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Sisteme de Comunicatii

Mobile (SCMB)
- curs 9 -
Continutul prezentarii

EDGE
Principii
Scheme de codare
Parametri QoS

Introducere in 3G
Familia IMT 2000
Servicii
WCDMA

Evolutia 2G > 3G
2+ = GSM Phase 2+
HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched
Data
GPRS = General Packet Radio System
EDGE = Enhanced Data for GSM
Evolution
UMTS = Universal Mobile
Telecommunication System
EDGE - caracteristici
Modificarea interfetei radio pastrand TDMA
Se introduce modulatia 8-PSK (3 bit/simbol)
Se combina cu operarea multislot

Variante de EDGE:
E-GPRS
E-CSD

Debit maxim teoretic: 384 Kbps
Debit mediu: 100 Kbps / User
EDGE scheme de codare
MCS Modulation Code rate User Rate/TS

1 GMSK .53 8.8 kbps
2 GMSK .66 11.2 kbps
3 GMSK .80 14.8 kbps
4 GMSK 1 17.6 kbps
5 8PSK .37 22.4 kbps
6 8PSK .49 29.6 kbps
7 8PSK .76 44.8 kbps
8 8PSK .92 54.4 kbps
9 8PSK 1 59.2 kbps

EDGE performante (1)
Debit in functie de raportul semnal / zgomot
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
SNR [dB]
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

p
e
r

t
i
m
e
s
l
o
t

[
k
b
p
s
]

EDGE performante (2)
Parametri QoS
DOCUMENTTYPE 1 (1)
TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere
TypeYourNameHere TypeDateHere
Traffic class Conversational
RT
- guaranteed
capacity
- no ARQ
Streaming
RT

- guaranteed
capacity
- ARQ (MAC
level)
- Add. Buffering in
application
Interactive
NRT

-best effort
- ARQ
- interactive
WWW, Telnet,
- RT control
channel
Background
NRT

-best effort
- ARQ
- background
download of
emails,
calendar
events, etc.
Delay 100ms, 200ms,
400ms
< 1 s 2 s N/A
BER 10
-3
, 10
-4
, 10
-5
10
-5
, 10
-6
, 10
-7
, 10
-
8
< 10
-9
< 10
-9
Max bitrate Guaranteed Guaranteed bit
rate is
guaranteed, not
the maximum
Not
guaranteed

Not
guaranteed
Service
precedence
High, medium, low High, medium,
low
High, medium,
low
High, medium,
low
3G Origini, motivatie
Previziuni 2015: 3 miliarde abonati mobili, venituri
estimate la 350 miliarde $
Motivatie: creste utilizarea serviciilor mobile de
date
Problema: incompatibilitatea sistemelor 2G:
PDC (Personal Digital Cellular), PHS (Personal
Handyphone System) Japonia
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service), IS-136 (D-
AMPS), IS-95 (cdmaOne) America, Asia
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)
Europa, Asia, America
IMT 2000
Necesitati: un standard unic

Problema: interesele economice diverse!

ITU (International Telecommunication Union) propune
familia de standarde IMT 2000 (International Mobile
Telecommunications) - un membru al familiei:
Ofera roaming altor membri
Serviciile respecta niste capabilitati standard
Capabilitati IMT 2000
Acces wireless mobil si fix prin retele diverse la debite
144K, 384K, 2M
Roaming global
Interoperare cu 2G
Operare in mod pachet sau circuit
Negocierea QoS
VHE (Virtual Home Environment) portabilitate
servicii/preferinte peste retele/terminale diverse
Interfete IMT 2000
UIM (User Identity Module) MT
MT RAN (Radio Access Network), bazata pe WCDMA,
TDD/FDD
RAN CN (Core Network)
NNI (Network to Network Interface), intre diferite CN
Sisteme 3G
Tendinta 1, 3GPP (3
rd
Generation Partnership
Project), GSM -> UMTS
Tendinta 2, 3GPP2, IS-95 -> Cdma 2000

