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Site Organization and Management

NCP-30
ASSIGNMENT
Your company has been awarded a prestigious contract of building 500 m length pre-stressed
concrete bridge on a national highway crossing the major river. Due to cultivation on both
sides of highway, very restricted space of only 100 in width and !00 m in length is
available on both sides of highway.
"o mobili#e the site, your management as$ed you to house !50" of cement, !00" of steel, %
si#e && crawlers ' "ractor Do#er, one mobile crane, one ()*, ten dumpers. +abor force of
100 men in addition to site office complete with communication set up.
Discuss your plan to organi#e the site, draw lay out s$etch showing all details. ,ind
direction is from ,est to -ast and *ridge direction is -ast to-,est.
PRE - MOBILIZATION STUDIES: -
.nce the contract is signed by the company, the project e/ecution would start. 0 detail plan
for mobili#ation is prepared and manpower as well as plant and e1uipment allocation is
forecasted and provision is made for the same. 0s a handing over of a site and other
formalities such as ban$ guaranties, mobili#ation advance would ta$e place in due course,
the time re1uired to complete this formalities would be use foe the project study, ta$e off
plan and organi#ing the site mobili#ation.
Depending upon the nature of wor$, category of wor$, si#e 2 stages of completion of wor$
organi#e site staffing appropriate manner is very important. Due to there is involvement of
much more agencies li$e client 3 owner, consultant, subcontractor ,vendor 3 supplier, local
authorities, traffic problems on highway we need proper co-ordination, involvement, good
understanding amongst all project team.
1. Project manager:
0s shown in organi#ation chart project manager is leader for all activities and
effective communication system. 4esident engineer is reporting to the project
manager.
. Re!"#ent eng"neer:
"he resident engineer is support to the project manager but all functional in charge 3
heads of all departments is directly reporting to the resident engineer. "he main scope
of resident engineer is to $eeping co-ordination in all the staff, site related person,
subcontractor, consultant5 and supplier. 6ollowing diff department wor$s under
supervision of resident engineer.
$. P%ann"ng #e&t.:
Re!&on!"'"%"t( )
7lan each and every wor$ activity as per time limit given by the client ma$ing bar
chart material schedule, ma$ing labor schedule, ma$ing plant, machinery schedule,
achieving better 1uality in min cost is the main aim of this dept.
*. E+ec,t"on #e&t.:
Re!&on!"'"%"t( )
-/ecution of wor$ as per drawing plans and specification is main wor$ of e/ecution
dept. &n this department 8r. e/ecution engineer and gang of (r. -ngineers is
appointed. 7ersonnel structure 2 reporting system - &n e/ecution department or.
-ngineer, supervisor under inspection of sr. e/ecution engineer does chec$ing of
wor$ progressing on site. 8r. engineer reports to e/ecution manager.
-. Store #e&t.:
Re!&on!"'"%"t( )
&nspection of material and goods coming on site, intimate or instruct to respective
dept. 9material ordered by: maintaining material inward, outward registers ma$ing
;4<, storing and housing all material on site in proper place as per the site condition
and handover material to contractor as per their re1uirement, $eeping their records is
the main wor$ of store dept.
.. /,a%"t( #e&t.:
Re!&on!"'"%"t( )
)hec$ing of all material coming on site ,testing of all the material as per re1uirement
9 lab test : a$ing or verifying mi/ design of material going to use for site
e/ecution ,inspection and chec$ing of all activities of e/ecution wor$ regarding
1uality norms and condition, testing of wor$ e/ecuted li$e sample testing 9 cube
testing : non destructive testing ma$ing of audit report maintaining material testing,
mi/ design, concrete testing, audit test registers on site is the main wor$ of this dept.
0. /,ant"t( !,r1e("ng #e&t.:
Re!&on!"'"%"t( )
)hec$ing of all drawing and specification regarding site, estimating and surveying
1uantity of each wor$ activity separately, calculating material re1uired 1uantity,
labor re1uired 1uantity for each and every item is the main wor$ of this dept.
2. Acco,nt 3 B"%%"ng #e&t.:
Re!&on!"'"%"t( )
)hec$ing of all bill 1uoted by sub-contractor or contractor 94.0. bills or final bills:
as per their site e/ecuted wor$, ma$ing of payment of contractors and subcontractors
is the main wor$ of billing dept. =eeping total money e/penditure regarding site,
chec$ing of departmental labor bill ma$ing payment of all site office related staff and
helper is the main wor$ of account dept.
4. Ser1"ce! De&t.:
Re!&on!"'"%"t( )
.ur site is huge type of construction therefore there is re1uirement of no of services
delay due to absence of any services is very dangers. 0rrangement of electrical
supply, water supply, ma$ing or repairing of any construction e1uipment and
machinery, electrical e1uipment, is the main wor$ of this dept.
