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Chapter 27

1
To maintain security vis-a-vis the Germans, the French did all of the following EXCEPT
secure strong guarantees of support from the Americans and the British.
2
By 1921 the Soviet Union was controlled by
the Bolsheviks.
3
Mussolini was
an atheist who valued the support of the Catholic Church and who granted the pope sovereignty
over the Vatican.
4
Which of the following statements concerning the Great Depression of the twentieth century is
most accurate?
The gold standard disappeared from the international economy never to return.
5
The second American plan created in 1929 to rebuild the German economy was the
Young Plan.
6
The Popular Front in Spain outradicalized the one in France by inaugurating all of the following
change EXCEPT
working with industrialists and militarists to rearm Spain
7
The international communist organization formed as an association of the various national
parties to coordinate the coming world revolution was the
Comintern.
8
All of the following were organizing goals Hitler identified for the Nazi state EXCEPT
immediate elimination of the Jews.
9
Soviet economic policy settled on by 1921 was
the New Economic Policy
10
After World War I, Germany suffered
the loss of Alsace and Lorraine.
11
After the United States played decisive roles in World War I and the peace negotiations, it
retreated to a position of selective involvement.
12
Which of the following nations aided the Republic during the Spanish Civil War?
the Soviet Union
13
Which of the following statements concerning the nature of the Nazi state is most accurate?
Policy was set by an often chaotic jockeying for power among rival Nazi factions.
14
The chief obstacle to a smoothly functioning international economy was
U.S. trade policies.
15
The effectiveness of the League of Nations was undermined by lack of
American support.

16
Heinrich Himmler headed an elite force of the Nazi Party known as the
SS (Schutzstaffel).
17
Which of the following statements concerning the states created in the aftermath of World War I
in eastern Europe is most accurate?
Most of the new states were primarily agricultural, and the peace settlements compounded their
economic problems.
18
Germany's prime ally immediately after World War I was
the Soviet Union.
19
The Kellogg-Briand Pact
renounced war.
20
Which of the following was NOT an obstacle for the Weimar Republic?
Failure to produce real economic growth
21
What legislation did the Nazis introduce in 1935 to deprive Jews of their German citizenship and
forbid marriage between Jews and non-Jews?
The Nuremberg Laws
22
Which of the major Soviet leaders was expelled from the Communist Party in 1927 and found
refuge in Mexico?
Leon Trotsky
23
Which of the following statements concerning the U.S. financial status is correct?
The United States became the leading creditor nation in the world.
24
Which of the following was NOT a structural weakness in the world economy in 1929?
The increased German reparation payments as a result of the Dawes Plan
25
Stalin's slogan to justify the hardships of the Five-Year Plan was
"Socialism in One Country!"
26
The first Soviet Five-Year Plan was a success in the sense that
it laid the foundations of the Soviet planned economy, in which the state bureaucracy made all
decisions.
27
The skillful leader of Weimar Germany's foreign policy who led his country back into international
affairs after 1918 was
Gustav Stresemann.
28
The French leftist premier who was elected to office in 1936 was
Leon Blum.
29
What was the origin of German inflation?
It started during WWI when the imperial government printed money instead of raising taxes.
30
The Soviet Union in reality, was governed by
the Polituburo

31
Before the Third Reich,
Weimar Germany secretly rearmed, violating the Versailles treaty.
32
Hitler came to formal power in Germany
on the invitation of President Paul von Hindenburg after the elections of 1932.
33
Which of the following statements concerning women in the Soviet Union is most accurate?
The reforms gained by women in 1917 were threatened as soon as the 1930s.
34
Which of the following was NOT a part of Stalin's policies to catapult the Soviet Union into the
modern world
Allowing free markets to set prices
35
Sir Oswald Mosley was
the founder of the British Union of Fascists.
36
The Versailles treaty marked
the end of European autonomy.
37
Which among the following groups did Germans NOT blame for hyperinflation after 1918?
The U.S.
38
After World War I, the map of east central Europe
was totally redrawn.
39
Which of the following statements is most accurate?
The United States responded to the international depression by raising tariffs in 1930.
40
The person in charge of implementing the New Economic Policy was
Nikolai Bukharin.
41
Adolf Hitler was born
in Austria
42
The founder of the Italian Fascist Party was
Benito Mussolini.
43
The radical right in France was able to build a power base in France in the late 1930s for all of
the following reasons EXCEPT
france admired the Nazi regime in Germany and wanted the same sort of government.
44
The problem of German reparations and French debt repayments was temporarily and
unsatisfactorily dealt with in the
Dawes Plan
45
Effectively, World War I was fought on
borrowed money.
46
Hitler believed that Germany's loss in World War I was due to
internal defeat brought about by communists, socialists, liberals, and Jews.
47
Which of the following was NOT a major factor in the early Soviet Politburo?
Sergei Kamenev
48
The most vivid proof of French anxiety in an age of industrial and mobile warfare was the
maginot line
49
While in prison in 1925, Hitler
wrote Mein Kampf
50
What African nation was the target of Mussolini's plans of imperial conquest in 1935
Ethiopia
51
According to Bukharin's economic plans, all of the following principles were acceptable EXCEPT
large-scale collectivization