Benzi rezervate IMT 2000:
1885-2025 MHz, 2110-2200 MHz
806-960 MHz, 1710-1885 MHz, 2500-2690 MHz
Servicii 3G - domenii
UMTS - Acoperire
UMTS Retea acces si nucleu
CORE
(IP, ATM, SDH, DWDM, etc.)
BRAN
(Broadband
Radio Access
Network)
SRAN
(Satellite
Radio Access
Network)
UTRAN
(Univ. Terrestrial
Radio Access
Network)
802.11
WCDMA
Arhitectura UMTS coexistenta cu
2G
UMTS Release 2000
EDGE/IPT
Mobile
NEW !
WCDMA/IPT
Mobile
EDGE (GSM) BSS
BS
BS
BS
BS
BSC
BSC
Abis
WCDMA UTRAN
BS
BS
BS
BS
RNC
RNC
Iur
Iub
GGSN
SCP
HLR
3G-SGSN
Iu
CSCF
MGCF
SGW
MGW
PSTN/
ISDN
Internet
Multimedia Service
Control (IPTelephony)
Packet Core (GPRS) with real time services
NEW ! NEW !
IP transport
option for SS7
GMSC MSC/VLR
Circuit Core
Arhitectura UMTS
Server
Server
ETC ETC
ETC ETC
G
S
W
G
S
W
G
S
W
G
S
W
ETC
ETC
ETC ETC
C
L
A
ETC ETC
PDE
DX 200
ETC ETC
ETC ETC
G
S
W
G
S
W
G
S
W
G
S
W
ETC
ETC
ETC ETC
C
L
A
ETC ETC
PDE
DX 200
PSTN/N-ISDN
Data Network
(Internet)
SS7
Network
Inter-PLMN
Backbone
Network
Inter-PLMN
Backbone
Network
Node B
RNC
Iur
Iu
MAP
Iu
3G-GGSN
3G-SGSN
Gn
IP Gp
Firewall
Border
Gateway
Gn
3G-MSC
CS Domain
PS Domain
EIR
HLR/AuC
LAN
LAN
Firewall
Router
Router
Corporate 2
Corporate 1
Iub
Gi
UTRA - Reteaua de acces radio
terestra 3G
UTRA alocare spectru
1980 2010 2025 2110 2170 2200
MHz
1900
TDD
UL/DL
TDD
UL/DL
1920
FDD / UL
W-CDMA
MSS
UL
FDD / DL
W-CDMA
MSS
DL
MSS Mobile Satellite System
UTRA: FDD versus TDD
time
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

Frequency division duplex (FDD)
(Full duplex in analog systems)
time
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

Time division duplex (TDD)
(Half duplex in analog systems)
Caracteristici WCDMA
FDD/TDD
UTRA FDD Technical summary

Frequency band:1920 MHz -1980 MHz and 2110 MHz - 2170 MHz (Frequency Division Duplex) UL
and DL
Minimum frequency band required: ~ 2x5MHz
Frequency re-use: 1
Carrier Spacing: 4.4MHz - 5.2 MHz
Maximum number of (voice) channels on 2x5MHz: ~196 (spreading factor 256 UL, AMR 7.95kbps)
/ ~98 (spreading factor 128 UL, AMR 12.2kbps)
Voice coding: AMR codecs (4.75 kHz - 12.2 kHz, GSM EFR=12.2 kHz) and SID (1.8 kHz)
Channel coding: Convolutional coding, Turbo code for high rate data
Duplexer needed (190MHz separation), Asymmetric connection supported
Tx/Rx isolation: MS: 55dB, BS: 80dB
Receiver: Rake
Receiver sensitivity: Node B: -121dBm, Mobile -117dBm at BER of 10-3
Data type: Packet and circuit switch
Modulation: QPSK
Pulse shaping: Root raised cosine, roll-off = 0.22
Chip rate: 3.84 Mcps
Channel raster: 200 kHz
Maximum user data rate (Physical channel): ~ 2.3Mbps (spreading factor 4, parallel codes (3 DL /
6 UL), 1/2 rate coding), but interference limited.
Maximum user data rate (Offered): 384 kbps (year 2002), higher rates ( ~ 2 Mbps) in the near
future. HSPDA will offer data speeds up to 8-10 Mbps (and 20 Mbps for MIMO systems)
Channel bit rate: 5.76Mbps
Frame length: 10ms (38400 chips)
Number of slots / frame: 15
Number of chips / slot: 2560 chips
Handovers: Soft, Softer, (interfrequency: Hard)
Power control period: Time slot = 1500 Hz rate
Power control step size: 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 dB (Variable)
Power control range: UL 80dB, DL 30dB
Mobile peak power: Power class 1: +33 dBm (+1dB/-3dB) = 2W; class 2 +27 dBm, class 3 +24 dBm,
class 4 +21 dBm
Number of unique base station identification codes: 512 / frequency
Physical layer spreading factors: 4 ... 256 UL, 4 ... 512 DL
UTRA TDD Technical Summary

Frequency band:1900 MHz -1920 MHz and 2010 MHz - 2025 MHz (Time Division Duplex)
Unpaired, channel spacing is 5 MHz and raster is 200 kHz. Tx and Rx are not separated in
frequency, but by guard period.
Minimum frequency band required: ~ 5MHz, ~ 1.6MHz with 1.28 Mcps
Frequency re-use: 1
Voice coding: AMR (and GSM EFR) codec
Channel coding: Convolutional coding, Turbo code for high rate data
TDMA frame consist of 15 timeslots
Each time slot can be transmit of receive
Duplexer not needed
Asymmetric connection supported
Data by packet and circuit switch
QPSK modulation
Receiver: Joint Detection, (mobile: Rake)
Chip rate: 3.84 Mcps or 1.28 Mcps
Channel raster: 200 kHz
Maximum RF ch bit rate (kbps): ~ 3.3Mbps (1/2 rate coding, spreading factor 1, 15 timeslots,
ex overheads), but interference limited
Frame length: 10ms
Number of slots / frame: 15
Handovers: Hard
Power control period: 100 Hz or 200 Hz UL, ~ 800 Hz DL
Power control step size: 1, 2, 3 dB (Variable)
Power control range: UL 65dB, DL 30dB
Mobile peak power: Power class 1: +33 dBm (+1dB/-3dB) = 2W; class 2 +27 dBm, class 3 +24
dBm, class 4 +21 dBm
Number of unique base station identification codes: 512/frequency
Physical layer spreading factors: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16

CDMA, WCDMA
Tehnica de acces multiplu (mai multe MS utilizeaza
resurse radio in comun), cu multiplexare in cod

W wide band, sugereaza largirea mai mare a benzii
CDMA

Un anumit numar de semnale CDMA sunt emise in
aceeasi banda
Un receptor CDMA extrage semnalul dorit folosind acelasi cod
utilizat la emisie
Restul semnalelor sunt eliminate datorita corelatiei slabe intre
codurile diferite utilizate le emisie (coduri ortogonale)

WCDMA - principiu
WCDMA Coduri OVSF (Orthogonal
Variable Spreading Factor)
Generarea codurilor ortogonale arbore de coduri, nivel
SF (spreading factor - n) maxim 512
Exemple utilizare:
SF = 4 -> date la 2Mbps,
SF = 128 -> voce la 12,2Kbps
SF = 512 -> semnalizari, SMS la 1,7 Kbps
Proprietatile de corelatie ale
codurilor CDMA
Coduri - secvente binare de lungime identica
Intercorelatia R
S,T
: masoara gradul de asemanare intre 2
secvente binare S, T (nr. asemanari nr. diferente)


Pentru codurile CDMA cerintele sunt:
Autocorelatia R
S
(i) este maxima pentru i = 0 si de valoare mica
sau negativa in rest (0 pentru familii de coduri ortogonale)
Intercorelatia intre 2 coduri diferite este de valoare mica sau
negativa (0 pentru familii de coduri ortogonale)



1
0
,
) 1 ( ) (
N
j
T S
T S
j i i
i R
Utilizarea codurilor OVSF
Semnalul de date este codat NRZ (1:1, 0:-1)
Codul de adaptare la canal (channelisation code) are o
perioada mai mica -> creste debitul/banda (chip rate)
Al doilea nivel de codare (scrambling code) asigura un
caracter pseudo-aleator
Se utilizeaza secvente de lungimea unui cadru radio (10
ms 38400 chips)
WCDMA imprastierea
spectrului
WCDMA lantul de transmisie,
interferente
CDMA versus TDMA
Emitator CDMA schema de
principiu
WCDMA spreading/despreading
WCDMA receptia in conditii de
zgomot provenit de la alte MS
Bibliografie
Comunicatii mobile. Evolutia spre 3G, Autor:Sorina Zahan,
Editura:Albastra

Gsm, Gprs and Edge Performance: Evolution Toward 3G/Umts
de Timo Halonen, Javier Romero Garcia, Juan Melero