Per!onne% !tr,ct,re 5 re&ort"ng !(!tem -
>uantity &n this dept. all types of s$illed wor$ers and supervisor li$e plumber,
electrician, mechanic, welder, is wor$ing under supervision of (r. -ngineer and (r.
-ngineer is directly report to the services engineer.
16. Sa7et( an# 8ea%t8 De&t.:
Re!&on!"'"%"t(
a$ing safety wor$ing environment, safety all site wor$er and staff, improving and
applying all safety instruction on site is the main wor$ of this dept. cleaning of site
office maintains and cleans all site awareness, cleaning of labour camp periodically,
ma$ing arrangement of good drin$ing water, good latrine 3 w .c. 6acility on site is the
main wor$ of health dept.
11. A#m"n"!trat"on De&t.:
Re!&on!"'"%"t(
8upervision and arrange all site office re1uirements3 facility?s, supervision on site
security guards, chec$ing their registers, $eeping site off inward and outward is the
main wor$ of this dept. 0dmin. &n charge and there asst. are responsible for this
wor$.
. Project 9omm,n"cat"on
.1 INTRODU9TION
"he performance of any project can be evaluated from the daily reports and other
correspondence that it maintains. ,ell framed reporting systems serve as an effective
tool of information, which if compiled, documented and analy#ed, provides a record
on the project for @future reference. "he management can adopt certain systems to
control the progress of a project. "he documentation re1uired, acts as an effective
tool of control over the overall performance of every individual, from the engineer,
the site staff, consultants to the architect, involved in these systems. "he procedure
for documentation of the in-house and outside correspondence, at different stages of
wor$, is standardi#ed, &n this chapter we discuss some of these procedures and the
methods of correspondence, that facilitate the wor$ing and help gain overall control
over the staff and systems.
. PRO:E9T 9OMMUNI9ATION ;IT< <EAD /UARTER
0ll correspondence is related to the progress of the site wor$.-
)orrespondence from the site to Aead .ffice is an important communication channel
for the senior management.
"he re1uired fre1uency of reports and the correspondence from the site to Aead
office is directly proportional.
Daily correspondence
6ortnightly correspondence
onthly correspondence
DAIL= 9ORRESPONDEN9E
"his is the day to day reporting to the Aead .ffice by the 7roject -ngineer or site in-
charge.-
"he 7roject -ngineer should leave the site, half an hour prior to the closing time for
reporting to the Aead .ffice.-
&f many sites are in progress, all site engineers, reporting to the Aead .ffice, should
note down the time of their respective reporting and departure.-
"he documents should be collected in their respective site trays at the A...
>1? D.P.R. >DAIL= PROGRESS REPORT?
&t is a very important report.
&t is in a tabular format, indicating the actual wor$ completed at the site on a
particular day, the 1uantity of cement bags consumed per building and the
ratio of cement bags3s1.m.
D.7.4. of the previous day should be written and submitted immediately on
the ne/t day.
,or$ program of each building, for the ne/t day, should be written
separately.
"he arrival time of the contractor@s labour and the departmental labour is note
desperately.
-very D.7.4. must carry the name of the site, date and should be duly signed
by the senior engineer and the 7roject -ngineer.
"he D.7.4. is a tool for the higher authorities 3 )hief -ngineer to chec$ the
activities of the day.
>? MATERIAL IN;ARD REPORT
o "his report deals with the opening and closing balance of cement, empty
bags, lime, bloc$s etc.
o &t gives information of all the materials received and is attached with the
challans from suppliers.
o 8upplier@s challan should contain the following information
8upplier@s name
)hallan number
Date
8ite
8ite stamp with the store$eeper@s signature
>uantity of materialB easurement of truc$
"ime
8ignature of the driver
o <ame, class, type, 1uality and 1uantity of the materials received
o .n every challan, the measurement of the truc$, receiving time and the
vehicle number must be noted.-
o "he challan for the material received, should be stamped on the other side,
along with the 7roject -ngineer@s signature.-
o &t ma$es records of all material received. aterial transferred from site to
site can also be noted with the &..). <o. and the .".4. <o.
>$? M.T.R. >MATERIAL TRANS@ER RE9EIPT?
&t is the receipt for any material transferred from one site to the other. &t notes down
the 1uantity along with the 8.4.7. 98toc$ register page: <o. and the .".4. <o.
>*? MATERIAL ISSUE SLIP
"his slip is used by the site engineer3supervisor for issuing materials to the contractor
3 departmental labourer from the store.
