i o n a l l y , c u r r e n t s y s t e m s do n o t a l l o W f o r t h e p r o
j e c t e d i m a g e t o a p p a r e n t l y di s a p p e a r a n d r e - a p p e a r f r o m
b e h i n d a s o l i d 3 D o b j e c t p l a c e d u p o n t h e s t a g e , a s t h e s c r e e n
l i e s i n f r o n t o f t h e p r e s e n t e r a n d c l o s e s t t o t h e v i e W i n g a u di
e n c e .
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Ac c o r di n g t o a ? r s t a s p e c t o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e n t i o n t h e r e i s
p r o v i de d a i m a g e p r o j e c t i o n a p p a r a t u s c o m p r i s i n g a p r o j e c
t o r , a f r a m e , a n d a n a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y t r a n s p a r e n t s c r e e n :
t h e f r a m e b e i n g a r r a n g e d t o r e t a i n t h e s c r e e n u n de r t e n s i o n ,
s u c h t h a t t h e s c r e e n i s i n c l i n e d a t a n a n g l e W i t h r e s p e c t t o a
p l a n e o f e m i s s i o n o f l i g h t f r o m t h e p r o j e c t o r ;
t h e s c r e e n h a v i n g a f r o n t s u r f a c e a r r a n g e d s u c h t h a t l i g h t
e m i t t e d f r o m t h e p r o j e c t o r i s r e ? e c t e d t h e r e f r o m ; a n d
t h e p r o j e c t o r b e i n g a r r a n g e d t o p r o j e c t a n i m a g e s u c h t h a t
l i g h t f o r m i n g t h e i m a g e i m p i n g e s u p o n t h e s c r e e n s u c h t h a t a
v i r t u a l i m a g e i s c r e a t e d f r o m l i g h t r e ? e c t e d f r o m t h e s c r e e n ,
t h e v i r t u a l i m a g e a p p e a r i n g t o b e l o c a t e d b e h i n d t h e s c r e e n .
Su c h a n a p p a r a t u s i s a dv a n t a g e o u s o v e r p r e s e n t s y s t e m s i n
t h a t t h e s c r e e n n e e d n o t b e c o a t e d W i t h a n e x p e n s i v e , p a r t i a l l y
r e ? e c t i v e c o a t i n g , a n a n g u l a r de p e n de n c e o f r e ? e c t i v i t y o f
t r a n s p a r e n t di e l e c t r i c m a t e r i a l s c a n b e u s e d t o b r i n g a b o u t
p a r t i a l r e ? e c t a n c e o f t h e p r o j e c t e d i m a g e . Th u s , t h i s a p p a r a
t u s s i m p l i ? e s t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f s u c h s y s t e m s a n d a l s o
r e du c e s t h e i r p r o du c t i o n c o s t s . Addi t i o n a l l y , t h e u s e o f a
f r a m e f r e e s t h e s c r e e n f r o m h a v i n g t o b e ? x e d di r e c t l y t o a
c e i l i n g , o r a ? o o r , a n d t h e r e f o r e i n c r e a s e s t h e u t i l i t y o f a p p a
r a t u s o v e r t h e p r i o r a r t s y s t e m s .
Th e s c r e e n m a y b e a f o i l . Th e f o i l m a y b e r o l l e d a b o u t a
c y l i n de r W h e n n o t i n u s e . Th e s c r e e n m a y b e i n c l i n e d a t
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 t o t h e p l a n e o f e m i s s i o n o f l i g h t f r o m t h e
p r o j e c t o r . Th e s c r e e n m a y c o m p r i s e a p a r t i a l l y r e ? e c t i v e l a y e r
u p o n t h e f r o n t s u r f a c e .
US 7 , 8 8 3 , 2 1 2 B2
3
The use of a foi l sc r een r ed uc es t he Wei ght of t he a p p a r a t us,
t hi s a l l oWs r ea d y t r a n sp or t a t i on of t he a p p a r a t us b et Ween
si t es. R ol l i n g t he foi l on t o a c y l i n d er When n ot i n use ser v es t o
p r ot ec t t he foi l fr om d a m a ge d ur i n g t r a n sp or t a t i on a n d a l so
a l l oWs r ea d y t r a n sp or t a t i on of t he a p p a r a t us b et Ween si t es.
The use of a p a r t i a l l y r e? ec t i v e sc r een c a n i n c r ea se t he d egr ee
of l i ght r e? ec t ed fr om t he sc r een a n d c a n i n c r ea se t he a ud i
en c e p er c ei v ed st r en gt h of t he v i r t ua l i m a ge.
The sc r een m a y b e a t t a c hed t o t he fr a m e a t t he sc r een s
up p er a n d / or l oWer ed ges. The fr a m e m a y c om p r i se ? r st a n d
sec on d r et en t i on m em b er s a r r a n ged t o sa n d Wi c h a n ed ge
r egi on of t he sc r een t her eb et Ween . At l ea st on e of t he ? r st a n d
sec on d r et en t i on m em b er s m a y c om p r i se a n a b r a si v e c oa t i n g,
t y p i c a l l y sa n d p a p er , a r r a n ged t o c on t a c t t he sc r een . The ? r st
a n d sec on d r et en t i on m em b er s m a y c om p r i se r esp ec t i v e
op en i n gs t her et hr ough t ha t m a y b e a r r a n ged t o c ol l oc a t e Wi t h
op en i n gs i n r esp ec t i v e j a Ws of c l a m p i n g m em b er s a t t a c hed t o
t en si on i n g st r a p s, t he op en i n gs m a y b e a r r a n ged t o r ec ei v e a
? xi n g m ea n s so a s t o c l a m p t he sc r een b et Ween t he ? r st a n d
sec on d r et en t i on m em b er s. The t en si on i n g st r a p s m a y b e
a t t a c hed t o a t r uss a r r a n gem en t a n d m a y b e a d j ust a b l e suc h
t ha t t he t en si on of t he sc r een Wi t hi n t he t r uss a r r a n gem en t c a n
b e v a r i ed a b out t he p er i p her y of t he sc r een . P r efer a b l y , t he
r et en t i on m em b er s a r e sub st a n t i a l l y p a r a l l el t o t r uss m em b er s
c om p r i si n g t he t r uss a r r a n gem en t .
The use of a v a r i a b l e t en si on i n g a r r a n gem en t a l l oWs
Wr i n k l es up on t he sc r een t o b e m i n i m i sed , a n d i d ea l l y er a d i
c a t ed t o p r esen t a sm oot h sur fa c e for up on Whi c h t he i m a ge
c a n b e p r oj ec t ed . An a b r a si v e sur fa c e up on a t l ea st on e of t he
r et en t i on m em b er s i n c r ea ses t he gr i p b et Ween t he r et en t i on
m em b er a n d t he sc r een t her eb y r ed uc i n g t he l i k el i hood of t he
sc r een sl i p p i n g When hel d b y t he r et en t i on m em b er .
The a p p a r a t us m a y c om p r i se a p i gm en t ed r e? ec t i v e m em
b er i n a n op t i c a l p a t hWa y b et Ween t he p r oj ec t or a n d t he
sc r een . The p i gm en t ed m em b er m a y r e? ec t on l y p a r t of t he
v i si b l e sp ec t r um of l i ght , t y p i c a l l y t he p i gm en t ed m em b er
Wi l l a p p ea r gr ey or Whi t e t o a v i eWer .