Chapter 28
1
Where did the first meeting between the Allied leaders to plot strategy for the end of World War
II take place?
Teheran
2
Resistance movements against Nazi rule developed most strongly after
the German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941.
3
Which of the following techniques did Hitler employ to seize Czechoslovakia?
He provoked a crisis in Czechoslovakia and then demanded "freedom" for the German-speaking
people of the Sudetenland.
4
The turning point for the Allies in World War II was Germany's invasion of
the Soviet Union.
5
In September, 1940, Japan joined forces with Germany and Italy in the
Tripartite Pact.
6
What was the focus of the second German invasion of Russia in the summer of 1942?
Stalingrad
7
The actual order for the Final Solution--the elimination of the Jews--came from
various Nazi administrative agencies in which people knew and understood that Hitler wanted
this mass murder to occur.
8
Why did Stalin distrust his British and American allies?
Campaigns in North Africa and Italy did little to relieve German pressure on the Soviet Union.
9
Which of the following nations was NOT attacked by Germany in 1940?
Austria
10
Why did Britain not act to defend Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939?
In Britain's hierarchy of priorities, defense of the Empire ranked above defense of Europe.
11
Hitler's conduct of the war in the Soviet Union differed from the war in the West in that
Hitler viewed the war in the East as a "holy war"; hence, the Nazi troops were encouraged to
commit the worst atrocities against people in the East.
12
What nation did the French and British agree to defend in 1939 if the Germans attacked?
Poland
13
The victory of the Soviets in their campaign against the Nazis can be attributed to all of the
following EXCEPT
the superior equipment Soviet troops received in 1941
14
The estimated number of people killed in WWII was
50 million
15
Hitler's puppet/collaborationist governments were willing to serve the Nazis for all of the
following reasons EXCEPT
humanitarian concern for their ethnic minorities
16
As a neutral country prior to 1941, the United States supported the Allied effort against Germany
through the
Lend-Lease Act.
17
Which of the following was NOT one of the places in which the leaders of the United States,
Britain, and the Soviet Union met to determine the future of Europe?
Munich
18
What led to the Japanese surrender in 1945?
A merciless bombing campaign directed against population centers ending with the atomic
bombs
19
In the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Japan
viewed other members as suppliers of raw materials and markets for manufactured products.
20
The U.S. State Department and the British Foreign Affairs Office received reliable information on
the nature and extent of Nazi extermination
early in the process.
21
Japanese-American relations deteriorated in 1941 following the Japanese invasion of
Indochina.
22
The battle of Britain refers to
the series of air attacks launched by the German air force in 1940.
23
At the end of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union were
the undisputed giants in world politics.
24
With what nation did Hitler sign the Non-Aggression Pact of 1939?
the Soviet Union
25
Where was the second European front against Germany and Italy opened in 1941?
The Mediterranean, specifically North Africa
26
Once the Russian winter and counterattacks by Soviet forces began to turn the invading Nazi
divisions back, Hitler
dismissed his generals for retreating without his permission.
27
In the period between October 1939 and May 1940, the mood in France
deteriorated into defeatism.
28
Who conducted the planning conference for coordination of the Final Solution?
Reinhard Heydrich
29
What British prime minister marshaled British forces for resistance to German aggression after
1940?
Winston Churchill
30
Which of the following statements concerning Nazi social policies is NOT accurate?
Homosexual females were regarded as greater threats to Nazi racial purity than gay males.
31
In what European city did the Jewish residents of a ghetto mount an unsuccessful military
resistance to the Germans?
Warsaw
32
In what Pacific naval battle did the American navy achieve final superiority over the Japanese
navy?

Midway
33
Appeasement, as it has come to be used in reference to twentieth-century European history, has
taken on the meaning of
a cowardly or weak inclination to concede to demands for fear of war.
34
Stalin's attitude after the Great Patriotic War was that the Soviet Union
would decide the future of the territories of eastern Europe that the Soviet army had liberated
from Germany.
35
German Jews
believed in the 1930s that things could get no worse and obeyed the German government as
good citizens.
36
The Soviet Union
incurred over 50 percent of all the deaths and casualties of World War II.
37
Which of the following actions was taken against the Jews prior to 1939?
Expropriation of Jewish property as rightfully belonging to the state
38
Southeastern Europe was important to Germany for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
heavy industries that supplied German tanks
39
Of the peace terms listed below, which was NOT agreed upon by Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin
in the various meetings held to discuss the future of Europe?
Germany would be reestablished as a neutral zone under the administration of the United
Nations.
40
After the Munich conference of 1938,
Hitler annihilated Czechoslovakia by occupying its western portions and treating its eastern half
as a satellite.
41
What was the colonial administration established by the Japanese in Asia between 1940 and
1945?
The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
42
The eleven million victims of the Nazi extermination process included all of the following groups
EXCEPT
downed British (Royal Air Force) pilots.
43
One of the best-known resistance fighters during World War II was
Josip Broz.
44
Which of the following nations did NOT have a pro-Soviet government after WWII?
Greece
45
After invading the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, the Nazi forces advanced into the USSR rapidly
because of all of the following factors EXCEPT
the invading German troops had been given advance assistance by spies and traitors hoping to
benefit from the "New Order."

Chapter 29
1
In 1945, the United States
was producing a full 50 percent of the world's GNP.
2
The European Economic Community--the Common Market--was established in
1957.
3
How much greater was the United States' GNP than the Soviet Union in 1949?
400%
4
The year in which student protests were most frequent was
1968.
5
American economic aid to Europe after World War II was accompanied by
increased regulation and state planning.
6
The first president of West Germany was
Konrad Adenauer.
7
When was the first Nuclear Test Ban Treaty?
1963
8
Who wrote The Second Sex, the handbook of the women's movement in the 1960s?
Simone de Beauvoir
9
The Soviet response to the Allied formation of West Germany was
the Berlin blockade.
10
European birth rates after World War II
climbed briefly, then declined.
11
While the United States was ahead in the nuclear arms race, the Soviet Union
pulled ahead in space exploration.
12
Betty Friedan
believed that women suffered from a profound crisis in identity.
13
Which of the following was NOT a key factor in the new European prosperity?
Economic equality for women
14
After the death of Stalin in 1953, what leader denounced Stalin's rule and claimed socialist
production was superior to capitalist production?
Khrushchev
15
Lacking the capital to finance recovery, the Soviet Union
sought compensation from eastern and central Europe.
16
A time of Soviet-American diplomatic cooperation came in
1956 in the Suez Canal crisis.
17
Which of the following nations did NOT participate in the Marshall Plan?
Poland
18
Whose economic theories were widely applied in post-war Europe?
John Maynard Keynes
19
What Soviet leader emerged as the successor to Stalin?
Nikita Khrushchev
20
Which of the following statements concerning Japanese economic reconstruction after World War
II is NOT accurate?
Although Japan recovered, the economic recovery was much slower than that of Germany.
21
After 1948, the Eastern bloc countries
paid a heavy social cost for their position under the tutelage of the Soviet Union.
22
What term did Winston Churchill use to describe the division of Eastern and Western Europe?
Iron Curtain
23
Yugoslavia
retained independence from Soviet control.
24
Robert Schuman and Jean Monnet devised the plan
to pool all French and German coal and steel resources.
25
The chief mechanism for administering the Marshall Plan was
the Office of European Economic Cooperation.
26
Factors facilitating the development of the youth culture were all of the following EXCEPT
the identity of interests between youth and those over thirty
27
The Marshall Plan
restored Western European trade and production.
28
What western bloc alliance was formed in 1949 to contain the U.S.S.R.?
NATO
29
Eastern bloc uprisings in ____________ and ___________ were crushed during the cold war.
Both Hungary and Czechoslavakia
30
Lord Beveridge, the architect of the British welfare state, argued
that, during marriage, most women would not be gainfully employed.
31
Eastern European nations didn't participate in the Marshall Plan because
the Soviets opposed the plan.
32
Which of the following was NOT included in the Marshall Plan?
Poland
33
The French welfare system differed from the English in that it
offered women the same rights of access to welfare programs as men.
34
What was the common denominator most student protests shared in the late 1960s?
Anger over U.S. presence in Vietnam
35
After World War II, women
earned roughly two thirds of what men earned for the same job.
36
Which of the following was NOT included in the Marshall Plan?
It was closed at first to the USSR and its allies.