"he store$eeper must not issue any material without the material issue slip. "he
-ngineer must carry an issue slip boo$ with him while on site.
"he material issue slip has the following advantages
&t helps control all wor$ activities, since every material is issued by the engineer.
aterials can be utili#ed properly.
-ntry of the personnel in the store can be controlled.-
aterial reconciliation for a particular wor$ in a particular building can be done.
8ignature of contractor 3representative confirms the acceptance of materials.
>-? DAIL= STORE 9ONSUMPTION REPORT
&t notes the material issued to the contractor along with the date, particulars, 1uantity
and the building where it is used. &t also gives details li$e who issued it, to whom and
the 8.4.7. <o.-
"his report should be $ept at the site along with the original issue slip.-
&t is to be written by the store$eeper.-
&t is useful in record updating and reporting to the Aead office.
>.? DAIL= >DEPARTMENTAL? LABOUR SLIP
"his report records the details of labourers, directly appointed by the company as
departmental labourers. "hese details are recorded by the supervisor.-
"he -ngineer should chec$ the sites where these labourers wor$.-
"he report gives self e/planatory description of the wor$ done by the departmental
labourers along with their designations. &t should be signed by the site engineer and
the 7roject -ngineer.-
"he report enables in the verification and preparing of the wee$ly cash bill of
departmental labour.
>0? MEMO DETAILS
0void issuing a memo to contractors. &f at all it is to be written ensure that it is signed
by the contractor and is forwarded to Aead office for necessary action.-
emo notes can be sent to contractors for deduction of payment from his bill, for
reasons li$e non-fulfilment of wor$ as per the agreement, failure in maintaining the
wor$ schedule, wastage of material or instructions regarding the program of wor$,
improvement in 1uality etc.
&t should be sent in duplicate to the Aead .ffice.-
0fter the )hief -ngineer signs the memo, a copy should go to the contractor and the
other to the respective division for necessary actions.
;EEAL= 9ORRESPONDEN9E
>1? 9AS< BILLS
)ash bills should be submitted to the Aead .ffice every wee$ on pre-arranged day.
>? SETTLEMENT O@ A99OUNTS
.n account@ money can be given to the site engineer depending on the e/penses that
might be incurred during the coming wee$.- )ash voucher receipt 94efer 6ormat <o.
1!.10: should be made with complete narration and supporting documents. &t should
be forwarded to the Aead .ffice on a pre-arranged day and should be adjusted
against the imprest amount.
>$?INDENT >RE/UISITION?
&ndent is a printed format to raise demands for materials re1uired at the site. &t can be
submitted twice a wee$ to the purchase department through the )hief -ngineer.
>*?PENDING INDENT
7ending indents are re-submitted when the material for indents submitted earlier has
not been received, nor has the information regarding their supply been received from
the purchase department.-
"hey should be submitted on a fortnightly basis.
@ORTNIG<TL= REPORTING
8ubmit updated 40. *ills every fortnight to the Aead .ffice.
40. *ills could be a labour bill for 4).). asonry, tiling, plumbing etc.-
)ustomer en1uiry report should be submitted every 15 days to the sales department.
MONT<L= REPORTING
"he site should send the following reports to the Aead .ffice every month on a fi/ed
day.
>1? MONT<L= MATERIAL 9ONSUMPTION REPORT
"his statement records the total material consumption during a particular month and
sent to the Aead .ffice for verification.-
&" gives an idea of the total receipt, previous balance, updated stoc$, consumption
during the month, and transfer to other sites etc.
>? MONT<L= 9EMENT 9ONSUMPTION REPORT
"his report records the opening balance every day, cement received, total stoc$,
consumption per day, transfer to any other site 9C3-:, closing stoc$ and 8.47. <o. &t is
submitted to the Aead .ffice.
>$? ELE9TRI9 METER READING REPORT
-very construction site has an electric meter on site.-
+arge projects will have more than one electric meter.-
&f the bills are more than e/pected, it might be due to wrong feeding of the meter
reading. Aave it cross-chec$ed with the reading noted down by the site staff.
0pproach the -lectricity *oard for getting the bill corrected according to the actual
reading.
"his helps in avoiding e/cess payments for electricity.
>*? ;ATER METER READING REPORT
aintain records for water supplied by the unicipal )orporation.
"his report helps calculate the total consumption of water at the construction site for
a given month. 0lso the bills received from the unicipal )orporation can be cross
chec$ed.
"hese readings will help calculate the constant of water charges per s1.m3s.ft. .f
built-up and for future estimations.