I t ha s b een foun d t ha t t he use of a gr ey r e? ec t i v e m em b er i n
t he op t i c a l p a t hWa y b et Ween t he p r oj ec t or a n d t he sc r een
r ed uc es t he out l i n e of t he r e? ec t i v e m em b er up on t he sc r een
c om p a r ed t o When a Whi t e r e? ec t i v e m em b er i s used , a n d a l so
r ed uc es t he l ev el of t he m i l k y Whi t e hue a ssoc i a t ed Wi t h t he
p r oj ec t or em i t t i n g l i ght Wher e t her e i s n o i m a ge of a n ob j ec t
t o b e p r oj ec t ed .
The p i gm en t ed r e? ec t i v e m em b er m a y b e i n c l i n ed a t a n
a n gl e Wi t h r esp ec t t o t he p l a n e of em i ssi on of l i ght fr om t he
p r oj ec t or . The a n gl e of i n c l i n a t i on of t he m em b er Wi t h r esp ec t
t o t he p l a n e of em i ssi on of l i ght fr om t he p r oj ec t or m a y b e
v a r i a b l e. The m em b er m a y c om p r i se a p l ur a l i t y of sec t i on s
ea c h of Whi c h m a y ha v e a n i n d ep en d en t l y v a r i a b l e a n gl e of
i n c l i n a t i on Wi t h r esp ec t t o t he p l a n e of em i ssi on of l i ght fr om
t he p r oj ec t or .
The i n c l i n a t i on of t he r e? ec t i v e m em b er c a n c om p en sa t e,
a t l ea st p a r t i a l l y a n d i n som e i n st a n c es c om p l et el y , for k ey
st on e effec t . The v a r i a t i on of t he a n gl e of i n c l i n a t i on or d i s
t a n c e of t he r e? ec t i v e m em b er a l l oWs for a v a r i a t i on of t he
a p p a r en t d ep t h a n d / or p osi t i on of a n ob j ec t When p r oj ec t ed
up on t he sc r een . Thi s i s b ec a use t he v i r t ua l i m a ge a p p ea r s a s
fa r b ehi n d t he sc r een a s t he r ea l i m a ge i s i n fr on t of t he sc r een .
Ther e m a y b e a r e? ec t i v e d ev i c e, t y p i c a l l y a m i r r or ,
a r r a n ged t o d i r ec t l i ght p r oj ec t ed fr om t he p r oj ec t or on t o t he
r e? ec t i v e m em b er . Ty p i c a l l y , t he r e? ec t i v e d ev i c e i s m oun t ed
up on a n up p er p a r t of t he fr a m ewor k . The r e? ec t i v e m em b er
m a y b e p a r a l l el , or sub st a n t i a l l y p a r a l l el , t o t he r e? ec t i v e
d ev i c e. I n som e em b od i m en t s t he p r oj ec t or m a y b e m oun t ed
up on a n up p er t r uss of t he fr a m eWor k a n d m a y b e a l i gn ed Wi t h
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t he hor i z on t a l , t y p i c a l l y l i ght p r oj ec t ed fr om t he p r oj ec t or i s
d i r ec t ed on t o t he r e? ec t i v e d ev i c e.
Suc h a n a r r a n gem en t c om p l i m en t s t he k ey st on e c or r ec t i on
a c hi ev a b l e b y t he i n c l i n a t i on of t he sc r een a n d t he r e? ec t i v e
m em b er a n d i s p a r t i c ul a r l y useful Wher e a n HD p r oj ec t or i s
used i n or d er t o c om p en sa t e for t he k ey st on e effec t Wi t hout
t he use of t he p r oj ec t or s p r oc essi n g p oWer .
The r e? ec t i v e m em b er m a y c om p r i se a m a sk c or r esp on d
i n g t o t he a p p a r en t l oc a t i on of a p r op i n t he sc r een t o a n
a ud i en c e. Ty p i c a l l y , t he m a sk Wi l l a b sor b l i ght ov er a t l ea st a
fr a c t i on of t he v i si b l e sp ec t r um a n d p r efer a b l y t he m a sk Wi l l
b e b l a c k . The m a sk m a y b e a r r a n ged t o p r od uc e a n a r ea up on
t he sc r een up on Whi c h t he i m a ge i s n ot p r oj ec t ed . The m a sk
m a y v a r y i n ext en t a n d sha p e, for exa m p l e b y t he use of a
sl i d i n g el em en t t ha t i s m ov ed i n a n d out of p osi t i on up on t he
r e? ec t i v e m em b er .
The m a sk c a n b e used t o m a k e t he i l l usi on of a n a r t i c l e
d i sa p p ea r i n g a n d r ea p p ea r i n g b ehi n d a p r op t ha t i s p l a c ed
up on a st a ge, ei t her b ehi n d or i n fr on t of t he sc r een .
The a p p a r a t us m a y c om p r i se a l i ght sour c e a r r a n ged t o
sel ec t i v el y i l l um i n a t e a n a r ea of st a ge c om p r i si n g t he p r op .
The l i ght sour c e m a y b e a Whi t e l i ght sour c e L i ght i n g t he p r op
c a uses t he p r op t o b ec om e m or e v i si b l e a n d b et t er d e? n ed
a ga i n st t he d a r k , t y p i c a l l y b l a c k , b a c k gr oun d . Thi s en ha n c es
t he t hr ee d i m en si on a l effec t of t he p r oj ec t ed i m a ge i n t er a c t
i n g Wi t h t he p r op .
Al so d i r ec t i n g b r i ght l i ght up on t he p r op ser v es t o r ed uc e
t he c on t r a st r a t i o of t he p r oj ec t ed i m a ge up on t he p r op , Whi c h
t y p i c a l l y r em a i n s sl i ght l y v i si b l e ev en When a m a sk i s used i n
t he p r op s sha d oW up on t he r e? ec t i v e m em b er , t hus en ha n c
i n g t he i l l usi on of t he p r oj ec t ed i m a ge d i sa p p ea r i n g b ehi n d
t he p r op .
The a p p a r a t us m a y c om p r i se a l i ght sour c e a r r a n ged t o
i l l um i n a t e a t l ea st p a r t of a st a ge. The l i ght sour c e m a y b e
l oc a t ed t o t he r ea r of t he sc r een , t y p i c a l l y a l on g a t op ed ge of
t he fr a m e a n d / or a l on g ei t her si d e of t he st a ge. The a p p a r a t us
m a y c om p r i se a p l ur a l i t y of l i ght sour c es. The a p p a r a t us m a y
c om p r i se a l i ght i n g d esk eq ui p p ed Wi t h fa d er s a r r a n ged t o
c on t r ol t he l ev el of ea c h l i ght sour c e, or sel ec t i on m ea n s
a r r a n ged t o sel ec t i v el y c on t r ol t he sup p l y of p oWer t o ea c h
l i ght sour c e.
