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MSETCL RTC Padghe Batch 7

(dt.12/7/2013)
Power Line Carrier Communication
( B2B & D2D)
To communicate is Human Nature
We communicate to
Convey feelings.
Express
agreements.
Express love.
Learn/ Teach
Share knowledge
Communico (Latin)
Telephone
A user end instrument that is used to transmit &
receive Voice frequency signals.
Voice frequency is audio range used for transmission
of Speech. ( 300 Hz to 3400 Hz)
Telephone bandwidth for a Single voice frequency
channel is 4 KHz.
Telephone Bandwidth is 4 KHz
1000 Hz
2000 Hz
3000 Hz
4000 Hz
5000 Hz
6000 Hz
Dialing Communication
Modulation & Demodulation
LINE IN LINE OUT (LILO) Arrangement
Existing PLCC link ABB make ETL
PLCC links after LILO
1. Line Section 1 use existing PLCTs(ABB)
2. Line section 2 use new PLCTs (ABB or BPL)
Frequency plan
Freq. Band in KHz U
Freq. Band in
KHz
U
Freq. Band in
KHz
U
Freq. Band in
KHz
U
Freq. Band in
KHz
U Freq. Band in KHz U
100-104 168-172 236-240 304-308 372-376 440-444
104-108 172-176 240-244 308-312 376-380 444-448
108-112 176-180 244-248 312-316 380-384 448-452
112-116 180-184 248-252 316-320 384-388 452-456
116-120 184-188 252-256 320-324 388-392 456-460
120-124 188-192 256-260 324-328 392-396 460-464
124-128 192-196 260-264 328-332 396-400 464-468
128-132 196-200 264-268 332-336 400-404 468-472
132-136 200-204 268-272 336-340 404-408 472-476
136-140 204-208 272-276 340-344 408-412 476-480
140-144 208-212 276-280 344-348 412-416 480-484
144-148 212-216 280-284 348-352 416-420 484-488
148-152 216-220 284-288 352-356 420-424 488-492
152-156 220-224 288-292 356-360 424-428 492-496
156-160 224-228 292-296 360-364 428-432 496-500
160-164 228-232 296-300 U 364-368 432-436
164-168 232-236 300-304 U 368-372 436-440
Sr no. PLCC link Frequency in KHz Overlapping of allotted frequencies with the
available links.
1 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S(with PC)
124/128U
128/124U (400KV PGCIL- Padghe)
2 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S(with PC)
160/168U
Rx 160 (400KV PGCIL- Padghe)
Rx 168 (400KV PGCIL- Chakan
3 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S
336/340U
Tx 340 (400KV PGCIL- Chakan)
4 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S
352/356U
Can be used.
5 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S
228/232U
228/232U (400KV PGCIL- Parali-II). Link
not yet commissioned. Hence can be used.
6 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S
248/264U
Can be used.
Approved Frequencies for 400 KV Lonikand I PGCIL line
Sr
no.
PLCC link Frequency in KHz Remarks
1 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S ( With PC)
352/356U
2 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S ( With PC)
228/232U
Link not yet commissioned at
400KV Pune PGCIL- Parali-II.
Hence can be used.
3 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S
248/264U
4 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S
336/360U
336KHz is already approved as
above.
5 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S
328/348U
Being spare during shifting of
400KV Lonikand Parali I &
panel reduction at 400KV
Lonikand-II.
6 400KV Pune PGCIL Lonikand S/S
488/496U
432/488UL is approved for 220KV
Lonikand I- VSNL. Can be
modified.
( 428/456 U KHz)
Or (96/92 U KHz)
( 232/108 UL KHz)
Or 480/ 488 UL KHz
Rx Tx
Rx Tx Rx Tx
Frequency space
4 + 4 = 8 KHz required
Frequency space
4 + 4 +4 +4 = 16 KHz required
For Single ch. Max 56 no. of PLCT & Twin ch. Max.
28 no.of PLCTs can be used .
R
x
T
x
R
x
T
x
Speech signal
Protection signal
Data Signal
Carrier
Amplitude
Modulated Signal
AM
signal
fm
fm
fm fc
fc + fm
fc - fm
fc
PLCC link
PLCT are used as a pair one at each end
Each PLCT is designated for a set of Tx & Rx freq.
These freq may be Separate Or Adjacent.
The corresponding PLCT at the other end will be designated
for the reverse value of Tx/Rx freq.
The ch freq. will be either in 4 KHz or 8 KHz BW depending
upon single ch or Twin ch.
Features of PLCT
Mode of Transmission Amplitude
Modulation (Single Sideband with
Suppressed Carrier)
Carrier Frequency 50 to 500 KHz
Nominal carrier frequency band in either
direction of transmission 4 KHz
Power output of PLC Terminal 20 or 40 Watt
Supply voltage- 48 V DC with + pole earthed
Protection
Frequency
Guard
Frequency
Pilot Frequency
Data Freq. Dial Freq.
Speech Freq.
Carrier
Frequency
Wave Trap or Line trap
Wave traps are series connected
Parallel tuned circuit.
Main components
L (main Coil)
Tuning pot
LA (protective device)
For a well designed Wave trap insertion loss
is 1 to 3 dB & blocking attenuation is 8 to 10
dB
Do you know dB (decibel) unit ?
Decibel dB denotes Logarithmic comparison between
two signals I/P & O/P.
Power ratio = 10 Log (P2/P1)
Voltage ratio = 20 Log (V2/V1)
Basic units dBm& dBu
dBm= Power levels above, below or at 1 milli watt.
One milli watt power w.r.to 600 ohms is referred as
reference power.
dBu = Voltage levels above, below or at 775 milli
volts.
Tuning Pot & LA
Pedestal WT
Exercise
Select Blocking Band for PLCT having Frequency 96/92 U KHz
Coupling Capacitor / CVT
The main Purpose of CC is twofold
1. Protection of PLCC terminals from Extra
HighVoltage.
2. Passing the HF signal with minimum
attenuation.
One end of the CC must be securely connected
to ground otherwise Over voltages up to the
magnitude of the operating voltage may occur
on the equipment side of the Capacitor.
Capacitive Voltage Transformer CVT
CVT consists of CC & Voltage transformer
CC for Carrier communication & Voltage
Transformer for Monitoring or control.
CVT HF point
Line Matching Unit (LMU)
R
150E
125E
75E
To PLCC
Terminal
22
21
20
19
18
17
24
23
28
27
MARSHALLING BOX A
To
CC/CVT
ES
LA
DC
16
15
14
13
MARSHALLING BOX B
DC
LA
ES
To
CC/CVT
16
15
14
13
C
S
MT
BT- Balancing Transformer
MT- Matching Transformer
DC- Drain Coil
ES- Earth Switch
LA- Lightning Arrestor
S- shield of Co-axial cable
C- Conductor of C-axial cable
LMU is mounted on the structure that supports the CC /CVT
Exercise
Select the pass band of LMU for PLCT having frequency 96/92 U KHz.
Pass bands
35 90 KHz
50 90 KHz
90 500 KHz
3 Elements Protection device
Drain Coil
LA
Earth switch
Insulated single Conductor Lead in wire
To connect CC to the LMU, use an
insulted single conductor lead in
wire.
Bare conductor & Co axial cable
should not be used.
Stray capacitance & leakage to
ground will increase the losses of
LMU & bandwidth.
The connection between the CC &
LMU is high impedance point in the
series tuned circuit formed by the
tuning inductor & CC.
HF Cable or Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable is a Two conductor cable made of a single
conductor surrounded by a braided wire jacket with a plastic
insulating material separating the two.
The coaxial cable provides Shielding so that noise can not get
into the cable and cause interference .
The characteristic impedance of the co ax cable is either
75 ohms or 125 ohms.
Characteristic Impedance
Ch impedance of a transmission line is defined as the ratio of
the Voltage to the current of a traveling wave on a line of
infinite length.
Ch impedance of line, Z = 276 Log (D/r)
where D distance between conductors & r is radius of
conductor.
Ch. Impedance is also known as Surge impedance due to the
temporarily resistive behavior of any length transmission line.
ABB Make Coupling device Connections
Exercise
Find the mistakes in this picture
Hints -
1. Make, Type & Frequency of PLCT.
2. Selection of Passband of LMU.
3. Selection of Blocking band of Line trap.
4. PLCC Phase to Phase coupling.
5. Main HF Cable & HF loop connections.
Coupling schemes---
Economic ,Engineering & common sense
Mode 1 coupling
Center ph to Outer ph (No Mode 3)
Center ph to Ground ( No mode 2)
Outer ph to outer ph with Ground return
(No mode 2)
Outer ph to Ground ( All 3 modes)
Inter circuit
Phase-to-Ground
LMU
Cc
LT
PLC
Cc
LMDU LMU
PLC
Cc
LT
LT
Cc
LMDU LMU
PLC
Cc
LT
LT
Phase-to-Phase
PLCC Coupling
Modal analysis
Modal analysis is a mathematical tool similar to
symmetrical components used for analyzing
unbalanced faults on three ph power system.
It can be shown that no. of natural Nodes is equal to
the no. of conductors involved in the propagation.
For example, 3 nodes in the case of a single circuit
line with 2 earth wires earthed at each tower.
The ph conductor V or I can be resolved into 3 sets of
natural mode components at any point on a lossy,
reflection free three ph line.
Mode distribution for a 3 ph line
Mode 1 is least attenuated & least
frequency dependent
more frequency dependent & has
more attenuation than Mode1
Mode 3 is the highest attenuated mode &
is propagated on all 3 phases & returns via
the ground
Mode components for various types of
coupling
a) Center phase to Ground coupling
b) Outer phase to Ground coupling
c) Center to Outer Push Pull coupling
d) Outer to Outer Push push coupling
Substation A
Substation B
Zone 1 (A & B) Zone 1 (A)
Zone 2 (B)
Zone 1 (B)
Zone 2 (A)
Line Fault PUTTDistance relay( 21), Main I, Main II
Conductor snapping
Tree fault
Bird fault
In case of 400 KV line, Main I & Main II are parallel commands.
M I ,M II should be operated simultaneously.
Substation A Substation B
Substation FaultDirect Trip Protection
Over Voltage
LBB
Reactor Protection
Busbar
Hand trip
86ROV all commands are routed through 86ROV except Hand
trip
85 LO receive command is routed through 85LO relay.
Conventional 3 Zone Protection
Distance
Relay 21
Distance
Relay 21
400 220
Z 1 0 0
Z 2 300 400
Z3 500 700
Carrier aided Protection
Distance
Relay 21
Distance
Relay 21
Protection
Coupler
Protection
Coupler
Trip logic
Conventional & Carrier aided protection
Carrier aided Protection
In the absence of communication link, the operation of
End zone fault is longer & auto reclosing is not possible.
Carrier aided protection scheme is used for simultaneous
tripping of near & far end circuit breakers
Protection Coupler equipments can be used along with
PLCC terminals for Tele protection requirements.
Principle of operation
Under normal conditions, i.e. when there is no fault in
the line, guard frequency or frequencies G1 & G2 will be
continuously transmitted through the PLC channel for
monitoring the healthiness of the equipment.
In the event of operation of protection due to fault the
guard signals will be cut & corresponding trip signals will
be transmitted in the Speech band.
Speech & any other Data transmission are interrupted
while the trip signals are being transmitted.
Relay
Interface
1
G4AC
Slot no.
15
Relay
Interface
2
G4AC
Slot no.
21
DSP
D
A
D
A
D
A
C
DSP Module G4AA Slot no.10
Start A
Tx Command A
AF Tx
BOOST
Pilot
Tx Speech
Relay
Interface
1
G4AC
Slot no.
15
Relay
Interface
2
G4AC
Slot no.
21
DSP
D
A
D
A
D
A
C
Alarm
Tx,Rx,COM 1,2
DSP Module G4AA Slot no.10
Rx command A
Rx aux O/P A
AF Rx
Rx Speech
AGC
ALARM
NSD 50 Trip Frequencies
Command A 872 Hz
Command B 1090 Hz
A & B Permissive Trip/ Uncoded Commands
Command C 654 Hz / 1526 Hz
Command D 654 Hz / 1745 Hz
C &D Direct Trip / Coded Commands
A,B,C & D Commands are transmitted in Speech
band
Transmission time ,Security & Dependability
The Performance of a protection coupler is assessed by
The Transmission time
The Security ( Unwanted command probability)
The Dependability ( Missing command probability)
Permissive & Direct
This scheme is used for protection of power line with Distance
relay.
Tripping can only take place at the receiving end if a tripping
signal is being received and local protection relay detects a fault.
Transmission Time 12ms
Command Prolongation (Trip Extension) time- 20ms
The tripping command from the protection coupler goes directly
to the circuit breaker.
Transmission Time 26 ms
Command Prolongation time- 100 ms
ABB ETL 41 ABB ETL 41 ABB ETL 41
ABB ETL 41
ABB ETL 41
Main I Main II Direct Trip Sp Dialing Sp Express
M I Own
M II Own
Direct trip Own
M I Parallel
M II Parallel
v
Utilization of PLCC panels (3P+2S)
A A B B C
Modified Utilization (2P+2/1S)
ABB ETL 41
ABB ETL 41 ABB ETL 41 ABB ETL 41
Channel I Channel II
Speech Dialing
A A B B
M II Own
Direct trip Own
v
v
v
M I Parallel
M II Parallel
Direct trip Parallel
Speech Express
C C
OR
ABB ETL 41 ABB ETL 42
A A B B
M II Own
v
v
v
M I Parallel
M II Parallel
Direct trip Parallel
C C
Channel I Channel II
Speech Dialing/Express
Twin Channel Panel
M I Own
M I Own
Direct trip Own
ABB ETL 41
Relay Interface 2
Opto coupler
Solid state C
Alarm Contact
Opto coupler
Solid state C
Relay Interface 1
Opto coupler
Solid state C
Opto coupler
Solid state C
DSP Card
G4AA
G4AC G4AC
Protection Coupler ABB Make NSD 50
Alarm Contact
Slot no. 10
Slot no. 15
Slot no. 21
DSP
Relay Panel
Protection coupler
Opto coupler
Solid state
Contact
Alarm Contact
Trip Send Contact in RP
Carrier Receive Relay in RP
Carrier Healthy relay in RP
85X
30X
RP K102
RP K877
RP K173
RP K169
RP K161
RP K169
Distance
Relay 21
ETL 41
84/80
KHz
with
NSD 50
ETL 41
80/84
KHz
with
NSD 50
M I
M II
DT
M I
M II
DT
ETL 41
96/92
KHz
with
NSD 50
ETL 41
92/96
KHz
with
NSD 50
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