>-? MA9<INER= AND INSTRUMENT REPORT
)onstruction sites have construction machineries and instruments such as concrete
mi/er, lift, vibrator, diesel engine, dumpy level, theodolite etc.-
.ngoing wor$ at different sites can ma$e very difficult to find out the conditions of
machineries at each site.-
achinery report helps in maintaining all the machines at all times.-
"hese reports are to be sent to the maintenance division every month, along with
details of the machine, ma$e3type, numbers, A.7., phase condition of the machines,
causes for maintenance, estimated cost of repairs etc.
>.? EB9ESS MATERIAL LIST
-/cess material list indicates the material available at the site, not re1uired for a
certain period and time.-
&n such cases, the material can be utili#ed at another site.
"he report should be sent to the purchase department through the )hief -ngineer, to
cater to the re1uirements of another site instead of purchasing new materials.
>0? 9ONSTRU9TION PROGRESS 9<ART
"his report should be prepared every month for each site.-
&t records and helps calculate the wor$ progress of each activity, for a particular
building, as a percentage.
"he percentage derived, is based on the average calculation of the estimated e/penses
for each activity.-
"his chart is very important for the management.
"he 1uantum of the wor$ completed during the month, for each site3 each building,
can be justified and total funds used can also be compared and justified using this
chart.
.ver and above this report, a monthly report should be prepared by the )hief
-ngineer and forwarded to the Directors.
&t should contain the relevant information regarding the progress of project. Details of
this report are as follows
&t should be submitted by the )hief -ngineer on a fi/ed day, every month.
&t should include details of all the wor$ completed at the site, during that month.
7ossession dates should also be given along with this report.
4easons for the delay of wor$, if any, should be mentioned.
"he report should be submitted to the Director to inform him of the progress of wor$
at the site
>2? 9UBE TESTING REPORT
0part from these reports, the site staff should send concrete cubes ta$en during
concreting wor$ to the testing laboratory for testing purposes, as and when re1uired.-
"est cubes should be sent with all information.-
4ecords should be maintained at site and a copy of cube testing report should be sent
to Aead .ffice for office record purpose.
.$ REPORTING S=STEM
"he site in-charge should report to the )hief -
-ngineer each evening. .-
8ite in-charge should leave the site half an hour prior to the closing hour for reporting
to the ).-.
0part from this, he should discuss the following aspects of the daily schedule -
7rogress of wor$ -
"he ne/t day@s program-
0ccidents 9if any:-
Disits of the top management.-
Decisions3 drawings re1uired from the architect3 consultants-
4eceipt of material, storage and re1uirement of urgent material 9if any:-
"hefts3disputes at the site-
4ejection of materials-
,ater 3electricity supply failure3machine failure-
>uality of materials-
0ny other related points
NOTE
"he site engineer should collect the re1uired certificates3documents during the
site visits of the 0rchitect and submit a copy to the Aead .ffice.
.* 9ORRESPONDEN9E @ROM SITE TO STRU9TURAL DESIGNER
6or any corrections after chec$ing the wor$ing drawings with the 4).). Drawings,
the site in-charge should directly contact the structural designer after informing the
).-.
"he structural designer should be contacted for,
)hec$ing the strata3trial pit-
)hec$ing the reinforcement before the concreting of slabs-
)hec$ing of reinforcement for ..A.,.".3 E.;.,.". 3 septic tan$s3other critical wor$
>ueries regarding 4).). Drawings
)hec$ing the strength and stability of a particular member of the structure after
casting-
6or the structural details re1uired for any rectification wor$
NOTE
F "he site engineer should collect the re1uired certificates3documents during the site
visits of the 4).). Designer and submit a copy to the Aead .ffice.
.- 9ORRESPONDEN9E TO OT<ER 9ONSULTANTS
>1? ELE9TRI9AL 9ONSULTANT
"he site in-charge should contact the electrical consultant forF-
-stimation of cabling wor$3layout and to give re1uirement of cables-
)hec$ing the layout of +". room-
During slab concreting-
During road wor$ for electrical conduiting.
6or installation of meter for construction purposes and shifting of meter while the
wor$ is in progress-
"o supervise installation of the meter.-
During the development wor$3street lighting wor$ etc.-
)hec$ing of material specifications-
)hec$ing of wor$ samples
NOTE
F "he site engineer should collect the re1uired certificates3documents during the site
visits of the consultant and submit a copy to the Aead .ffice.
>? PLUMBING 9ONSULTANT
"he plumbing consultant should be contacted after receiving all the drawings,-
"o discuss practical difficulties of the drawing.-
"o show the sample collection of plumbing pipes, fittings and accessories.-"o chec$
and certify water and drainage stac$s, details using different testing methods li$e
pressure testing, smo$e testing etc.-
"o get the corrections done if any changes occur due to e/tra amenity3practical
difficulties.-"o chec$ the water supply grid development wor$, drainage line
development wor$ and storm water drainage wor$.-
"o collect actual measurements on site for preparing record drawings.-6or all 1ueries
confirmation from municipal authorities.