Suc h a l i ght sour c e i s used i n or d er t ha t t he c ol our a n d l i ght
l ev el s of t he a r ea i m m ed i a t el y sur r oun d i n g t he p ep p er s ghost
i m a ge, t he st a ge b a c k gr oun d , c a n m ost c l osel y m a t c h t he
c ol our of t he p r oj ec t i on sur fa c e b a c k gr oun d , exc l ud i n g t he
a r ea on b ot h Whi c h i s c a r r y i n g t he i m a ge. Thi s, r ed uc es t he
m i l k y hue p er c ei v ed b y t he a ud i en c e. The use of a p l ur a l i t y of
l i ght sour c es i n c r ea ses t he un i for m i t y of l i ght i n g of t he st a ge,
i n or d er t o p r od uc e a si m i l a r effec t t o t he Wa y l i ght em i t t ed
fr om a p r oj ec t or hi t s t he p r oj ec t i on sc r een . By c on t r ol l i n g
ea c h l i ght sour c e sep a r a t el y t he l i ght i n g l ev el s up on t he st a ge
c a n b e c on t r ol l ed t o c l osel y m a t c h t he l ev el s of l i ght a s d i c
t a t ed b y t he shoW p er for m a n c e, or t he l ev el s of un Wa n t ed l i ght
hi t t i n g t he p r oj ec t i on sur fa c e of t he sc r een .
The p r oj ec t or m a y c om p r i se a st a n d a r d p r oj ec t or , for
exa m p l e a JVC ML 4000, or a Ba r c o G5. Al t er n a t i v el y , t he
p r oj ec t or m a y c om p r i se a n L CD, or a t el ev i si on d i sp l a y . The
d i sp l a y m a y c om p r i se a t l ea st on e el em en t a r r a n ged t o b e
n on - em i t t i n g i n r esp on se t o c on t r ol fr om a p r oc essor . The a t
l ea st on e el em en t m a y for m a m a sk a r r a n ged t o p r od uc e a n
a r ea up on t he sc r een up on Whi c h t he i m a ge i s n ot p r oj ec t ed .
The m a sk m a y c or r esp on d t o t he sha p e a n d l oc a t i on of a p r op
up on st a ge. The p r op m a y b e t hr ee d i m en si on a l .
US 7 , 8 8 3 , 2 1 2 B2
5
According t o a s e cond a s p e ct of t h e p re s e nt inv e nt ion t h e re
is p rov ide d a me t h od of p rov iding a p roj e ct ion a p p a ra t u s
comp ris ing t h e s t e p s of :
( i) re s t ing a f ra me u p on a nu mbe r of e l e v a t ion me a ns ;
( ii) a t t a ch ing l e g s e ct ions t o t h e f ra me ;
( iii) incre a s ing t h e h e igh t of t h e e l e v a t ion me a ns ;
( iv ) a dding f u rt h e r l e g s e ct ions ;
( v i) a t t a ch ing a l oWe r e dge of a s cre e n t o a l oWe r re a r p ie ce of
t h e f ra me ;
( v ii) ra is ing a n u p p e r e dge of t h e s cre e n t o a dj a ce nt a n u p p e r
f ront s e ct ion of t h e f ra me ; a nd
( v ii) a t t a ch ing t h e u p p e r e dge of t h e s cre e n t o t h e u p p e r f ront
s e ct ion of t h e f ra me .
Th e me t h od ma y comp ris e p rov iding t h e e l e v a t ion me a ns
in t h e f orm of a j a ck .
Th e me t h od ma y comp ris e p rov iding t h e s cre e n in t h e f orm
of a ?l m. Th e me t h od ma y comp ris e re mov ing a rol l of s cre e n
?l m f rom a p rot e ct iv e cyl indrica l ca s ing. Th e me t h od ma y
comp ris e l a ying t h e s cre e n u p on a du s t - f re e p rot e ct iv e s h e e t .
Th e me t h od ma y comp ris e p l a cing t h e l oWe r e dge of t h e
s cre e n be t We e n j a Ws of a ?rs t re t e nt ion me mbe r a nd ma y
f u rt h e r comp ris e s e cu ring t h e s cre e n in p os it ion u s ing a ?x ing
me a ns p a s s ing t h rou gh t h e re t e nt ion me mbe r a nd t h e s cre e n
a nd a l ock ing me a ns a rra nge d t o l ock t h e ?x ing me a ns be ing
a rra nge d t o s e cu re t h e l ock ing me a ns in p os it ion. Th e me t h od
ma y comp ris e p rov iding t h e ?x ing me a ns in t h e f orm of a bol t
a nd t h e l ock ing me a ns in t h e f orm of a nu t .
Th e me t h od ma y comp ris e a t t a ch ing t e ns ioning me a ns t o
t h e re t e nt ion me mbe r a dj a ce nt a t l e a s t s ome of t h e ?x ing
me a ns .
Th e me t h od ma y comp ris e a t t a ch ing t h e t e ns ioning me a ns
t o t h e l oWe r re a r p ie ce of t h e f ra me .
Th e me t h od ma y comp ris e a t t a ch ing a s e cond re t e nt ion
me mbe r t o a n u p p e r e dge of t h e ?l m s cre e n, t yp ica l l y in t h e
s a me ma nne r a s t h e ?rs t re t e nt ion me mbe r is a t t a ch e d t o t h e
l oWe r e dge . Th e me t h od ma y comp ris e a t t a ch ing t e ns ioning
me a ns t o t h e s e cond re t e nt ion me mbe r. Th e me t h od ma y
comp ris e p rov iding t h e t e ns ioning me mbe rs in t h e f orm of
ra t ch e t s t ra p s .
Th e me t h od ma y comp ris e a t t a ch ing a rop e t o t h e s e cond
re t e nt ion me mbe r a nd p a s s ing t h e rop e ov e r t h e u p p e r f ra me
a nd u s ing t h e rop e in s t e p ( v ii) t o ra is e t h e s cre e n.
Th e me t h od ma y incl u de t e ns ioning e a ch of t h e t e ns ioning
me a ns s u ch t h a t t h e s cre e n is ?a t a nd s u bs t a nt ia l l y Wrink l e
f re e .
Th e me t h od ma y incl u de de p e nding a p roj e ct or f rom t h e
u p p e r f ra me .
Th e me t h od ma y incl u de p l a cing a p igme nt e d re ?e ct iv e
boa rd be t We e n t h e s cre e n a nd a f ront e dge of t h e f ra me . Th e
me t h od ma y comp ris e re ?e ct ing l igh t e mit t e d by t h e p roj e c
t or f rom t h e boa rd ont o t h e s cre e n.
Th e me t h od ma y comp ris e f orming t h e f ra me f orm a t ru s s
Work .
According t o a t h ird a s p e ct of t h e p re s e nt inv e nt ion t h e re is
p rov ide d a p roj e ct ion a p p a ra t u s cons t ru ct e d a ccording t o t h e
s e cond a s p e ct of t h e p re s e nt inv e nt ion.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL
VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
Th e inv e nt ion Wil l noW be de s cribe d, by Wa y of e x a mp l e
onl y, Wit h re f e re nce t o t h e a ccomp a nying dra Wings , in Wh ich :
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FIG. 1 is a s ch e ma t ic re p re s e nt a t ion of a ?rs t e mbodime nt
of a p roj e ct ion a p p a ra t u s a ccording t o a t l e a s t a n a s p e ct of t h e
p re s e nt inv e nt ion;
FIG. 2 is a s ide v ie W of a t h e p roj e ct ion a p p a ra t u s of FIG.
