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EE5321/EE7321

Semiconductor Devices and Circuits

Current Sources Part 1

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Current Sources

ï In nearly all circuits that we have studied the implementation of a current source to bias the circuit resulted in improvement of circuit characteristics

ï Good current and voltage sources are a key asset on the design of analog circuits

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Current source: Features

ï Features of current source:

ñ A well controlled current

ñ The supplied current does not depend on the voltage across the current source.

This means that it is desirable for the current source to have a HIGH internal resistance

for the current source to have a HIGH internal resistance Ideal I-V characteristics ALP_Rotondaro Equivalent Circuit

Ideal I-V characteristics

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Equivalent Circuit Model

to have a HIGH internal resistance Ideal I-V characteristics ALP_Rotondaro Equivalent Circuit Model EE5321/EE7321 3

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Current source: Ideal vs Real

ï Ideal Current source Rs

Ideal vs Real ï Ideal Current source → Rs ≈ ∞ ï Real Current source Rs

ï Real Current source Rs has a finite value

Rs Rs
Rs
Rs

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Current source: Biased MOSFET

ï A MOSFET biased with a known gate voltage can behave as a current source

with a known gate voltage can behave as a current source I DS = µ n

I DS = µ n C ox

2

W

L

(

V bias

TH ) 2

- V

R 2

R 1 +R 2

V bias =

V DD

Area consumption with R 1 and R 2

bias = V DD • Area consumption with R 1 and R 2 I D S

I DS variation with device parms

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Current source: Need for Voltage ref

ï Desired features:

ñ A well controlled voltage

ñ The voltage does not depend on the current drawn. This means LOW internal resistance

on the current drawn. This means LOW internal resistance Ideal I-V characteristics ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321

Ideal I-V characteristics

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Equivalent circuit model

This means LOW internal resistance Ideal I-V characteristics ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 Equivalent circuit model 6

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Voltage source: MOS in diode config

ï The MOSFET is connected that: V GS = V DS

config ï The MOSFET is connected that: V G S = V D S I DS

I DS = µ n C ox W 2 L

D S I DS = µ n • C o x • W 2 • L

(

V GS - V

TH ) 2 = µ n C ox W

2 L

(

V DS

- V

TH ) 2

ï Beyond V TH the device has a quadratic I-V characteristics

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Voltage source: MOS in diode config

ï For V D > V TH the MOSFET is always in saturation

V D > V T H the MOSFET is always in saturation ï The Bipolar diode
V D > V T H the MOSFET is always in saturation ï The Bipolar diode

ï The Bipolar diode has a closer to ideal behavior

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Voltage source: How to synthesize it?

ï Assuming that a current source, I REF , is available

ï V GS = V DS assumes value to have i D

I D = I REF + i out

V GS = v out

i out = µ n 2 C L

ox W

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µ n • 2 C • L ox • W ALP_Rotondaro • ( v out -

(

v

out

- V

2

TH )

- I

REF

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• ( v out - V 2 TH ) - I REF EE5321/EE7321 v out =

v out =V TH +

I REF +i out W 2•L • µ n • C ox
I
REF +i out
W
2•L • µ n • C ox

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Voltage source: Trade-offs

ï The output voltage, v out , is a function of I REF and W/L of the MOSFET

I REF v out

E F and W/L of the MOSFET I REF ↑ ⇒ v out ↑ W/L ↑

W/Lv out

F and W/L of the MOSFET I REF ↑ ⇒ v out ↑ W/L ↑ ⇒

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Voltage source: small signal

ï Body connected to ground and source to ground No body effect (g mb = 0)

and source to ground ⇒ No body effect (g m b = 0) ALP_Rotondaro 1 ||

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1 || r o ≈ R out = 1 g m g m
1
||
r o ≈
R out = 1
g m
g
m

R out is small (good!!!)

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Voltage source: PMOS implementation

ï It has the same operation and characteristics as the NMOS voltage source. However:

g m,PMOS < g m,NMOS for the same W/L Need to compensate by using bigger W/L

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S < g m , N M O S for the same W/L Need to compensate

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Voltage source: equivalent resistance

ï It is important to pay attention to the method to calculate the resistance of the voltage source

ï If the bias point is used in a simplified way:

R DC = V DS / I D

which is a value much larger than the small

signal determined resistance that more accurately describes the circuit

R AC = 1/g m

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determined resistance that more accurately describes the circuit R A C = 1/g m ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321

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Voltage source: Bias from supply

ï I D1 = I D2 if i out 0

ï Defining:

β N = µ n C ox W N 2 L N

β N

(

V bias

2

TN )

- V

= β P

( V DD - V bias -

V bias =

V TN +

V TN + β P β N • ( V DD - V TP )

β P

β

N

(

V DD -

V TP
V
TP

)

 

1+

β P

β N
β
N

ï Use β ratio to design V bias

ï Use β N to design I D

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β P = µ p C ox W P

2 L P

) 2 V TP
) 2
V
TP
β N to design I D ALP_Rotondaro EE5321/EE7321 β P = µ p • C o

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Voltage source: Bias from I bias

ï V bias = V GS1 + V GS2

V bias =

s ï V bias = V GS1 + V GS2 V bias = + V T
s ï V bias = V GS1 + V GS2 V bias = + V T

+V T1 +

2 • I bias β 2
2 • I
bias
β 2

+V T2

ï Design β 1 and β 2 to yield the desired value of V bias

ï Notice that V T1 and V T2 might differ due to body effect on M1

ï Try to keep W/L values close to unit to minimize area

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differ due to body effect on M1 ï Try to keep W/L values close to unit

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Homework: Calculate r ac

ï Assuming:

W/L = 10 V To = 0.7V µ n ïC ox = 110 µA/V 2 γ = 0.4 V 1/2 λ = 0.04 V -1 2|Φ F | = 0.7 V

vac
vac

ï V BS is not known. The value of V TH is an unknown

ï Initially, body effect is ignored and V To is used to calculate V GS1 . This value is used to calculate the initial value of V BS1 and V TH1 . Iterate if necessary.

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References

ï Gray: 4.1; 4.2.1; 4.2.2.2; 4.2.3.2; 4.2.4.2; 4.2.5.2; 4.2.6.2; 4.3.1; 4.3.4; 4.3.5

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