.. 9ORRESPONDEN9E @ROM SITE TO SUB9ONTRA9TOR
"he site in-charge should discuss and enter all the points in the memo boo$3letter. 0
copy should be sent to the Aead .ffice as a record.
7rogress of wor$
>uality of wor$
7rogram of wor$
7reparation of 40 bills
,or$ out material re1uirement at various stages and estimates for the same-
-/planations regarding the drawings
)onfirmation of rates other than given in the agreement
-/tra amenity information 9if any:
emo3&nstruction for bad 1uality of completed wor$
8ite cleaning.
isuse of material, control of wastage, minor wastage memos-
isbehaviour of labourers
7lanning of labour hutments and discipline.
aterial stac$ing at the site by the contractor-
"ermination of contract through the Aead .ffice, if re1uired
.0 9ORRESPONDEN9E @ROM <EAD O@@I9E TO SITE
"his includes all documents received from the Aead .ffice to the site-
)irculars-
inutes of meeting-
&ssue of drawings and contractor@s-
0greements-
8pecifications-
-/tra amenity debit3credit notes of modifications-&...). from purchase
department-
)opy of cash payment bill-
,or$ order copies-
Decisions regarding any 1ueries by the site, through higher authorities-
>ueries regarding bills, 1uality report, challans etc. from the account
department
&nstructions regarding seminars, site visits etc.-
*riefings about new policy matters of the management.
.2 9ORRESPONDEN9E @ROM <.O. TO SUB9ONTRA9TOR 3 SUPPLIERS
"his is includes discussions between the subcontractors and the management for--
,or$ speed-
*alance wor$.-
>uality of wor$.-
8ite meetings.-
7ayment status-
&ssue of che1ues-
emos for bad 1uality-
)ontrol of wastage-
ista$es at site-
.ther disciplinary actions-
,or$ program-
+egal formalities-
0ny other problems of the subcontractors
$. LA=OUT
;ood site layout is important to improve productivity. You need to arrange your
construction site in such a way as to ma$e it function as efficiently as possible. ,ith
bad layout, time and materials are wasted through double handling. "ransport and
handling of materials always cost money. -very time you more a stac$ of bric$s
around your site, the real cost to you increases. .ne of the reasons for slow progress
and high cost of construction projects is the lac$ of site planning, including poor site
layout.
"he layout plan of the site will depend upon two main factorsF the methods and
se1uence of operations to be employed in carrying out he wor$, and the space
available. "he methods and se1uence will have been considered at the time that the
estimate and tender were prepared. ,hen the contract is awarded, you should ta$e
another careful loo$ at these ideas before preparing a detailed site layout plan. "hese
plans must be prepared in advance and they must be prepared by someone with good
planning s$ills and e/perience. &t is often easier to save money through planning than
by raising site productivity, but these savings can only be obtained if you ta$e enough
time to thin$ about all the possible alternatives before deciding on how to layout the
site.
9ontract #oc,ment!:
"he contract document for the proposed project is voluminous and contains the following
documentsF
a: <otice inviting tender.
b: &nformation and instructions to tenderer.
c: ;eneral conditions of contract.
d: 8pecial conditions of contract.
e: 8chedule of 1uantitative and cost.
f: "ender drawings.
g: 8pecification for wor$s.
h: 6orms for ban$ guarantee in respect of earnest money.
i:7erformance guarantee.
j: obili#ation advance etc.
=: Aypothecation deeds for construction e1uipment.
l: "ender related correspondence and the letter of award3acceptance.
,hile the provisions e/isting in various clauses of the different sections of the
document have their own independent intent, meaning and interpretation, a proper
management of the contract is set up for interpretation of individual clauses in
harmony with others, so that it is in the interest of efficient and timely e/ecution of
wor$. "his is applicable both to the client and the contractor. 6or the proposed wor$,
wor$ below ground is allotted as cost plus percentage rate and for wor$ above ground
it is allotted as item rate contract. &t is also assumed that the contract drawn up is fair
and e1uitable and ta$es into account re1uirements of client and possible difficulties
that may be e/perienced by the contractor in his operations.
SITE 9LEARAN9E
*efore setting up of enabling wor$s, it is necessary to ma$e the site clear from
various aspects such asF -0ny stoc$pile of irrelevant material laid on site. 0ny
machinery, e1uipment or vehicle not related to proposed site wor$. 7lant, vegetation
or crops of reasonable height in the proposed site area. Depending upon the direction
of wind mentioned, provision of temporary unit such as barrier is made on the west
side of the bridge to avoid accumulation of unnecessary dust 2 rubbish materials.