1 s h oWing a p igme nt e d re ?e ct iv e me mbe r in ?rs t a nd s e cond
p os it ions ;
FIG. 2 a is a s ch e ma t ic re p re s e nt a t ion of a n a l t e rna t iv e
p roj e ct ion a rra nge me nt , s u it a bl e f or u s e Wit h t h e a p p a ra t u s of
FIGS. 1 a nd 2 ;
FIG. 3 is a s ch e ma t ic re p re s e nt a t ion of a s e cond e mbodi
me nt of a p roj e ct ion a p p a ra t u s a ccording t o a t l e a s t a n a s p e ct
of t h e p re s e nt inv e nt ion;
FIG. 4 is a p e rs p e ct iv e v ie W of a s cre e n cl a mp ing a rra nge
me nt of FIGS. 1 , 2 a nd 3 ; a nd
FIG. 5 is a s ch e ma t ic v ie W of a p roj e ct ion a p p a ra t u s be ing
cons t ru ct e d a ccording t o t h e s e cond a s p e ct of t h e p re s e nt
inv e nt ion.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Re f e rring noW t o FIGS. 1 , 2 a nd 4, a p roj e ct ion a p p a ra t u s
1 00 comp ris e s a box f ra me 1 02 f orme d of t ru s s e s 1 04, a
p roj e ct or 1 06, a s u p p ort f ra me 1 08 , a s cre e n 1 1 0 h e l d Wit h in
t h e s u p p ort f ra me 1 08 a nd a gre y p igme nt e d re ?e ct iv e boa rd
1 1 2 .
Th e p roj e ct or 1 06 de p e nds f rom a f ront u p p e r cros s - p ie ce
t ru s s 1 04a of t h e box f ra me 1 02 . Th e boa rd 1 1 2 l ie s be l oW t h e
p roj e ct or 1 06 a t t h e ba s e of t h e box f ra me 1 02 . Th e s cre e n
1 1 0, is incl ine d a t a p p rox ima t e l y 45 t o t h e h oriZ ont a l a nd t h e
f ront e dge of t h e s cre e n 1 1 0 is p rox ima t e t h e f ront u p p e r
cros s - p ie ce t ru s s 1 041 1 of t h e box f ra me 1 02 a nd t h e re a r e dge
of t h e s cre e n is p rox ima t e a s t a ge 1 09 t h a t l ie s t o t h e re a r of t h e
box f ra me 1 02 .
Th e s cre e n 1 1 0 is t yp ica l l y a p ol yme ric f oil , Wh ich ca n
h a v e a p a rt ia l l y re ?e ct iv e coa t ing u p on a f ront f a ce of t h e f oil .
Th e s cre e n 1 1 0 is re t a ine d Wit h in t h e box f ra me 1 02 by me a ns
of t e ns ioning s t ra p s 1 1 4 a t t a ch e d t o t h e box f ra me 1 02 , a t t h e
t op a nd bot t om e dge s of t h e s cre e n 1 1 0. At a f re e e nd of e a ch
of t h e t e ns ioning s t ra p s 1 1 4 t h e re is p a ir of cl a mp j a Ws 1 1 6
Wh ich h a v e re s p e ct iv e op e nings 1 1 8 , 1 2 0 p a s s ing t h e re
t h rou gh . Th e f a ce s of t h e j a Ws 1 1 6 a re op t iona l l y coa t e d Wit h
a n a bra s iv e 1 2 1 , s u ch a s s a ndp a p e r, in orde r t o e nh a nce t h e
grip of t h e j a Ws 1 1 6 u p on t h e s cre e n 1 1 0.
Edge s of t h e s cre e n 1 1 0 a re p l a ce d be t We e n t h e j a Ws 1 1 6
a nd a bol t 1 2 2 is p l a ce d t h rou gh t h e op e nings 1 1 8 , 1 2 0 a nd
p a s s e s t h rou gh t h e s cre e n 1 1 0. A nu t 1 2 4 is t h re a de d ont o t h e
bol t 1 2 2 a nd t igh t e ne d t o h ol d t h e s cre e n 1 1 0 be t We e n t h e
j a Ws 1 1 6. Th e t e ns ioning s t ra p s 1 1 4 p a s s t h rou gh t h e t ru s s e s
1 04 a nd a re t igh t e ne d u s ing a f rict ion l ock ing bu ck l e a rra nge
me nt 1 2 8 .
Ea ch of t h e t e ns ioning s t ra p s 1 1 4 ca n be t igh t e ne d or l oos
e ne d indiv idu a l l y s o a s t o a l l oW a n e v e n t e ns ion t o be a p p l ie d
ov e r t h e Wh ol e s u rf a ce of t h e s cre e n 1 1 0 t h e re by re du cing,
a nd ide a l l y e l imina t ing, t h e f orma t ion of Wrink l e s u p on t h e
s cre e n 1 1 0 Wh ich re du ce t h e q u a l it y of a n ima ge p roj e ct e d
u p on t h e s cre e n 1 1 0.
Th e re ?e ct iv e boa rd 1 1 2 l ie s be l oW t h e p roj e ct or 1 06 a dj a
ce nt t o a l oWe r f ront cros s - p ie ce t ru s s 1 041 9 of t h e box f ra me
1 02 . Th e p roj e ct or 1 06 is dire ct e d s u ch t h a t l igh t e mit t e d by
t h e p roj e ct or 1 06 s t rik e s t h e re ?e ct iv e boa rd 1 1 2 . Th e boa rd
1 1 2 is incl ine d s o t h a t t h e l igh t e mit t e d by t h e p roj e ct or 1 06 is
re ?e ct e d u p Wa rds f rom t h e boa rd 1 1 2 ont o t h e s cre e n 1 1 0.
Th e u s e of a gre y, or ot h e rWis e col ou re d boa rd 1 1 2 re du ce s
t h e mil k y h u e a s s ocia t e d Wit h l igh t f rom t h e p roj e ct or Wh e re
t h e re is no ima ge t o be p roj e ct e d.
A f ra ct ion of t h e p roj e ct e d l igh t s t rik ing t h e s cre e n 1 1 0 is
re ?e ct e d f rom t h e f ront s u rf a ce of t h e s cre e n 1 1 0 Wh e re is ca n
US 7 , 8 8 3 , 2 1 2 B2
7
be vieWed by an au dienc e. A p r es ent er u p on t h e s t ag e 1 09
beh ind t h e s c r een 1 1 0 c an al s o be vieWed by t h e au dienc e bu t
does not int er f er e Wit h t h e vieWing of t h e im ag e by t h e au di
enc e.
Th e boar d 1 1 2 is c onnec t ed t o a h ing e ar r ang em ent 1 3 0
al ong a r ear edg e t h er eof . Th e h ing e ar r ang em ent 1 3 0 al l oWs
t h e boar d 1 1 2 t o be r ais ed and l ow er ed, t yp ic al l y be a h ydr au
l ic r am p 1 3 2 c ont r ol l ed by a c om p u t er 1 3 4 , in or der t o c om
p ens at e f or t h e k eys t one ef f ec t . Al t er nat ivel y, t h e boar d 1 1 2
c an be r ais ed and l oWer ed by t h e p er s on p u l l ing u p on a s t r ing ,
or an el ec t r ic m ot or t o dr ive t h e boar d u p and doWn.