4emoval of small pebbles, sharp edge stones, loose soil material from the surface of
site area. Demolition of any previous temporary structure present on the site.
9ONSTRU9TING IN@RASTRU9TURAL @A9ILITIES
"he following infrastructure facilities should be constructed for the proposed bridge siteF
1: "emporary roads should be leveled and a sufficient base course should be
provided to cope with the traffic that is unli$ely to use them.
%: 4egular power supply should be made available from the grid passing nearby .r
electric power will have to be generated by installing diesel-penetrating sets at the
site.
!: ,ater supply can be arranged by providing underground storage tan$ and
distribution through a pumping system and overhead tan$. 6or sewage disposal,
septic tan$ should be provided and if it is not sufficient it may be necessary to
provide o/idation pond. 8ite camps are erected on site for resident engineers 2
persons wor$ing onsite. "hese are in the form of light steel or wooden structure,
which are mounted on s$id beams or wheels, so that they can be moved as and
when re1uired. "hese are provided with electrical, plumbing and sanitary fi/ture,
and the system becomes operational at site by plugging into the electrical and
water supply. "he site is also provided with the latest possible communication
technology, such as cellular phone, &nternet, intranet, wan etc.
ORGANIZING UTILITIES
0ll the utilities and resources available on the proposed bridge should be organi#ed
properly so as to avail the ma/imum benefit. 8toreroom containing G0? class items
should be provided by a watchman?s cabin adjacent to it. 8teel should stac$ed in
open yard, protected by fencing. "he utility yard should be attached to the steel yard
by a common fencing. 0ggregates should be stac$ed as near as possible to the
batching plant or concrete mi/, so as to avoid unnecessary movement and double
handling of material. )amp for persons wor$ing on site should be located on one side
of the site for avoiding dust and noise, generated on site. 8tore roomsF- 8tore rooms
should be constructed in a place where access for unloading of materials is easier,
which leads to safety of the wor$ forces. "oilets, latrines should be constructed
downwind with proper slope for drainage.
8pecialist shops li$e steel bender, carpenter, and bloc$ ma$ers should be
located3constructed near to their stores or mi/er, inside crane radius.
SE9URIT=
"he proposed bridge site should be secured against possible thefts and damage
causing loss to the governing authority. &t should be secured forF +oss of material,
mobile machinery or e1uipment, at night times or at times when wor$ is not in
progress. % nos. of watchmen, each wor$ing for a 1%-hour shift will serve for this
purpose. )onfidential information prevailing outside the organi#ationF "his can be
prevented by storing the confidential data in systems and records, approachable only
to the top management with the .D. $eeping the password $ey. "he entire
document, paperwor$ related to site wor$ should be properly stored in cupboards
under the jurisdiction of a reliable accountant3cler$, acting as a common person to all
the concerned departments. 0ll the persons wor$ing on site, should be well secured
against thefts, robbery, political influence 2 undue pressure of higher authorities.
0lso the personnel wor$ing on site should be secured against any sort of mishap or
accident, li$ely to occur due to negligence of safety conditions. 4econciliation of
materialsF 0 daily chec$ups should be done on site especially for the stores, from the
8tore$eeper. "here are three ways to find out how much money the company is
losing because of damage and deterioration of materials.
a: +oo$ing carefully around the site and chec$ing through the site, usually shows
e/ample of poor placing and storage of materials.
b: )omparing figures given in orders, receipts and issues, and chec$ing of remaining
stoc$s.
c: easuring the wor$ done and calculating the materials used.
* MOBILIZATIONS:
De&artmenta% Sta77: -
i: *efore mobili#ing staff members li$e engineers, supervisors and wor$men, it is
necessary to construct and prepare proper accommodation such as residential 1uarters
2 wor$men?s hut with accurate fencing3boundary wall around the project.
ii: 8ecurity chec$ post should be fi/ed at gates, with guiding instructions to the
security person for receiving 2 issuance of men, materials 2 machinery.
iii: Departmental site office shall be erected at proper location i.e. free from any
noise, dust, easily accessible from all directions of site. 0lso the location should not
obstruct movement of men, materials 2 machinery.
iv:"he departmental staff should be mobili#ed at least ! days prior to commencement
of wor$ 2 a mandatory visit of the complete site should be arranged for the entire
department 9technical 2 non- technical: so as to get ac1uainted with the site area for
convenience in wor$ing.
v: "he departmental staff shall be informed well in advance about the mobili#ation
date by a formal notice, and on that particular date, the entire staff shall be mobili#ed
by means of conveyance arranged. i.e. *us, for people residing in the range of 100
$m. 2 trains for people e/ceeding the range of 100 $m.
9ontractor!:
i: )ontractors should be informed with a formal notice, after the allotment of wor$
9i.e. )ontract: for mobili#ation of their staff, machineries 2 other re1uired resources.
ii: &t is the duty of contractor to get himself 2 his resources mobili#ed well in
advance before the initiation of wor$ i.e. before the actual e/ecution of wor$ starts
i.e. around a wee$ before, so as to avoid inconvenience to the client 2 the
subcontractors.
iii: 0fter mobili#ing on site physically, he should impart instruction 2 guidelines to
his staff 2 sub contractors about the proposed wor$ 2 thereby the wor$ line of
action. Ae should also, ma$e his staff well ac1uainted with the site area 2 arrange his
machinery in consultation with the client?s engineer so as to avoid unnecessary
wastage of time 2 materials.
SUB9ONTRA9TORS:
i: 6or the proposed wor$, the contractor has appointed subcontractors related to
various stages of wor$ such asF +abours for pre-stressing wor$.. +abour for casting
wor$. +abour for disposal of scrap 2 wastage.
ii: "he contractors should arrange the mobili#ation of subcontractor 2possibly it
should be according to his planned mobili#ation so as to get himself 2 the sub-
contractors ensured about the ade1uacy of resources 2information re1uired for the
e/ecution of wor$.
iii: &n case of any re1uirement from the contractor?s side, the subcontractor should
intimate him, well before the wor$ starts so that the contractor will arrange for it or
arrange for a suitable alternative, after consulting with the clients engineer.
obilisation also includes carrying out enabling wor$s, some of which are
mentioned belowF
Ena'%"ng CorD!
Ender wor$s of this category, structures and appurtenants which facilitate
underta$ing the actual project wor$ are included. &n the aster )ontrol <etwor$ and
planning for the project details of enabling wor$ would be included. "he e/tent of
enabling wor$ would vary depending the si#e and nature of the project. .n a large
project costing a few hundred cores, the enabling wor$ itself could form into a mini-
project. "he enabling wor$s would include the following items
Fi: 6encing3boundary wall around the project, fi/ing security chec$ post and gates.
ii: 8ite .ffice
iii: )amp for accommodatin -ngineers, 8upervisors, and ,or$men.
iv: 8tore for materials
v: )onstruction 7lant and e1uipment
vi: 8tatic plant such as concrete batching plant, pre-cast concrete element plant, bloc$
ma$ing plant, hot mi/ plant.vii: obile plant such as "ruc$s, Dumper, *ulldo#er
;rader, Dibratory and pneumatic 4oad 4oller, *itumen sprayer "ransit mi/er,
)oncrete 7ump, )rane, front end loader, compressor. "hese 7lant and -1uipment are
mobile, and can be shifted from place to place on regular basis.
Store! an# !,&&%"er!:
8torage areas should be located near to the static plants. 6or storage of !50tons of
cement, stac$ing yards should be covered with shed. *ut here as the cement is to be
used in large 1uantity for concreting by batching plant and pre-stressed element plant,
so it is stored in bul$ in vertical silos. 0lso !00 tons of steel is to be stored which can
be stored in open yards with proper fencing and near to bar bender?s wor$shop. )are
should be ta$en that water does not get accumulated in this yard and there is proper
slope to drain the rain water. 8tone metal and sand can be stored in open yards,
stac$ed in heaps with proper fencing so that the material does not get mi/ up with the
outer material. "he suppliers in the vicinity of Delhi should be invited on site by a
formal notice and a meeting should be held up with the consultation of clients
engineer and contractor, specifying the suppliers clearly about the following factorsF
1. >uantity of material.
%. >uality of material.
!. "erms and conditions of contract.
H. ode of transportation.
5. Delivery at a short notice.
"he suppliers should ma$e the above factors clear in a formal 1uotation and submit it
to the organi#ation. "he department will further scrutini#e the 1uotations of various
suppliers and allot the same to the most optimum supplier.
;orD!8o&
6or the maintenance of plant and e1uipment both static and mobile, it is necessary to
have a wor$shop which will underta$e the maintenance, repair, overhauling and
major replacement of e1uipment. ,or$shop is geared up to5 carry out preventive and
scheduled maintenance which is essential to $eep the brea$-down of e1uipment to
bare minimum. "he wor$shop should have facilities for servicing, carrying
outgeneral repair, engine over-haul, calibration of Diesel 7ump etc. ,or$shop should
have a small machine shop attached with lathes, drilling machine, welding, boring
machine, painting, denting, sheet metal wor$ etc. &t is also to be e1uipped with auto-
electrical repair, battery charger, tyre repair etc.