Th e r ais ing and l oWer ing of t h e boar d 1 1 2 al s o al l oWs f or
t h e au dienc e s p er c ep t ion of t h e p os it ional dep t h u p on t h e
s t ag e of an el em ent of a p r oj ec t ed im ag e t o be al t er ed by
var ying t h e h eig h t of t h e el em ent of t h e im ag e u p on t h e s c r een
1 1 0. I t is envis ag ed t h at t h e boar d 1 1 2 m ay c om p r is e a nu m
ber of individu al s ec t ions eac h of Wh ic h m ay be r ais ed an
l oWer ed individu al l y in or der t o al l oW t h e p er c eived dep t h of
an individu al el em ent of an im ag e t o be var ied indep endent l y
of ot h er el em ent s of t h e im ag e.
A non- r e? ec t ive m as k 1 3 6 in t h e s h ap e of a p r op 1 3 8 , in
t h is exam p l e a r oc k , is p l ac ed u p on t h e boar d 1 1 2 . Th e p r op
1 3 8 is p l ac e u p on t h e s t ag e 1 09, t yp ic al l y beh ind t h e s c r een
1 1 0. Th e m as k 1 3 6 is p l ac ed s u c h t h at t h e boar d 1 1 2 is
obs c u r ed in a r eg ion c or r es p onding t o Wh er e t h e p r op 1 3 8 is
l oc at ed Wit h r es p ec t t o t h e s c r een 1 1 0. Th is ar r ang em ent of
m as k 1 3 6 and p r op 1 3 8 r es u l t s in an im ag e, or p ar t of t h e
im ag e, p r oj ec t ed u p on t h e s c r een 1 1 0 ap p ar ent l y dis ap p ear
ing as t h e im ag e, or p ar t of t h e im ag e, p as s es over p r op 1 3 8
and r eap p ear ing onc e t h e im ag e, or p ar t of t h e im ag e h as
p as s ed over t h e p r op 1 3 8 as t h e m as k 1 3 6 p r event s l ig h t being
r e? ec t ed ont o t h e r eg ion of t h e s c r een 1 1 0 c or r es p onding t o
t h e l oc at ion of t h e p r op 1 3 8 . Th e m as k 1 3 6 c an be var iabl e in
s iZ e and s h ap e, f or exam p l e by m eans of a s l iding p anel t h at
is m oved int o l oc at ion and var ied in s iZ e ac c or ding t o t h e s iZ e
of t h e p r op 1 3 8 . Th is al s o al l oWs f or t h e dep t h p er c ep t ion of
p r op s t o be var ied as t h eir ap p ar ent ef f ec t u p on var iabl e dep t h
im ag e el em ent s , as dis c u s s ed h er einbef or e, c an be var ied
ap p r op r iat el y, f or exam p l e a g iven s iZ e of r oc k Wil l obs c u r e
p r op or t ionat el y m or e of a dis t ant im ag e t h an t h e s am e r oc k
Wil l of a near im ag e.
A l ig h t s ou r c e 1 4 0 is m ou nt ed u p on t h e box f r am e 1 02 and
il l u m inat es t h e p r op 1 3 8 in or der t o r edu c e t h e ef f ec t of any
r es idu al l ig h t r e? ec t ed f r om t h e boar d 1 1 2 ont o t h e p r op .
R ef er r ing noW t o F I G . 2 a, an al t er nat ive p r oj ec t ion
ar r ang em ent 2 00, s u it abl e f or u s e Wit h t h e ap p ar at u s of F I G S.
1 and 2 Wit h an addit ional t r u s s , c om p r is es t h e p r oj ec t or 1 06
dep ending f r om a t r u s s 2 02 f or War d of t h e s c r een 1 1 0, an
inc l ined m ir r or 2 04 of var iabl e inc l inat ion dep ending f r om a
s ec ond t r u s s 2 06 f or War d of p r oj ec t or 1 1 0. Th e p r oj ec t or 1 06
p r oj ec t s an im ag e on t o t h e m ir r or 2 04 s u c h t h at t h e im ag e is
p r oj ec t ed on t o t h e r e? ec t ive boar d 1 1 2 and on t o t h e s c r een
1 1 0. Th e m ir r or 2 04 is t yp ic al l y ar r ang ed t o be p er p endic u l ar
t o t h e boar d 1 1 2 , and in em bodim ent s Wh er e t h e boar d 1 1 2
h as a var iabl e ang l e of inc l inat ion t h e m ir r or 2 04 Wil l u s u al l y
be ar r ang ed t o t r ac k , s ync h r onou s l y, Wit h any var iat ion in t h e
ang l e of inc l inat ion of t h e boar d 1 1 2 .
I t Wil l be ap p r ec iat ed t h at t h e t er m m ir r or is u s ed h er ein t o
des c r ibe any r e? ec t ive s u r f ac e t h at r e? ec t s s u bs t ant ial l y al l ,
t yp ic al l y in exc es s of 50% p r ef er abl y in exc es s of 8 0%, l ig h t
im p ing ing u p on it .
R ef er r ing noW t o F I G . 3 , a p r oj ec t ion ap p ar at u s 3 00 is
s u bs t ant ial l y s im il ar t o t h at of F I G S. 1 and 2 ac c or ding l y
ident ic al p ar t s t o t h os e of F I G S. 1 and 2 ar e ac c or ded s im il ar
r ef er enc e nu m er al s in t h e t h r ee h u ndr ed s er ies .
A p r oj ec t ion s c r een 3 06 r es ides in f r ont of t h e s c r een 3 1 0
adj ac ent t h e l oWer f r ont c r os s - p iec e t r u s s 3 04 1 9. Th e p r oj ec
2 0
2 5
3 0
3 5
4 0
4 5
50
55
60
65
8
t ion s c r een 3 06 is t yp ic al l y a l iq u id c r ys t al dis p l ay (LCD)
s c r een or a t el evis ion s c r een. Th e p r oj ec t ion s c r een 3 06
p r oj ec t s an im ag e u p War ds ont o t h e f r ont s u r f ac e of t h e s c r een
3 1 0. Th e u s e of a p r oj ec t ion s c r een 3 06 r em oves t h e k ey
s t one ef f ec t as s oc iat ed Wit h c onvent ional p r oj ec t or s .
A m as k 3 3 6 c an be f or m ed u p on t h e s c r een by u s e of a
c om p u t er 3 4 0 t o c ont r ol t h e p r oj ec t ion s c r een 3 06 t o bl ac k ou t
t h e ap p r op r iat e p ar t of t h e p r oj ec t ion s c r een 3 06 el ec t r oni
c al l y. Th is r em oves t h e need f or a p h ys ic al m as k t o be p r o
du c ed. Th e c om p u t er 3 4 0 c an be u s ed t o s Wit c h of ar eas of t h e
p r oj ec t ion s c r een 3 06 Wh ic h do not c ont ain p ar t of an im ag e
t o be p r oj ec t ed, t h is r edu c es t h e m il k y Wh it e h u e as s oc iat ed
Wit h s u c h ar eas Wh en u s ing c onvent ional p r oj ec t or s . Al s o, t h e
u s e of a c om p u t er 3 4 0 t o c ont r ol t h e p r oj ec t ion s c r een 3 06,
t og et h er Wit h im ag e s iZ ing in r el at ion t o im ag e m ovem ent
al l oWs an im ag e t o be r eadil y s c al ed and p os it ioned u p on t h e
p r oj ec t ion s c r een 3 06 t o enh anc e an au dienc e s p er c ep t ion of
dep t h and m ovem ent of a p r oj ec t ed im ag e u s ing k noWn im ag e
p r oc es s ing t ec h niq u es . Al t er nat ivel y, t h e p r oj ec t ion s c r een
3 06, or s ec t ions of t h e p r oj ec t ion s c r een 3 06, c an be r ais ed
and l oWer ed u nder t h e c ont r ol of t h e c om p u t er 3 4 0 in or der t o
enh anc e t h e au dienc e s p er c ep t ion of dep t h of t h e p r oj ec t ed
im ag e.
R ef er r ing noW t o F I G . 5, a box t r u s s f r am eWor k 500 c om
p r is es a s q u ar e u p p er t r u s s Wor k 502 and l eg t r u s s es 504 . I n
c ons t r u c t ing t h e f r am eWor k 500 t h e u p p er t r u s s Wor k 502
r es t s u p on a nu m ber of j ac k s 506. F ir s t s ec t ions 508 of t h e l eg
t r u s s es 504 t h at ext end at r ig h t ang l es t o t h e u p p er t r u s s Wor k
502 ar e added at t h e c or ner s of t h e u p p er t r u s s Wor k 502 . Th e
h eig h t of t h e j ac k s 506 is inc r eas ed t o al l oW addit ional s ec
t ions 51 0 of t h e l eg t r u s s es 504 t o be added u nt il t h e des ir ed
h eig h t of t h e box t r u s s f r am ew or k 500 is ac h ieved.
A c r os s - p iec e t r u s s 51 2 is ? xed t o t Wo of t h e l eg t r u s s es 504
s u c h t h at it h or iZ ont al l y s p ans t h e g ap t h er ebet Ween at a
h eig h t c l os e t o, and t yp ic al l y s l ig h t l y bel oW, t h e l evel of a
s t ag e ? oor 51 4 . Th e l eg t r u s s es 504 s p anned by t h e c r os s
p iec e t r u s s 51 2 c ons t it u t e t h e r ear l eg s of t h e f r am eWor k 500
and ar e l oc at ed adj ac ent t h e f r ont of t h e s t ag e ? oor 51 4 .
A du s t - f r ee p r ot ec t ive p l as t ic s h eet 51 5 is l aid ac r os s t h e
Widt h of t h e s t ag e ? oor 51 4 in f r ont of t h e r ear l eg s of t h e
f r am eWor k 500. A r ol l of s c r een ? l m 51 8 is r em oved f r om a
p r ot ec t ive c yl indr ic al c as ing 52 0 and is u nWou nd ac r os s t h e
Widt h of t h e s t ag e ? oor 51 4 . Th e ? l m 51 8 is p l ac ed u p on t h e
s h eet 51 5 in or der t o p r event dam ag e t o t h e s u r f ac e f r om du s t
p ar t ic l es or ot h er s h ar p p r ot r u s ions .
A l oWer edg e 52 2 of t h e ? l m 51 8 is p l ac ed bet Ween j aWs
52 4 1 1 , ! ) of a r et ent ion m em ber 52 6, eac h j aW 52 4 1 1 , ! ) h aving
op p os ed op ening s t h er et h r ou g h s p ac ed at ap p r oxim at el y 0. 5
m int er val s . Bol t s 52 8 ar e p l ac ed t h r ou g h t h e op ening s , and
t h r ou g h t h e ? l m 51 8 , and s ec u r ed in p os it ion u s ing r es p ec t ive
nu t s . R at c h et s t r ap s 53 2 ar e at t ac h ed t o t h e r et ent ion m em ber
52 6 adj ac ent al t er nat e bol t s 52 8 , h aving a s p ac ing of ap p r oxi
m at el y 1 m , and ar e t h en at t ac h ed t o t h e c r os s - p iec e t r u s s 51 2 .
A s ec ond r et ent ion m em ber 53 4 is at t ac h ed t o an u p p er
edg e 53 6 of t h e ? l m 51 8 in a s im il ar m anner t o h oW t h e
r et ent ion m em ber 52 6 is at t ac h ed t o t h e l oWer edg e 52 2 .
R at c h et s t r ap s 53 8 ar e at t ac h ed t o t h e s ec ond r et ent ion m em
ber 53 4 .
A r op e 54 0 is t ied t o t h e s ec ond r et ent ion m em ber 53 4 and
is p as s ed over t h e u p p er t r u s s Wor k 502 op p os it e t h e c r os s
p iec e t r u s s 51 2 . Th e ? l m r ais ed int o p os it ion u s ing t h e r op e
54 0 and t h e r at c h et s t r ap s 53 8 ar e at t ac h ed t o t h e u p p er t r u s s
Wor k 502 . Bot h s et s of r at c h et s t r ap s 53 2 , 53 8 ar e t ig h t ened
individu al l y u nt il t h e s c r een ? l m is t ens ioned s u c h t h at t h e
? l m 51 8 is ? at and, ideal l y, f r ee f r om Wr ink l es .
A p r oj ec t or 54 2 is dep ended f r om t h e u p p er t r u s s Wor k 502
and a p ig m ent ed r e? ec t ive boar d 54 4 is p l ac ed bet Ween t h e
US 7 , 8 8 3 , 2 1 2 B2
s c r e e n 51 8 an d t h e f r o n t e dge o f t h e bo x t r u s s f r ame wo r k 500
s u c h t h at l i gh t e mi t t e d by t h e p r o j e c t o r 54 2 i s r e ? e c t e d f r o m
t h e bo ar d 54 4 o n t o t h e s c r e e n 51 8 . Th e s c r e e n 51 8 r e ? e c t s at
l e as t p ar t o f t h e l i gh t f r o m a f r o n t s u r f ac e t h e r e o f aWay f r o m
t h e s t age an d i n t o an au di t o r i u m t o be vi e We d by an d au di
e n c e .
I n o r de r t o p r e ve n t t h e au di e n c e o bs e r vi n g t h e p r o j e c t i o n
ap p ar at u s bo t h s i de an d f r o n t dr ap e s 54 6 ar e u s e d t o s c r e e n t h e
ap p ar at u s f r o m t h e au di e n c e .
Th e i n ve n t i o n c l ai me d i s :
1 . An i mage p r o j e c t i o n ap p ar at u s , c o mp r i s i n g:
a p r o j e c t o r , a f r ame , a l i gh t s o u r c e an d an at l e as t p ar t i al l y
t r an s p ar e n t s c r e e n ;
t h e f r ame be i n g ar r an ge d t o r e t ai n t h e s c r e e n u n de r t e n s i o n ,
s u c h t h at t h e t e n s i o n o f t h e s c r e e n c an be var i e d at a
p l u r al i t y o f p o s i t i o n s al o n g at l e as t o n e e dge o f s ai d
s c r e e n s u c h t h at t h e s c r e e n i s s u bs t an t i al l y Wr i n kl e f r e e ;
t h e l i gh t s o u r c e ar r an ge d t o i l l u mi n at e at l e as t p ar t o f t h e
ap p ar at u s ;
t h e s c r e e n i n c l i n e d at an an gl e Wi t h r e s p e c t t o a p l an e o f
e mi s s i o n o f l i gh t f r o m t h e p r o j e c t o r an d t h e s c r e e n h av
i n g a f r o n t s u r f ac e ar r an ge d s u c h t h at l i gh t e mi t t e d f r o m
t h e p r o j e c t o r i s r e ? e c t e d t h e r e f r o m; an d
t h e p r o j e c t o r be i n g ar r an ge d t o p r o j e c t an i mage s u c h t h at
l i gh t f o r mi n g t h e i mage i mp i n ge s u p o n t h e s c r e e n s u c h
t h at a vi r t u al i mage i s c r e at e d f r o m l i gh t r e ? e c t e d f r o m
t h e s c r e e n , t h e vi r t u al i mage ap p e ar i n g t o be l o c at e d
be h i n d t h e s c r e e n , Wh e r e i n t h e s c r e e n i s f o i l an d t h e
f r ame c o mp r i s e s ? r s t an d s e c o n d r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s
e ac h ar r an ge d t o s an dWi c h an e dge r e gi o n o f t h e s c r e e n
t h e r e be t We e n , t h e ? r s t an d s e c o n d r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s
c o mp r i s i n g r e s p e c t i ve o p e n i n gs t h e r e t h r o u gh ar r an ge d
t o c o l l o c at e Wi t h r e s p e c t i ve o p e n i n gs i n t h e s c r e e n ,
Wh e r e i n t h e o p e n i n gs ar e ar r an ge d t o r e c e i ve a ? xi n g
me an s s o as t o c l amp t h e s c r e e n be t We e n t h e ? r s t an d
s e c o n d r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s , an d Wh e r e i n at l e as t o n e o f
t h e ? r s t an d s e c o n d r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s i s at t ac h e d t o
t e n s i o n i n g s t r ap s .
2 . Th e ap p ar at u s o f c l ai m 1 , Wh e r e i n t h e s c r e e n i s at t ac h e d
t o t h e f r ame at t h e s c r e e n s u p p e r e dge , l o We r e dge , o r bo t h .
3 . Th e ap p ar at u s o f c l ai m 1 , Wh e r e i n t h e t e n s i o n i n g s t r ap s
ar e at t ac h e d t o a t r u s s ar r an ge me n t o r a ? xe d mo u n t i n g p o i n t
l o c at e d i n a p e r man e n t s t r u c t u r e s u c h as a Wal l , ? o o r o r c e i l i n g
an d ar e adj u s t abl e s u c h t h at t h e t e n s i o n o f t h e s c r e e n Wi t h i n
t h e t r u s s ar r an ge me n t c an be var i e d abo u t t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e
s c r e e n .
4 . Th e ap p ar at u s o f c l ai m 3 , Wh e r e i n t h e r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s
ar e s u bs t an t i al l y p ar al l e l t o t r u s s me mbe r s c o mp r i s i n g t h e
t r u s s ar r an ge me n t s .
5. Th e ap p ar at u s o f c l ai m 1 , Wh e r e i n t h e s c r e e n i s i n c l i n e d
at ap p r o xi mat e l y 4 5 t o t h e p l an e o f e mi s s i o n o f l i gh t f r o m t h e
p r o j e c t o r .
6. Th e ap p ar at u s o f c l ai m 1 , Wh e r e i n t h e l i gh t s o u r c e i s
l o c at e d t o t h e r e ar o f t h e s c r e e n , al o n g a t o p e dge o f t h e f r ame ,
al o n g e i t h e r s i de o f a s t age , o r s o me c o mbi n at i o n t h e r e o f .
7 . An i mage p r o j e c t i o n ap p ar at u s , c o mp r i s i n g:
a p r o j e c t o r , a f r ame o r ? xe d mo u n t i n g p o i n t s , an d an at l e as t
p ar t i al l y t r an s p ar e n t s c r e e n ;
t h e f r ame o r ? xe d mo u n t i n g p o i n t s be i n g ar r an ge d t o r e t ai n
t h e s c r e e n u n de r t e n s i o n , s u c h t h at t h e s c r e e n i s i n c l i n e d
at an an gl e Wi t h r e s p e c t t o a p l an e o f e mi s s i o n o f l i gh t
f r o m t h e p r o j e c t o r ;
t h e s c r e e n h avi n g a f r o n t s u r f ac e ar r an ge d s u c h t h at l i gh t
e mi t t e d f r o m t h e p r o j e c t o r i s r e ? e c t e d t h e r e f r o m; an d
t h e p r o j e c t o r be i n g ar r an ge d t o p r o j e c t an i mage s u c h t h at
l i gh t f o r mi n g t h e i mage i mp i n ge s u p o n t h e s c r e e n s u c h
t h at a vi r t u al i mage i s c r e at e d f r o m l i gh t r e ? e c t e d f r o m
1 0
2 0
2 5
3 0
3 5
4 0
4 5
50
55
60
65
1 0
t h e s c r e e n , t h e vi r t u al i mage ap p e ar i n g t o be l o c at e d
be h i n d t h e s c r e e n , an d Wh e r e i n t h e f r ame c o mp r i s e s ? r s t
an d s e c o n d r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s ar r an ge d t o s an dWi c h an
e dge r e gi o n o f t h e s c r e e n t h e r e be t We e n , an d Wh e r e i n a
p l u r al i t y o f ? xi n g me an s p as s t h r o u gh t h e ? r s t r e t e n t i o n
me mbe r an d t h r o u gh t h e s c r e e n an d c l amp t h e s c r e e n
be t We e n t h e ? r s t an d s e c o n d r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s , an d
o p t i o n al l y l o c ki n g me an s i s p r o vi de d adap t e d t o l o c k t h e
? xi n g me an s ;
Wh e r e i n t h e s c r e e n i s a p o l y me r i c t r an s p ar e n t f o i l t h at i s
h e l d t au gh t an d s u bs t an t i al l y Wr i n kl e - f r e e by t h e r e t e n
t i o n me mbe r s , t h e r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s h avi n g ge n e r al l y
p ar al l e l f ac e s Wh i c h c l amp an e dge r e gi o n o f t h e f o i l
be t We e n t h e m, an d Wh e r e i n i n di vi du al l y var i abl e f o i l
t e n s i o n i n g me c h an i s ms ar e p r o vi de d at s p ac e d ap ar t
l o c at i o n s ar o u n d t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e f o i l t o e n abl e t h e
f o i l t o h ave t e n s i o n i n g f o r c e i n de p e n de n t l y var i e d at t h e
s ai d s p ac e d ap ar t l o c at i o n s ar o u n d t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e
f o i l , an d Wh e r e i n t h e ? r s t an d s e c o n d r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s
ar e c o n n e c t e d t o o n e o r mo r e ? e xi bl e t e n s i o n i n g me an s ,
Wh i c h e xt e n d f r o m t h e f r ame o r ? xe d mo u n t i n g p o i n t s t o
t h e f o i l - gr i p p i n g me mbe r s , t h e f o i l , ? e xi bl e t e n s i o n i n g
me an s an d t h e f r ame o r ? xe d mo u n t i n g p o i n t s l y i n g i n a
c o mmo n i n c l i n e d p l an e , Wi t h t h e t e n s i o n o n t h e f o i l
be i n g ap p l i e d i n t h e p l an e o f t h e ? e xi bl e t e n s i o n i n g
me an s , an d t h e f o i l , t h e t e n s i o n i n g me c h an i s ms c o m
p r i s i n g s t r ap s an d r at c h e t s t r ap t e n s i o n e r s , o r s t r ap s an d
a f r i c t i o n - l o c ki n g bu c kl e ar r an ge me n t .
8 . Th e ap p ar at u s ac c o r di n g t o c l ai m 7 , Wh e r e i n r e s p e c t i ve
l o c ki n g me an s ar e p r o vi de d f o r t h e ? xi n g me an s .
9 . Th e ap p ar at u s ac c o r di n g t o c l ai m 8 , Wh e r e i n t h e l o c ki n g
me an s i s p r o vi de d i n t h e f o r m o f n u t s , t o l o c k t h e ? xi n g me an s
i n p o s i t i o n , t h e ? xi n g me an s e xt e n di n g t h r o u gh t h e r e t e n t i o n
me mbe r s an d t h e s c r e e n .
1 0. Th e ap p ar at u s ac c o r di n g t o c l ai m 7 , Wh e r e i n t h e ? r s t
an d s e c o n d r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s c o mp r i s e a p l u r al i t y o f r e s p e c
t i ve o p e n i n gs , Wi t h t h e ? xi n g me an s e xt e n di n g t h r o u gh t h e
o p e n i n gs .
1 1 . Th e ap p ar at u s ac c o r di n g t o c l ai m 7 , Wh e r e i n an abr a
s i ve s u r f ac e i s p r o vi de d o n at l e as t o n e o f t h e r e t e n t i o n me m
be r s t o i n c r e as e t h e gr i p be t We e n t h e r e t e n t i o n me mbe r an d
t h e s c r e e n , t h e r e by r e du c i n g t h e l i ke l i h o o d o f t h e s c r e e n s l i p
p i n g Wh e n h e l d by t h e r e t e n t i o n me mbe r .
1 2 . Th e ap p ar at u s ac c o r di n g t o c l ai m 1 1 , Wh e r e i n t h e abr a
s i ve s u r f ac e c o mp r i s e s s an dp ap e r .
1 3 . Th e ap p ar at u s ac c o r di n g t o c l ai m 7 , Wh e r e i n t h e s c r e e n
i s a f o i l .
1 4 . An i mage p r o j e c t i o n ap p ar at u s , c o mp r i s i n g:
a p r o j e c t o r , a f r ame o r ? xe d mo u n t i n g p o i n t s , an d an at l e as t
p ar t i al l y t r an s p ar e n t s c r e e n ;
t h e f r ame o r ? xe d mo u n t i n g p o i n t s be i n g ar r an ge d t o r e t ai n
t h e s c r e e n u n de r t e n s i o n , s u c h t h at t h e s c r e e n i s i n c l i n e d
at an an gl e Wi t h r e s p e c t t o a p l an e o f e mi s s i o n o f l i gh t
f r o m t h e p r o j e c t o r ;
t h e s c r e e n h avi n g a f r o n t s u r f ac e ar r an ge d s u c h t h at l i gh t
e mi t t e d f r o m t h e p r o j e c t o r i s r e ? e c t e d t h e r e f r o m; an d
t h e p r o j e c t o r be i n g ar r an ge d t o p r o j e c t an i mage s u c h t h at
l i gh t f o r mi n g t h e i mage i mp i n ge s u p o n t h e s c r e e n s u c h
t h at a vi r t u al i mage i s c r e at e d f r o m l i gh t r e ? e c t e d f r o m
t h e s c r e e n , t h e vi r t u al i mage ap p e ar i n g t o be l o c at e d
be h i n d t h e s c r e e n , an d Wh e r e i n t h e f r ame c o mp r i s e s ? r s t
an d s e c o n d r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s ar r an ge d t o s an dWi c h an
e dge r e gi o n o f t h e s c r e e n t h e r e be t We e n , t h e ? r s t an d
s e c o n d r e t e n t i o n me mbe r s be i n g c o n n e c t e d t o o n e o r
mo r e ? e xi bl e t e n s i o n i n g me an s , Wh i c h e xt e n d f r o m t h e
f r ame o r ? xe d mo u n t i n g p o i n t s , t h e f o i l , ? e xi bl e t e n s i o n
i n g me an s an d t h e f r ame o r ? xe d mo u n t i n g p o i n t s l y i n g
US 7 , 8 8 3 , 2 1 2 B2
1 1 1 2
ina common incl ine d p l ane , W it h t h e t e ns ion on t h e f oil 1 6 . Th e ap p ar at u s accor d ing t o cl aim 1 4 , W h e r e in t h e
b e ing ap p l ie d in t h e p l ane of t h e ? e x ib l e t e ns ioning s cr e e n is at t ach e d t o t h e f r ame at t h e s cr e e n s u p p e r e d g e ,
me ans and t h e f oil , and W h e r e in a p l u r al it y of ? x ing l ow e r e d g e , or b ot h ,
me ans p as s t h r ou g h t h e ? r s t r e t e nt ion me mb e r and
t h r ou g h t h e s cr e e n and cl amp t h e s cr e e n b e t W e e n t h e 5
? r s t and s e cond r e t e nt ion me mb e r s , op t ional l y l ock ing
me ans is p r ov id e d ad ap t e d t o l ock t h e ? x ing me ans , and
t h e ? r s t and s e cond r e t e nt ion me mb e r s comp r is e r e s p e c
t iv e op e ning s t h e r e t h r ou g h ar r ang e d t o col l ocat e W it h
op e ning s in r e s p e ct iv e j aW s of cl amp ing me mb e r s 1 0
1 7 . Th e ap p ar at u s accor d ing t o cl aim 1 4 , W h e r e in t h e t e n
s ioning s t r ap s ar e at t ach e d t o a t r u s s ar r ang e me nt or a ? x e d
mou nt ing p oint l ocat e d in a p e r mane nt s t r u ct u r e s u ch as a
W al l , ? oor or ce il ing and ar e ad j u s t ab l e s u ch t h at t h e t e ns ion
of t h e s cr e e n W it h in t h e t r u s s ar r ang e me nt can b e v ar ie d ab ou t
t h e p e r ip h e r y of t h e s cr e e n.
at t ach e d t o t e ns ioning St r ain 1 8 . Th e ap p ar at u s accor d ing t o cl aim 1 7 , W h e r e in t h e r e t e n
1 5 _ Th e ap p ar at u s accor d ing t o C l aim 1 4 , w h e r e in t h e t ion me mb e r s ar e s u b s t ant ial l y p ar al l e l t o t r u s s me mb e r s
s cr e e n comp r is e s a p ar t ial l y r e ? e ct iv e l ay e r u p on t h e f r ont C omp ns l ng t h e t r u s s ar r ang e me nt
s u r f ace and is incl ine d at ap p r ox imat e l y 4 5 t o t h e p l ane of
e mis s ion of l ig h t f r om t h e p r oj e ct or . * * * * *