/UERIES:
6or the proposed bridge site near Dehli certain 1ueries are searched and found for
arranging materials re1uired for the construction of pre-stressed bridge such asF
1: 0t a distance of 10 $ms. from the site, strata below the ground i.e. around
!mbelow ground is found ade1uately hard so as to be used as aggregate after
processing it in crushers.
%: 0lso at a distance of %5 $ms. from the site, along the coastal side, natural sand is
available in plenty $nown as river sand, which is screened and used as re1uired.
&f transportation cost is affordable, then in between +onavla 2 =hopoli, abundant of
hard roc$, boulder 2 stones are available, which can be used at various construction
stages of pre-stressed concrete bridge.
Store! an# !tacD"ng (ar#!
&n the project site, sufficient covered stores or open storage is necessary for
maintaining the material in good condition. )ement is usually supplied in bags,
which is stored at the site in covered shed. "he sheds are constructed with bric$ wall,
&78 floor, tubular structure trusses, roofing with sheets. *ags not e/ceeding 10 are
stac$ed one over another. &f more than 10 bags are stac$ed then the lower bags tend
to set, ma$ing cement non-usable. &n case cement is used in large 1uantities for
concreting by the batching plant, and pre-cast element plant, is stored in bul$ in
vertical silos. "he silos are filled up by a pneumatic pump fi/ed on the cement bul$
carrier. 6rom the silo cement is conveyed into the mi/er of the batching plant and
pre-cast element plant, through a screw conveyor.
Ser1"ce!
"he site camp is to be provided with services li$e electric supply, sewage disposal,
communication, telephone. &n case regular power supply is available from the grid, it
can be tapped and necessary substation with transformer installed at site. &f grid
power is not available then, it may be necessary to generate own power by installing
diesel penetrating se1s at the sets. ,ater supply can similarly be tapped, if water
lines are passing nearby in the vicinity, by providing underground storage tan$ and
distribution through a pumping system and over head tan$. &n case water mains are
not available, tube well could be bored for water. <ecessary treatment of water to
ma$e it safe for intended consumption will have to be carried out. 6or sewage
disposal, since the camp is only for a temporary duration septic tan$, could be
provided. &f it is a large site, and enough land is available, then it may be possible to
provide an o/idation pond for sewage disposal. "he effluent from the pond could be
used for horticultural purposes of the site.
&n order to carry out the enabling wor$ which is re1uired at the very initial stage of
the project itself, it may be desirable for the organi#ation, to set up a @crac$ team@
which can go in advance to the site and build up all the temporary structures, services
re1uired for the enabling wor$s. "his will cut down the time re1uired by the main
project team, on their arrival at the site, and they could embar$ upon straight-away on
e/ecution of the main project. 8uch a @crac$ team@ can move from project to project
for the organi#ation, and they would be well trained in carrying out this activity. .n
the other hand, if project team assigned with the main wor$, is to first build up the
enabling wor$s, a lot of time is lost for the project. .n most international project, and
on some major projects within country, of structure being adopted for the site camp is
of portable nature. "hese are in the form of light steel or wooden structure, which are
mounted on s$id beams or wheels, and can be moved to the camp site, at a very short
notice. "he 7ort cabins are provided with electrical, plumbing and sanitary fi/ture,
and the system becomes operational at site by plugging into the electrical and water
supply. "hrough the initial cost of the system may be more but over a period of time
it would become economically viable since the structure can be shifted to site,
whereas, if the camp is built with conventional materials. +i$e steel, concrete, the
cost would be higher in the longer run, besides the e/tra time re1uired to build the
)amp.
TRANSPORTATION:
"he proposed bridge site is at =irari, located !5 $ms away from Delhi. "he means of
transportation are as followsF
i: 6or staff wor$ers 2 engineers, not residing on site, a minibus is arranged by the
organi#ation for their daily conveyance.
ii: &n case of emergencies, such as fatal accident or injury on site, the organi#ation
has arranged an ambulance in the form of omni-van with small stretcher laid inside
the van.
iii: 6or immediate or une/pected re1uirement of material o site, % standby truc$s are
arranged for conveyance of material on site from around the vicinity of 100 $ms from
site.
iv: 6or receiving consultants and e/ecutives from the nearest terminal, an automobile
such as 8corpio or >ualis is arranged by the organi#ation. 0ll the e/penses re1uired
for the above conveyance are added into the total cost of the project as contingencies.
B"'%"ogra&8(3Rea#"ng!
)onstruction site organi#ation management 9<&)04: