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INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................

6
ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM ............................................................................................... 7
Inorganic Theories ......................................................................................................... 7
Deep seated terrestrial hypothesis ................................................................................ 7
Extraterrestrial hypothesis. .......................................................................................... 7
Problems with inorganic hypotheses. ........................................................................... 8
Generation of crude oil ................................................................................................ 13
Generation of Natural Gas .......................................................................................... 1
CHEMISTRY OF PETROLEUM .................................................................................... 15
Introduction! ................................................................................................................ 1"
#ydrocarbons .............................................................................................................. 1"
Paraffin Series ............................................................................................................ 16
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons ......................................................................................... 18
Naphthene Hydrocarbons ........................................................................................... 1
!ro"atic Hydrocarbons ............................................................................................ 1
Types of $rude %ils ..................................................................................................... &'
Paraffin#based $rude %ils .......................................................................................... &'
!sphaltic (ased $rude %ils ....................................................................................... &'
)ixed (ase $rude %ils .............................................................................................. &1
Natural Gas .................................................................................................................. &1
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY .............................................................................................. 22
The (oc) $ycle ............................................................................................................ &&
The 3 basic types of roc)s. ........................................................................................... &"
Igneous (oc)s ............................................................................................................... &"
*exture ....................................................................................................................... &6
$o"position ............................................................................................................... &6
*edimentary (oc)s ...................................................................................................... &7
$lastic sedi"entary roc+s, ........................................................................................ &8
Sandstone ................................................................................................................... &8
$on-lo"erate ............................................................................................................. &8
Shale ........................................................................................................................... &
$lays .......................................................................................................................... &
(entonite .................................................................................................................... .'
$he"ical sedi"entary roc+s, .................................................................................... .'
%r-anic sedi"entary roc+s ........................................................................................ .'
+etamorphic (oc)s ..................................................................................................... 31
The Geological Time *cale ......................................................................................... 31
GEOLOGICAL FEATURES ............................................................................................ 34
1
(eser,oir (oc) ............................................................................................................ 3
Traps ............................................................................................................................. 3
!nticline *rap ............................................................................................................ ./
0ault trap .................................................................................................................... ./
*hrust 0ault ................................................................................................................ .6
Salt Do"e *rap ......................................................................................................... .8
Strati-raphic *rap ....................................................................................................... .8
PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS ......................................................................................... 40
(eser,oir Properties ................................................................................................... '
Permeability .................................................................................................................. '
Darcy1s E2uation for linear inco"pressible fluid flo3 .............................................. 41
Porosity and hydraulic conducti5ity .......................................................................... 4.
Sor!"# $"% &oro'!( .......................................................................................................... 43
*ypes of porosity ........................................................................................................ 4.
)easurin- Porosity .................................................................................................... 4.
-ater *aturation ..........................................................................................................
.etermining /luids in Place ....................................................................................... "
PETROLEUM RESERVES DEFINITIONS .................................................................. 46
Pro,ed (eser,es ........................................................................................................... 7
0npro,ed (eser,es ...................................................................................................... 8
Probable 6eser5es ...................................................................................................... 48
Possible 6eser5es ....................................................................................................... 4
(eser,e *tatus $ategories ........................................................................................... 1
De5eloped 6eser5es ................................................................................................... 4
Producin- 6eser5es .................................................................................................... /'
Non#producin- 6eser5es ............................................................................................ /'
Unde5eloped 6eser5es ............................................................................................... /'
SURFACE E)PLORATION METHODS ....................................................................... 51
/ield (econnaissance ................................................................................................... "1
2erial sur,eys .............................................................................................................. "1
*urface Geochemical 2nalysis ................................................................................... "1
GEOPHYSICAL E)PLORATION .................................................................................. 52
*eismic *ur,eys ............................................................................................................ "3
Seis"ic Section ......................................................................................................... /.
&
Seis"ic data ac2uisition ............................................................................................ /4
Seis"ic data processin- ............................................................................................ //
+arine *eismic ac3uisition ......................................................................................... "4
Seis"ic records and the synthetic seis"o-ra" .......................................................... /7
Gra,ity *ur,eys ............................................................................................................ 4&
+agnetic *ur,eys ......................................................................................................... 43
STRUCTURE CONTOUR MAPPING ............................................................................ 65
6ules for $onstruction ............................................................................................... 67
Exa"ple ..................................................................................................................... 67
S*+'*r,$-. E/&0or$!o" M.1o%' .................................................................................... 62
(oc) $uttings ............................................................................................................... 41
(eser,oir /luid *amples .............................................................................................. 41
+ud 5ogs ...................................................................................................................... 41
$ores .............................................................................................................................. 7'
3.00 Lo#' ........................................................................................................................... 71
The *pontaneous Potential 6*P7 log ........................................................................... 71
The(esisti,ity log ......................................................................................................... 77
The 8Porosity8 logs ...................................................................................................... 8'
.rill *tem Testing ......................................................................................................... 84
2ppraisal -ells ............................................................................................................ 84
R.'.r4o!r D.4.0o&5." P0$" ............................................................................................ 67
.e,elopment -ells ....................................................................................................... 87
Producin- 7ells ......................................................................................................... 87
8n9ection 7ells ........................................................................................................... 88
6eser5oir Pressure $ontrol ........................................................................................ 88
%bser5ation 7ells ...................................................................................................... 8
T1. Dr!00!"# Pro-.'' ......................................................................................................... 20
(igging up ..................................................................................................................... 11
(lo3out pre5ention .................................................................................................... 4
.rilling .......................................................................................................................... 1
-ell $ompletion ........................................................................................................... 14
$asing *tring and .esign /actors .............................................................................. 14
$onductor Pipe ........................................................................................................... 7
*he Surface Strin- ..................................................................................................... 8
8nter"ediate Strin- .................................................................................................... 8
*he Production Strin- ................................................................................................ 8
Production $ho+e ....................................................................................................... 8
.
(unning the casing ....................................................................................................... 11
Primary $ementing .................................................................................................. 1''
*3uee9e $ementing .................................................................................................... 1'1
3.00 Co5&0.!o" .............................................................................................................. 101
$on,entional *ingle :one $ompletion .................................................................... 1'&
%pen Hole $o"pletion ............................................................................................ 1'&
Sin-le :one $ased Hole $o"pletion ....................................................................... 1'&
$on,entional +ultiple $ompletion .......................................................................... 1'3
Tubingless $ompletion .............................................................................................. 1'3
Tubing ......................................................................................................................... 1'
Pac)ers ........................................................................................................................ 1'
-ellheads .................................................................................................................... 1'
$asin- ;un Perforatin- ............................................................................................ 1'7
*hrou-h tubin- perforatin- ...................................................................................... 1'7
*ubin- $on5eyed Perforatin- .................................................................................. 1'8
Pro%*-!o" E7UATIONS ............................................................................................... 102
Producti,ity Inde; ..................................................................................................... 1'1
Inflow Performance (elationship ............................................................................ 11'
/ormation .amage and s)in factor .......................................................................... 11'
/low <fficiency ........................................................................................................... 11'
.arcy <3uation for (adial /low ............................................................................... 11&
Ar!,!-!$0 L!, ................................................................................................................... 113
Gas 5ift ........................................................................................................................ 11
$ontinuous ;as lift .................................................................................................. 11/
8nter"ittent ;as <ift ................................................................................................. 11/
Plun-er <ift .............................................................................................................. 116
A%4$"$#.' o, &0*"#.r 0!, .............................................................................................. 116
=eam Pumping ........................................................................................................... 117
<lectric *ubmersible Pump ....................................................................................... 118
Progressi,e $a,ity Pump ......................................................................................... 111
P$P Syste" !pplications ......................................................................................... 1&'
R.'.r4o!r D.4.0o&5." Pr$-!-.' ................................................................................... 121
H(%ro-$r+o" R.-o4.r( M.-1$"!'5' ............................................................................. 122
Primary (eco,ery ..................................................................................................... 1&&
Dissol5ed ;as Dri5e ................................................................................................ 1&&
;as#$ap Dri5e ......................................................................................................... 1&.
4
7ater Dri5e .............................................................................................................. 1&.
*econdary (eco,ery ................................................................................................... 1&3
7ater 0lood .............................................................................................................. 1&4
;as =$ap 8n9ection ................................................................................................... 1&/
<nhanced (eco,ery ................................................................................................... 1&"
*her"al Processes ................................................................................................... 1&/
)iscible Processes ................................................................................................... 1&7
$he"ical Processes .................................................................................................. 1&8
%ther E%6 Processes ............................................................................................... 1&
(eco,ery <fficiencies ................................................................................................. 13'
REMEDIAL 3ELL 3OR8 ............................................................................................ 131
Gra,el pac)ing ........................................................................................................... 131
2cidising ...................................................................................................................... 13&
2cid /racturing ......................................................................................................... 13&
#ydraulic /racturing ................................................................................................. 133
Pro-.''!"# o, Pro%*-.% F0*!%' ...................................................................................... 133
%il -ells ...................................................................................................................... 13
%il -ell *urface Processing *ystem ........................................................................ 13"
Gas -ells ..................................................................................................................... 137
Gas -ell *urface Processing *ystem ........................................................................ 137
/
INT(%.0$TI%N
7ith the current oil prices in the >6'US ran-e? the cyclic interest in the petroleu"
industry has hei-htened once a-ain. @ust a couple years a-o? so"e co"panies sold oil
Ahea5y crudeB at less than >1' US per barrel Abottled 3ater "ay ha5e fetched a hi-her
priceB. !s a result so"e co"panies s3itched their focus to natural -as.
$rude oil re"ains a co""odity in de"and? 3ith alternati5e sources of ener-y still
la--in- 3ay behind. ;asoline and fuel oil still re"ain pri"e fuels? resultin- in hi-h 3orld
de"and for crude oil. Petroleu" is a non#rene3able co""odity and the next -eneration
"ay 3ell experience shorta-es in supply? 3ith increasin- de"and? resultin- in
ridiculously hi-h prices.
*hrou-h the process of -eneration? "i-ration and trappin- "echanis"s? petroleu"
accu"ulates in the sub strata? 3aitin- to be disco5ered by so"e inno5ati5e explorationist.
*his Coil of roc+D? as the na"e indicates? is found and produced fro" for"ations as
shallo3 as a couple hundred feet to depths as deep at . "iles beneath the earth1s surface.
*echnolol-ies e"ployed ran-e fro" si"ple to 5ery co"plex. Proble"s experienced in
C3innin-D the petroleu" also lie in the sa"e ran-e.
*he challen-e to co"panies is ho3 to find and produce crude oil and natural -as? in the
"ost cost effecti5e 3ay? in the ti"eliest fashion? capturin- the "ar+ets at an opportune
ti"e 3hen the prices are attracti5e. *he -eneral trend is to be reactionary to co""odity
prices. 7hen the price of oil is do3n? co"panies react and scale do3n their drillin- and
do3nsiEe their operations. 7hen the price is up? they do the opposite. ! co"pany can
reap the benefits of proper plannin- by drillin- 3hen the price of crude oil is lo3? and
hence ser5ices such as ri- rental are cheap? resultin- in hi-her production rates 3hen the
price rebounds.
*his course see+s to trace the life petroleu" fro" birth A-enerationB to the point of sales.
Processes include -eneration? "i-ration? accu"ulation? exploration? de5elop"ent and
production phases. !ll of the abo5e re2uire experts 3ho build careers in the 5arious
fields. *hese processes are costly and hi-h ris+? but the re3ard of success can be -reat?
transfor"in- co"panies? nations and indi5iduals into "ulti#"illionaires in a short space
of ti"e. *he petroleu" industry continues to attract indi5iduals and co"panies 3ho
accept the challen-e to ta+e ris+? hopin- to reap the re3ards.
!t the end of this course? non#technical participants 3ill be able to understand and
appreciate the 5arious processes that are in5ol5ed in the production of petroleu" for sale
to the custo"er.
6
%(IGIN %/ P<T(%5<0+
*here are t3o basic schools of thou-ht surroundin- the for"ation of petroleu" deep
3ithin the earth1s strata. *here is the "ore 3idely accepted or-anic theory and the not so
popular inor-anic theory.
Inorganic Theories
Deep seated terrestrial hypothesis
0ro" as early as 1877? D"itri )endeleFe5? a 6ussian 3ho de5eloped the periodic table?
postulated an inor-anic ori-in 3hen it beca"e apparent that there 3ere 3idespread
deposits of petroleu" throu-hout the 3orld. He reasoned that "etallic carbides deep
3ithin Earth reacted 3ith 3ater at hi-h te"peratures to for" acetylene A$
&
H
&
B. *his
acetylene condensed to for" hea5ier hydrocarbons. *his reaction can be easily perfor"ed
under laboratory conditions.
*his theory 3as "odified by (erthelot in 186' and by )endeleFe5 in 1'&. *heir theory
3as that the "antle of the earth contained iron carbide 3hich 3ould react 3ith
percolatin- 3ater to for" "ethane,
0e$
&
G &H
&
% H $H
4
G 0e%
&

*he proble" 3ith this theory is the lac+ of e5idence for the existence of iron carbide in
the "antle. *hese theories are referred to as the deep-seated terrestrial hypothesis.
Extraterrestrial hypothesis.
8n 18'? So+oloff proposed a cos"ic ori-in for petroleu". His theory 3as that
hydrocarbons precipitated as rain fro" ori-inal nebular "atter fro" 3hich the solar
syste" 3as for"ed. *he hydrocarbons 3ere then e9ected fro" earthFs interior onto
surface roc+s.
8nterest in this inor-anic theory hei-htened in the &'th $entury as a result of t3o
disco5eries, *he existence of carbonaceous chondrites A"eteoritesB and the disco5ery that
7
at"ospheres containin- "ethane exists for so"e celestial bodies such as Saturn? *itan?
@upiter. *he only +no3n source for "ethane 3ould be throu-h inor-anic reactions.
8t has been postulated that the ori-inal at"osphere of earth contained "ethane? a""onia?
hydro-en and 3ater 5apor 3hich could result is the creation of an oily? 3axy surface
layer that "ay ha5e been host to a 5ariety of de5elopin- prebiotic co"pounds includin-
the precursors of life as a result of photoche"ical reactions Adue to UI radiationB.
*he disco5ery A)ueller? 16.B of a type of "eteorite called carbonaceous chondrites? also
led to a rene3ed interest in an inor-anic "echanis" for creatin- or-anic co"pounds.
$hondritic "eteorites contain -reater than 6J or-anic "atter Anot -raphiteB and traces of
5arious hydrocarbons includin- a"ino acids.
*he chief support of an inor-anic ori-in is that the hydrocarbons "ethane? ethane?
acetylene? and benEene ha5e repeatedly been "ade fro" inor-anic sources. 0or exa"ple?
con-ealed "a-"a has been found on the Kola Peninsula in 6ussia APetersilFye? 16&B
containin- -aseous and li2uid hydrocarbons A'J "ethane? traces of ethane? propane?
isobutaneB. Paraffinic hydrocarbons ha5e also been found in other i-neous roc+s AE5ans?
)orton? and $ooper? 164B.
Problems with inorganic hypotheses.
Firstly? there is no direct e5idence that 3ill sho3 3hether the source of the or-anic
"aterial in the chondritic "eteorites is the result of a truly inor-anic ori-in or 3as in an
ori-inal parent "aterial 3hich 3as or-anically created. Si"ilar reasonin- applies to other
celestial bodies.
Secondly? there is no field e5idence that inor-anic processes ha5e occurred in nature? yet
there is "ountin- e5idence for an or-anic ori-in.
And thirdly? there should be lar-e a"ounts of hydrocarbons e"itted fro" 5olcanoes?
con-ealed "a-"a? and other i-neous roc+s if an inor-anic ori-in is the pri"ary
"ethodolo-y for the creation of hydrocarbons. ;aseous hydrocarbons ha5e been
recorded A7hite and 7arin-? 16.B e"anatin- fro" 5olcanoes? 3ith "ethane A$H
4
B the
"ost co""on. Iolu"es are -enerally less than 1J? but as hi-h as 1/J ha5e been
recorded. (ut the lar-e pools are absent fro" i-neous roc+s. 7here co""ercial
accu"ulations do occur? they are in i-neous roc+s that ha5e intruded into or are o5erlain
by sedi"entary "aterialsL in other 3ords? the hydrocarbons probably for"ed in the
sedi"entary se2uence and "i-rated into the i-neous "aterial A"ore on this later 3hen 3e
discuss trapsB.
$onclusion, *here are un2uestioned instances of indi-enous "a-"atic oil? but the
occurrences are rare and the 5olu"es of accu"ulated oil ApoolsB are lo3. %ther
proble"atic issues, $o""ercial accu"ulations are restricted to sedi"entary basins?
8
petroleu" seeps and accu"ulations are absent fro" i-neous and "eta"orphic roc+s? and
-as chro"ato-raphy can fin-erprint the or-anic "atter in shales to that found in the
ad9acent pool. *hus current theory holds that "ost petroleu" is for"ed by the ther"al
"aturation of or-anic "atter # !n %r-anic %ri-in -enerated the 5ast reser5es ApoolsB of
oil and -as.
Or#$"!- T1.or(,
*here are a nu"ber of co"pellin- reasons that support an or-anic de5elop"ent
hypothesis.
0irst and fore"ost? is the carbon#hydro-en#or-anic "atter connection. $arbon and
Hydro-en are the pri"ary constituents of or-anic "aterial? both plant and ani"al.
)oreo5er? carbon? hydro-en? and hydrocarbons are continually produced by the life
processes of plants and ani"als. ! "a9or brea+throu-h occurred 3hen it 3as disco5ered
that hydrocarbons and related co"pounds occur in "any li5in- or-anis"s and are
deposited in the sedi"ents 3ith little or no chan-e.
Second 3ere obser5ations dealin- 3ith the che"ical characteristics of petroleu"
reser5oirs. Nitro-en and porphyrins Achlorophyll deri5ati5es in plants? blood deri5ati5es
in ani"alsB are found in all or-anic "atterL they are also found in "any petroleu"s.
Presence of porphyrins also "ean that anaerobic conditions "ust ha5e de5eloped early in
the for"ation process because porphyrins are easily and rapidly oxidiEed and deco"pose
under aerobic conditions. !dditionally? lo3 %xy-en content also i"plies a reducin-
en5iron"ent. *hus there is a hi-h probability that petroleu" ori-inates 3ithin an
anaerobic and reducin- en5iron"ent.
*hird 3ere obser5ations dealin- 3ith the physical characteristics. Nearly all petroleu"
occurs in sedi"ents that are pri"arily of "arine ori-in. Petroleu" contained in non#
"arine sedi"ents probably "i-rated into these areas fro" "arine source "aterials
located nearby. 0urther"ore? te"peratures in the deeper petroleu" reser5oirs seldo"
exceed .''
o
0 A141
o
$B . (ut te"peratures ne5er exceeded .&
o
0 A&''
o
$B 3here
porphyrins are present because they are destroyed abo5e this te"perature. *herefore the
ori-in of petroleu" is "ost li+ely a lo3#te"perature pheno"enon.
0inally? ti"e re2uire"ents "ay be less than 1)) yearsL this is based on "ore recent oil
disco5eries in Pliocene sedi"ents.
Ho3e5er? physical conditions on the Earth "ay ha5e been different in the -eolo-ic past
and therefore it "ay ha5e ta+en considerably "ore ti"e to de5elop li2uid petroleu".

/igure 12
Organic Hypothesis - Summary.
*he or-anic theory beca"e the accepted theory about the turn of the century as the oil
and -as industry be-an to fully de5elop and -eolo-ists 3ere explorin- for ne3 deposits.
Si"ply stated? the or-anic theory holds that the carbon and hydro-en necessary for the
for"ation of oil and -as 3ere deri5ed fro" early "arine life for"s li5in- on the Earth
durin- the -eolo-ic past ## pri"arily "arine plan+ton. !lthou-h plan+ton are
"icroscopic? the ocean contains so "any of the" that o5er /J of li5in- "atter in the
ocean is plan+ton. *he SunFs ener-y pro5ides ener-y for all li5in- thin-s includin-
plan+ton and other for"s of "arine life A0i-. 1 M 1!B.
1'
!s these early life for"s died? their re"ains 3ere captured by the processes of erosion
and sedi"entation A/ig &B.
Successi5e layers of or-anic#rich "ud and silt co5ered precedin- layers of or-anic rich
sedi"ents and o5er ti"e created layers on the sea floor rich in the fossil re"ains of
pre5ious life A/ig. 3B.
*her"al "aturation processes Adecay? heat? pressureB slo3ly con5erted the or-anic "atter
into oil and -as. !dd additional -eolo-ic ti"e A"illions of yearsB and the or-anic rich
sedi"ents 3ere con5erted into layers of roc+s. !dd "ore -eolo-ic ti"e and the layers
3ere defor"ed? buc+led? bro+en? and upliftedL the li2uid petroleu" flo3ed up3ard
11
throu-h porous roc+ until it beca"e trapped and could flo3 no further for"in- the oil and
-as reser5oirs that 3e explore for at present A/ig. B.
(ut the che"istry of the hydrocarbons found in the end product Aoil? -asB differ
so"e3hat fro" those 3e find in li5in- thin-s. *hus chan-es? transfor"ation? ta+e place
bet3een the deposition of the or-anic re"ains and the creation of the end product. *he
basic for"ula for the creation of petroleu" Aoil? -asB is,
Petroleu" End Product H AN6a3 )aterial G !ccu"ulation G *ransfor"ation G )i-rationO
G ;eolo-ic *i"eB
Petroleu"? accordin- to the or-anic theory? is the product of altered or-anic "aterial
deri5ed fro" the "icroscopic plant and ani"al life? 3hich are carried in -reat 5olu"es by
strea"s and ri5ers to la+es or the sea? 3here they are deposited under deltaic? lacustrine
and "arine conditions 3ith finely di5ided clastic sedi"ents.
*hese en5iron"ents produce their o3n "icroscopic plant and ani"al life? 3hich are
deposited 3ith the or-anic "aterials introduced by the strea"s and ri5ers. !s deposition
of the or-anic "aterial ta+es place in these en5iron"ents? burial and protection by clay
and silt acco"pany it. *his pre5ents deco"position of the or-anic "aterial and allo3s it
to accu"ulate.
$on5ersion of the or-anic "aterial is called cata-enesis. 8t is assisted by pressure caused
by burial? te"perature and ther"al alteration and de-radation. *hese factors result fro"
depth? so"e bacterial action in a closed nonoxidisin- che"ical syste"? radioacti5ity and
catalysis. *e"perature? as ther"o-enic acti5ity? appears to be the "ost i"portant
criterion? 3ith assistance other factors as applicable. !ccu"ulation of or-anic and clastic
"aterial on a sea or la+e botto" is acco"panied by bacterial action. 8f there is abundant
oxy-en? aerobic bacteria act upon the or-anic "atter and destroy it.
Plant and ani"al re"ains contain abundant carbon and hydro-en? 3hich are funda"ental
ele"ents in petroleu". Shale and so"e carbonates contain or-anic "aterial that bears
hydrocarbons of types si"ilar to those in petroleu". *hese roc+s are not reser5oir roc+s
and could be considered ulti"ately to be source beds. *he hydrocarbons are of the sa"e
type as those found in li5in- plants and ani"als and consist of asphalt? +ero-en and li2uid
1&
for"s. *he best source roc+s are considered to be or-anically rich? blac+#coloured shales?
deposited in a non#oxidisin-? 2uiet "arine en5iron"ent.
Generation of crude oil

/igure " > %rganic composition in shales
%r-anic "aterial in shale a5era-es approxi"ately one A1B percent of the shale roc+
5olu"e. $lay "ineral constituents co"prise the re"ainin- percent.
Kero-en is an insoluble? hi-h "olecular 3ei-ht? poly"eric co"pound 3hich co"prises
about ' percent of the or-anic "aterial in shale. *he re"ainin- 1' percent co"prises
bitu"ens of 5aryin- co"position? 3hich? accordin- to so"e researchers? is ther"ally
altered +ero-en. !s alteration occurs? +ero-en is de5eloped by the increasin- te"perature
in the closed syste".
*e"perature increases 3ith depth. Nor"al heat flo3 3ithin the earth1s crust produces an
a5era-e -eother"al -radient of approxi"ately 1./
o
0 for each 1'' feet of depth.
)aturation studies on 5arious crude oil types indicate that te"peratures re2uired to
produce oil occur bet3een the depth of approxi"ately /?''' feet and &'?''' feet under
a5era-e heat#flo3 conditions.
Pressure? li+e te"perature? is a function of depth and increases 1 psi for each foot of
depth. Pressure is caused by the 3ei-ht of the sedi"entary o5erburden.
1.
Rock
Mineral material 99% Organic Material 1%
Organic Material
Bitumens 10%
Kerogen 90%
(acterial action is i"portant in the con5ersion of or-anic "aterial to petroleu" at shallo3
depths. 8t is in5ol5ed in the process of brea+in- do3n the ori-inal "aterial into
hydrocarbon co"pounds? 3hich e5entually beco"e bio-enic -as.
Kero-en is a pri"ary factor in for"in- bitu"ens that increase and "i-rate to accu"ulate
as crude oil. *her"al con5ersion of +ero-en to bitu"en is the i"portant process of crude
oil for"ation. *her"al alteration increases the carbon content of the "i-ratable
hydrocarbons? 3hich lea5es the un"i-ratable +ero-en co"ponents behind.
)aturation of +ero-en is a function of increased burial and te"perature and is
acco"panied by che"ical chan-es. !s +ero-en ther"ally "atures and increases in carbon
content? it chan-es fro" an i""ature li-ht -reenish#yello3 color to an o5er"ature blac+?
3hich is representati5e of a hi-her coal ran+.
Generation of Natural Gas
Natural -as co"prises bio-enic -as and ther"o-enic -as 3ith differences contin-ent
upon conditions of ori-in.
(io-enic -as for"s at lo3 te"peratures at o5erburden depths of less than .?''' feet
under anaerobic or conditions associated 3ith hi-h rates of "arine sedi"ent
accu"ulation. %xy-en in the sedi"ents is consu"ed or eli"inated early. !nd before
reduction of sulfates in the syste". )ethane? the "ost co""on of natural -as
constituents? for"s after the sulfates are eli"inated by hydro-en reduction of carbon
dioxide. !naerobic oxidation of carbon dioxide produces "ethane. $urrent esti"ates
su--est that approxi"ately &' percent of the 3orld1s +no3n natural -as is bio-enic.
*her"o-enic -as for"s at si-nificantly hi-her te"peratures and o5erburden pressures. 8t
contains "ethane and si-nificantly lar-er a"ounts of hea5ier hydrocarbons than bio-enic
-as. !s ti"e and te"perature increase? pro-ressi5ely li-hter hydrocarbons for" as 3et
-as and condensate in the latter sta-es of ther"o-enesis.
14
$#<+I*T(? %/ P<T(%5<0+
Introduction!
*he s"allest unit of a substance? 3hich still retains the characteristics of that substance? is
called a "olecule. )olecules can only be di5ided into ato"s # 3hich are different
ele"ents. 0or exa"ple? all "olecules of 3ater are identical and ha5e the characteristics
of 3ater. *3o ato"s of hydro-en and an ato" of oxy-en A3hich "ade up the "oleculeB
on their o3n ha5e none of the characteristics of 3ater.
$rude oils are "ixtures of "any different substances? often difficult to separate? fro"
3hich 5arious petroleu" products are deri5ed? such as, -asoline? +erosene propane? fuel
oil? lubricatin- oil? 3ax? and asphalt. *hese substances are "ainly co"pounds of only
t3o ele"ents, carbon A$B and hydro-en AHB. *hey are called? therefore, hydrocarbons.
6efinin- crude oil in5ol5es t3o +inds of processes to produce the products so essential to
"odern society. 0irst? there are physical processes 3hich si"ply refine the crude oil
A3ithout alterin- its "olecular structureB into useful products such as lubricatin- oil or
fuel oil. Second? there are che"ical or other processes 3hich alter the "olecular structure
and produce a 3ide ran-e of products? so"e of the" +no3n by the -eneral ter"
petroche"icals.
#ydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons "ay be -aseous? li2uid? or solid at nor"al te"perature and pressure?
dependin- on the nu"ber and arran-e"ent of the carbon ato"s in their "olecules. *hose
3ith up to 4 carbon ato"s are -aseousL those 3ith &' or "ore are solidL those in bet3een
are li2uid. $rude oils are li2uid but "ay contain -aseous or solid co"pounds Aor bothB in
solution. *he hea5ier a crude oil Ai.e. the "ore carbon ato"s its "olecules containB the
closer it is to bein- a solid and this "ay be especially noticeable as its te"perature cools.
<i-ht oils 3ill re"ain li2uid e5en at 5ery lo3 te"peratures.
!lthou-h hydrocarbons consist of t3o ele"ents only Acarbon and hydro-enB? they exist in
a 3ide 5ariety of types and in lar-e nu"bers. *his arises fro" the ability of carbon ato"s
to for" lon- chains. *he hydrocarbons "ay be classified accordin- to their co"position
Atype and nu"ber of ato"sB and the structure Aarran-e"ents of ato"s in spaceB of the
"olecule.
Hydrocarbons are usually classified in the paraffin, unsaturated, naphtene and aromatic
types.
1/
Paraffin Series
*his series? also +no3n as alane series? is characteriEed by the fact that the carbon
ato"s are arran-ed in open chains Anot closed rin-sB and are 9oined by sin-le bonds. *he
hydrocarbons of the paraffin type are thus saturated Asin-le bonds only bet3een carbon
ato"sB and ha5e the -eneral for"ula $
n
H
&nG&
.
*he si"plest hydrocarbon is "ethane? a -as consistin- of one carbon ato" and four
hydro-en ato"s,
/igure 4 > +olecular structure of methane
! carbon ato" has four bonds that can unite 3ith either one or "ore other carbon ato"s
Aa property al"ost uni2ue to carbonB or 3ith ato"s of other ele"ents. ! hydro-en ato"
has only one bond and can ne5er unite 3ith "ore than one other ato". *he lar-er
hydrocarbon "olecules ha5e t3o or "ore carbon ato"s 9oined to one another as 3ell as
to hydro-en ato"s. *he carbon ato"s "ay lin+ to-ether in a strai-ht chain? a branched
chain? or a rin-.
*he first three "e"bers of the paraffin series "ethane? propane and butane respecti5ely
ha5e a sin-le structural for"ula.
16
Exa"ples include, Propane A$
.
H
8
B? a strai-ht chain "olecule? sho3n belo3.
/igure 7 > +olecular structure of propane
*he re"ainin- "e"bers "ay ha5e t3o or "ore structural for"ulas for the sa"e che"ical
for"ula. *he pheno"enon? +no3n as iso"eris"? has a stron- i"pact on the
ther"odyna"ic properties of the hydrocarbons. !n exa"ple of a branched chain?
8sobutane A$
4
H
1'
B? is sho3n belo3,
/igure 7 > +olecular structure of Isobutane
17
Isobutene has a boilin- point of 1'
o
0 3hile nor"al butane boils at .1.1
o
0.
*he "e"bers of the paraffin series are 5ery i"portant constituents of crude oil. So"e
crude oils are lar-ely co"posed of hydrocarbons of this series 3hile others contain the"
to a lesser extent. Natural -as consists "ainly of the "ore 5olatile "e"bers of the
paraffin series containin- fro" one to four carbon ato"s per "olecule.
*he paraffin series are characteriEed by their che"ical inertness. *hey 3ill not react 3ith
concentrated sulphuric or nitric acid at roo" te"perature. Ho3e5er? 3hen i-nited on the
presence of air or oxy-en? they -i5e off lar-e a"ounts of heat and under proper
conditions? this co"bustion is explosi5e. *he reaction 3ith oxy-en occurs only at
ele5ated te"peratures. *he inertness of the paraffin hydrocarbons accounts for their
presence in petroleu" since their existence for -eolo-ical periods of ti"e 3ould re2uire a
hi-h de-ree of stability.
0nsaturated #ydrocarbons
*he unsaturated hydrocarbons are characteriEed by the presence of double or triple bonds
bet3een the carbon ato"s. *he "ultiple bonds allo3 the addition of hydro-en ato"s?
under appropriate conditions? 3hich explains the na"e unsaturated. *he olefin series of
hydrocarbons is characteriEed by the presence of a double bond in the "olecule and has
the -eneral for"ula $
n
H
&n
.
*he first three "e"bers AnH1P4B of this series? ethene, propene and !utene are no3
co""only referred to usin- their traditional na"es ethylene, propylene and !utylene.
8so"eris" occurs also 3ith the olefins? not only due to the branchin- of the carbon
chains? but also to the position of the double bond in the "olecule.
!nother series of unsaturated hydrocarbons is +no3n as diolefins. *hey are characteriEed
by the fact that there are t3o double bonds in the "olecule. *he -eneral for"ula for the
series is $
n
H
&n#&
.
! third series of unsaturated hydrocarbons of considerable i"portance is the acetylene
series. *he co"pounds ha5e a triple bond and -eneral for"ula $
n
H
&n #& .
Hence they are
iso"ers 3ith the diolefins. *he first three "e"bers of this series AnH&P4B are ethine
Aco""only called acetyleneB? propine and !utine.
18
/igure 8 > +olecular structure of <thine
*he unsaturated hydrocarbons are 5ery reacti5e? in contrast 3ith the "e"bers of the
paraffin series. *hey react rapidly 3ith chlorine to for" oily li2uids L hence the na"e
olefins Aoil for"in-B. Under the proper conditions they react rapidly 3ith hydro-en?
3hich saturates the double bonds and for"s the correspondin- paraffin. (ecause of their
hi-h reacti5ity? these unsaturated hydrocarbons are not found in crude oil to any -reat
extent. Ho3e5er? they are for"ed in lar-e a"ounts in petroleu" crac+in- processes and
ha5e considerable industrial i"portance.
"aphthene Hydrocar!ons
*he naphthene hydrocarbons are also called cycloparaffins and? as ther na"e i"plies?
they are saturated hydrocarbons in 3hich the carbon chains for" closed rin-s. *he
-eneral for"ula for this series is $
n
H
&n
An -reater than &B and conse2uently they are
iso"etric 3ith the olefins. *hey are na"ed by placin- the prefix cyclo before the na"es
of the correspondin- paraffin hydrocarbon. *he first "e"bers of this series AnH.P6B are
cyclopropane, cyclo!utane and cyclohexane? and so on. *hese co"pounds? bein-
saturated? are relati5ely stable and are i"portant constituents of crude oil. 8n -eneral? the
che"ical properties of these hydrocarbons are 5ery si"ilar to those of the paraffins.
Aromatic Hydrocar!ons
*hese hydrocarbons are also cyclic and "ay be considered to be deri5ati5es of !en#ene
and ha5e -eneral for"ula $
n
H
&n#6
An -reater than /B. (enEene has the for"ula $
6
H
6
? and
the structure consists of a six#fold rin-? 3ith alternate sin-le and double bonds. *his
structure is so co""on in or-anic co"pounds that che"ists use a hexa-on 3ith a circle
in the "iddle as a special sy"bol to represent the benEene "olecule. So"e of the si"pler
"e"bers of this series consist of benEene 3ith one or "ore al+yl -roups as side chains.
!n exa"ple? methyl!en#ene? also +no3n as toluene? is of sufficient i"portance to 3arrant
a co""on na"e.
*he fact that the benEene rin- contains three double bonds su--ests that the "e"bers of
this series should be 5ery reacti5e. Ho3e5er? this is not so and? althou-h they are not as
stable as the paraffins? they do not sho3 the hi-h reacti5ity that is so characteristic of the
1
olefins. $o"pounds of this series do occur in crude oil. Petroleu" is one of the i"portant
sources of these i"portant hydrocarbons.
/igure 1 > +olecular structure of 2romatics
*he aro"atic hydrocarbons are either li2uids or solids under standard conditions of
te"perature and pressure. (enEene is a colorless li2uid 3ith as boilin- point of 176o0.
)any of the "e"bers of this series are characteriEed by fra-rant odorsL hencr the na"e
aromatic -i5en to this series.
Types of $rude %ils
$rude oils 5ary 3idely in appearance and 5iscosity fro" field to field. *hey ran-e in
colour? odour? and in the properties they contain. 7hile all crude oils are essentially
hydrocarbons? the differences in properties? especially the 5ariations in "olecular
structure? "ean that a crude is "ore or less easy to produce? pipeline? and refine. *he
5ariations "ay e5en influence its suitability for certain products and the 2uality of those
products.
$rudes are rou-hly classified into three -roups? accordin- to the nature of the
hydrocarbons they contain.
Paraffin-!ased $rude Oils
*hese contain hi-her "olecular 3ei-ht paraffins 3hich are solid at roo" te"perature? but
little or no asphaltic Abitu"inousB "atter. *hey can produce hi-h#-rade lubricatin- oils.
Asphaltic %ased $rude Oils
$ontain lar-e proportions of asphaltic "atter? and little or no paraffin. So"e are
predo"inantly naphthenes so yield a lubricatin- oil that is "ore sensiti5e to te"perature
chan-es than the paraffin#base crudes.
&'
&ixed %ase $rude Oils
*he Q-ray areaQ bet3een the t3o types abo5e. (oth paraffins and naphthenes are present?
as 3ell as aro"atic hydrocarbons. )ost crudes fit this cate-ory.
$rude oils usually contain s"all a"ounts of co"bined oxy-en? nitro-en and sulphur.
$rude oils obtained fro" 5arious localities ha5e 3idely different characteristics
indicatin- that the hydrocarbons ha5e different properties. Nearly all crude oils 3ill -i5e
ulti"ate analyses 3ithin the li"its sho3n belo3,
Ele"ent $ontent
AJ in 3ei-htB

$arbon 84 # 87
Hydro-en 11 # 14
Sulphur '.'6 # 4.'
Nitro-en '.1 # &.'
%xy-en '.1 # &.'

Table 1 > $omposition of typical $rude %il
$lassification of crude oils based on ;as %il 6atio,
(lac+ %il L solution ;%6? A6sB less than &?''' scfRbbl
Iolatile oil , solution ;%6? A6sB -reater than &?''' scfRbbl
Natural Gas
Natural -as can occur by itself or in con9unction 3ith li2uid crude oils . 8t consists "ainly
of the "ore 5olatile "e"bers of the paraffin series containin- fro" one to four carbon
ato"s per "olecule. 8n addition? natural -ases "ay contain 5aryin- a"ounts of carbon
dioxide? nitro-en? hydro-en sulphide? heliu" and 3ater 5apour. )ost natural -ases
consist predo"inantly of "ethane? the percenta-e of 3hich "ay be as hi-h as 8 percent.
Natural -as can be classified as s3eet and sour and as 3et or dry. ! sour -as is one that
contains appreciable a"ounts of hydro-en sulphide or carbon dioxide? and conse2uently
can be 2uite corrosi5e.
&1
*he desi-nation 3et -as has nothin- to do 3ith the presence of 3ater 5apour but si-nifies
that the -as 3ill yield appreciable 2uantities of li2uid hydrocarbons 3ith proper
treat"ent.
7ater 5apour is? ho3e5er? often present in natural -as and so"eti"es causes stoppa-es in
hi-h pressure -as lines durin- cold 3eather. *his is due to the fact that hydrocarbons
for" solid hydrates 3ith 3ater at hi-h pressure and lo3 te"perature.
*ypical $o"positions of 3et and dry natural -as,
Constituents Content (% in volume)
Wet Dry

y!rocar"ons
Met#ane $%&' 9'
(t#ane '&% )
*ro+ane ,&- 0&'
.so"utane 1&) 0&1$
n/Butane 1&% 0&1)
.so+entane 0&% 0&1%
n/*entane 0&) 0&0'
e0anes 0&% 0&01
e+tanes 0&1 0&0$
1on/#y!rocar"ons
Car"on Dio0i!e 0&,
elium 0&0,
y!rogen 2ul+#i!e 0&,
1itrogen 0&1
3rgon 0&00,
Ra!on4 kry+ton4 0enon 5race

Table & > $omposition of typical Natural ;as
$lassification of natural -as based on $ondensateR;as 6atio,
;asRcondensate , -asRcondensate ratio -reater than / stbR"illion scf
Dry -as, -asRcondensate ratio less than / stbR"illion scf
P<T(%5<0+ G<%5%G?
The (oc) $ycle
&&
*here are four "ain layers that "a+e up the earth,
1. 'nner $ore # ! "ass of iron 3ith a te"perature of about 7''' de-rees 0.
!lthou-h such te"peratures 3ould nor"ally "elt iron? i""ense pressure
on it +eeps it in a solid for". *he inner core is approxi"ately 1?/'' "iles
in dia"eter.
&. Outer $ore # ! "ass of "olten iron about 1?4&/ "iles deep that
surrounds the solid inner core. Electrical currents -enerated fro" this area
produce the earthFs "a-netic field.
.. &antle # ! roc+ layer about 1?7/' "iles thic+ that reaches about half the
distance to the center of the earth. parts of this layer beco"e hot enou-h to
li2uify and beco"e slo3 "o5in- "olten roc+ or "a-"a.
4. $rust # ! layer fro" 4#&/ "iles thic+ consistin- of sand and roc+.
*he core? "antle and crust of the earth can be en5isioned as a -iant roc+ recyclin-
"achine. Ho3e5er? the ele"ents that "a+e up roc+s are ne5er created or destroyed
althou-h they can be redistributed? transfor"in- one roc+ type to another.
*he recyclin- "achine 3or+s so"ethin- li+e this. <i2uid A"oltenB roc+ "aterial
solidifies either at or belo3 the surface of the earth to for" i-neous roc+s . Upliftin-
occurs for"in- "ountains "ade of roc+. *he exposure of roc+s to 3eatherin- and
erosion at the earthFs surface brea+s the" do3n into s"aller -rains producin- soil. *he
-rains AsoilB are transported by 3ind? 3ater and -ra5ity and e5entually deposited as
sedi"ents. *his process is referred to as erosion.
*he sedi"ents are deposited in layers and beco"e co"pacted and ce"ented AlithifiedB
for"in- sedi"entary roc+s. Iariation in te"perature? pressure? andRor the che"istry of
the roc+ can cause che"ical andRor physical chan-es in i-neous and sedi"entary roc+s to
for" "eta"orphic roc+s. 7hen exposed to hi-her te"peratures? "eta"orphic roc+s Aor
any other roc+ type for that "atterB "ay be partially "elted resultin- in the creation once
a-ain of i-neous roc+s startin- the cycle all o5er a-ain.
&.
/igure 1' > (oc) $ycle
!s you "i-ht expect # since "ost of the earthFs surface is co5ered by 3ater # "olten
"aterial fro" inside the earth often brea+s throu-h the floor of the ocean and flo3s fro"
fissures 3here it is cooled by the 3ater resultin- in the for"ation of i-neous roc+s. So"e
lo3 -rade "eta"orphis" often occurs durin- and after the for"ation of the roc+ due to
the intrusion of the "aterial by the "a-"a. !s the "olten "aterial flo3s fro" the fissure?
it be-ins for"in- rid-es ad9acent to it.
8f 3e exa"ine the roc+ cycle in ter"s of plate tectonics? as depicted in fi-ure 1' abo5e?
3e see that i-neous roc+s for" on the sea floor as spreadin- rid-es. !s the roc+s cool?
and "ore "a-"a is introduced fro" belo3? the plate is forced a3ay fro" the spreadin-
rid-e? and ac2uires a sedi"ent co5er. !s sho3n in the fi-ure? in this case? the oceanic
plate e5entually Qdi5esQ under the ad9acent continental plate. !s the oceanic plate tra5els
deeper? hi-h te"perature conditions cause partial "eltin- of the crustal slab. 7hen that
occurs? the surroundin- Qcountry roc+Q Aexistin- ad9acent roc+B is "eta"orphosed at hi-h
te"perature conditions by the contact. *he "olten "aterial is either dri5en to the surface
as 5olcanic eruptions? or crystalliEes to for" plutonic i-neous roc+s.
&4
The 3 basic types of roc)s.
@ust as any person can be put into one of t3o "ain cate-ories of hu"an bein-? all
roc+s can be put into one of three funda"entally different types of roc+s. *hey are
i-neous? sedi"entary and "eta"orphic roc+s,
/igure 11 > Types of roc)s
Igneous (oc)s
8-neous roc+s are crystalline solids? 3hich for" directly fro" the coolin- of "a-"a.
*his is an exother"ic process Ait loses heatB and in5ol5es a phase chan-e fro" the
li2uid to the solid state.
Each "ineral for"s a characteristic type of crystal. 0or exa"ple? the 3ell +no3n i-neous
roc+? ;ranite? is co"posed of three "ain "inerals? SuartE? )ica and 0eldspar? all of
3hich loo+ different and can be clearly seen in a sa"ple.
/igure 1& @ The three main minerals in granite
Black=Mica, White=Feldspar, Grey =Quartz
&/
*he siEe of the crystals is usually deter"ined by the speed at 3hich the "olten roc+
"aterial cools. Suic+ coolin- produces s"all crystals? slo3 coolin- produces lar-er
crystals.
*he earth is "ade of i-neous roc+ # at least at the surface 3here our planet is exposed
to the coldness of space. 8-neous roc+s are -i5en na"es based upon t3o thin-s,
co"position A3hat they are "ade ofB and texture Aho3 bi- the crystals areB.
)a-"as occur at depth in the crust? and are said to exist in Q"a-"a cha"bers?Q a
rather loose ter" indicatin- an area 3here the te"perature is -reat enou-h to "elt the
roc+? and the pressure is lo3 enou-h to allo3 the "aterial to expand and exist in the
li2uid state. )any different types of i-neous roc+s can be produced. *he +ey factors
to use in deter"inin- 3hich roc+ you ha5e are the roc+Fs texture and co"position.
(exture
*exture relates to ho3 lar-e the indi5idual "ineral -rains are in the final? solid roc+. 8n
"ost cases? the resultin- -rain siEe depends on ho3 2uic+ly the "a-"a cooled. 8n
-eneral? the slo3er the coolin-? the lar-er the crystals in the final roc+. (ecause of this?
3e assu"e that coarse -rained i-neous roc+s are Qintrusi5e?Q in that they cooled at
depth in the crust 3here they 3ere insulated by layers of roc+ and sedi"ent. 0ine
-rained roc+s are called Qextrusi5eQ and are -enerally produced throu-h 5olcanic
eruptions.
;rain siEe can 5ary -reatly? fro" extre"ely coarse -rained roc+s 3ith crystals the siEe
of your fist? do3n to -lassy "aterial 3hich cooled so 2uic+ly that there are no "ineral
-rains at all. $oarse -rain 5arieties A3ith "ineral -rains lar-e enou-h to see 3ithout a
"a-nifyin- -lassB are called phaneritic. ;ranite and -abbro are exa"ples of phaneritic
i-neous roc+s. 0ine -rained roc+s? 3here the indi5idual -rains are too s"all to see? are
called aphanitic. (asalt is an exa"ple. *he "ost co""on -lassy roc+ is obsidian.
%b5iously? there are innu"erable inter"ediate sta-es to confuse the issue.
$omposition
*he other factor is co"position, the ele"ents in the "a-"a directly affect 3hich
"inerals are for"ed 3hen the "a-"a cools. !-ain? 3e 3ill describe the extre"es? but
there are countless inter"ediate co"positions.
*he co"position of i-neous "a-"as is directly related to 3here the "a-"a is
for"ed. )a-"as associated 3ith crustal spreadin- are -enerally "afic? and produce
basalt if the "a-"a erupts at the surface? or -abbro if the "a-"a ne5er "a+es it out
of the "a-"a cha"ber. 8t is i"portant to re"e"ber that basalt and -abbro are t3o
different roc+s based purely on textural differences # they are co"positionally the
sa"e. 8nter"ediate and felsic "a-"as are associated 3ith crustal co"pression and
subduction. 8n these areas? roc+ and sedi"ent fro" the surface is subducted bac+ into
the crust? 3here it re#"elts. *his allo3s the differentiation process to continue? and
&6
the resultin- "a-"a is enriched in the li-hter ele"ents. 8nter"ediate "a-"as
produce diorite Aintrusi5eB and andesite Aextrusi5eB. 0elsic "a-"as? the final purified
result of the differentiation process? lead to the for"ation of -ranite Aintrusi5eB or
rhyolite Aextrusi5eB.
*edimentary (oc)s
/igure 13 > *edimentary (oc)
Sedi"entary roc+s are for"ed at the surface of the Earth? either in 3ater or on land. *hey
are layered accu"ulations of sedi"ents#fra-"ents of roc+s? "inerals? or ani"al or plant
"aterial. *e"peratures and pressures are lo3 at the EarthFs surface? and sedi"entary
roc+s sho3 this fact by their appearance and the "inerals they contain.
)ost sedi"entary roc+s beco"e ce"ented to-ether by "inerals and che"icals or are held
to-ether by electrical attractionL so"e? ho3e5er? re"ain loose and unconsolidated. *he
layers are nor"ally parallel or nearly parallel to the EarthFs surfaceL if they are at hi-h
an-les to the surface or are t3isted or bro+en? so"e +ind of Earth "o5e"ent has occurred
since the roc+ 3as for"ed. Sedi"entary roc+s are for"in- around us all the ti"e.
Sand and -ra5el on beaches or in ri5er bars? loo+ li+e the sandstone and con-lo"erate
they 3ill beco"e. $o"pacted and dried "ud flats harden into shale. Scuba di5ers 3ho
ha5e seen "ud and shells settlin- on the floors of la-oons find it easy to understand ho3
sedi"entary roc+s for". Sedi"entary roc+s are called secondary? because they are often
the result of the accu"ulation of s"all pieces bro+en off of pre#existin- roc+s.
&7
*here are three "ain types of sedi"entary roc+s,
$lastic sedimentary rocs)
$lastic sedi"entary roc+s are accu"ulations of clasts, little pieces of bro+en up roc+
3hich ha5e piled up and been QlithifiedQ by co"paction and ce"entation.
Sandstone
/igure 1 > *andstone roc)s
Sandstone is co"posed of "ineral -rains Aco""only 2uartEB ce"ented to-ether by silica?
iron oxide? or calciu" carbonate. Sandstones are typically 3hite? -ray? bro3n? or red. *he
red and bro3n sandstone is colored by iron oxide i"purities. )ost sandstones feel -ritty?
and so"e are easily crushed AfriableB and brea+ up to for" sand. Sandstones ha5e pore
spaces bet3een each -rain of sandL this property? called porosity? "a+es the" -ood
reser5oirs for oil and natural -as. Sandstones are 5ery resistant to erosion and for" bluffs?
cliffs? rid-es? rapids? arches? and 3aterfalls.
$onglomerate
$on-lo"erate is a sedi"entary roc+ usually co"posed of rounded 2uartE pebbles?
cobbles? and boulders surrounded by a "atrix of sand and finer "aterial? and ce"ented
3ith silica? iron oxide? or calciu" carbonate. *he roc+ fra-"ents are rounded fro" bein-
rolled alon- a strea" bed or a beach durin- transportation. 8f the fra-"ents e"bedded in
the "atrix are an-ular instead of rounded? the roc+ is called a breccia Apronounced
(6E$H#i#aB.
&8
/igure 1" @$onglomerate (oc)
Shale
/igure 14 @ *hales
Shale is the "ost abundant of all sedi"entary roc+s. 8t is co"posed pri"arily of soft clay
"inerals? but "ay include 5ariable a"ounts of or-anic "atter? calcareous "aterial? and
2uartE -rains. Shale "ay be any color? but is -enerally -reenish -ray to -rayish blac+. 8t
is relati5ely soft and has a s"ooth? -reasy feel 3hen freshly exposed? but is hard and
brittle 3hen dry. )ost shales split into thin plates or sheets and are ter"ed fissile? but
others are "assi5e AnonfissileB and brea+ into irre-ular bloc+s. Shales 3eather 5ery easily
to for" "ud and clay.
$lays
*he ter" QclayQ is applied to 5arious earthy "aterials co"posed do"inantly of hydrous
alu"inu" "a-nesiu" silicate "inerals. *he "ost fa"iliar characteristic of clay is
plasticity or the ability of "oist clay to be fashioned into a desired shape. *he physical
properties of a clay are plasticity? stren-th? and refractoriness. Plasticity enables the clay
&
to be "oldedL stren-th per"its it to be handled durin- the for"in-? dryin-? and burnin-
processesL and refractoriness per"its it to be burned into a hard body of per"anent for"
%entonite
(entonite is a soft? lo3#specific#-ra5ity? expandable clay. 8t is altered 5olcanic ash and is
found in central Kentuc+y in beds up to . feet thic+ near the top of the *yrone <i"estone.
Drillers ha5e labeled these bentonite beds the )ud $a5e and Pencil $a5e. (ecause of its
peculiar property of expandin- 3hen 3et? bentonite is effecti5e as a 3ater sealer?
especially to pre5ent pond lea+a-e? and is also used in rotary drillin- "uds to pre5ent
conta"inatin- for"ations 3ith drillin- fluid.

$hemical sedimentary rocs)
)ny of these for" 3hen standin- 3ater e5aporates? lea5in- dissol5ed "inerals behind.
*hese are 5ery co""on in arid lands? 3here seasonal Qplaya la+esQ occur in closed
depressions. *hic+ deposits of salt and -ypsu" can for" due to repeated floodin- and
e5aporation o5er lon- periods of ti"e. %ther che"ical sedi"entary roc+s include
sedi"entary iron ores? e5aporites such as roc+ salt AHaliteB? and to so"e extent flint?
li"estone and chert.
Organic sedimentary rocs
!ny accu"ulation of sedi"entary debris caused by or-anic processes. )any ani"als
use calciu" for shells? bones? and teeth. *hese bits of calciu" can pile up on the
seafloor and accu"ulate into a thic+ enou-h layer to for" an Qor-anicQ sedi"entary
roc+. *hese include <i"estone? $hal+ and $oal.
$lues that "ay help you reco-niEe a sedi"entary roc+ are...
8t loo+s li+e bits of other roc+s stuc+ to-ether.
8t has a -ritty feel and bits can be rubbed off it.
8t contains fossils? bits of shell or pebbles.
*here are no? or 5ery fe3 crystals in it.
!ll the -rains loo+ rounded and 3orn.
.'
+etamorphic (oc)s
*he "eta"orphics -et their na"e fro" Q"etaQ Achan-eB and Q"orphQ Afor"B. !ny
roc+ can beco"e a "eta"orphic roc+. !ll that is re2uired is for the roc+ to be "o5ed
into an en5iron"ent in 3hich the "inerals 3hich "a+e up the roc+ beco"e unstable
and out of e2uilibriu" 3ith the ne3 en5iron"ental conditions.
*he process of "eta"orphis" does not "elt the roc+s? but instead transfor"s the" into
denser? "ore co"pact roc+s. Ne3 "inerals are created either by rearran-e"ent of
"ineral co"ponents or by reactions 3ith fluids that enter the roc+s. So"e +inds of
"eta"orphic roc+s##-ranite -neiss and biotite schist are t3o exa"ples##are stron-ly
banded or foliated. A0oliated "eans the parallel arran-e"ent of certain "ineral -rains that
-i5es the roc+ a striped appearance.B Pressure or te"perature can e5en chan-e pre5iously
"eta"orphosed roc+s into ne3 types.
8n "ost cases? this in5ol5es burial 3hich leads to a rise in te"perature and pressure.
*he "eta"orphic chan-es in the "inerals al3ays "o5e in a direction desi-ned to
restore e2uilibriu". $o""on "eta"orphic roc+s include slate? schist? -neiss? and
"arble.
The Geological Time *cale
! se2uence of di5isions of -eolo-ical
ti"e co"prisin- in order fro" oldest to
youn-est, Preca"brian? $a"brian?
%rdo5ician? Silurian? De5onian?
$arboniferous? Per"ian? *riassic?
@urassic? $retaceous? *ertiary and
Suaternary.
.1
Each of the -eolo-ical periods is characterised by -roups? or suites? of fossils. *he picture
belo3 sho3s a typical fossil e"bedded in a roc+.
/igure 17 > /ossil embedded in a roc)
*he -eolo-ical periods are -rouped into three "a9or di5isions of PhaneroEoic ti"e. *he
bloc+ of Qancient lifeQ is dated fro" so"e /4' "illion years before present Athe
$a"brianB to about &4/ "illion years before present Athe Per"ianB. 0ossils such as
trilobites? -raptolites? early fish and ancestral plants belon- to this QEraQ? +no3n as the
PaleoEoic. *he PaleoEoic Era is replaced by the ti"e of Q"iddle lifeQ Athe )esoEoic EraB?
charcterised by dinosaurs and "arine or-anis"s such as the -reat "arine reptiles and the
a""onites. *he )esoEoic Era co""enced 3ith the *riassic Period Astartin- about &4/
"illion years a-oB and concluded 3ith the $retaceous Period A66.4 "illion years a-oB.
*he last bloc+ of -eolo-ical ti"e is the $enoEoic Era 3ith t3o -eolo-ical periods? the
*ertiary and the Suaternary. *his era is characterised by 3idespead e5olution of the
"a""als? and concludes 3ith the appearance of "odern Homo sapiens Aour o3n
speciesB? in late Suaternary ti"e. 7e are li5in- in the Suaternary Period.
E%N E6! PE68%D
.&
P
h
a
n
e
r
o
9
o
i
c
<
o
n
8Aisible 5ife8
%rganisms with s)eletons or
hard shells.
"' mya through today
$eno9oic <ra
82ge of
+ammals8
4" mya through
today
Buaternary Period
8The 2ge of +an8
1.8 mya to today
Tertiary Period
4" to 1.8 mya
Neogene
&@1.8 mya
Paleogene
4"@& mya
+eso9oic <ra
82ge of (eptiles8
&8 to 4" mya
$retaceous Period
14 to 4" mya
Curassic Period
&'8 to 14 mya
Triassic Period
&8 to &'8 mya
Paleo9oic <ra
"' to &8 mya
Permian Period
82ge of 2mphibians8
&8' to &8 mya
$arboniferous
34' to &8' mya
Pennsyl,anian
Period
3&" to &8' mya
+ississippian
Period
34' to 3&" mya
.e,onian PeriodD8The 2ge of
/ishes8
'8 to 34' mya
*ilurian PeriodD 38 to '8 mya
%rdo,ician PeriodD "'" to 38 mya
$ambrian PeriodD "' to "'' mya
Protero9oic <on
&." billion years ago to
"' mya
#
Aendian PeriodD 4'' to "' mya
#
2rcheo9oic <on
62rchean7
3.1 to &." billion years ago
# #
#adean <on
.4 to 3.1 billion years ago
# #
..
G<%5%GI$25 /<2T0(<*
*here are three -eolo-ical features that need to be present before oil "ay be present
under-round, source roc+? reser5oir roc+? and -eolo-ical traps. *he source roc is 3here
the oil 3as for"ed Aif you accept the or-anic theoryB? but because it is relati5ely non#
porous? it cannot hold oil in appreciable a"ounts. 8nstead? the oil "i-rates to "ore porous
roc+ li+e sandstone or li"estone. *hese are exa"ples of reser*oir roc. 8t is possible for
the oil to "o5e throu-h the reser5oir roc+ all the 3ay to the surface of the earth.
Ho3e5er? this rarely happens because its pro-ress is bloc+ed by so"e i"per"eable roc+
barrier. *his causes the oil to accu"ulate to for" a reser5oir. *he barrier and the resultin-
reser5oir for" 3hat is +no3n as a trap.
/igure 18 > Typical Traps
(eser,oir (oc)
*he oil that "i-rates throu-h the reser5oir roc+ is not pure oil. 6ather it is a "ixture of
oil? 3ater? and natural -as. 7hen the reser5oir for"s? the three co"ponents 3ill separate?
3ith the -as at the top? the oil in the "iddle? and the 3ater at the botto". Dependin- on
the pressure in the reser5oir? the -as "ay stay in solution. 8f the -as does for" a separate
layer at the top? it is referred to as the gas cap. 8t is i"portant to note that the
oilR3aterR-as "ixture does not for" a lar-e pool of li2uid as so"e people often en5isionL
it is actually dispersed throu-hout the reser5oir roc+.
Traps
*here are t3o basic +inds of traps, structural and strati-raphic. Structural traps are the
result of defor"ations of the roc+ layer. Exa"ples of structural traps are anticlines and
fault traps. *he fault trap is associated 3ith the shiftin- of fault layers alon- a fault line?
so"ethin- that 3e are fa"iliar 3ith as the cause of earth2ua+es if the shiftin- "otion is
stron- enou-h. Stratigraphic traps for" 3hen reser5oir roc+ is cut off by a horiEontal
layer of i"per"eable roc+. *he fi-ure abo5e sho3s oil poolin- in the t3o different types
of structural traps. *he do"e#li+e structure on the ri-ht is an anticline? 3hile the structure
on the left is a trap for"ed alon- a fault.
*here are three basic for"s of a structural trap in petroleu" -eolo-y,
.4
!nticline trap
0ault *rap
Salt Do"e *rap
*he co""on lin+ bet3een these three is si"ple, so"e part of the earth has "o5ed in the
past? creatin- an i"pedence to oil flo3.
Anticline (rap
!n anticline is an exa"ple of roc+s 3hich 3ere pre5iously flat? but ha5e been bent into
an arch. %il that finds its 3ay into a reser5oir roc+ that has been bent into an arch 3ill
flo3 to the crest of the arch? and -et stuc+ Apro5ided? of course? that there is an
i"per"eable trap roc+ abo5e the arch to seal the oil in placeB.
F!#*r. 12
! cross section of the Earth sho3in- typical !nticline *raps.
6eseroir roc+ that isnFt co"pletely filled 3ith oil also contains
lar-e a"ounts of salt 3ater.
/igure &' > %utcrop 2nticline
Fault trap
./
0ault traps are for"ed by "o5e"ent of roc+ alon- a fault line. 8n so"e cases? the
reser5oir roc+ has "o5ed opposite a layer of i"per"eable roc+. *he i"per"eable roc+
thus pre5ents the oil fro" escapin-. 8n other cases? the fault itself can be a 5ery effecti5e
trap. $lays 3ithin the fault Eone are s"eared as the layers of roc+ slip past one another.
*his is +no3n as fault gouge.
/igure &1
! cross section of roc+ sho3in- a fault trap # in this case? an exa"ple of gouge.*his is because the reser5oir
roc+ on both sides of the fault 3ould be connected? if not for the fault seperatin- the t3o. 8n this exa"ple? it
is the fault itself that is trappin- the oil.
(hrust Fault
*hrust faultin- occurs 3hen one section of the Earth is pushed up and o5er another
section? and they "ost often occur in areas 3here t3o continental plates are runnin- into
one another. Ho3e5er? the photos belo3 sho3 sedi"ents that 3ere deposited by -laciers
only 1'?''' years a-o? and these sedi"ents 3ere then run o5er by a -lacial read5ance.
7hen the -lacier "o5ed bac+ o5er the sedi"ents? faultin- occured. *he faults belo3 can
be clearly seen.
.6
/igure && > %utcrop Thrust /aults
(elo3 you can see the faults and roc+ horiEons dra3n in 8f the conditions 3ere ri-ht? oil
"i-ht beco"e trapped in this roc+.
/igure &3 > Interpretation of /igure &&
!lso dra3n in is the possibility of oil bein- trapped by the shale abo5e it? as 3ell as by
the fault and the shale to the left of it. %f course? this outcrop is only a couple of "eters
3ide? there really is no oil here? and the layers that 3eF5e assi-ned to the roc+ are "ostly
.7
i"a-inary in this case. (ut the point is? this is exactly ho3 "any structural traps are set
up belo3 the EarthFs surface.
Salt Dome (rap
Salt is a peculiar substance. 8f you put enou-h heat and pressure on it? the salt 3ill slo3ly
flo3? "uch li+e a -lacier that slo3ly but continually "o5es do3nhill. Unli+e -laciers? salt
3hich is buried +ilo"eters belo3 the surface of the Earth can "o5e up3ard until it
brea+s throu-h to the EarthFs surface? 3here it is then dissol5ed by -round# and rain#
3ater. *o -et all the 3ay to the EarthFs surface? salt has to push aside and brea+ throu-h
"any layers of roc+ in its path. *his is 3hat ulti"ately 3ill create the oil trap.
/igure &
Here 3e see salt that has "o5ed up throu-h the Earth? punchin- throu-h and bendin- roc+ alon- the 3ay.
%il can co"e to rest ri-ht up a-ainst the salt? 3hich "a+es salt an effecti5e trap. Ho3e5er? "any ti"es? the
salt che"ically chan-es the roc+s next to it in such a 3ay that oil 3ill no lon-er seep into the". 8n a sense?
it destroys the porosity of a reser5oir roc+.
Stratigraphic (rap
! strati-raphic trap accu"ulates oil due to chan-es of roc+ character rather than faultin-
or foldin- of the roc+. *he ter" Qstrati-raphyQ basically "eans Qthe study of the roc+s
and their 5ariationsQ. %ne thin- strati-raphy has sho3n us is that "any layers of roc+
chan-e? so"eti"es o5er short distances? e5en 3ithin the sa"e roc+ layer.
!s an exa"ple? it is possible that a layer of roc+ 3hich is a sandstone at one location is a
siltstone or a shale at another location. 8n bet3een? the roc+ -rades bet3een the t3o roc+
types. 0ro" the section on reser5oir roc+s? 3e learned that sandstones "a+e -ood
reser5oirs because of the "any pore spaces contained 3ithin. %n the other hand? shales?
"ade up of clay particles? do not "a+e -ood reser5oirs? because they do not contain lar-e
pore spaces. *herefore? if oil "i-rates into a sandstone? it 3ill flo3 alon- this roc+ layer
until it hits the lo3#porosity shale? thus for"in- a strati-raphic trap.
.8
/igure &"@ 2n e;ample of a stratigraphic trap
*he abo5e series of dia-ra"s is an atte"pt to illustrate a type of strati-raphic trap. 8n the
dia-ra" at the upper left? 3e see a ri5er that is "eanderin-. !s it does so? it deposits sand
alon- its ban+. 0urther a3ay fro" the ri5er is the floodplain? 3here broad layers of "ud
are deposited durin- a flood. *hou-h they see" fairly constant? ri5ers actually chan-e
course fre2uently? e5entually "o5in- to ne3 locations. So"eti"es these ne3 locations
are "iles a3ay fro" their for"er path.
8n the dia-ra" at the upper ri-ht? 3e sho3 3hat happens 3hen a ri5er chan-es its course.
*he sand bars that 3ere deposited earlier are no3 co5ered by the "ud of the ne3
floodplain. *hese lenses of sand? 3hen loo+ed at fro" the side "any years later Athe
botto" dia-ra"B? beco"e cut off fro" each other? and are surrounded by the "ud of the
ri5erFs floodplain # 3hich 3ill e5entually turn to shale. *his "a+es for a perfect
strati-raphic trap.
.
P<T(%5<0+ (<*<(A%I(*
*he ter" reser5oir i"plies stora-e. 6eser5oir roc+? therefore? is that roc+ in 3hich the
hydrocarbon can be stored and fro" 3hich it can be produced. *he fluids of the
subsurface "i-rate accordin- to density 3ith the do"inant fluids in hydrocarbon re-ions
bein- hydrocarbon -as? hydrocarbon li2uids and salt 3ater. Since the hydrocarbons are
the less dense of these fluids? they 3ill tend to "i-rate up3ard? displacin- the hea5ier salt
3ater do3n ele5ation. Hydrocarbons "ay be forced fro" their source roc+ durin-
lithification? and "i-rate into the reser5oir roc+ in 3hich they are stored. *he fluids
present 3ill separate accordin- to density as "i-ration occurs.
(eser,oir Properties
*he +ey properties for describin- a petroleu" reser5oir are porosity? pore saturation? and
permea!ility. Definitions of these ter"s are as follo3s.
Porosity refers to the capacity of the reser5oir to hold fluids. 8t is basically the interstices?
or pores? present 3ithin the reser5oir roc+. *ypical porosities of oil reser5oirs are of the
order of &'J.
7hile porosity represents the "axi"u" capacity of a reser5oir to hold fluids? pore
saturation 2uantifies ho3 "uch of this a5ailable capacity actually does contain fluids. 0or
exa"ple? if a reser5oir is /'J saturated 3ith oil? this "eans that half of the a5ailable pore
space in the reser5oir actually contains oil.
P.r5.$+!0!(
Per"eability is a factor that 2uantifies ho3 hard or ho3 easy it is for the fluid to flo3
throu-h the reser5oir to the oil producin- 3ellL the -reater the per"eability? the easier the
fluid flo3s.
Per"eability of a roc+ is a "easure of the ability of the roc+ to trans"it fluids throu-h it.
8t is of -reat i"portance in deter"inin- the flo3 characteristics of hydrocarbons in oil
and -as reser5oirs? and of -round3ater in a2uifers. *he usual unit for per"eability is the
darcy? or "ore co""only the milli-darcy or md A1 darcy H 1 x 1'
T1&
"UB.
Per"eability is part of the proportionality constant in Darcy1s <a3 3hich relates
dischar-e Aflo3 rateB and fluid physical properties Ae.- 5iscosityB? to a pressure -radient
applied to the porous "edia. *he proportionallity constant specifically for the flo3 of
3ater throu-h a porous "edia is the hydraulic conducti5ity. Per"eability is a portion of
this? and is a property of the porous "edia only? not the fluid. 8n naturally occurrin-
"aterials? it ran-es o5er "any orders of "a-nitude .
0or a roc+ to be considered as an exploitable hydrocarbon reser5oir? its per"eability "ust
be -reater than approxi"ately 1'' "d Adependin- on the nature of the hydrocarbon # -as
reser5oirs 3ith lo3er per"eabilities are still exploitable because of the lo3er 5iscosity of
4'
-as 3ith respect to oilB. 6oc+s 3ith per"eabilities si-nificantly lo3er than 1'' "d can
for" efficient seals . Unconsolidated sands "ay ha5e per"eabilities of /'''G "d.
Darcy+s E,uation for linear incompressi!le fluid flo-
.arcy is a unit of per"eability. 8t is not an S8 unit? but it is 3idely used in petroleu"
en-ineerin- and -eolo-y. *he darcy has units of area.
Definition
Per"eability "easures the ability of fluids to flo3 throu-h roc+ Aor other porous "ediaB.
*he darcy is defined usin- Darcy1s <a3 3hich can be 3ritten as,
3here,
V is the per"eability of a "ediu"
* is the superficial Aor bul+B fluid flo3 rate throu-h the "ediu"
W is the dyna"ic 5iscosity of the fluid
XP is the applied pressure difference
Xx is the thic+ness of the "ediu"
*his is the basic for" of the e2uation. 8t assu"es la"inar? steady state? inco"pressible
fluid flo3in- throu-h the syste". 7e 3ill assu"e that the reser5oir is abo5e the bubble
point ? so that fluid flo3in- fro" the reser5oir into the 3ellbore 3ill be li2uid.
*he darcy is referenced to a "ixture of unit syste"s. ! "ediu" 3ith a per"eability of 1
darcy per"its a flo3 of 1 c"Rs of a fluid of 1 cP 5iscosity under a 1 at"Rc" pressure
-radient.
A!solute permea!ility is the per"eability of a roc+ 3hich has only a sin-le fluid flo3in-
throu-h it.
*he effecti*e permea!ility to a fluid is the per"eability of the roc+ to that particular fluid
3hen there are "ore than one fluids flo3in- in the reser5oir.
e.-. +
o
is the per"eability to the flo3 of oil 3hen ther is? say? oil and 3ater flo3in-
throu-ht the roc+.
41
.elati*e permea!ility is the ratio of the effecti5e per"eability of a roc+ to the absolute
per"eability of the roc+? at a particular 3ater saturation.
6elati5e Per"eability $ur5e
Porosity
*he porosity of a roc+ is the proportion of the non#solid 5olu"e to the total 5olu"e of
"aterial? and is defined by the ratio,
3here I
p
is the non#solid 5olu"e Apores and li2uidB and I
"
is the total 5olu"e of
"aterial? includin- the solid and non#solid parts. (oth Y and n are used to denote
porosity.
Porosity is a fraction bet3een ' and 1? typically ran-in- fro" less than '.'1 for solid
-ranite to "ore than './ for peat and clay? althou-h it "ay also be represented in percent
ter"s by "ultiplyin- the fraction by 1''J.
*he porosity of a roc+? or sedi"entary layer? is an i"portant consideration 3hen
atte"ptin- to e5aluate the potential 5olu"e of hydrocarbons it "ay contain. Sedi"entary
porosities are a co"plex function of "any factors? includin- but not li"ited to, rate of
burial? depth of burial? the nature of the connate fluids? the nature of o5erlyin- sedi"ents
A3hich "ay i"pede fluid expulsionB.
4&
Relative Permeability curve
0
0&1
0&)
0&-
0&%
0&,
0&'
0&6
0&$
0&9
1
0&) 0&- 0&% 0&, 0&' 0&6 0&$ 0&9
Water Saturation %
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

p
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

%
Kro
Kr7
Porosity and hydraulic conducti*ity
Porosity is indirectly related to hydraulic conducti5ity. 0or t3o si"ilar sandy a2uifers?
the one 3ith a hi-her porosity 3ill typically ha5e a hi-her hydraulic conducti5ity A"ore
open area for the flo3 of 3aterB? but there are "any co"plications to this relationship.
$lays? 3hich typically ha5e 5ery lo3 hydraulic conducti5ity also ha5e 5ery hi-h
porosities Adue to the structured nature of clay "ineralsB? 3hich "eans clays can hold a
lar-e 5olu"e of 3ater per 5olu"e of bul+ "aterial? but they do not release 3ater 5ery
2uic+ly.
Sorting and porosity
7ell sorted A-rains of approxi"ately all one siEeB "aterials ha5e hi-her porosity than
si"ilarly siEed poorly sorted "aterials A3here s"aller particles fill the -aps bet3een
lar-er particlesB. *he -raphic illustrates ho3 so"e s"aller -rains can effecti5ely fill the
pores A3here all 3ater flo3 ta+es placeB? drastically reducin- porosity and hydraulic
conducti5ity? 3hile only bein- a s"all fraction of the total 5olu"e of the "aterial.
(ypes of porosity
Pri"ary porosity is the "ain or ori-inal porosity syste" in a roc+
Secondary porosity is a subse2uent or separate porosity syste" in a roc+? often
enhancin- o5erall porosity of a roc+. *his can be a result of che"ical leechin- of
"inerals or the -eneration of a fracture syste". *his can replace the pri"ary
porosity or coexist 3ith it Asee dual porosity belo3B.
0racture porosity is porosity associated 3ith a fracture syste" or faultin-. *his
can create secondary porosity in roc+s that other3ise 3ould not be reser5oirs for
hydrocarbons due to their pri"ary porosity bein- destroyed Afor exa"ple due to
depth of burialB or of a roc+ type not nor"ally considered a reser5oir Afor exa"ple
i-neous intrusions or "etasedi"entsB.
Iu--y porosity is secondary porosity -enerated by dissolution of lar-e features
Asuch as "acrofossilsB in carbonate roc+s lea5in- lar-e holes? 5i-s? or e5en ca5es.
Effecti5e porosity Aalso called open porosityB refers to the fraction of the total
5olu"e in 3hich fluid flo3 is effecti5ely ta+in- place Athis excludes dead#end
pores or non#connected ca5itiesB. *his is 5ery i"portant in solute transport.
Dual porosity refers to the conceptual idea that there are t3o o5erlappin-
reser5oirs 3hich interact. 8n fractured roc+ a2uifers? the roc+ "ass and fractures
are often si"ulated as bein- t3o o5erlappin- but distinct bodies. Delayed yield?
and lea+y a2uifer flo3 solutions are both "athe"atically si"ilar solutions to that
obtained for dual porosityL in all three cases 3ater co"es fro" t3o
"athe"atically different reser5oirs A3hether or not they are physically differentB.
&easuring Porosity
4.
*here are se5eral 3ays to esti"ate the porosity of a -i5en "aterial or "ixture of
"aterials? 3hich is called your "aterial "atrix.
(he /olume0Density "ethod is fast and suprisin-ly accurate Anor"ally 3ithin &J
of the actual porosityB. *o do this "ethod you pour your "aterial into a bea+er?
cylinder or so"e other container of a +no3n 5olu"e. 7ei-h your container so
you +no3 its e"pty 3ei-ht? then pour your "aterial into the container.
*ap the side of the container until it has finished settlin- and "easure the 5olu"e
in the container. *hen 3ei-h your container full of this "aterial? so you can
subtract the 3ei-ht of the container to +no3 9ust the 3ei-ht of 9ust your "aterial.
So no3 you ha5e both the 5olu"e and the 3ei-ht of the "aterial.
*he 3ei-ht of your "aterial di5ided by the density of your "aterial -i5es you the
5olu"e that your "aterial ta+es up? "inus the pore 5olu"e. A*he assu"ed density
of "ost roc+s? sand? -lass? ect. is assu"ed to be &.6/-Rcc. 8f you ha5e a different
"aterial? you "ay loo+ up its densityB So? the pore 5olu"e is si"ply e2ual to the
total 5olu"e "inus the "ateial 5olu"e? or "ore directly Apore 5olu"eB H Atotal
5olu"eB # A"aterial 5olu"eB.
1ater Saturation &ethod is sli-htly harder to do? but is "ore accurate and "ore
direct. !-ain? ta+e a +no3n 5olu"e of your "aterial and also a +no3n 5olu"e of
3ater. A)a+e sure the bea+er or container is lar-e enou-h to hold your "aterial as
3ell.B Slo3ly du"p your "aterial into the 3ater and let it saturate as you pour it
in. *hen seal the bea+er A3ith a piece of parafil" tape or if you donFt ha5e
parafil" tape a plastic ba- tied around the bea+er 3ill do.B and let it sit for a fe3
hours to insure the "aterial is fully saturated. *hen re"o5e the unsaturated 3ater
fro" the top of the bea+er and "easure its 5olu"e. *he total 5olu"e of the 3ater
ori-inally in the bea+er "inus the a"ount of 3ater not saturated is the 5olu"e of
the pore space? or a-ain "ore directly Apore 5olu"eB H Atotal 5olu"e of 3aterB #
Aunsaturated 3aterB.
1ater E*aporation &ethod is the hardest to do? but is also the "ost accurate. *a+e
a fully saturated? +no3n 5olu"e of your "aterial 3ith no excess 3ater on top.
7ei-h your container 3ith the "aterial and 3ater and then place your container
into a heater to dry it out. Dryin- out your sa"ple "ay ta+e se5eral days
dependin- on the heat applied and the 5olu"e of your sa"ple. *hen 3ei-h your
dried sa"ple. Since the density of 3ater is 1 -Rcc? the difference of the 3ei-hts of
the saturated 5ersus the dried sa"ple is e2aul to the 5olu"e of the 3ater re"o5ed
fro" the sa"ple Aassu"in- you are "easurin- in -ra"sB? 3hich is exactly the
pore 5olu"e. So once a-ain? Apore 5olu"e in cubic cente"etersB H A3ei-ht of
saturated sa"ple in -ra"sB # A3ei-ht of dried sa"ple in -ra"sB.
3$.r S$*r$!o"
44
*he fraction of 3ater in a -i5en pore space. 8t is expressed in 5olu"eR5olu"e? percent or
saturation units. Unless other3ise stated? 3ater saturation is the fraction of for"ation
3ater in the undisturbed Eone. *he saturation is +no3n as the total 3ater saturation if the
pore space is the total porosity? and the effecti5e 3ater saturation if the pore space is the
effecti5e porosity. 8f used 3ithout 2ualification? the ter" usually refers to the effecti5e
3ater saturation.
.etermining /luids in Place
*o calculate the 5olu"e of oil? 3ater and -as in place in a reser5oir? 3e need to +no3 the
acre#feet of the reser5oir Athe area of the reser5oir ti"es its thic+ness in feetB? the porosity
of the reser5oir in percent? and the percent saturation of the oil? 3ater and -as. Note that
the su" of the percent saturation of the three fluids "ust e2ual 1''J.
*he acre-foot 3as ori-inally an irri-ation ter" and refers to the correspondin- 5olu"e of
an acre of fluid that is one foot deep. !n acre is e2ui5alent to 4.? /6' ft
&
? so an acre#foot
is 4.? /6' ft
.
. %ne barrel is e2ui5alent to /.617 ft
.
? so there are 7? 7/8 barrels in one acre#
foot. 8n order to calculate the barrels of oil in place in a reser5oir? 3e "ultiply 7? 7/8 by
the acre#feet of the reser5oir? by the porosity of the reser5oir? and by the percent
saturation of oil. *o deter"ine the barrels of 3ater and -as in place? 3e si"ply replace
the percent saturation of oil 3ith the 3ater and -as saturation? respecti5ely. 8n conclusion?
it should be said that it is not possible to reco5er all of the oil in place. *he a"ount that
can be reco5ered depends on the reser5oir pressure and per"eability? as 3ell as the oil
5iscosity.
%%8P H 77/8Z!ZhZZA1#S
3
B
7here %%8P is the ori-inal oil in place in barrels
! is the !rea in acre#feet h is the thic+ness of the oilsand
is the porosity? fraction S
3
is the 3ater saturation? fraction
%;8P H 4.?/6'Z!ZhZZA1#S
3
B
7here %;8P is the ori-inal ;as in place in cubic feet
! is the !rea in acre#feet h is the thic+ness of the -as sand
is the porosity? fraction S
3
is the 3ater saturation? fraction
4/
P<T(%5<0+ (<*<(A<* .</INITI%N*
6eser5es deri5ed under these definitions rely on the inte-rity? s+ill? and 9ud-"ent of the
e5aluator and are affected by the -eolo-ical co"plexity? sta-e of de5elop"ent? de-ree of
depletion of the reser5oirs? and a"ount of a5ailable data. Use of these definitions should
sharpen the distinction bet3een the 5arious classifications and pro5ide "ore consistent
reser5es reportin-.
6eser5es are those 2uantities of petroleu" 3hich are anticipated to be co""ercially
reco5ered fro" +no3n accu"ulations fro" a -i5en date for3ard. !ll reser5e esti"ates
in5ol5e so"e de-ree of uncertainty. *he uncertainty depends chiefly on the a"ount of
reliable -eolo-ic and en-ineerin- data a5ailable at the ti"e of the esti"ate and the
interpretation of these data. *he relati5e de-ree of uncertainty "ay be con5eyed by
placin- reser5es into one of t3o principal classifications? either pro5ed or unpro5ed.
Unpro5ed reser5es are less certain to be reco5ered than pro5ed reser5es and "ay be
further sub#classified as probable and possible reser5es to denote pro-ressi5ely increasin-
uncertainty in their reco5erability.
*he intent of the Society of Petroleu" En-ineers ASPEB and 7orld Petroleu" $ouncil
A7P$? for"erly 7orld Petroleu" $on-ressesB in appro5in- additional classifications
beyond pro5ed reser5es is to facilitate consistency a"on- professionals usin- such ter"s.
8n presentin- these definitions? neither or-aniEation is reco""endin- public disclosure of
reser5es classified as unpro5ed. Public disclosure of the 2uantities classified as unpro5ed
reser5es is left to the discretion of the countries or co"panies in5ol5ed.
Esti"ation of reser5es is done under conditions of uncertainty. *he "ethod of esti"ation
is called deter"inistic if a sin-le best esti"ate of reser5es is "ade based on +no3n
-eolo-ical? en-ineerin-? and econo"ic data. *he "ethod of esti"ation is called
probabilistic 3hen the +no3n -eolo-ical? en-ineerin-? and econo"ic data are used to
-enerate a ran-e of esti"ates and their associated probabilities. 8dentifyin- reser5es as
pro5ed? probable? and possible has been the "ost fre2uent classification "ethod and
-i5es an indication of the probability of reco5ery. (ecause of potential differences in
uncertainty? caution should be exercised 3hen a--re-atin- reser5es of different
classifications.
6eser5es esti"ates 3ill -enerally be re5ised as additional -eolo-ic or en-ineerin- data
beco"es a5ailable or as econo"ic conditions chan-e. 6eser5es do not include 2uantities
of petroleu" bein- held in in5entory? and "ay be reduced for usa-e or processin- losses
if re2uired for financial reportin-.
6eser5es "ay be attributed to either natural ener-y or i"pro5ed reco5ery "ethods.
8"pro5ed reco5ery "ethods include all "ethods for supple"entin- natural ener-y or
alterin- natural forces in the reser5oir to increase ulti"ate reco5ery. Exa"ples of such
"ethods are pressure "aintenance? cyclin-? 3aterfloodin-? ther"al "ethods? che"ical
floodin-? and the use of "iscible and i""iscible displace"ent fluids. %ther i"pro5ed
46
reco5ery "ethods "ay be de5eloped in the future as petroleu" technolo-y continues to
e5ol5e.
Pro4.% R.'.r4.'
Pro5ed reser5es are those 2uantities of petroleu" 3hich? by analysis of -eolo-ical and
en-ineerin- data? can be esti"ated 3ith reasonable certainty to be co""ercially
reco5erable? fro" a -i5en date for3ard? fro" +no3n reser5oirs and under current
econo"ic conditions? operatin- "ethods? and -o5ern"ent re-ulations. Pro5ed reser5es
can be cate-oriEed as de5eloped or unde5eloped.
8f deter"inistic "ethods are used? the ter" reasonable certainty is intended to express a
hi-h de-ree of confidence that the 2uantities 3ill be reco5ered. 8f probabilistic "ethods
are used? there should be at least a 'J probability that the 2uantities actually reco5ered
3ill e2ual or exceed the esti"ate.
Establish"ent of current econo"ic conditions should include rele5ant historical
petroleu" prices and associated costs and "ay in5ol5e an a5era-in- period that is
consistent 3ith the purpose of the reser5e esti"ate? appropriate contract obli-ations?
corporate procedures? and -o5ern"ent re-ulations in5ol5ed in reportin- these reser5es.
8n -eneral? reser5es are considered pro5ed if the co""ercial producibility of the reser5oir
is supported by actual production or for"ation tests. 8n this context? the ter" pro5ed
refers to the actual 2uantities of petroleu" reser5es and not 9ust the producti5ity of the
3ell or reser5oir. 8n certain cases? pro5ed reser5es "ay be assi-ned on the basis of 3ell
lo-s andRor core analysis that indicate the sub9ect reser5oir is hydrocarbon bearin- and is
analo-ous to reser5oirs in the sa"e area that are producin- or ha5e de"onstrated the
ability to produce on for"ation tests.
*he area of the reser5oir considered as pro5ed includes A1B the area delineated by drillin-
and defined by fluid contacts? if any? and A&B the undrilled portions of the reser5oir that
can reasonably be 9ud-ed as co""ercially producti5e on the basis of a5ailable -eolo-ical
and en-ineerin- data. 8n the absence of data on fluid contacts? the lo3est +no3n
occurrence of hydrocarbons controls the pro5ed li"it unless other3ise indicated by
definiti5e -eolo-ical? en-ineerin- or perfor"ance data.
6eser5es "ay be classified as pro5ed if facilities to process and transport those reser5es
to "ar+et are operational at the ti"e of the esti"ate or there is a reasonable expectation
that such facilities 3ill be installed. 6eser5es in unde5eloped locations "ay be classified
as pro5ed unde5eloped pro5ided A1B the locations are direct offsets to 3ells that ha5e
indicated co""ercial production in the ob9ecti5e for"ation? A&B it is reasonably certain
that such locations are 3ithin the +no3n pro5ed producti5e li"its of the ob9ecti5e
for"ation? A.B the locations confor" to existin- 3ell spacin- re-ulations 3here
applicable? and A4B it is reasonably certain the locations 3ill be de5eloped. 6eser5es fro"
other locations are cate-oriEed as pro5ed unde5eloped only 3here interpretations of
47
-eolo-ical and en-ineerin- data fro" 3ells indicate 3ith reasonable certainty that the
ob9ecti5e for"ation is laterally continuous and contains co""ercially reco5erable
petroleu" at locations beyond direct offsets.
6eser5es 3hich are to be produced throu-h the application of established i"pro5ed
reco5ery "ethods are included in the pro5ed classification 3hen A1B successful testin- by
a pilot pro9ect or fa5orable response of an installed pro-ra" in the sa"e or an analo-ous
reser5oir 3ith si"ilar roc+ and fluid properties pro5ides support for the analysis on 3hich
the pro9ect 3as based? and? A&B it is reasonably certain that the pro9ect 3ill proceed.
6eser5es to be reco5ered by i"pro5ed reco5ery "ethods that ha5e yet to be established
throu-h co""ercially successful applications are included in the pro5ed classification
only A1B after a fa5orable production response fro" the sub9ect reser5oir fro" either AaB a
representati5e pilot or AbB an installed pro-ra" 3here the response pro5ides support for
the analysis on 3hich the pro9ect is based and A&B it is reasonably certain the pro9ect 3ill
proceed.
U"&ro4.% R.'.r4.'
Unpro5ed reser5es are based on -eolo-ic andRor en-ineerin- data si"ilar to that used in
esti"ates of pro5ed reser5esL but technical? contractual? econo"ic? or re-ulatory
uncertainties preclude such reser5es bein- classified as pro5ed. Unpro5ed reser5es "ay
be further classified as probable reser5es and possible reser5es.
Unpro5ed reser5es "ay be esti"ated assu"in- future econo"ic conditions different fro"
those pre5ailin- at the ti"e of the esti"ate. *he effect of possible future i"pro5e"ents in
econo"ic conditions and technolo-ical de5elop"ents can be expressed by allocatin-
appropriate 2uantities of reser5es to the probable and possible classifications.
Pro+$+0. R.'.r4.'
Probable reser5es are those unpro5ed reser5es 3hich analysis of -eolo-ical and
en-ineerin- data su--ests are "ore li+ely than not to be reco5erable. 8n this context?
3hen probabilistic "ethods are used? there should be at least a /'J probability that the
2uantities actually reco5ered 3ill e2ual or exceed the su" of esti"ated pro5ed plus
probable reser5es.
8n -eneral? probable reser5es "ay include A1B reser5es anticipated to be pro5ed by nor"al
step#out drillin- 3here sub#surface control is inade2uate to classify these reser5es as
pro5ed? A&B reser5es in for"ations that appear to be producti5e based on 3ell lo-
characteristics but lac+ core data or definiti5e tests and 3hich are not analo-ous to
producin- or pro5ed reser5oirs in the area? A.B incre"ental reser5es attributable to infill
drillin- that could ha5e been classified as pro5ed if closer statutory spacin- had been
appro5ed at the ti"e of the esti"ate? A4B reser5es attributable to i"pro5ed reco5ery
48
"ethods that ha5e been established by repeated co""ercially successful applications
3hen AaB a pro9ect or pilot is planned but not in operation and AbB roc+? fluid? and
reser5oir characteristics appear fa5orable for co""ercial application? A/B reser5es in an
area of the for"ation that appears to be separated fro" the pro5ed area by faultin- and
the -eolo-ic interpretation indicates the sub9ect area is structurally hi-her than the pro5ed
area? A6B reser5es attributable to a future 3or+o5er? treat"ent? re#treat"ent? chan-e of
e2uip"ent? or other "echanical procedures? 3here such procedure has not been pro5ed
successful in 3ells 3hich exhibit si"ilar beha5ior in analo-ous reser5oirs? and A7B
incre"ental reser5es in pro5ed reser5oirs 3here an alternati5e interpretation of
perfor"ance or 5olu"etric data indicates "ore reser5es than can be classified as pro5ed.
Po''!+0. R.'.r4.'
Possible reser5es are those unpro5ed reser5es 3hich analysis of -eolo-ical and
en-ineerin- data su--ests are less li+ely to be reco5erable than probable reser5es. 8n this
context? 3hen probabilistic "ethods are used? there should be at least a 1'J probability
that the 2uantities actually reco5ered 3ill e2ual or exceed the su" of esti"ated pro5ed
plus probable plus possible reser5es.
8n -eneral? possible reser5es "ay include A1B reser5es 3hich? based on -eolo-ical
interpretations? could possibly exist beyond areas classified as probable? A&B reser5es in
for"ations that appear to be petroleu" bearin- based on lo- and core analysis but "ay
not be producti5e at co""ercial rates? A.B incre"ental reser5es attributed to infill drillin-
that are sub9ect to technical uncertainty? A4B reser5es attributed to i"pro5ed reco5ery
"ethods 3hen AaB a pro9ect or pilot is planned but not in operation and AbB roc+? fluid? and
reser5oir characteristics are such that a reasonable doubt exists that the pro9ect 3ill be
co""ercial? and A/B reser5es in an area of the for"ation that appears to be separated fro"
the pro5ed area by faultin- and -eolo-ical interpretation indicates the sub9ect area is
structurally lo3er than the pro5ed area.
R.'.r4. S$*' C$.#or!.'
6eser5e status cate-ories define the de5elop"ent and producin- status of 3ells and
reser5oirs.
D.4.0o&.% R.'.r4.'
De5eloped reser5es are expected to be reco5ered fro" existin- 3ells includin- reser5es
behind pipe. 8"pro5ed reco5ery reser5es are considered de5eloped only after the
necessary e2uip"ent has been installed? or 3hen the costs to do so are relati5ely "inor.
De5eloped reser5es "ay be sub#cate-oriEed as producin- or non#producin-.
4
Pro%*-!"# R.'.r4.'
6eser5es subcate-oriEed as producin- are expected to be reco5ered fro" co"pletion
inter5als 3hich are open and producin- at the ti"e of the esti"ate. 8"pro5ed reco5ery
reser5es are considered producin- only after the i"pro5ed reco5ery pro9ect is in
operation.
"on-producing .eser*es
6eser5es subcate-oriEed as non#producin- include shut#in and behind#pipe reser5es.
Shut#in reser5es are expected to be reco5ered fro" A1B co"pletion inter5als 3hich are
open at the ti"e of the esti"ate but 3hich ha5e not started producin-? A&B 3ells 3hich
3ere shut#in for "ar+et conditions or pipeline connections? or A.B 3ells not capable of
production for "echanical reasons. (ehind#pipe reser5es are expected to be reco5ered
fro" Eones in existin- 3ells? 3hich 3ill re2uire additional co"pletion 3or+ or future
reco"pletion prior to the start of production.
2nde*eloped .eser*es
Unde5eloped reser5es are expected to be reco5ered, A1B fro" ne3 3ells on undrilled
acrea-e? A&B fro" deepenin- existin- 3ells to a different reser5oir? or A.B 3here a
relati5ely lar-e expenditure is re2uired to AaB reco"plete an existin- 3ell or AbB install
production or transportation facilities for pri"ary or i"pro5ed reco5ery pro9ects.
/'
*0(/2$< <EP5%(2TI%N +<T#%.*
8n re-ions 3here roc+s are exposed at he surface? -eolo-ical studies based on these
surface outcrops can be of 5alue in predictin- sub#surface -eolo-y. !nalysis of this
infor"ation can pro5ided can so"eti"es be extrapolated to anticipate -eolo-y in other
locations not accessible for obser5ation and analysis. *he "a9or sources of surface
-eolo-ical infor"ation are,
iB 0ield 6econnaissance
iiB !erial Sur5eys
iiiB Satellite Sur5eys
i5B Surface ;eoche"ical !nalysis
F!.0% R.-o""$!''$"-.
*his in5ol5es obser5ation and sa"ple collection of surface -eolo-ical exposures. 8n so"e
re-ions? surface -eolo-ical outcrops i"ply sub#surface -eolo-ical characteristics. *his
surface obser5ation "i-ht pro5ide an indication of the se2uence of -eolo-ical e5ents?
3hich led to this surface -eolo-y. ;eolo-ical properties such as stri+e and dip of
sedi"entary beds? faults unconfor"ities or other -eolo-ic exposures "ay be of "a9or
i"portance in anticipatin- subsurface -eolo-y. *he stri+e is the co"pass direction of a
horiEontal line dra3n in the plane under consideration. *he dip is the an-le bet3een a
horiEontal plane and a line dra3n in the plane under consideration? perpendicular to the
intersection of the horiEontal plane and the plane under consideration.
A.r!$0 '*r4.('
)ore recently? satellite sur5eys "i-ht pro5ide the sa"e type of infor"ation as that by
field reconnaissance? except o5er lar-e re-ions. Extensi5e -eolo-ic infor"ation of
i"portance in definin- sub#surface -eolo-y has been -athered by such sur5eys as landsat
sur5ey? infra#red photo-raphy? radar photo-raphy and other sophisticated technolo-ies.
S*r,$-. G.o-1.5!-$0 A"$0('!'
*his can pro5ide indicates of the presence of sub#surface hydrocarbon reser5oirs. )any
scientists speculate that all sub#surface hydrocarbon reser5oirs -i5e surface che"ical
indications of their presence. *he si"plest exa"ple is the surface seep? 3here
hydrocarbon is actually escapin- or seepin- to the surface and bein- dissipated? in
-eolo-ic ti"e? into the en5iron"ent. *he conclusion can therefore be dra3n that this
surface hydrocarbon "ust be ori-inatin- fro" sub#surface reser5oirs.

/1
G<%P#?*I$25 <EP5%(2TI%N
!fter identifyin- sedi"entary basins thou-ht to contain hydrocarbons? an oil co"pany
ac2uires the "ineral ri-hts fro" the indi5idual or -o5ern"ent holdin- the". *he oil
co"pany 3ill then contract 3ith a seis"ic ac2uisition co"pany to "ap the areaFs
under-round roc+ for"ations throu-h seis"ic sur5eyin-.
/igure &4 > *eismic 2c3uisition
/&
S.!'5!- S*r4.('
Seis"ic sur5eys use lo3 fre2uency acoustical ener-y -enerated by explosi5es or
"echanical "eans. *hese 3a5es tra5el do3n3ard? and as they cross the boundaries
bet3een roc+ layers? ener-y is reflected bac+ to the surface and detected by sensors called
-eophones. *he resultin- data? co"bined 3ith assu"ptions about the 5elocity of the
3a5es throu-h the roc+s and the density of the roc+s? are interpreted to -enerate "aps of
the for"ations.
Seis"ic sur5eys are usually perfor"ed usin- "ultiple -eophones set at +no3n distances
fro" the ener-y source. Early seis"ic sur5eys used "echanical plotters to record the
recei5ed si-nals? and 3ere restricted to a fe3 -eophones. *hese sur5eys placed the source
and -eophones in a strai-ht line? 3ith the interpretation of the resultin- data producin- a
&#D cross section of the for"ation under that line. *he interpretations 3ere sub9ect to
error? 3hich increased the difficulty? and cost? of accurately locatin- hydrocarbon#bearin-
for"ations.
*oday? the de5elop"ent of di-ital recordin- syste"s allo3 the recordin- of data fro"
"ore that 1'?''' -eophones si"ultaneously? -reatly speedin- data collection.
Sophisticated co"puter pro-ra"s de5elop hi-hly accurate .#D "odels of roc+ structures.
*hese "odels are "ore accurate than past &#D "aps? and increase the li+elihood of
accurately identifyin- hydrocarbon#bearin- for"ations.
Seismic Section
*he seis"ic reflection "ethod 3or+s by bouncin- sound 3a5es off boundaries bet3een
different types of roc+. *he reflections recorded are plotted as dar+ lines on a seis"ic
section. ! seis"ic section rese"bles a -eolo-ical cross#section? but it still needs to be
interpreted.
%ne "a9or difference bet3een a -eolo-ical cross#section and a seis"ic section is that the
5ertical axis is in ti"e? rather than depth. 8n the earthFs crust? seis"ic 3a5es tra5el
typically at about 6''' "Rs so that 1 second of t3o#3ay tra5el ti"e corresponds to about
. +" of depth. !ll the seis"ic sections presented in this atlas are plotted at 1,1 Ano
5ertical exa--erationB assu"in- an a5era-e crustal 5elocity of 6''' "Rs.
!nother difference is that the reflections are plotted half3ay bet3een the source and the
recei5er. *hese are referred to as un"i-rated data. *he process that "o5es the reflections
in their correct spatial position is referred to as "i-ration? and the resultin- seis"ic
section is referred to as a "i-rated section.
*he science of <8*H%P6%(E is spearheaded by the seis"ic reflection "ethod because it
is the -eophysical techni2ue 3hich produces the best i"a-es of the subsurface. *hese
data resol5e "appable features such as faults? folds and litholo-ic boundaries "easured
/.
in the 1'Fs of "eters? and i"a-e the" laterally for 1''Fs of +ilo"eters and to depths of /'
+" or "ore AIarse+? 1&B.
Seis"ic reflection profilin- is the principal "ethod by 3hich the petroleu" industry
explores for hydrocarbon#trappin- structures in sedi"entary basins. 8ts extension to deep
crustal studies be-an in the 16's? and since the late 17's reflection technolo-y has
beco"e the principal procedure for detailed studies of the deep crust.
Seismic data ac,uisition
*he "ethod 3or+s by bouncin- sound 3a5es off boundaries bet3een different types of
roc+ A0i-ure 1B. !s opposed to earth2ua+e seis"olo-y? 3here the location and ti"e of the
source is an un+no3n that needs to be sol5ed for? seis"ic reflection profilin- uses a
controlled source to -enerate seis"ic 3a5es. %n land? <8*H%P6%(E has been usin-
lar-e truc+#"ounted 5ibrators as a source Athe QIibroseisQ "ethodB? and occasionally
dyna"ite is used. !t sea? lar-e arrays of air-uns? 3hich rapidly e9ect co"pressed air? are
deployed. *he reflected si-nals are recorded by -eophones? or hydrophones at sea? 3hich
rese"ble ordinary "icrophones.
/igure &4 > *eismic data 2c3uisition
/4
Durin- a seis"ic sur5ey? a cable 3ith recei5ers attached to it at re-ular inter5als is laid
out alon- a road or to3ed behind a ship. *he source "o5es alon- the seis"ic line and
-enerates seis"ic 3a5es at re-ular inter5als such that points in the subsurface? such as
point P in 0i-ure 1? are sa"pled "ore than once by rays i"pin-in- on that point at
different an-les. !s a shot -oes off? si-nals are recorded fro" each -eophone alon- the
cable for a certain a"ount of ti"e? producin- a series of seis"ic traces. *he seis"ic
traces for each shot Acalled a shot -atherB are sa5ed on "a-netic tape in the recordin-
truc+.
Seismic data processing
Di-ital data processin- is applied to ra3 seis"ic data to produce a seis"ic section A0i-ure
&7B. *he follo3in- is an exa"ple of typical processin- se2uence.
/igure &7. *eismic data processing.
*he data are read fro" tape and the shot records Ai.e. all traces recorded for a -i5en shotB
are displayed A1B. (ad seis"ic traces? due to noise or a short circuit in the recordin-
e2uip"ent? are edited out A&B. *he traces are then reordered A.B so that each -ather of
traces belon-s to a co""on reflection point? such as point P in 0i-ure &6.
//
Non#reflected arri5als? such as surface 3a5es and direct arri5als? are re"o5ed by di-ital
filterin- andRor "utin- AEeroin- of the dataB A4B. ! correction is "ade for the ti"e the
reflected ray spends tra5ellin- laterally? so that the reflected arri5als no3 line up A/B.
*hese traces are then added to produce a sin-le output trace A6B. *his process? referred to
as stac+in-? cancels out rando" noise and reinforces the reflected si-nals. *he 3a5efor"
is then shrun+ by fre2uency filterin- or decon5olution to i"pro5e the resolution A7B.
Steps A4B to A7B are repeated for each co""on reflection point? and the resultin- seis"ic
traces are displayed as a seis"ic section A8B 3hich is then interpreted AB.
M$r!". S.!'5!- $-9*!'!!o"
/igure &8 > +arine *eismic 2c3uisition
8n "arine seis"ic sur5eys? a shoc+ 3a5e is created by the follo3in-,
$ompressed@air gun # shoots pulses of air into the 3ater Afor exploration o5er
3aterB
*he reflections of the shoc+ 3a5es are detected by sensiti5e "icrophones or 5ibration
detectors Ahydrophones7 o5er 3ater.
!lthou-h "odern oil#exploration "ethods are better than pre5ious ones? they still "ay
ha5e only a 1'#percent success rate for findin- ne3 oil fields. %nce a prospecti5e oil
stri+e is found? the location is "ar+ed by "ar+er buoys on 3ater.
/6
Seismic records and the synthetic seismogram
Seis"ic ener-y sources used by the ener-y industry are re2uired to -enerate reflections
fro" roc+ units se5eral thousand feet belo3 the surface? and so typically ha5e fre2uencies
of the order of .' HE. ! si"ulation of a field record of this type is sho3n in 0i-ure 1.
*his synthetic seis"o-ra" 3as co"puted usin- a sonic lo- recorded in a Da+ota !2uifer
pro-ra" obser5ation 3ell in Ellis $ounty.
Notice that the depth scale is not "easured in feet but in units of t3o#3ay tra5el ti"e in
seconds that record the ti"e that elapsed bet3een the tri--erin- of the ener-y source and
the arri5al of the reflection at the -eophone. (ecause the sound 5elocity chan-es
continuously 3ith depth the ti"e record is not a si"ple transfor"ation of depth. *he
reflection pea+s Ablac+B pic+ up roc+ boundaries 3here the acoustic 5elocity increased
do3n3ards -oin- fro" a Qslo3Q shale to a QfasterQ li"estone or sandstone? 3hile the
reflection trou-hs A3hiteB "atch the re5erse situation.
*he .' HE fre2uency of the ener-y source results in a fairly coarse resolution? so that
only fairly thic+ roc+ units 3ith stron- i"pedance contrasts can be distin-uished. *his
characteristic can be seen in 0i-ure 1? 3here the strati-raphic units are resol5ed easily?
but reflections -enerated by the sandstones 3ithin the Da+ota !2uifer tend to o5erlap and
"er-e.
/7
/igure &1. Synthetic seis"o-ra" for the Da+ota a2uifer and ad9acent strati-raphic units?
calculated fro" -eophysical lo-s in the obser5ation 3ell K;S (raun [1 ANENENE .'#
1&S#187B? Ellis $ounty? Kansas.
(etter precision can be obtained by hi-h#fre2uency seis"ic shootin- of Da+ota !2uifer
sections 3here they are fairly close to the surface. $oyle A1'B "ade se5eral field
studies in the 5icinity of Da+ota !2uifer pro-ra" obser5ation 3ells to e5aluate the
feasibility of seis"ic "ethods in the location of channel sandstones. Sonic lo-s at the
3ells could be used to create synthetic seis"o-ra"s? so that interpretations of field
records could be correlated 3ith -eolo-y.
;a""a#ray and sonic lo-s are sho3n fro" a second obser5ation 3ell in Ellis $ounty
A0i-ure .'B. *he sonic lo- 3as con5erted to a t3o#3ay reflection ti"e record of 5elocity?
/8
3hich 3as then transfor"ed to a train of reflection coefficients and con5ol5ed 3ith a 1''
HE 6ic+er 3a5elet A0i-ure .1B. (y superi"posin- the synthetic seis"o-ra" at the
obser5ation 3ell location on the East#7est seis"ic line A0i-ure .&B? the field reflections
can be related to specific -eolo-ical features. *he Stone $orral pro5ides a stron- reflector
that is easily reco-niEed on seis"ic records fro" the entire re-ion
/igure 3'. ;a""a#ray and sonic lo-s fro" obser5ation 3ell K;S (run-ardt [1
ASESESE &/#1&S#177B? Ellis $o.? Kansas.
/
*he contact bet3een the Da+ota 0or"ation and the underlyin- Kio3a Shale can be seen ?
and is caused by the sharp chan-e in 5elocity at the contact Asee 0i-ure .'B. 6eflections
fro" the ;reenhorn <i"estone? ;raneros Shale? and the top of the Da+ota 0or"ation can
also be identified on the field record fro" their si-natures on the synthetic seis"o-ra".
*he distincti5e and laterally continuous reflection at '.&6 seconds 3as interpreted to
coincide 3ith the top of the Per"ian.
/igure 31. $o"parison bet3een the synthetic seis"o-ra" co"puted fro" the (run-ardt
3ell sonic lo- Asee 0i-ure .B and a field seis"ic line shot at the 3ell site Afro" $oyle?
1'B
$oyle concluded that 3hile thin sandstone lenses 3ithin the Da+ota 3ould not be
detectable at this fre2uency A1'' HEB? "odelin- su--ested that sandstones thic+er than .'
feet 3ould be resol5able. ! field seis"ic line shot o5er a Da+ota channel sandstone at
another site -a5e so"e support to his conclusion A0i-ure /B. *hinner sandstones could be
identified 3here reflections 3ere recorded 3ith fre2uencies hi-her than 18' HE. *he
resolution and 2uality of seis"ic records 3ere also found to be site dependent. *he best
sites 3ere located on fresh exposures of ;raneros Shale? 3here reflections of &'' HE and
6'
hi-her 3ere recorded. *he 3orst sites occurred on the ;reenhorn <i"estone outcrop?
3hile lo3 fre2uencies 3ere recorded at le5els hi-her than the ;reenhorn.
/igure 3&. $DP seis"ic section tied to Da+ota !2uifer pro-ra" obser5ation 3ell K;S
Haberer [1 ANESENE 14#1&S#1/7B? 6ussell $ounty? Kansas. Note channel sandstone.
0ro" $oyle? 1'.
61
/igure 33 > *eismic *ection
Gr$4!( S*r4.('
!ll "aterials in the earth influence -ra5ity but because of the in5erse#s2uare la3 of
beha5iour? roc+s that lie close to the point of obser5ation 3ill ha5e a "uch -reater effect
than those farther a3ay. *he bul+ of the -ra5itational pull of the earth A-B has little to do
3ith the roc+s of the earth1s crust but rather is caused by the enor"ous "ass of the
"antle and core. %nly about '..J of - is due to "aterials contained 3ithin the crust and
of this s"all a"ount rou-hly 1/J A'.'/-B is accounted for by the upper"ost / +ilo"etres
of roc+. $han-es in the densities of roc+s 3ithin this re-ion 3ill produce 5ariations in -
3hich -enerally do not exceed '.'1J of its1 5alue any3here. 0luctuations in the 5alue of
- 3hich "ay be associated 3ith bodies that ha5e a co""ercial "ineral 5alue are unli+ely
to exceed e5en a s"all fraction of this "inute a"ount? perhaps 1'
#/
- alto-ether. *hus
-eolo-ical structures contribute 5ery little to the earth1s -ra5ity but the i"portance of that
s"all contribution lies in the fact that it has a point#to#point 5ariation that can be "apped.
*he -ra5itational field of the earth has a 3orld#3ide a5era-e of \8' -als 3ith a total
ran-e of 5ariation fro" e2uator to pole of about / -als? or './J. )ineral ore bodies and
6&
-eolo-ical structures of interest seldo" produce fluctuations in - exceedin- a fe3
"illi-als and for practical purposes of exploration? a readin- sensiti5ity of '.'1 "illi-als
is re2uired. *his represents about 1 part in 1'
8
of the -ra5itational field of the earth. No
instru"entation is a5ailable that can "easure - absolutely to this accuracy. )odern day
-ra5i"eters respond to 5ariations in - by "easurin- "inute chan-es in the 3ei-ht of a
s"all ob9ect as it is "o5ed fro" place to place and can achie5e readin- sensiti5ities of
'.''1 "-als.
Surface -ra5ity "easure"ents are affected by se5eral factors? includin- such thin-s as the
tidal forces -enerated by the "oon? local topo-raphy and the ellipticity of the earth.
*hese factors can -enerate chan-es in the "easured -ra5ity that are se5eral orders of
"a-nitude -reater than those -enerated by the density 5ariations in the underlyin- roc+s.
$o"pensation for these factors re2uires precise -eo-raphical sur5ey precision. 0or a
typical sur5ey? the distance fro" the e2uator "ust be "easured to 3ithin \. "etres and
the absolute ele5ation to 3ithin &#. c". 0or s"all? localiEed sur5eys? topo-raphic
features 3ithin se5eral hundred "etres of the "easure"ent location are considered. 0or
"ore re-ional sur5eys? "a9or topo-raphic features A"ountains? la+es? oceansB 3ithin a
radius of 1/' +ilo"etres "ust be included in the data reduction procedures.
8n the past? topo-raphic sur5eys of this accuracy often accounted for the bul+ of sur5ey
costs. 6ecent ad5ances in -lobal positionin- A;PSB technolo-y ha5e reduced these costs
considerably.
;ra5ity exploration typically in5ol5es ta+in- "easure"ents of the earth1s -ra5i"etric
field across a surface -rid. *hese data are processed to co"pensate for the 5arious effects
described abo5e to produce a "ap sho3in- the relati5e stren-th of the earth1s -ra5ity
across the area of interest. *he presence of an ano"alous "ass beneath the surface 3ill
be superi"posed on the bac+-round field. (y esti"atin- this re-ional field and
subtractin- it fro" the obser5ed data? one obtains the field due to this ano"alous "ass.
$haracteristics of this field can be used to esti"ate the properties of the ano"alous body.
M$#".!- S*r4.('
)a-netic intensity "easure"ents are ta+en alon- sur5ey tra5erses Anor"ally on a re-ular
-ridB and are used to identify "etallic "ineraliEation that is related to "a-netic "aterials
Anor"ally "a-netite andRor pyrrhotiteB. )a-netic data are also used as a "appin- tool to
distin-uish roc+ types? identify faults? beddin-? structure and alteration Eones. <ine and
station inter5als are usually deter"ined by the siEe and depth of the exploration tar-ets.
*he "a-netic field has both an a"plitude and a direction and instru"entation is a5ailable
to "easure both co"ponents. *he "ost co""on techni2ue used in "ineral exploration is
to "easure 9ust the a"plitude co"ponent usin- a proton precession "a-neto"eter. *he
instru"ent di-itally records the sur5ey line? station? total "a-netic field and ti"e of day
6.
at each station. *his infor"ation is typically do3nloaded to a co"puter at the end of each
day for archi5in- and further processin-.
*he earth1s "a-netic field is continually chan-in- Adiurnal 5ariationsB and field
"easure"ents "ust be ad9usted for these 5ariations. *he "ost accurate techni2ue is to
establish a stationary base station "a-neto"eter that continually "onitors and records the
"a-netic field for the duration of the sur5ey. *he base station and field "a-neto"eters
are synchroniEed on the basis of ti"e and co"puter soft3are is used to correct the field
data for the diurnal 5ariations.
64
*T(0$T0(< $%NT%0( +2PPING
$ontour lines help -eolo-ists Aas 3ell as hi+ersB understand the slope of the land. Each
line represents the ele5ation at that line. 8f you 3ere to 3al+ across a line? you are
chan-in- ele5ation. *he steeper the slope? the "ore lines you 3ill cross in a short
distance
*his concept of contour lines also 3or+s
under -round. @ust li+e roc+s abo5e -round
can be seen to be bent? for"in- anticlines
Ado"esB or synclines AsaddlesB? these
structures extend beneath -round. *herefore?
if the -eolo-ist understands 3hat the
structure of the layers of roc+ under-round
loo+ li+e Aeither by 3ell data or -eophysical
e5idence such as seis"ic reflectionsB? he or
she can dra3 a contour "ap 3hich represents
this structure
/igure 3 > $ontour +apping
!bo5e -round? contour lines represent ele5ations? or hei-hts. (elo3 -round? the nu"bers
represent depths (E<%7 the surface. *herefore? a 1?''' "eter contour line e2uals a
depth of 1''' "eters Aor NE;!*8IE 1?''' "etersB? and 3ould actually be hi-her than
the &?''' "eter contour.
A*o be "ore accurate? -enerally? subsurface contours are "apped relati5e to a SE!
<EIE< datu"? so e5en belo3 the -roundFs surface you can ha5e positi5e contour 5alues?
and only -et ne-ati5e 5alues 3hen the contour depth is belo3 sea le5el.B
Co"o*r 5$&'
Maps that represent surfaces in terms of a series of curves. An individual curve
represents a part of the surface along which the surface "value" is constant. Topographic
contour map: contour lines represent points of equal elevation of the ground surface.
Structure contour map: contour lines represent points of equal elevation along a geologic
surface (e.g., the top of a geologic unit) that commonly is buried. If the values of a
structure contour map are subtracted from the values on a corresponding topographic
6/
map, the difference gives the depth from the ground surface to the top of the geologic
unit.
Isopach contour map: contour lines represent points of equal thickness of the geologic
unit
Given a data set (x, y, z), one can prepare a contour map of z (e.g., concentration of
contamination in ground water) vs. (x, y).
;eolo-ic "aps sho3 the intersection AtraceB of -eolo-ic features 3ith the -round surface?
a surface that is -enerally sub horiEontal but irregular (i.e., with some limited 3-D relief).
Geologic maps are not top views of subsurface features as projected into a horizontal
plane.
The strike of a geologic surface is obtained by determining the azimuth between two
points on the geologic surface that have the same elevation (i.e., that lie along the
intersection of the geologic surface and a horizontal plane).
A strike view cross section is taken perpendicular to the strike of a geologic body. It
shows the true dip and true thickness of the body.
The contacts of horizontal layers parallel elevations contours.
The contacts of vertical geologic surfaces appear as straight lines on geologic maps with a
topographic base.
)ost -eolo-ic structures are not ideal planes? and structure contours on these structures
are often neither strai-ht nor e2ually#spaced. 8n fact? structure contours can 5iolate "any
of the rules 3e are fa"iliar 3ith on topo-raphic "aps.
;eolo-ic structures often ha5e o5erhan-sL hence structure contours can cross.
!ctually the contours the"sel5es do not cross? only their pro9ections on the "ap.
;eolo-ic structures often ha5e discontinuities in the for" of faults. Structure
contours can ter"inate and not close.
8n the exa"ple 3e consider here? 3e 3ill be concerned only 3ith data that is fairly 3ell#
beha5ed, s"ooth? 3ith no o5erhan-s or discontinuities. *he proble" is 5ery si"ilar to
contourin- topo-raphic data.
66
.ules for $onstruction
Structure contours "ust still be parallel to the stri+e of a structure at e5ery point.
Keep the contours as si"ple as possible consistent 3ith the data.
Keep the contours s"ooth. Do not sho3 abrupt chan-es in cur5ature or spacin-
unless you ha5e sound -eolo-ic reasons to do so.
8nterpolate only bet3een nearby points
8f the structure is only -ently cur5ed? you "ay find it useful to approxi"ate the
structure as a series of plane se-"ents at first. 0or each -roup of three data points?
construct structure contours usin- the three#point "ethod. )a+e sure the trian-les
are as nearly e2uilateral as possible. %nce the contours are constructed? dra3 the
final contours as s"oothly as possible usin- the construction as a -uide.
]ou 3ill often ha5e surface or near#surface data and little or no data at -reat
depth. 8n such cases? your contours 3ill be little "ore than -uesses to su--est the
three#di"ensional for" of the structure. Such contours are called form lines. 8n
cases li+e this? you ha5e no choice but to extrapolate surface data to deep le5els
and use your +no3led-e of -eolo-ic structures as a -uide.
Example
1. $ontour the data sho3n
&. 8nterpolate bet3een
nearby points. !5oid
extre"ely lon-#distance
interpolations.
.. So"eti"es it pays to
treat the data as a series of
three#point proble"s.
4. %nce you ha5e a clear
"ental picture of the
structure? construct s"ooth
contours to fit the data.
/igure 3" > <;ample of structure contouring
67
Note that so"e of the data are ne-ati5e. 8t is perfectly possible to ha5e data points
belo3 sea le5el 3hen analyEin- data fro" deep 3ells or 3hen dra3in- for" lines
on lar-e? deep structures.
8f you treat the data as a series of three#point proble"s? contours 3ithin each
trian-le "ust 9oin the correspondin- contours in nei-hborin- trian-les.
7hen dra3in- the s"oothed contours? the contours must be consistent 3ith the
data points but need not be perfectly consistent 3ith points esti"ated by
interpolation. ! data point at &1' "eters ele5ation must be located on the uphill
side of the &'' "eter contour. (ut interpolated points are only estimates of the
ele5ation of the structure. *ryin- to fit all the interpolated points exactly "ay
result in contours that are o5erly erratic. 7orse yet? it "ay create the i"pression
of spurious detail # a user of the contour "ap "ay be "isled into thin+in- the
undulations in the contour are real features of the structure. 8tFs better to dra3
s"ooth contours that are as consistent as possible 3ith both the interpolations and
3ith other contours.
Note that the ' and #1'' contours are extended into areas of no data? based on the
o5erall shape of +no3n contours. 7e can be fairly sure the #1'' contour passes
9ust outside the #7 data point? but else3here? there is little control on the exact
locations of these contours. *hese are exa"ples of form lines. 7e expect the" to
be rou-hly correct? but do not expect hi-h precision fro" the".
68
*0=*0(/2$< <EP5%(2TI%N +<T#%.*
The wildcat well is defined as the first well to be drilled in a geographic region. The
drilling of the wildcat well is the beginning of the final stages of exploration. This is the
first opportunity to actually bring back to the surface for analysis samples of the
subsurface rocks and fluids. It is important to obtain as much information as possible
relative to subsurface conditions including rock properties, fluid properties and any other
significant data, which might be obtained.
There are many potential sources of important information from a wildcat well. Some of
these information sources may provide data not otherwise available from other sources, or
confirm data obtained from one or more of the potential sources of information. These
include rock cuttings, reservoir fluid samples, mud logs, cores, well logs and Drill Stem
Tests.
Ro-: C*!"#'
During the drilling operation, rock removed from the subsurface formations by the drill
bit, are being returned to the surface on a continuous basis. These samples are analysed
in order to describe the subsurface geology and for indications of hydrocarbon presence
within the cuttings. A cuttings analysis with well depth is used to complete a stratigraphic
column as a summary of subsurface geology.
R.'.r4o!r F0*!% S$5&0.'
6eser5oir fluid sa"ples are collected fro" any reser5oir roc+s that are of potential
interest. Iarious collection techni2ues are a5ailable? such as the pressure bo"b. *hese
fluid sa"ples are sent to the laboratory for a P#I#* analysis. *his pro5ides i"portant
reser5oir fluid data such as che"ical co"position? fluid for"ation 5olu"e factors? bubble
point pressure? solution -as oil ratio? 5iscosity and density.
M*% Lo#'
6
*he drillin- fluid? pu"ped throu-h the inside of the drill strin- and exitin- the drill bit
3hile drillin-? carries roc+ sa"ples bac+ to the surface in the drillin- "ud. 7hen drillin-
into a roc+ for"ation containin- hydrocarbons? traces of reser5oir fluids encountered 3ill
be returned to the surface in the drillin- "ud. Surface sa"ples of the "ud are collected
and analysed for hydrocarbon presence. *his is +no3n as a "ud lo-. *he "id lo-
contains description of the roc+ type based on inspection under a "icroscope? plot of
penetration rate? -as co"position based on -as chro"ato-raphy? oil cut based on 3ashin-
the cuttin-s in toluene and ultra5iolet fluorescence to deter"ine presence of oil.
Cor.'
7hen a for"ation of interest is encountered 3hile drillin-? one of the "ost i"portant
sources of do3nhole infor"ation is the core of the reser5oir roc+. ! typical core is a roc+
cylinder? nor"ally 4D to 6D in dia"eter? of the reser5oir roc+ retrie5ed fro" the 3ellbore
to the surface in a core barrel.
*he core is sent to the laboratory for analysis. Potential infor"ation obtained includes
roc+ type? roc+ characteristics? source of the sedi"ents? depositional en5iron"ents?
porosity? per"eability? radioacti5e properties and esti"ates of fluid saturations in the
roc+. Side3all cores? 3hich are less than 1D in dia"eter and less than .D in len-th can be
ta+en instead of the full hole cores 3hich can be .' = 6' feet in len-th.
7'
-<55 5%G*
! lo- of a 3ell is a deter"ination of do3nhole properties relati5e to depth. )any types of
lo-s are run in a borehole? dependin- upon the infor"ation desired and e2uip"ent
a5ailable. *ypical lo-s run are electric lo-s? "a-netic lo-s? sonic lo-s? radioacti5e lo-s
and physical lo-s of 5arious types. Properties "easured by these lo-s "ay include
pressure? te"perature? roc+ density? porosity? per"eability? fluid saturations? "a-netic
properties? radioacti5e properties and sonic 5elocity. 8n "ost instances "ore than one lo-
is run si"ultaneously durin- a lo--in- run.
T1. S&o"$".o*' Po."!$0 ;SP< 0o#
*he spontaneous potential tool "easures natural electrical potentials that occur in
boreholes and -enerally distin-uishes porous? per"eable sandstones fro" inter5enin-
shales. *he Qnatural batteryQ is caused 3hen the use of drillin- "ud 3ith a different
salinity fro" the for"ation 3aters? causes t3o solutions to be in contact that ha5e
different ion concentrations. 8ons diffuse fro" the "ore concentrated solution Atypically
for"ation 3aterB to the "ore dilute. *he ion flo3 constitutes electrical current? 3hich
-enerates a s"all natural potential "easured by the SP tool in "illi5olts.
7hen the salinities of "ud filtrate and for"ation 3ater are the sa"e? the potential is Eero
and the SP lo- should be a featureless line. 7ith a fresher "ud filtrate and so? "ore saline
for"ation 3ater? a sandstone 3ill sho3 a deflection in a ne-ati5e potential direction Ato
the leftB fro" a Qshale base lineQ A0i-ure 8B. *he a"ount of the deflection is controlled by
the salinity contrast bet3een the "ud filtrate and the for"ation 3ater. $lean Ashale#freeB
sandstone units 3ith the sa"e 3ater salinity should sho3 a co""on 5alue? the Qsand
lineQ. 8n practice? there 3ill be drift 3ith depth because of the chan-in- salinity of
for"ation 3aters. *he displace"ent on the lo- bet3een the shale and sand lines is the
Qstatic self#potentialQ SSP.
!lthou-h they record different physical properties? the t3o lo-s are co"parable because
of their sensiti5ities to shale and so both can be used to differentiate bet3een sandstones
and shales. *he stron-er sandstone differentiation at -reater depths on the SP lo- is
caused by -reater salinities in the deeper sandstones.
71
/igure 3". Spontaneous potential ASPB and -a""a#ray lo- fro" K;S @ones [1.
*he SP lo- in 0i-ure ./ is an exa"ple ta+en fro" a shallo3 section of the Da+ota. Notice
ho3 the shale baseline sho3s a distincti5e drift 3ith depth. *his characteristic is
co""only obser5ed in shallo3 sections and has been su--ested to be caused by increases
in relati5e oxidation of the roc+s that are close to the land surface. *he hi-hest sandstone
in the 3ell has a "uted deflection on the SP lo- as co"pared 3ith the lo3er sandstones.
*his contrast is an i""ediate indication that 3ater in the upper sandstone "ay be
si-nificantly fresher than 3aters of the lo3er sandstone. 8n other 3ells it is not
unco""on to see sandstone units 3here the SP deflection -oes to the ri-ht of the shale
baseline. 8n these instances? the drillin- "ud filtrate is saltier than the for"ation 3ater. !
-ood exa"ple of this pheno"enon is sho3n in 0i-ure fro" a 3ell in north#3est
7&
Kansas. 8n the upper sandstone? QUQ? the SP lo- sho3s a deflection to the ri-ht? indicatin-
for"ation 3ater to be fresher than the drillin- "ud? 3hile in the lo3er sandstone? Q<Q? the
deflection is to the left? sho3in- the for"ation 3ater to be "ore saline.
/igure 34. Spontaneous potential ASPB and -a""a#ray lo-s of the Da+ota !2uifer in
$ities Ser5ice )ont-o"ery [& $NEN7 7#8S#&.7? ;raha" $ounty? Kansas.
Note that the SP lo- deflects to the ri-ht in the upper sandstone? QU?Q but to the left in the
lo3er sandstone Q<.Q *his Qre5ersalQ occurs because the for"ation 3ater in the upper
sandstone is fresher than the drillin- "ud? but saltier than the drillin- "ud in the lo3er
sandstone.
7.
*he conducti5ity of the drillin- "ud filtrate is "easured by the en-ineers at the 3ell#site
and recorded on the QheaderQ of the lo-. *his infor"ation co"bined 3ith the SSP Qbattery
effectQ sho3n on the lo- can be used to esti"ate the conducti5ity of the for"ation 3ater.
*he calculation is "ade 5ery co""only by petroleu" lo- analysts as an i"portant
5ariable in the search for potential oil or -as Eones Asee 0i-ure 1'B. 7hen used to
e5aluate the 2uality of a2uifer 3aters? care "ust be ta+en to ensure realistic conclusions.
!lthou-h for"ation 3ater co"positions at -reater depths tend to be "ostly sodiu"
chloride? the ions of calciu"? "a-nesiu"? bicarbonate and sulfate beco"e "ore
i"portant in shallo3? a2uifer 3aters. !s a result? the e2uations used by petroleu" lo-
analysts are only approxi"ate and "ust be ad9usted to honor the ionic "ix of the local
a2uifer 3ater. 8n -eneral? the di5alent ions of shallo3 3aters tend to "a+e the" appear
sli-htly "ore saline than they actually are 3hen co"puted fro" the SP lo-.
74
/igure 37. 0lo3 chart fro" oil#industry lo- analysis to esti"ate for"ation 3ater
resisti5ity? 63? in deep for"ations fro" the SP lo- A(ate"an and Konen? 177B.
6)0 is "ud filtrate resisti5ity "easured at te"perature *"f and recorded on the lo-
headerL *f is the te"perature of the for"ation? -enerally esti"ated by interpolatin-
bet3een the botto"#hole te"perature A(H*B at total depth A*DB and "ean annual
te"perature at the surfaceL SSP is the static self#potential "easured on the lo- bet3een
the Qclean lineQ and Qshale lineQ in "illi5olts A"5B !ND 3ith associated si-n Apositi5e or
ne-ati5eB.
!n e"pirical chart 3as de5eloped as part of the research in the Da+ota to correct
apparent 3ater resisti5ities calculated fro" standard e2uations to esti"ates of real
resisti5ities "easured in Da+ota !2uifer 3ater sa"ples A0i-ure .8B. *he corrected
resisti5ities 3ere then transfor"ed to esti"ates of total dissol5ed solids. *he "ethod is
particularly useful in Da+ota !2uifer studies because it allo3s 3ater 2uality studies to be
extended beyond 3ells fro" 3hich Da+ota 3ater sa"ples 3ere ta+en to 3ells that 3ere
unsa"pled but lo--ed 3ith an SP de5ice.
7/
/igure 38. $usto"#desi-ned chart and function to con5ert apparent 3ater resisti5ity
A63eB calculated fro" oil#industry al-orith"s to actual resisti5ity A63B of Da+ota
!2uifer 3aters.
*he correction is necessary because 63e is calculated 3ith the assu"ption that the
dissol5ed solids in the 3ater are fro" a sin-le saltL actual 63 5alues 3ill be controlled by
the ionic "ix of natural 3aters? and discrepencies 3ith 63e 3ill be particularly noticable
in the relati5ely fresher 3aters of shallo3 for"ations. 0ro" (oe+en A1/B.
76
T1.R.'!'!4!( 0o#
6esisti5ity lo-s "easure the ability of roc+s to conduct electrical current and are scaled in
units of oh"#"eters. *here is a 3ide 5ariety of resisti5ity tool desi-ns? but a "a9or
difference bet3een the" lies in their Qdepth of in5esti-ationQ Aho3 far does the
"easure"ent extend beyond the borehole 3all^B and their Q5ertical resolutionQ A3hat is
the thinnest bed that can be seen^B. *hese characteristics beco"e i"portant because of
the process of for"ation Qin5asionQ that occurs at the ti"e of drillin-. 8n addition to its
other functions? drillin- "ud for"s a "udca+e seal on the borehole 3all of per"eable
for"ations.
77
/igure 31. Spontaneous potential ASPB spherically focussed AS0<B "ediu"# A8<)B and
deep# A8<DB induction resisti5ity lo-s fro" K;S @ones [1.
Ho3e5er? in doin- this? so"e "ud filtrate penetrates into the for"ation? displacin-
for"ation 3ater and this is called Qin5asionQ. *he replace"ent of for"ation 3ater by
"ud filtrate in5ol5es a chan-e of pore 3ater resisti5ity.
*he difference bet3een the resisti5ity lo- "easure"ents and the in5asion process can be
seen on 0i-ure 1&? 3here separation bet3een the cur5es can be seen in the "ore porous
and per"eable sandstones? but "ini"al separation in the shales 3hich are effecti5ely
i"per"eable. 0ro" a hydrolo-ic perspecti5e? the "ultiple resisti5ity cur5es are therefore
excellent discri"inators of a2uifer and a2uitard units. *he "ud used in the exa"ple 3ell
3as less saline than for"ation 3aters in the deeper units? as is co""on in "any drillin-
operations. *he shallo3est readin- resisti5ity de5ice Ain this case? the spherically focused
lo-B therefore records the hi-hest resisti5ity because it responds "ostly to for"ation
in5aded by the hi-her resisti5ity "ud filtrate.
*he t3o induction lo-s dra3 their responses fro" deeper in the for"ation? so that the
deep induction lo- A8<DB probably records a readin- close to the true resisti5ity of the
undisturbed for"ation. Notice that the resisti5ities in the upper"ost sandstone Adepth?
1'' feetB are contrasted 3ith those in the lo3er sandstones by sho3in- a "uch reduced
separation. !s obser5ed already? the da"pened deflection of this sandstone on the SP lo-
sho3s that its contained 3ater is only sli-htly "ore saline than the drillin- "ud? and
"uch less saline than the lo3er sandstones. *herefore? in5adin- "ud filtrate is only
sli-htly fresher than the connate 3ater? so that in5asion effects on the resisti5ity lo-s are
"as+ed.
*he sensiti5ity of resisti5ity lo-s to 3ater salinity can be used in an alternati5e "ethod to
SP lo- esti"ates of 3ater 2uality. 8n a sandstone#shale se2uence? resisti5ity 5ariation is
controlled by a 5ariety of pheno"ena? includin- cation#exchan-e "echanis"s by clay
"inerals 3ithin the shalier Eones? conduction by "etallic "inerals? and the dissol5ed ions
3ithin the pore 3ater of the sandstones.
Ho3e5er? for"ation 3ater resisti5ity "ay be calculated in shale#free sandstone Eones that
are lo--ed by resisti5ity and porosity tools. *he 3ater resisti5ity A63B is calculated fro"
the resisti5ity and porosity lo- readin-s by the !rchie e2uation A!rchie? 14&B that
incorporates a Qce"entation factorQ A"B expressin- the tortuosity of the pore net3or+ as a
"odifier to the fractional 5olu"e of pore space A0B,
Rw = Ro x F**m
3here 6o is the resisti5ity readin- of the Eone 3hen it is co"pletely saturated 3ith 3ater
3hose resisti5ity is 63. *he "ethod is 3idely used by lo- analysts in the oil industry and
-enerally -i5es -ood esti"ates of 3ater resisti5ity in deeper A"ore salineB for"ation
3aters. 6esults are less reliable in a2uifers because of clay "ineral effects as 3ell as
surface conduction on 2uartE -rain surfaces.
78
! 3ater resisti5ityRspecific conductance cur5e 3as co"puted for the Da+ota !2uifer in
the @ones 3ell usin- the !rchie e2uation 3ith a ce"entation exponent A"B of 1.6 Aan
appropriate 5alue for a sli-htly ce"ented sandstoneB. *he 3ater resisti5ity cur5e is sho3n
in 0i-ure 4' and is indexed 3ith t3o 3ater sa"ple "easure"ents and a reference 5alue
fro" 6attlesna+e $ree+.
/igure ' # Spontaneous potential ASPB lo- and profile of specific conductance of
for"ation 3ater esti"ated fro" resisti5ity and porosity lo-s in K;S @ones [1.
7
*he cur5e is sho3n only for Eones of sandstone that are relati5e lo3 in clay content as
indicated by the -a""a#ray lo-. *he esti"ated specific conductance trace is a hi-hly
acceptable "atch 3ith sa"ple "easure"ents and appears to sho3 a transition Eone
bet3een the fresher 3ater of the upper sandstone and the "ore saline 3aters of the lo3er
sandstones.
Note "atch bet3een profile and conductances "easured fro" 3ell 3ater sa"ples.
!-ain? it "ust be e"phasiEed that lo- esti"ates of 3ater 2uality should only be used Aand
then 3ith cautionB 3here no sa"ples are a5ailable for direct analysis. 8n each case? the
lo- property is an indirect "easure? because it records a physically dependent property?
rather than 3ater salinity itself. 8n addition? roc+ properties other than 3ater salinity "ay
contribute to o5erall conducti5ity effects. *he accuracy of the esti"ates de-rades as 3ater
salinity decreases? 3ith a -eneral rule of a bias to pessi"is" in o5erpredictin- salinity in
fresher 3aters. Ho3e5er? 3hen used 9udiciously 3ith 3ater che"ical "easure"ents? lo-
data esti"ates are 5aluable in extendin- +no3led-e of Da+ota !2uifer 3ater 2uality o5er
lar-er -eo-raphic areas and -reater depth ran-es.
T1. =Poro'!(= 0o#'
*here are three types of lo--in- tools that are used to esti"ate the a"ount of pore space
in a roc+, the neutron? density? and acoustic 5elocity Aor sonicB tool. !lthou-h either one
or se5eral of these types of lo-s are co""only run in oil exploration holes that penetrate
the Da+ota? they are not al3ays recorded in the Da+ota inter5al. $o""only? a full suite
of lo-s is recorded in the deeper section? 3here there is a potential for oil and -as up to
the le5el of the Per"ian Stone $orral. !bo5e the Stone $orral? a "ore restricted suite
"ay be run to be used for correlation purposes? and typically consists of the -a""a#ray?
SP? and resisti5ity lo-s.
*he neutron lo- records counts of the collisions bet3een neutrons that radiate fro" a tool
source and hydro-en ato"s 3ithin the roc+ of the borehole 3all. So? the lo- is "ainly a
"easure of hydro-en concentration A"ostly contained by the pore fluids of the
for"ationB. %lder neutron lo-s are recorded in counts that re2uire con5ersion to porosity
units either by calibration to units of +no3n porosity 3ithin the lo--ed section or by
reconciliation 3ith cored sa"ples fro" the sa"e 3ell. Ne3er neutron lo-s are scaled
directly in units of porosity A0i-ure 41B. Shales appear to ha5e hi-h porosities on the
neutron lo-? "ostly because of bound 3ater? rather than effecti5e porosity. Ho3e5er?
porosities recorded in shale#free sandstones are a reasonable esti"ate of pore spaces that
contain 3ater that can be produced in a 3ell.
! Qli"estone scaleQ is nor"ally? because oil exploration tar-ets belo3 the Da+ota are
usually li"estone. !ctual prosoities in the sandstones 3ill be about .J hi-her. *he
porosity reflects QfreeQ 3ater in the sandstones? but bound 3ater in the shales.
8'
/igure 1. Neutron porosity lo- fro" K;S @ones [1. Note that porosity increases fro"
ri-ht to left.
*he density lo- is a "easure of apparent density of the roc+ and is co"puted fro" the
absorption of -a""a rays e"itted fro" a tool radioacti5e source by the for"ation. !n
exa"ple of a density lo- run in the Da+ota is sho3n in 0i-ure 4&. *he density of 2uartE is
about &.6/ -ra"s per cubic centi"eter? and that of 3ater is approxi"ately 1.'. *hese t3o
5alues correspond to the density of a sandstone 3ith Eero porosity and a hypothetical
sandstone 3ith a porosity of 1''J. *he t3o li"its can be used to con5ert the density
scale to 5alues of e2ui5alent porosity units. %n "ore recent density lo-s? a supple"entary
81
cur5e of the photoelectric factor is also recorded? and is a useful "easure of for"ation
"ineralo-y.
Ne3er density lo-s co""only ha5e a photoelectric factor cur5e 3hich is a useful
litholo-y discri"inator.
/igure &. Density lo- fro" K;S @ones [1 recorded in -ra"s per cc Aupper scaleB and an
e2ui5alent sandstone scale Alo3er scaleB.
8&
8t is co""on to see both the neutron and density lo-s recorded on the sa"e lo--in- run
and sho3n as an Qo5erlayQ on a co""on scale of e2ui5alent li"estone porosity units Asee
0i-ure 6B. *he o5erlay allo3s shales? sandstones? and other litholo-ies to be distin-uished
and a better esti"ate to be "ade of the true porosity of the for"ation at any depth. *he
lo- o5erlay has sufficient infor"ation to be con5erted to a profile that -raphically sho3s
shale content and 5olu"e of effecti5e pore space A0i-ure 7B. Notice that the o5erall shale
co"position esti"ated fro" the density#neutron lo- co"bination is si"ilar to shale
indicated by the -a""a ray lo-. but there are also syste"atic differences. *he reason is?
that 3hile both "easure"ents are sensiti5e to shale content? the -a""a ray lo- responds
to the natural radioacti5ity of the shale? 3hile the neutron#density lo-s are influenced by
the bound 3ater and density of the shales.
8.
/igure 3. Neutron and density lo-s fro" K;S @ones [1 o5erlaid on a co""on
e2ui5alent li"estone scale.
*he o5erlay allo3s the lo- analyst to reco-niEe litholo-ies and read 5alues of true
porosity in Eones of interest.
/igure . Iolu"etric su""ary of shale? 2uartE? and pore space indicated by -a""a#ray
and lithodensity#neutron lo-s fro" K;S @ones [1.
84
Note that shale esti"ation by the -a""a#ray lo- is based on natural radioacti5ity and
sho3s sli-ht differences 3ith shales fro" the lithodensity and neutron lo-s 3hich are
based on shale bound 3ater and density characteristics.
*he third type of porosity esti"ate is co"puted fro" "easure"ents of the speed of
ultrasonic sound throu-h the for"ation. *he sonic tool has a "echanical source of
co"pressional ener-y that radiates sound throu-h the roc+ for"ation in the borehole 3all.
*he lo- records the acoustic 5elocity of the roc+s as a trace 3hich is sho3n as a
continuous function of depth. *he lo- is "easured as transit ti"e in units of
"icroseconds per foot. Sound tra5els faster in roc+s 3ith lo3 a"ounts of contained fluids
than those 3ith hi-her contents of fluid. *his physical relationship can be used to
co"pute the porosity of a sandstone at any depth? by interpolatin- the "easured 5alue at
any depth bet3een the expected 5alue of 2uartE A//./ "icroseconds per footB and that of
3ater A18 "icroseconds per footB as extre"es of a porosity scale of Eero to 1''J
porosity.
(he sonic log is 3idely used by -eophysicists to create synthetic seis"o-ra"s for
co"parison 3ith field records of seis"ic reflections fro" lines shot close to the 3ell.
%bser5ations fro" drill#cuttin-s and lo-s at the 3ell site allo3 the -eolo-y in the
borehole section to be established. *herefore? reflection e5ents on the synthetic
seis"o-ra" can be ta--ed 3ith specific roc+ for"ations and used as a +ey to identify
reflections on field records. So"e exploratory seis"ic field studies 3ere "ade by $oyle
A1'B to deter"ine 3hat units in the strati-raphic section that contains the Da+ota
!2uifer could be resol5ed as distinct reflections and 3hether seis"ic shootin- could be
used in exploration for thic+ Da+ota sandstones.
8/
Dr!00 S.5 T.'!"#
!fter drillin- a 3ildcat 3ell? potential Eones of interest in the subsurface "ay be tested
for hydrocarbon presence by runnin- a DS* Adrillste" testB. Drillste" *ests are run "ore
fre2uently in open hole than cased hole. ! drill ste" test 3ill pro5ide the first opportunity
to collect a "a9or sa"ple of reser5oir and to e5aluate reser5oir flo3 potential.
!fter drillin- and casin- 3ell? a DS* asse"bly is attached to the drillstrin- and run in the
hole. ! do3nhole shut in 5al5e is installed in the DS* !sse"bly so that the 3ell can be
shut in do3nhole. *he 3ell is perforated 3ith co"pletion fluid 8 the hole of appropriate
density to achie5e underbalance.
Underbalance is achie5ed 3hen the hydrostatic pressure due to the colu"n of co"pletion
fluid is less than the reser5oir pressure. ! pac+er is set in the hole prior to perforatin- to
pre5ent reser5oir fluids fro" contactin- the casin-. *he 3ell is flo3ed at pre#deter"ined
rates and the flo3in- botto"hole pressure is recorded in a do3nhole "e"ory -ua-e.
)ore than one inter5als can be tested in this "anner.
!fter the flo3 test? a pressure build up test is conducted. *he 3ell is shut in and the
pressure is allo3ed to build bac+ to the initial reser5oir pressure. 0ro" the data collected?
reser5oir per"eability and s+in factor can be obtained. S+in factor is a "easure of the
da"a-e done to the for"ation by drillin- "ud li2uids and solids? 3hich "ay plu- the
pore throats of the reser5oir roc+? resultin- in restriction to fluid flo3 in the reser5oir.
A&&r$!'$0 3.00'
8f sufficient hydrocarbon is encountered in a 3ildcat 3ell? then appraisal 3ells 3ill be
drilled. *hese appraisal 3ells are also +no3n as delineation 3ells. He purpose of drillin-
these 3ells is to define the hydrocarbon reser5oir li"its. *his in5ol5es locatin- the
boundaries of the reser5oir and deter"inin- it1s shape and siEe? deter"inin- roc+
properties and reser5oir fluid properties.
!ppraisal 3ells are necessary to,
iB ;ather sufficient infor"ation on 3hich to base a decision as to 3hether there
is econo"ic 9ustification for proceedin- 3ith de5elop"ent of the hydrocarbon
reser5oir.
iiB Pro5ide additional data relati5e to the reser5oir and it1s associated -eolo-ic
en5iron"ent? so as to per"it preparation of an effecti5e reser5oir de5elop"ent
plan? 3hich can be used o5er the producti5e life of the reser5oir.
86
(<*<(A%I( .<A<5%P+<NT P52N
7hen the decision is "ade that sufficient infor"ation is a5ailable for acceptable
definition of the reser5oir? and that reser5oir de5elop"ent and production should proceed?
a de5elop"ent plan for the reser5oir is prepared. *his plan is desi-ned to opti"iEe
reco5ery of the hydrocarbon 3ithin anticipated econo"ic and resource de5elop"ent
li"its. *his de5elop"ent plan 3ill deter"ine the reser5oir production history and is
extre"ely elaborate and specific. ! part of that plan 3ill be the de5elop"ent 3ell
spacin-.
D.4.0o&5." 3.00'
*he function of de5elop"ent 3ells is to Ceffecti5ely and efficiently reco5er "axi"u"
hydrocarbon fro" the reser5oir in a reasonable production lifeti"e? "axi"iEin-
econo"ic return and resource reco5ery 3ithin necessary en5iron"ental li"its.D *hese
de5elop"ent 3ells not only include producin- oil and -as 3ells? but "ay also include -as
in9ection? 3ater in9ections? and other types of ser5ice 3ells? to opti"iEe the de5elop"ent
of the reser5oir. So"e 3ells 3hich are to be used as producin- 3ells for the first se5eral
years "ay con5erted in in9ections 3ells later in the life of the reser5oir? accordin- to this
de5elop"ent plan.
Producing 1ells
*hese are the 3ells specified in the de5elop"ent plans? for production of the hydrocarbon
to the surface. *hey "ay be oil production 3ells or -as production 3ells. *he spacin- of
these 3ells 3ill be selected based on reser5oir properties and econo"ics. ! co""on
spacin- for oil reser5oirs for onshore operations has been the 4' acre spacin-. 1 "ile H
/?&8' ft. and 1 "ile
&
is e2ual to 64' acres of area. 1 acre H 4.?/6' ft
&
.
$onsider the 1 "ile
&
area. 8f that 1 "ile
&
is di5ided into 2uarters? each 2uarter H 16'
acres. 8f those 2uarters are further di5ided into 2uarters? the result 3ill be 16 s2uare area
of acres each A16 ti"es 4' acres H 64' acresB.
! 4' acre spacin- for the drillin- of de5elop"ent 3ells i"plies that one 3ell 3ill be
drilled in each 4' acres. *he result 3ill be 16 3ells per 1 "ile
&
. Each 3ell? therefore? 3ill
be _ "ile or 1?.&' ft fro" its offset 3ells and 3ill ha5e 4 offsets Anorth? south? east and
3estB. 8n the ideal production plan? o5er a reasonable lifeti"e of production? each 3ell is
expected to drain a roc+ cylinder 66' ft in radius and of thic+ness e2ual to the
hydrocarbon reser5oir roc+ thic+ness.
87
)any other spacin-s are also used. 0or -as reser5oirs? a co""on spacin- has been a 16'
acre spacin-? or 4 producin- -as 3ells per 1 "ile&. 8t is desirable? if practical? that the
3ildcat 3ell and the appraisal 3ells be a"on- the best producin- 3ells.
'n3ection 1ells
8n9ection 3ells are drilled to ser5e 5arious functions? such as in9ection of external fluids
into the reser5oir? includin- hydrocarbon AnaturalB -as? 3ater? nitro-en? $%&? or others? to
enhance the reco5ery of the ori-inal hydrocarbons or to "aintain reser5oir fluid pressures
durin- the production life of the reser5oir.
8n9ection 3ells "ay pre5iously ha5e been utiliEed as producin- 3ells? but? in the
de5elop"ent plan for the reser5oir? there 3as included the con5ersion of so"e producin-
3ells into in9ection 3ells at a particular ti"e in the production life of the reser5oir.
8n9ection 3ells "ay also be drilled to dispose of undesirable fluids? such as salt 3ater?
that are produced to the surface alon- 3ith the hydrocarbons. *hese 3ould be considered
as salt 3ater disposal 3ells? and the salt "ay be in9ected into reser5oirs other than
hydrocarbon reser5oirs. Excess solution -as? for 3hich there is no "ar+et? "ay also be
in9ected into reser5oirs other than those fro" 3hich it 3as produced? to store that -as for
future production.
.eser*oir Pressure $ontrol
0or those reser5oirs 3hich initially ha5e reser5oir fluid pressures -reater than the bubble
point pressure of the hydrocarbons? it is usually desirable to "aintain the flo3in-
botto"hole pressures of the producin- 3ells abo5e the bubble point pressure for a
considerable portion of the production life of the reser5oir. 8t "ay be possible initially to
"aintain this condition by proper selection of the cho+e siEe in the 3ellhead.
8f the reser5oir fluid pressure is sufficiently hi-her than the bubble point pressure of the
reser5oir hydrocarbons for the 3ell depth and hydrocarbon density? then? 3ithin fluid
property li"its? the flo3in- botto"hole pressures can be "aintained abo5e the bubble
point pressure by "anipulatin- the production cho+e siEe in the 3ellhead. *his indicates?
therefore? that the reser5oir pressures in the producin- re-ion surroundin- the 3ellbore
3ill also be "aintained abo5e the bubble point pressure? that there 3ill only be li2uid
hydrocarbons in the reser5oir and that only li2uids 3ill be produced into the 3ellbore at
flo3in- botto"hole conditions. *his is nor"ally desirable in the early production history
of a reser5oir.
88
!s produced fluid returns to the surface? ho3e5er? it "ay reach its bubble point pressure?
so that both -as and li2uid "ay exist at the 3ellhead. !s the natural reser5oir fluid
pressure reduces as hydrocarbons are produced? it "ay be necessary to in9ect external
fluids into the reser5oir to "aintain reser5oir pressure. %il production is a 5olu"e
displace"ent process. 8dealistically? basin- 5olu"es on reser5oir conditions? if? for each
reser5oir barrel of oil produced? a reser5oir barrel of 3ater is in9ected beneath the oil Eone
into the 3ater Eone? reser5oir fluid pressure should "aintained.
!s the reser5oir nears the end of its producti5e life? ho3e5er? it 3ill finally be desirable
to lo3er the flo3in- botto"hole pressure? throu-h a controlled procedure? to se lo3 a
pressure 5alue as is feasible? to reco5er the "axi"u" 5olu"es of re"ainin- oil and -as
Aincludin- solution -asB fro" the reser5oir before it is depleted? as deter"ined by
econo"ics? and therefore abandoned?
;as in9ection into a natural -as cap? 3hich "i-ht exist abo5e the oil Eone? could also be
used for pressure "aintenance. 8f the initial reser5oir fluid pressure is -reater than the
bubble point pressure of the reser5oir hydrocarbons? a -as cap "i-ht created by -as
in9ections? e5en thou-h one did not exist under ori-inal natural conditions 3ithin the
reser5oir. 0or exa"ple? for reser5oir 3here increased 3ater saturations ha5e a si-nificant
ad5erse effect on per"eability to the flo3 of oil? this -as in9ection process for pressure
"aintenance could be initiated 5ery early? or at the be-innin- of the producti5e life of the
reser5oir.
O!ser*ation 1ells
7ells "ay also be drilled for the purpose of "onitorin- the reser5oir de5elop"ent plan
durin- the producti5e life of the reser5oir. *he 3ells are e2uipped 3ith pressure
"onitorin- syste"s? to deter"ine the extent of propa-ation of the pressure transient fro"
the producin- 3ells into the reser5oir. *he obser5ation 3ells "ay also be used to "onitor
encroach"ent of the -as#oil interface or the oil#3ater contact into the oil Eone? as 3ell as
pro-ress of in9ected fluids such as the 3ater front? durin- enhanced oil reco5ery by
3aterflood. *hese 3ells "ay also be con5erted for functions other than obser5ation? such
as production or in9ection later in the producti5e life of the reser5oir.
8
T#< .(I55ING P(%$<**
!fter choosin- a prospect location? based on the -eophysical and -eolo-ical "appin- and
interpretation? the site is sur5eyed to deter"ine its boundaries? and en5iron"ental i"pact
studies "ay be done. <ease a-ree"ents? titles and ri-ht#of 3ay accesses for the land "ust
be obtained and e5aluated le-ally. 0or offshore sites? le-al 9urisdiction "ust be
deter"ined.
/igure " > %ffshore Cac)@up (ig
%nce the le-al issues ha5e been settled? the cre3 -oes about preparin- the land,
1. *he land is cleared and le5eled? and access roads "ay be built.
&. (ecause 3ater is used in drillin-? there "ust be a source of 3ater nearby. 8f there
is no natural source? they drill a 3ater 3ell.
.. *hey di- a reser5e pit? 3hich is used to dispose of roc+ cuttin-s and drillin- "ud
durin- the drillin- process? and line it 3ith plastic to protect the en5iron"ent. 8f
the site is an ecolo-ically sensiti5e area? such as a "arsh or 3ilderness? then the
cuttin-s and "ud "ust be disposed offsite ## truc+ed a3ay instead of placed in a
pit.
%nce the land has been prepared? se5eral holes "ust be du- to "a+e 3ay for the ri- and
the "ain hole. ! rectan-ular pit? called a cellar? is du- around the location of the actual
drillin- hole. *he cellar pro5ides a 3or+ space around the hole? for the 3or+ers and
drillin- accessories. *he cre3 then be-ins drillin- the "ain hole? often 3ith a s"all drill
truc+ rather than the "ain ri-. *he first part of the hole is lar-er and shallo3er than the
"ain portion? and is lined 3ith a lar-e#dia"eter conductor pipe. !dditional holes are du-
'
off to the side to te"porarily store e2uip"ent ## 3hen these holes are finished? the ri-
e2uip"ent can be brou-ht in and set up.
R!##!"# *&
Dependin- upon the re"oteness of the drill site and its access? e2uip"ent "ay be
transported to the site by truc+? helicopter or bar-e. So"e ri-s are built on ships or bar-es
for 3or+ on inland 3ater 3here there is no foundation to support a ri- Aas in "arshes or
la+esB. %nce the e2uip"ent is at the site? the ri- is set up. Here are the "a9or syste"s of a
land oil ri-,
/igure " > 2natomy of an oil rig
Po3er syste"
lar-e diesel en-ines burn diesel fuel to pro5ide the "ain source of po3er
electrical -enerators are po3ered by the diesel en-ines to pro5ide
electrical po3er
1
)echanical syste" # dri5en by electric "otors
hoistin- syste" # used for liftin- hea5y loadsL consists of a "echanical
3inch Adra33or+sB 3ith a lar-e steel cable spool? a bloc+ and tach`+le
pulley and a recei5in- stora-e reel for the cable
turntable # part of the drillin- apparatus
6otatin- e2uip"ent # used for rotary drillin-
s3i5el # lar-e handle that holds the 3ei-ht of the drill strin-L allo3s the
strin- to rotate and "a+es a pressure#ti-ht seal on the hole
+elly # four# or six#sided pipe that transfers rotary "otion to the turntable
and drill strin-
turntable or rotary table # dri5es the rotatin- "otion usin- po3er fro"
electric "otors
drill strin- # consists of drill pipe Aconnected sections of about .' ft R 1'
"B and drill collars Alar-er dia"eter? hea5ier pipe that fits around the drill
pipe and places 3ei-ht on the drill bitB
drill bitAsB # end of the drill that actually cuts up the roc+L co"es in "any
shapes and "aterials Atun-sten carbide
steel? dia"ondB that are specialiEed for
5arious drillin- tas+s and roc+ for"ations
$asin- # lar-e#dia"eter concrete pipe that lines the
drill hole? pre5ents the hole fro" collapsin-? and
allo3s drillin- "ud to circulate
)ud $irculation syste" # pu"ps drillin- "ud
A"ixture of 3ater? clay? 3ei-htin- "aterial and
che"icals? used to lift roc+ cuttin-s fro" the drill
bit to the surfaceB under pressure throu-h the +elly?
rotary table? drill pipes and drill collars
pu"p # suc+s "ud fro" the "ud pits and
pu"ps it to the drillin- apparatus
pipes and hoses # connects pu"p to drillin-
apparatus
"ud#return line # returns "ud fro" hole
shale sha+er # sha+erRsie5e that separates roc+ cuttin-s fro" the "ud
shale slide # con5eys cuttin-s to the reser5e pit
reser5e pit # collects roc+ cuttin-s separated fro" the "ud
"ud pits # 3here drillin- "ud is "ixed and recycled
"ud#"ixin- hopper # 3here ne3 "ud is "ixed and then sent to the "ud
+its
/igure 4
)ud circulation in the hole
&
/igure 7 # Drill#"ud circulation syste"
Drillin- "ud is used to,
lift soilRroc+ cuttin-s fro" the botto" of the borehole and carry the" to a settlin-
pitL
allo3 cuttin-s to drop out in the "ud pit so that they are not re#circulated
Ainfluenced by "ud thic+ness? flo3 rate in the settlin- pits and shapeRsiEe of the
pitsBL
pre5ent cuttin-s fro" rapidly settlin- 3hile another len-th of drill pipe is bein-
added Aif cuttin-s drop too fast? they can build#up on top of the bit and seiEe it in
the holeBL
create a fil" of s"all particles on the borehole 3all to pre5ent ca5in- and to
ensure that the up3ard#flo3in- strea" of drillin- fluid does not erode the ad9acent
for"ationL
seal the borehole 3all to reduce fluid loss A"ini"iEin- 5olu"es of drillin- fluid is
especially i"portant in dry areas 3here 3ater "ust be carried fro" far a3ayBL
cool and clean the drill bitL and lubricate the bit? bearin-s? "ud pu"p and drill
pipe
Derric+ # support structure that holds the drillin- apparatusL tall enou-h to allo3
ne3 sections of drill pipe to be added to the drillin- apparatus as drillin-
pro-resses
.
%lo-out pre*ention
! blo3out occurs 3hen there is loss of control of do3nhole reser5oir fluid pressures.?
3hen the hydrostatic pressure due to the colu"n of "ud in the hole is less than the
reser5oir pressure. 7hen a hi-her than nor"al reser5oir pressure is drilled into? it "ay be
necessary to acti5ate the blo3out pre5ention syste" A(%P stac+B to pro5ide ti"e to +ill
the 3ell. *he (%P stac+ is usually a co"bination of different types of blo3out
pre5enters.
(lo3out pre5enter # hi-h#pressure 5al5es Alocated under the land ri- or on the sea
floorB that seal the hi-h#pressure drill lines and relie5e pressure 3hen necessary to
pre5ent a blo3out Auncontrolled -ush of -as or oil to the surface? often associated
3ith fireB
*he (%P stac+ is usually located belo3 the rotary table. ! typical (%P stac+ consists of
three A.B blo3out pre5enters is sho3n belo3,
iB !nnular Pre5enter AtopB
iiB (lind 6a"s A"iddleB
iiiB Pipe 6a"s Abotto"B
Dr!00!"#
*he cre3 sets up the ri- and starts the drillin- operations. 0irst? fro" the starter hole? they
drill a surface hole do3n to a pre#set depth? 3hich is so"e3here abo5e 3here they thin+
the oil trap is located. *here are fi5e basic steps to drillin- the surface hole,
4
Mu! Return
Annular
Preventor
Blind
Rams
Pipe
Rams
1. Place the drill bit? collar and drill pipe in the hole.
&. !ttach the +elly and turntable and be-in drillin-.
.. !s drillin- pro-resses? circulate "ud throu-h the
pipe and out of the bit to float the roc+ cuttin-s
out of the hole.
4. !dd ne3 sections A9ointsB of drill pipes as the
hole -ets deeper.
/. 6e"o5e Atrip outB the drill pipe? collar and bit
3hen the pre#set depth Aany3here fro" a fe3
hundred to a couple#thousand feetB is reached.
%nce they reach the pre#set depth? they "ust run and
ce"ent the casin- ## place casin-#pipe sections into the
hole to pre5ent it fro" collapsin- in on itself. *he casin-
pipe has spacers around the outside to +eep it centered in
the hole.
*he casin- cre3 puts the casin- pipe in the hole. *he
ce"ent cre3 pu"ps ce"ent do3n the casin- pipe usin- a
botto" plu-? a ce"ent slurry? a top plu- and drill "ud. *he pressure fro" the drill "ud
causes the ce"ent slurry to "o5e throu-h the casin- and fill the space bet3een the
outside of the casin- and the hole. 0inally? the ce"ent is allo3ed to harden and then
tested for such properties as hardness? ali-n"ent and a proper seal.
Drillin- continues in sta-es, *hey drill? then run and ce"ent ne3 casin-s? then drill a-ain.
7hen the roc+ cuttin-s fro" the "ud re5eal the oil sand fro" the reser5oir roc+? they
"ay ha5e reached the final depth. !t this point? they re"o5e the drillin- apparatus fro"
the hole and perfor" se5eral tests to confir" this findin-,
7ell lo--in- # lo3erin- electrical and -as sensors into the hole to ta+e
"easure"ents of the roc+ for"ations there
Drill#ste" testin- # lo3erin- a de5ice into the hole to "easure the pressures?
3hich 3ill re5eal 3hether reser5oir roc+ has been reached
$ore sa"ples # ta+in- sa"ples of roc+ to loo+ for characteristics of reser5oir roc+
%nce they ha5e reached the final depth? the cre3 co"pletes the 3ell to allo3 oil to flo3
into the casin- in a controlled "anner. 0irst? they lo3er a perforatin- -un into the 3ell to
the production depth. *he -un has explosi5e char-es to create holes in the casin- throu-h
3hich oil can flo3.
!fter the casin- has been perforated? they run a s"all#dia"eter pipe Atubin-B into the hole
as a conduit for oil and -as to flo3 up the 3ell. ! de5ice called a pac+er is run do3n the
outside of the tubin-. 7hen the pac+er is set at the production le5el? it is expanded to
for" a seal around the outside of the tubin-.
/igure 8.
Drill 0loor 3or+ers trip drill
pipe
/
0inally? they connect a "ulti#5al5ed structure called a $hrist"as tree to the top of the
tubin- and ce"ent it to the top of the casin-. *he $hrist"as tree allo3s the" to control
the flo3 of oil fro" the 3ell.
%nce the 3ell is co"pleted? they "ust start the flo3 of oil into the 3ell. 0or li"estone
reser5oir roc+? acid is pu"ped do3n the 3ell and out the perforations. *he acid dissol5es
channels in the li"estone that lead oil into the 3ell. 0or sandstone reser5oir roc+? a
specially blended fluid containin- proppants Asand? 3alnut shells? alu"inu" pelletsB is
pu"ped do3n the 3ell and out the perforations. *he pressure fro" this fluid "a+es s"all
fractures in the sandstone that allo3 oil to flo3 into the 3ell? 3hile the proppants hold
these fractures open. %nce the oil is flo3in-? the oil ri- is re"o5ed fro" the site and
production e2uip"ent is set up to extract the oil fro" the 3ell.
3.00 Co5&0.!o"
8f the e5aluation of the 3ell lo-s indicates a potential Eone to be co"pleted? ie potential
hydrocarbon bearin- Eone present? the 3ell "ust be co"pleted. *his 3ill enable the 3ell
to produce hydrocarbons to the surface? until the reser5oir is depleted. *he first and
critical step is to run and ce"ent casin- in the hole.
*he "ain reasons fore runnin- and ce"entin- casin- in the open hole is to,
1. Pre5ent ca5in- of the hole.
&. $onfine production to the 3ellbore
.. Pre5ent conta"ination of fresh 3ater sands? particularly in the surface
hole.
4. 0acilitate installation of surface e2uip"ent
/. 0acilitate installation of do3nhole e2uip"ent
6. Pro5ide "eans of controllin- pressure
7. Exclude 3ater fro" producin- for"ation
C$'!"# Sr!"# $"% D.'!#" F$-or'
*he casin- is the steel pipe 3hich is run to different depths in the 3ell. *his depth at
3hich the casin- is set is the casin- point. ! casin- strin- is casin- that is run fro" it1s
casin- point bac+ to the surface or to the seafloor in offshore 3ells. ! casin- liner is
casin- that is run fro" it1s casin- depth bac+ to a casin- liner han-er do3nhole inside a
pre5iously run and ce"ented casin- strin- or liner.
*he follo3in- are considered 3hen selectin- a casin- to be run,
iB !xial load in tension
iiB !xial load in co"pression
iiiB (urst as a thin 3alled cylinder Adue to internal pressureB
i5B $ollapse as a thin 3alled cylinder Adue to external pressureB
5B $orrosion
6
5iB !brasion
/igure 1 @ Typical casing and hole si9es.
*here are four typical types of casin- that "ay be run in a 3ell,
iB $onductor pipe
iiB Surface strin-
iiiB 8nter"ediate strin- or liner
i5B Production strin- or liner
$onductor Pipe
*he conductor pipe "ay also be called dri5e pipe for offshore 3ells since it "ay be
dri5en in to the seafloor 3ith a pile dri5er. %ne function of the conductor pipe is to
support the 3ellbore throu-h the unconsolidated "aterials present in the surface ho?e
such as dirt? -ra5el? clay? sand? roc+ boulders? silt and sedi"ent. 8t is therefore desirable
to set the conductor pipe either on solid roc+ or into solid roc+. ! second function of the
7
16 18) 9 #ole
1- -8$9 casing
1) 18%9 #ole
casing liner #anger
9 ,8$9 casing
$ 18)9 #ole
69 casing liner
conductor is to protect the 3ellbore near the surface fro" 3ashout? 3hich "ay result
fro" circulation of the drillin- "ud fro" the lo3er section of the 3ellbore? and therefore
to restrict the 3ell dia"eter at the surface to the 8D of the conductor.
(he Surface String
*he surface strin- ser5es a pri"ary function of protectin- the surface en5iron"ent fro"
conta"ination fro" do3nhole fluids such as hydrocarbons and drillin- "ud. *his
en5iron"ental protection re2uire"ent "a+es the ce"entin- of the surface casin- to the
surface necessary. %nce the surface strin- is run? a bolt flan-e connection is 3elded to the
top of the casin- to 3hich the (%P stac+ 3ill be attached. *he co"bination of the casin-
head and (%P stac+ 3ill protect a-ainst blo3out durin- further drillin- operations. 8t is
i"portant that the surface strin- be set at sufficient depth 3ithin solid roc+ to pro5ide
protection a-ainst do3nhole pressures.
'ntermediate String
! pri"ary function of inter"ediate strin-s or liners is to seal off Eones of hi-h fluid
pressures. *he deter"inin- factor for this casin- point 3ill be to drill throu-h an
i"per"eable roc+ for"ation belo3 the hi-h pressure reser5oir? thereby per"ittin- further
drillin- 3ith a less dense drillin- "ud. ! second function of inter"ediate strin-s or liners
is to seal off Eones of lost circulation? 3hich can occur 3hen drillin- a lo3 pressure
reser5oir. !nother function of inter"ediate strin-s or liners is to seal off Eones of
3ellbore 3ashout in unconsolidated sandstones or "obile shales.
(he Production String
*he production strin- or liner is that casin- throu-h 3hich the reser5oir fluid 3ill be
produced. *his casin- is run all the 3ay throu-h the reser5oir and set so"e depth belo3
it. *he casin- depth is therefore dependent on the depth of the botto" of the reser5oir and
the a"ount of rathole re2uired for that particular 3ell.
8t is usually desirable to produce hydrocarbons throu-h production tubin- rather than
throu-h the production casin- in order to "ini"iEe exposure to possible corrosion fro"
the reser5oir fluids. *he production casin- "ay also ser5e the functions of sealin- off
hi-h pressure Eones? Eones of lost circulation? and Eones of potential 3ellbore 3ashout.
Production $hoe
*he production cho+e can be used to control the production flo3 rate of the 3ell and
hence the dra3do3n. *he dra3do3n is the difference bet3een the reser5oir pressure and
the flo3in- botto"hole pressure. *his is 5ery i"portant in pre5entin- sand entry into the
3ellbore. 8f the dra3do3n is too hi-h? the cohesi5e forces due to the ce"entin- "aterial
8
bet3een the sand -rains 3ithin the roc+ can be exceeded. *his 3ill result in sand -rains
beco"in- loose and flo3in- into the 3ellbore. *his can result in plu--ed tubin-? 3ashed
out cho+e and plu--ed flo3line.
*he cho+e could be either ad9ustable or fixed cho+e A3ith a bean insertedB. !d9ust"ent of
the cho+e and hence the flo3 rate can "aintain a botto"hole pressure abo5e the bubble
point? pre5entin- the brea+out of -as out of solution at the botto" of the 3ell. *his
-uarantees only li2uids flo3in- into the 3ell.
Factors affecting Production,
iB 6eser5oir 0luid Pressure
iiB 6eser5oir 0luid *e"perature
iiiB 0or"ation Iolu"e 0actor
i5B (ubble Point Pressure
5B 6eser5oir 0luid Saturations
5iB Solution ;as %il ratio
5iiB 6eser5oir 0luid Iiscosity
5iiiB 6eser5oir 0luid $o"pressibility
ixB Porosity
xB Per"eability
xiB 7ell Depth
xiiB 0lo3 area 5ariations
xiiiB Perforation siEe? penetration and density
xi5B $ho+e siEe
x5B 0lo3in- (otto"hole Pressure
x5iB Production history of the reser5oir
x5iiB S+in 0actor
R*""!"# 1. -$'!"#
! casin- -uide shoe is attached to one end of one 9oint of the casin-. *he 9oint of casin-
is the brou-ht to the ri- floor and is suspended fro" the hoistin- syste" in the derric+.?
3ith the -uide shoe on the lo3er end. *he -uide shoe 3ill allo3 the casin- to be lo3ered
in unconsolidated for"ations 3here there 3ill be led-es in the 3ell. *he -uide shoe 3ill
-uide the casin- past these led-es? to +eep it fro" han-in- up. *he -uide shoe also
protects the end of the casin- fro" da"a-e 3hile it is bein- run into the 3ellbore.
*he first 9oint of casin- is no3 run into the 3ellbore and a float collar is attached to the
top of that 9oint. 7ithin this float collar is a one#3ay chec+ 5al5e. *his 5al5e pre5ents
flo3 fro" occurrin- up throu-h the inside of the casin-? but per"its flo3 do3n throu-h
the casin-.
%nce the float collar has been connected? 9oints of the casin- are addad as the casin- is
lo3ered into the 3ellbore. *he inside of the casin- is filled 3ith drillin- "ud to pre5ent
the casin- fro" floatin- out of the 3ell due to buoyancy. Durin- the runnin- of the

casin-? centraliEes and scratchers are placed at pre#deter"ined inter5als alon- the outside
of the casin- strin-. *he functions of these centraliEes are to centraliEe the casin- in the
center of the 3ellbore. Scratchers ha5e sprin- steel teeth? 3hich scratch throu-h the
bentonite the bentonite 3all ca+e on the 3all of the 3ellbore? to pro5ide a better ce"ent
bond 3ith the roc+ for"ations.
Pr!5$r( C.5."!"#
! ce"entin- head Aplu- containerB is attached to the top of the casin- strin-. 7ithin this
ce"entin- head 3ill be the botto" plu- and the top plu-. *he dia"eter of these plu-s 3il
be sli-htly less than the casin- 8D. *he "ud is conditioned prior to ce"entin-? by
reciprocatin- the casin- 5ertically 3ith the hoistin- syste"L ideally a distance at least
e2ual to the spacin- bet3een centraliEes and scratchers? as "ud is circulated do3n th
inside of the casin-? thereby openin- the chec+ 5al5e in the float collar and returnin- up
the annulus. *his procedure 3ill brea+ the -el in the annulus. !ny roc+ particles present
in the annulus 3ill be carried to surface because of the reciprocation and circulation as
the 3ell is prepared for ce"entin-.
*he botto" plu- is no3 dropped on top of the "ud colu"n in the casin-? and the
calculated 5olu"e of ce"ent is pu"ped into the casin- behind this plu-. *his botto"
plu- separates the drillin- "ud fro" the ce"ent? thereby "ini"iEin- conta"ination of
the ce"ent by the "ud as the 3ipers re"o5e the "ud fro" the 3all of the casin- in front
of the ce"ent.
7hen the calculated 5olu"e of ce"ent has been pu"ped into the casin-? the top plu- is
dropped on the ce"ent colu"n. %nce the botto" plu- reaches the internal shoulder at the
top of the float collar? flo3 3ill be stopped 3hen that plu- seats on the shoulder? since
flo3 is bloc+ed by the plu-. *he result is a pressure increase ? 3hich 3ill rupture a
diaphra-" 3ithin the botto" plu-. 7hen the diaphra-" ruptures? it 3ill be +no3n at the
surface? since the pressure 3ill drop and flo3 3ill resu"e. Pu"pin- 3ill continue until
top plu- seats on the re"ains of the botto" plu-. 7hen this occurs? flo3 a-ain 3ill stop
and pressure 3ill rise? indicatin- that the top plu- has reached a position on top of the
re"ains of the botto" plu-.
*he casin- is reciprocated throu-hout the entire pu"pin- process in order to brea+ the -el
in the annulus and per"it the ce"ent to distribute itself around the casin-. 7hen the top
plu- seats the syste" is shut do3n to pro5ide the pre#deter"ined ti"e for the ce"ent to
set. %nce the ce"ent has set? further drillin- can no3 proceed.
*he bit siEe for the next hole is attached to the botto" of the drill strin- and tripped into
the hole and drillin- is resu"ed. *he top and botto" drillable plu-s are then drilled out
alon- 3ith the float collar. *he botto" 9oint of casin- filled 3ith set ce"ent alon- 3ith
the -uide shoe are no3 drilled out. Drillin- no3 proceeds to the next casin- point.
1''
S9*..>. C.5."!"#
S2ueeEe ce"entin- is selecti5e ce"entin- do3nhole? 3ithin the casin-. *his techni2ue
"i-ht be used to seal off casin- lea+s caused by corrosion or to repair channels that occur
behind the casin- durin- pri"ary ce"entin-. ! drillable plu- is placed in the casin-
belo3 the point 3here the s2ueeEe ce"entin- is to occur. *ubin- 3ith a pac+er is then
run into the 3ellbore? and the pac+er is set in the casin- abo5e the point at 3hich the
s2ueeEe ce"entin- is to occur. $e"ent is the pu"ped under pressure throu-h the pipe
and s2ueeEed into inter5als perforated for this purpose? or theou-h the lea+s? to seal the
annulus and therefore the lea+ at that location. !fter the ce"ent has set the pac+er is
released and the tubin- is retrie5ed to the surface. 8t is then necessary to drill out the set
ce"ent re"ainin- in the casin-? and the plu- set in the casin- belo3 the ce"ent.


-<55 $%+P5<TI%N
*here are three basic types of 3ell co"pletion,
1. $on5entional Sin-le Eone $o"pletion
&. $on5entional )ultiple Eone $o"pletion
.. *ubin-less $o"pletion
1'1
Co"4."!o"$0 S!"#0. ?o". Co5&0.!o"
Open Hole $ompletion
*his is the si"plest of all co"pletion types? 3here casin- is run and ce"ented 9ust abo5e
the producin- Eone. *he pay section is drilled 3ith a non#da"a-in- fluid.
%pen hole co"pletions can be barefoot? 3here tubin- is run and a pac+er is set in the
casin- abo5e the open hole the 3ell put on production. !nother option is to run a -ra5el
pac+ liner or screen and -ra5el pac+ the open inter5al. *his is +no3n as an %pen Hole
;ra5el Pac+ co"pletion. *he open hole can also be 3idened usin- an under#rea"er and
then -ra5el pac+ed. Producti5ity of open hole -ra5el pac+s is hi-her than the cased hole
-ra5el pac+s because the hydrocarbon flo3s into a lar-er tube.
So"e features of open hole -ra5el pac+ co"pletions,
iB 8t is run in consolidated sandstone or carbonate reser5oirs
iiB Perforatin- expense is eli"inated
iiiB 8t pro5ides -ood sand control
i5B *he entire pay section is produced
5B 8t can easily be con5erted to cased hole co"pletion
5iB 8t is difficult to selecti5ely sti"ulate usin- acid or fracturin-
5iiB *he casin- is set Cin the dar+D before the pay section is drilled
5iiiB 8t is difficult to eli"inate 3ater or -as production
Single 4one $ased Hole $ompletion
8n this co"pletion? casin- is run and ce"ented to the botto" of the pay Eone. 8n so"e
cases the 3ell is drilled and cased beyond the pay Eone? lea5in- a Crat holeD belo3 the
perforated Eone. *he siEe of the casin- is deter"ined based on the expected rate of
production of the 3ell. *he thic+ness of the casin- is deter"ined based on both the
external and the internal pressures the casin- "ust 3ithstand. *hese are called collapse
and burst pressures. Sin-le Eone cased hole co"pletions "ay be 3ith -ra5el pac+ed
screens or liners for sand control.
So"e features of open hole -ra5el pac+ co"pletions,
iB 8t is easier to selecti5ely sti"ulate usin- acid or fracturin-
iiB Different inter5als can be sti"ulated selecti5ely
iiiB )ultiple co"pletion is possible
i5B *he 3ell can be easily deepened
5B Perforatin- cost can be hi-h
1'&
5iB Iarious sand control techni2ues can be utiliEed
Co"4."!o"$0 M*0!&0. Co5&0.!o"
$on5entional )ultiple $o"pletion is utiliEed 3hen there are t3o Eones in a 3ell that
contain si-nificantly different reser5oir pressures. 8f both are produced to-ether and
allo3ed to "ix? so"e production fro" the hi-her pressure Eone 3ill preferably flo3 into
the lo3er pressure Eone? especially 3hen the 3ell is shut in. *hus it is necessary to isolate
production fro" both Eones.
*his is achie5ed by placin- a dual pac+er bet3een both Eones and allo3in- flo3 up t3o
different tubin- strin-s Asee dia-ra"B.
/igure "' > .ual $ompletion.
T*+!"#0.'' Co5&0.!o"
8n this type of co"pletion the casin- is s"all and no inner tubin- is run in the hole.
*ubin-less co"pletions can be sin-le Eone or "ultiple Eone. *he Eones are perforated
usin- Corientin- -unsD 3hich utiliEe "a-netis" to orient the -uns a3ay fro" the other
casin- strin-s in the hole? 3hile perforatin- the selected Eone.
1'.
16 18) 9 #ole
1- -8$9 casing
1) 18%9 #ole
casing liner #anger
9 ,8$9 casing
#ig# +ressure :one #ig# +ressure :one
lo7 +ressure :one lo7 +ressure :one
69 casing liner
D;3< COM*<(5.O1
T*+!"#
*ubin- is set inside the casin- to trans"it fluids fro" do3nhole to surface? 3ith "ini"al
pressure drop. !nother factor is -as expansion in the tubin-? 3hich assists in the liftin- of
the li2uids to the surface. *o achie5e this? tubin- is usually s"all in dia"eter e.- & .R8D?
& 7R8D? . aD. 8n choosin- the opti"u" siEe of tubin- the follo3in- is considered,
iB *he desired flo3 rate
iiB ;as and li2uid ratio for li2uid loadin- in the tubin-
iiiB Possible artificial lift "ethod to be e"ployed.
i5B Special re2uire"ents for co"pletion e.-. sand control
P$-:.r'
Pac+ers are set in the 3ellbore to pro5ide a seal bet3een the tubin- and casin-.*hey also
ser5e an anchorsRhan-ers for the production tubin-.! pac+er "ay be classified by the 3ay
it is set, hydraulic or "echanical set? by the 3ay it is run, 3ireline or tubin-? or by
3hether per"anent or te"porary.
Pac+ers are run for,
iB $asin- protection fro" pressure or fluid in the tubin-
iiB Separation of Eones
iiiB Subsurface pressure and fluid control for safety
i5B !rtificial lift support e2uip"ent
3.001.$%'
7ellheads are the connection points for the tubin- and the surface flo3 lines as 3ell as
bein- the surface control point in all 3ells. *he selection of the 3ellhead is based on the
pressure? te"perature and corrosi5ity of the produced fluids. (oth the casin- and tubin-
strin-s are landed in the 3ellhead. *he casin- also acts as a conduit allo3in- for all types
of 3or+o5er operations. 7ellheads plays a "a9or role in pre5entin- oncontrolled flo3
fro" do3nhole? throu-h it1s confi-uration of 5al5es.
1'4
A SE$('O"
$asing head 56 7089 7& : l6 6089 SO1 -0; 505<9 7& F.O. = <9 >.P. -0hold do-n
scre-s? /al*e 1@& ; 505<9 7& .A && (-;5? ; Flanges threaded ; 505<9 7& : ;9
>P? l-%ull Plug ;9 >P plain? 5-%ull Plug ;9 >P : 50;9 "P(.
1'/
% SE$('O"
;. AP Flange Pacoff (S-7 56 7089 7& : 559 5B& 10C 7089 9P9 Seals.
6. AP $asing Spool 559 5B& : 559 57& 9SF9 -05 5605<9 57H F.O. and
hold do-n scre-s for -ear !ushing and ;-C 7089 DP9 seals .$-;;
-0@-&onel Hd. Scre-s.
E. /al*e 1@H 5 5605<9 57& <%: && (-;; -0test flange 5 5605<9 57" : 5 5089
autocla*e.
7. /al*e 1@& 5 5605<9 57& <%: && (-;; -0-eld nec flange,
$ SE$*8%N
6. *ubin- head 11Q 1/) b 7 1R16Q &') 3R1 1.R16F &') outlets.
6$&& 7RK#)onel hold do3n Scre3s?
7. Ial5e # 7K) 1 1.R16Q &') 6(b )N *#&6 3Rtest flan-e 1 1.R16Q &') b 1 1R8Q
S.S.
8. Ial5e # 7K) 1 1.R16Q &') 6(b )N *#&6 3R3eld nec+ flan-e.
UPPE6 SE$*8%N
. !P 0lan-e !dp. Spool 7 1R16r b & R16Q &'H 3RQPFQ seals to accept "etal to "etal
han-er S.S.? and UE)) *b-. Han-er 3R"etal to "etal sealsL No". 6Q b . 1R&Q 1/.8'[
PH6 $( < b S & 1R&Q (PI 17.4 PH S.S.
1'. Ial5e 7K) & R16Q &') 6(b )) *#&6.
11. !P $ross Stud. & R16Q &') 6un b 1 1.R16Q &') out. S.S?
1&. !P *op !dapter & R16Q &') S?S. 3R& 7R8Q <ift *hreads. (P *apped 1 1R8Q 1& N0?
1.. Ial5e 7K) 1 1.R16Q &%) 6%b )) *#&/.
14. Ial5e 7K) 1 1.R16# &') *#&6 3R.s#6'' actuator and bonnet +it?
1/. Pos. $ho+e # *NN$ 1 1.R16Q &') 0b0 S.S? 3R3eld nec+ 1 1.R16Q &') 6$&& flan-e?
16. !d9. $ho+e # *H$ 1 1.R16# &%) 0b0 S.S. 3R3eld nec+ 8 1.R16Q &') 6$&& flan-e.
1'6
P.r,or$!"#
Perforations are hole throu-h casin- to per"it entry of fluids. *he perforations "ust be
placed opposite the producti5e Eones and are desi-ned to penetrate both the casin- and
the ce"ent placed behind it? thus allo3in- co""unication bet3een the per"eable part of
the reser5oir and the borehole.
*he Cshaped char-eD or C9et char-eD is the "ost co""only used perforatin- techni2ue
used today. *his "echanis" produces a hole in the casin- by propa-atin- a pressure
3a5e front fro" the surface of the "etal liner in the char-e? throu-h the port or scalloped
3all of the -un and then throu-h the casin- and ce"ent into the for"ation. *he "etal
liner of the char-e defor"s under hi-h pressure and pro5ides "ass? 3hich "a+es the
char-e "ore efficient.
8n order to achie5e this? a chain reaction is tri--ered fro" an electrically#fired detonator?
3hich detonated the pri"acord? booster char-e and the "ain char-e. Usually four A4B one
half inch A1R inchB dia"eter holes per foot are re2uired? except in -ra5el pac+in-
operations 3here 4 to 8 three#2uarter inch A.R4 inchB holes are shot. *he hi-her density
lar-er holes acco""odate transport of -ra5el throu-h the perforations 3ith less pressure
drop across the".
*he three A.B typical perforatin- -uns used for perforatin- 3ells are, casin-? throu-h
tubin- and tubin- con5eyed -uns.
$asing Fun Perforating
*he casin- -uns are hollo3 steel carrier -uns run on 3ireline. *his -un is run 3ithout the
tubin- in the hole and re2uires a 3ireline lubricator connected on top of a shootin- 5al5e.
*he tubin- is run after the -uns are fired and retrie5ed fro" the borehole. !n electric
current? sent do3n the 3ireline to a detonator? fires the -uns.
*his type of -un is used for o5erbalance perforatin-. C%5erbalanceD occurs 3hen the
hydrostatic head? due to the density and 3ei-ht of the perforatin- fluid? is -reater than the
reser5oir pressure. $asin- -un perforatin- is cheaper than the other t3o types and is used
for lo3 pressure? lo3 rate 3ells.
(hrough tu!ing perforating
*he throu-h tubin- -uns contain char-es that are scre3ed into a thin "etal strip that can
pass throu-h the tubin-. *he tubin- is run in the hole ? pac+er set and 3ell head installed.
! 3ireline lubricator is installed on top of the 3ellhead. ! -rease in9ector head is installed
on the lubricator since this type of perforatin- can 3ithstand so"e pressure fro" the 3ell.
*he firin- "echanis" is the sa"e as casin- -un perforatin-.
)ultiple runs ha5e to be "ade since the len-th of the perforatin- -un? and hence the
nu"ber of char-es per run? are restricted by the len-th of the lubricator. *he ad5anta-e
1'7
of this type of perforatin- is that the 3ell can be flo3ed as soon as the last run is
co"pleted? and it is not as expensi5e as tubin- con5eyed perforatin-.
(u!ing $on*eyed Perforating
*ubin- $on5eyed Perforatin- or *$P as it is "ore popularly +no3n is the "ost
expensi5e of the three and is used for hi-h production rate 3ells. *he perforatin- -uns
are run on hollo3 steel and attached at the end of the tubin-. *he tubin- is run in the
hole? pac+er set and 3ellhead installed. *he -uns are fired either by tubin- pressure or by
droppin- a steel bar in the tubin-? 3hich sets off the detonator on i"pact. So"eti"es?
especially in deep 3ells? the drop bar "ethod is utiliEed as a bac+#up "echanis".
*his type of perforatin- is done underbalance Athe hydrostatic head is less than the
reser5oir pressureB. *his results in -un debris bein- flo3ed bac+ i""ediately upon
perforatin- as the 3ellhead sees an i""ediate pressure and the 3ell can be produced and
cleaned up i""ediately.
1'8
P(%.0$TI%N <B02TI%N*
*he follo3in- is a si"plification of procedures for predictin- 3ell perfor"ance. *his
discussion assu"es a flo3 efficiency of one. ! da"a-ed 3ell or other factors 3ill effect
the flo3 efficiency and could chan-e the 3ellFs producti5ity.
Pro%*-!4!( I"%./
7hen the 3ell flo3in- pressure AP
3f
B is -reater than bubble #point pressure AP
b
B? the fluid
flo3 is si"ilar to sin-le phase flo3? and the inflo3 perfor"ance cur5e is a strai-ht line
3ith slope @? as -i5en by the producti5ity index? P8,
7here,
S H the fluid test production rate. P
3f
H the 3ell flo3in- pressure c test rate .
H the 3ell static pressure.
0i-ure /7
1'
I",0o@ P.r,or5$"-. R.0$!o"'1!&
8f is less than ? resultin- in "ulti#phase flo3? the IP( "ethod should be used. *he
relationship is -i5en by the follo3in- e2uation,
*his relationship 3as first used by 7.E. ;ilbert
1
and further de5eloped by @.I. Io-el
&
.
Io-el de5eloped a di"ensionless reference cur5e that can be used to deter"ine the 8P6
cur5e for a particular 3ell.
For5$!o" D$5$#. $"% ':!" ,$-or
7ellbore da"a-e occurs 3hen filtrate Ali2uidB or solids fro" drillin- "ud or co"pletion
fluids interact or plu- the for"ation near the 3ellbore. 7ater in the filtrate can s3ell the
clays or fines fro" the solids can plu- the pore throats. (oth result in a reduction in the
siEe of the flo3 channels and hence a reduction in the near 3ellbore per"eability. *his is
referred to as s+in da"a-e. *he s+in factor is a nu"erical representation of s+in da"a-e.
*he additional pressure drop in the near 3ellbore due to s+in is called Xp
s+in.

F0o@ E,,!-!."-(
*he Io-el e2uation 3as "odified by Standin-? 3ho represented the Io-el E2uation as
the situation 3hen the S+in 0actor is Eero. *he flo3 efficiency can be esti"ated as,
7here s is the s+in factor.
8f the s+in factor is positi5e As>'B? then the 0lo3 Efficiency is less than 1 indicatin- that
the 3ell is da"a-ed. 8f the s+in factor is ne-ati5e As<'B? then the 0lo3 Efficiency is
-reater than 1 indicatin- that 3ell is sti"ulated.
11'
6
6 = s
0.E H
0or the 3ell represented in the -raph abo5e? the unsti"ulated 3ell 3ill produce at a rate
of approx. 1?7/' bopd for a flo3in- botto"hole pressure of 1?''' psia? 3hile the
production rate for the sa"e flo3in- botto"hole pressure 3ill be approx. &?4'' bopd? an
increase of 6/' bopd.
D$r-( E9*$!o" ,or R$%!$0 F0o@
Pre5iously 3e loo+ed at the Darcy E2uation for linear flo3 for inco"pressible fluids.
Ho3e5er? radial flo3 exists in a reser5oir Aflo3 fro" all directions in a radial pattern as
sho3n belo3B.
Plan Iie3 of a 3ellbore? depictin- radial flo3
111
7ellbore
IPR Standing
0
,00
1000
1,00
)000
),00
-000
-,00
%000
%,00
0&0 ,00&0 1000&0 1,00&0 )000&0 ),00&0 -000&0
Q
P
w

2timulate! 7ell
.*R Curve
!" # $
Darcy de5eloped an e2uation for radial flo3? 3hich esti"ates the radial fluid flo3
thropu-h porous "edia,
7.'8 x 1'
#.


+ h AP #

P
3fB
d
o
(
o
6

lnA'.47& reRr3B G s 7
3here,
2
o
H %il flo3 rate? AS*DRdayB
h H 6eser5oir 6oc+ *hioc+ness? AftB
P H 8nitial reser5oir Pressure? ApsiaB
P
3f
H 0lo3in- (otto"hole Pressure? ApsiaB

o
H %il Dyna"ic Iiscosity? A$entipoiseB
(
o
H %il 0or"ation Iolu"e 0actor? A6(RS*(B
re H 6adius of the boundary Ali"it of reser5oirB? AftB
r3 H 7ellbore 6adius? AftB
s H S+in 0actor
0ro" the abo5e e2uation? 3e can see that a positi5e s+in factor As>'B 3ill result in a
reduction in the 3ell1s oil rate? 3hile a ne-ati5e s+in factor rill result in an increased flo3
rate in the 3ell. *his for"s the basis for 3ell sti"ulation.
11&
2
o
H
2(TI/I$I25 5I/T
8n "ost fields? the ne3 3ells flo3 under it1s natural pressure until such ti"e that the
reser5oir pressure is reduced to the point that the 3ell can no lon-er flo3 under it1s
natural pressure. *he 3ell no3 beco"es a pri"e candidate for artificial lift.
*here are 5arious artificial lift "echanis"s such as, -as lift? plun-er lift? do3nhole
electric or hydraulic pu"p? and rod pu"p. *he selection of artificial lift depends on type
of hydrocarbons? flo3 rate and the reser5oir pressure. *he desi-n of lift syste"s also
depends on the econo"ics of the pro9ect.
!rtificial lift is si"ply a "ethod of addin- ener-y to lift li2uid to the surface of a 3ell?
and can be acco"plished by any of the follo3in- "eans,
1. ;as <ift
aB $ontinuous -as lift syste"
bB 8nter"ittent -as lift syste"
cB Plun-er lift syste"
&. (ea" pu"pin- or suc+er rod pu"pin-
.. Electric sub"ersible pu"pin-
4. Pro-ressi5e ca5ity or scre3 type pu"ps particularly for hea5y oil operations
/. Iarious special techni2ues e.-. hydraulic pu"ps? 9et pu"ps etc.
G$' L!,
;as lift syste"s can be used to effecti5ely produce 3ells ran-in-
fro" lo3 producti5ity to hi-h producti5ity. ;as lift syste"s are
selected for artificial lift if a lo3 cost? hi-h pressure -as source is
readily a5ailable.
8n flo3in- 3ells? -as is produced alon- 3ith the li2uids. *he -as
co"es out of solution and expands as the pressure is reduced as it
flo3s up the tubin-. *he expandin- -as assists in li-htenin- the
colu"n of fluid? resultin- in "ore inflo3 fro" the reser5oir and also
helps push the fluids out of the 3ell.
8n -as lift operations? hi-h pressure -as is in9ected do3n the casin-
and enters the tubin- at the botto" of the 3ell throu-h a pressure#
rated -as lift 5al5e. !s the -as rises the bubbles expand? increasin-
the 5elocity of the fluid and decreasin- it1s density 9ust as in flo3in-
3ells. /igure "1 > Gas 5ifting
11.
*he applications of -as lift are,
iB *o enable 3ells that 3ill not flo3 naturally to produce
iiB *o increase production rate in flo3in- 3ells
iiiB *o unload a 3ell that 3ill later flo3 naturally
i5B *o re"o5e or unload fluids fro" -as 3ellsand +eep the -as 3ells unloaded
Ausually inter"ittent -as liftB
$ontinuous Fas lift
Under continuous -as lift? hi-h pressure -as enters the tubin- throu-h -as lift 5al5es
continuously? "aintainin- a constant flo3in- botto"hole pressure. *his action reduces
the fluid -radient in the tubin- and the 3ell perfor"s 5ery si"ilar to a natural flo3in-
3ell. *he -as lift 5al5es can be either loaded or pressure balance release 5al5es. *he t3o
different types of -as lift 5al5es used in the industry are differential 5al5es and bello3s or
char-ed 5al5es.
*he differential 5al5es are nor"ally open and 3hen the pressure in the annulus is hi-h
enou-h? the 5al5e closes. !s the pressure in the tubin- is less than the in9ected -as? the
5al5e 3ill not reopen until the tubin- pressure has risen due to li2uid loadin- or the
in9ection pressure has decreased.
*he bello3s pressure in the pressure char-ed bello3s 5al5e closes the 5al5e. *he 5al5e
opens 3hen the annulus -as pressure actin- on the area belo3 the bello3s plus the tubin-
pressure is -reater than the bello3s pressure. *he 5al5es are arran-ed in a strin- do3n the
tubin- 3ith the bello3s#pressure char-e bein- less as the 5al5e location is deeper?
allo3in- the deeper 5al5e to stay open 3hen the 5al5e abo5e is closed.
'ntermittent Fas >ift
8nter"ittent -as lift is used on 3ells that ha5e lo3 5olu"es of produced fluids.
8nter"ittin- is usually done usin- surface e2uip"ent. *he -as lift supply is shut do3n for
a predeter"ined period of ti"e? allo3in- fluid inflo3 fro" the reser5oir. *he in9ection
ta+es place a-ain? re"o5in- fluids fro" the 3ellbore and then the next cycle be-ins.
So"e features of -as lift
iB Si"ple operation
iiB Iery flexible = one -as lift desi-n can handle a 5ariety of chan-in- 3ell
conditions
iiiB 6elati5ely lo3 cost = both capital and operatin-
i5B $an be used in directional 3ells
114
5B )ust ha5e a hi-h pressure -as supply
5iB 7ould not 3or+ on lo3 !P8 -ra5ity crudes due to hi-h specific -ra5ity of the
oil
5iiB 6e2uires a co"pressor? to reco"press the -as for further -as lift use
Plunger >ift
Plun-er liftin- is an econo"ical artificial lift alternati5e? especially in hi-h -as oil ratio
3ells. ! plun-er is a Cpipeline pi-D that runs 5ertically in a 3ell to re"o5e li2uids fro" a
3ellbore after the 3ell is unable to produce fluids on it1s o3n dri5e "echanis".
! plun-er cycle consists of three sta-es,
Shut-in, ! producin- 3ell is shut in to build casin- pressure. *his is needed to
build the pressure to lift the plun-er 3ith the li2uid colu"n on top of the plun-er.
2nloading, *he tubin- is opened? and stored casin- pressure lifts the li2uid colu"n
and plun-er to the surface.
Afterflo-, *he 3ell is allo3ed to flo3 3hile the plun-er is at surface. Durin- the
afterflo3 period? the 3ell +eeps producin- -as and fluids until the next shut#in period. !t
the end of the afterflo3 period? the 3ell is shut in and the plun-er falls.
Plunger lift is used mainly in,
# Hi-h producin- ;%6 3ells
# 7ells 3here scale? paraffins? 3ax foul up the tubin-
# ;as 3ells that re2uire li2uid unloadin-
# 6educin- li2uid fall bac+ Aused alon- 3ith inter"ittent -as liftB
Ad*antages of plunger lift
iB <o3 "aintenance cost
iiB 8ncreases the 3ell1s o3n liftin- efficiency
iiiB Easy installation
i5B 6educes paraffin or hot oil expense for cleanin- the deposits in the tubin- as
the "o5in- plun-er +eeps the tubin- clean
5B No external ener-y is re2uired except for lo3 -as oil ratio 3ells
5iB Slo3s 3ell decline and extends 3ell life
11/
A.$5 P*5&!"#
/igure "& > (od Pump
(ea" Pu"pin- is the "ost 3idely accepted artificial lift "ethod. 8t utiliEes a "echanical
lin+a-e to actuate a piston type botto"hole pu"p. *he bea" pu"p Aor rod pu"pB is a
plun-er 3ith a t3o 5al5e arran-e"ent. *he standin- 5al5e is a one 3ay 5al5e in the
botto" of the pu"p? 3hich allo3s flo3 fro" the 3ellbore to the pu"p but stops re5erse
flo3. *he tra5elin- 5al5e is another one 3ay 5al5e that is attached to the rod strin-.
!s the plun-er is lifted by the rod on the upstro+e? the tra5elin- 5al5e is closed? for"in- a
lo3 pressure area beneath the plun-er and dra3in- in reser5oir fluid throu-h the standin-
5al5e into the 3ellbore cha"ber.
!t the end of the upstro+e? the do3nstro+e be-ins. 7hen the botto" of the plun-er
A3hich contains the tra5elin- 5al5eB hits the surface of the li2uid that has flo3ed into the
pu"p? the tra5elin- 5al5e is forced open as the 5al5e "o5es throu-h the li2uid and the
standin- 5al5e is closed. *he do3nstro+e of the plun-er forces the li2uid in the pu"p up
throu-h the tra5elin- 5al5e? addin- it to the tubin-. *he ne3 fluid pushes all other fluid in
the tubin- up by the 5olu"e of the li2uid in the pu"p.
*he "ost difficult tas+ in bea" pu"pin- is +eepin- the rod strin- in operation 3ithout
hi-h "aintenance costs? fre2uent ser5icin- and excessi5e do3nti"e. Proble"s associated
3ith suc+er rods result fro",
116
iB $orrosion
iiB $arelessness in handlin-
iiiB Hi-h pu"pin- speeds
i5B 7ide ran-e of loads
5B $roo+ed hole
5iB Poor selection and strin- desi-n
Suc+er rod pu"pin- is controlled by 5ariable fre2uency dri5e and ti"er "echanis" at the
surface.
E0.-r!- S*+5.r'!+0. P*5&
! sub"ersible pu"p is a pu"p 3hich has a her"etically sealed "otor close#coupled to
the pu"p body. *he 3hole asse"bly is sub"er-ed in the fluid to be pu"ped. *he
ad5anta-e of this type of pu"p is that it can pro5ide a si-nificant liftin- force as it does
not rely on external air pressure to lift the fluid.
/igure "3 > <*P
ESP syste"s are effecti5e for pu"pin- produced fluids to surface. ! syste" of
"echanical seals are used to pre5ent the fluid bein- pu"ped enterin- the "otor and
causin- a short circuit. *he pu"p can either be connected to a pipe? flexible hose or
lo3ered do3n -uide rails or 3ires so that the pu"p sits on a Qduc+s footQ couplin-?
thereby connectin- it to the deli5ery pipe3or+.
Sub"ersible pu"ps are found in "any applications? sin-le sta-e pu"ps are used for
draina-e? se3a-e pu"pin-? -eneral industrial pu"pin- and slurry pu"pin-. )ultiple
sta-e sub"ersible pu"ps are typically lo3ered do3n a borehole and used for 3ater
abstraction.
117
Sub"ersible pu"ps are also used in oil 3ells. (y increasin- the pressure at the botto" of
the 3ell si-nificantly? "ore oil can be produced fro" the 3ell co"pared to natural
production. *his "a+es Electric Sub"ersible Pu"pin- AESPB a for" of Qartificial liftQ Aas
opposed to natural flo3B. Ne3 5arieties of ESP can include a 3aterRoil separator 3hich
per"its the 3ater to be rein9ected into the reser5oir 3ithout the need to lift it to the
surface.
*he ESP syste" consists of a nu"ber of co"ponents that turn a sta-ed series of
centrifu-al pu"ps to increase the pressure of the 3ell fluid and push it to the surface. *he
ener-y to turn the pu"p co"es fro" a hi-h#5olta-e A. to / +IB alternatin-#current source
to dri5e a special "otor that can 3or+ at hi-h te"peratures of up to .'' e0 A1/' e$B and
hi-h pressures of up to /''' lbRinU A.4 )PaB? fro" deep 3ells of up to 1&''' feet A..7
+"B deep 3ith hi-h ener-y re2uire"ents of up to about 1''' horsepo3er A7/' +7B. ESPs
ha5e dra"atically lo3er efficiencies 3ith si-nificant fractions of -as? -reater than about
1'J 5olu"e at the pu"p inta+e. ;i5en their hi-h rotational speed of up to 4''' rp" A67
HEB and ti-ht clearances? they are not 5ery tolerant of solids such as sand.
Pro#r.''!4. C$4!( P*5&
Pro-ressin- $a5ity Pu"pin- AP$PB Syste"s typically consist of a
surface dri5e? dri5e strin- and do3nhole P$ pu"p. *he P$ pu"p
is co"prised of a sin-le helical#shaped rotor that turns inside a
double helical elasto"er#lined stator. *he stator is attached to the
production tubin- strin- and re"ains stationary durin- pu"pin-. 8n
"ost cases the rotor is attached to a suc+er rod strin- 3hich is
suspended and rotated by the surface dri5e.
!s the rotor turns eccentrically in the stator? a series of sealed
ca5ities for" and pro-ress fro" the inlet to the dischar-e end of
the pu"p. *he result is a non#pulsatin- positi5e displace"ent flo3
3ith a dischar-e rate proportional to the siEe of the ca5ity?
rotational speed of the rotor and the differential pressure across the
pu"p.
/igure " > P$P
118
P$P System Applications
Sand#laden hea5y crude oil and bitu"en
)ediu" crude oil 3ith li"its on H
&
S and $%
&

<i-ht s3eet crude oil 3ith li"its on aro"atic content
Hi-h 3ater cuts
De3aterin- -as 3ells such as coalbed "ethane pro9ects
)ature 3aterfloods
Iisual andRor hei-ht sensiti5e areas
!ll type 3ells? includin- horiEontal? slant? directional and 5ertical
reser5oirs
*here are t3o basic ele"ents that "a+e up the do3nhole Pro-ressin- $a5ity
AP$B Pu"p = a sin-le helical alloy#steel rotor connected to a rod strin- and a
double helical elasto"er#lined stator attached to the tubin- strin-. Usin- the
latest "anufacturin- technolo-y? rotors are +ept to ti-ht tolerances and
treated 3ith che"ical and abrasion#resistance coatin-? typically hard
chro"e. Stators are co"prised of a steel tube 3ith an elasto"er "olded
inside to pro5ide the internal -eo"etry. Each co"bination of rotorRstator is
"atched to do3nhole conditions to pro5ide hi-hly efficient operation and opti"u" production
enhance"ent. /igure "" > (otor

11
(<*<(A%I( .<A<5%P+<NT P(2$TI$<*
!ll infor"ation -athered throu-h drillin- and co"pletion of the 3ildcat and appraisal
3ells and analysis of data obtained? is used to prepare a 6eser5oir De5elop"ent Plan.
*his plan includes not only spacin- of de5elop"ent 3ells? as affected by surface and
subsurface conditions? but also the control procedures deter"ined for "anipulatin- the
reser5oir fluid pressure chan-es and flo3 characteristics o5er the producti5e life of the
reser5oir.
0or flo3in- 3ells? this in5ol5es cho+e siEes and 5ariations? in order to "anipulate the
flo3in- botto"hole pressure of the 3ells 3ithin technical and econo"ic li"its. 8t also
in5ol5es fluid in9ection into the reser5oir? to "anipulate that pressure and therefore
control the production of hydrocarbons fro" the reser5oir and encroach"ent of external
fluids such as 3ater and -as into the reser5oir.
*he onshore de5elop"ent plan 3ill be 2uite different than the offshore de5elop"ent plan.
%ne of the "a9or decisions in preparin- the offshore de5elop"ent plan is selection of
offshore platfor" locations and nu"ber of platfor"s? to opti"iEe production 3ithin
econo"ic li"its fro" the reser5oir in a reasonable lifeti"e.
8f an offshore platfor" is placed in the 3ron- location? as deter"ined by later drillin-?
this 3ill result in a "a9or econo"ic loss co"pared to drillin- a sin-le 3ell in the 3ron-
onshore location. *he decision? therefore? for offshore de5elop"ent "ay be far "ore
critical than decisions foe de5elop"ent of an onshore reser5oir.
Econo"ics? both at the ti"e of de5elop"ent? and that anticipated o5er the producti5e life
of the reser5oir? place li"its on the extent to 3hich the best technolo-y can be applied.
0or exa"ple? an offshore reser5oir "i-ht be best de5eloped on a 4'#acre spacin- A16
3ells per s2uare "ileB.
Ho3e5er? the cost of the platfor"s as related to hydrocarbon prices "ay 9ustify the
drillin- of only three 3ells per "ile on an a5era-e basis? by directional drillin- fro"
centraliEed platfor"s. 8t cannot be anticipated? therefore? that as hi-h a percenta-e of the
ori-inal hydrocarbon in place 3ill be reco5ered durin- the life of production of the
reser5oir 3ith three 3ells per "ile as 3ould ha5e been reco5ered has the best a5ailable
technolo-y been applied? re2uirin- 16 3ells per "ile.
1&'
HYDROCARAON RECOVERY MECHANISMS
*he reco5ery of hydrocarbons is basically a 5olu"e displace"ent process. 7hen a
5olu"e of hydrocarbon is re"o5ed fro" the reser5oir by production? it 3ill be replaced
by a 5olu"e of so"e fluid. Ener-y is expended in this process. Hydrocarbon reco5ery
"echanis"s "ay be di5ided into t3o cate-ories,
iB Pri"ary 6eco5ery
iiB Enhanced 6eco5ery
Pr!5$r( R.-o4.r(
Pri"ary reco5ery is CutiliEation of the natural ener-y of the reser5oir to cause the
hydrocarbon to flo3 into the 3ellbore.D (ased on this definition? as lon- as the
hydrocarbon flo3s into the 3ellbore? this is pri"ary reco5ery? e5en if the hydrocarbon
"ust be artificially lifted to the surface by pu"ps or so"e other process. *here are "any
sources of this pri"ary reco5ery ener-y of 3hich three are do"inant,
aB Dissol5ed ;as Dri5e A Solution ;as Dri5e B
bB ;as#$ap Dri5e
cB 7ater Dri5e
Dissol*ed Fas Dri*e
7hen the reser5oir is produced so that -as is per"itted to escape fro" the hydrocarbon
li2uid in the reser5oir? so that t3o#phase flo3 A-as and li2uid B occurs fro" the reser5oir
into the 3ellbore? the expandin- -as 3ill force the oil ahead of the -as into the 3ellbore.
8n order to "axi"iEe oil reco5ery? ho3e5er? for "ost reser5oirs it is desirable to pre5ent
dissol5ed -as dri5e? at least until late in the producti5e life of the reser5oir.
!s the reser5oir approaches depletion? the flo3in- botto"hole pressures "ay be reduced
to as lo3 a 5alue as possible? in order to reco5er 3hate5er percenta-e of re"ainin-
hydrocarbons "i-ht flo3 into the 3ellbore? includin- solution -as fro" the oil 3hich 3ill
re"ain in the reser5oir Aresidual oilB at the ti"e the reser5oir is abandoned.
Dissol5ed -as dri5e can be delayed by in9ectin- 3ater into the 3ater Eone beneath the oil?
or -as on top of the oil Athere creatin- a -as cap? in order to "aintain reser5oir fluid
pressures abo5e the bubble point pressure.
1&1
Fas-$ap Dri*e
8f a -as cap exists abo5e the oil Eone? and 3ells are drilled and perforated in the oil Eone
and the botto"hole pressures are sufficiently reduced? the expandin- -as cap 3ill force
the oil into the 3ells as the -as interface encroaches into the oil Eone. 8n order for -as#cap
dri5e to exist as a pri"ary reco5ery "echanis"? ho3e5er? the -as cap "ust exist
naturally.
1ater Dri*e
)ost hydrocarbon reser5oirs 3ill ha5e a 3ater Eone beneath the hydrocarbon. *his 3ater
is tendin- to encroach into the oil Eone. 8f 3ells are drilled and perforated in the oil Eone?
3hen the 3ellbore pressure is reduced? oil flo3 3ill be initiated into the 3ell as 3ater
encroaches into the oil Eone forcin- the oil to3ards the producin- 3ells. 8f this natural
encroach"ent tendency is to exist? natural ener-y "ust be present. *here are se5eral
possible sources of this natural ener-y. %ne source is the expansion of the 3ater as a
co"pressible fluid? as reser5oir pressures are reduced. !s the reser5oir pressure is
reduced? the expandin- 3ater 3ill push the oil in front of it into the producin- 3ells.
7ater expansion as a co"pressed li2uid produces "ore oil than oil as a co"pressed
li2uid? not because the co"pressibility of 3ater is "uch different to co"pressibility of
oil? but because the total 5olu"e of 3ater in the 3ater Eone is usually 5ery lar-e 3hen
co"pared to the total 5olu"e of oil in the oil Eone.
!nother source of ener-y for 3ater dri5e occurs 3hen the reser5oir roc+ dips up3ard to
the surface 3here it outcrops. 8f per"eability continuity exists throu-h this roc+? as oil is
produced fro" the reser5oir? 3ater flo3s do3n dip fro" the surface to replace the oil
5olu"e re"o5ed. Surface 3ater replenished that 3ater? "aintainin- a constant
hydrostatic pressure on the reser5oir fluids.
S.-o"%$r( R.-o4.r(
Secondary reco5ery is pro5en technolo-yL indeed? a recent study indicates that /' percent
of all do"estic crude oil in the US co"es fro" secondary reco5ery operations. 7ater
floodin- is inherently "ore efficient than -as displace"ent in pressure#"aintenance
pro9ects and is the preferred process 3here feasible.
So"e reser5oirs? principally those containin- hea5y oil that flo3s only 3ith -reat
difficulty? not only pro5ide poor pri"ary reco5ery but often are not susceptible to
3aterfloodin-. Enhanced oil reco5ery 3ould be especially useful in so"e of
these reser5oirs.
1&&
1ater Flood
%f the historical techni2ues used for E%6? 3ater floodin- has been the "ost co""on.
*his is not 3ater dri5e. 8n 3ater dri5e? 3ater is encroachin- into the oil Eone fro"
beneath? but in a true 3ater flood? 3ater is in9ected do3n in9ection 3ells into the oil Eone.
8deally? this creates a 5ertical flood front? pushin- the oil in front of the 3ater to3ard the
producin- 3ells. 8n a 3ater flood? the 3ater in9ection 3ells are placed relati5e to the oil
producin- 3ells in so"e predeter"ined pattern based on reser5oir characteristics and
production history. ! co""on pattern for 3ater floodin- for lar-e reser5oirs 3hich arc
basically horiEontal reser5oirs is the fi5e spot pattern. *his fi5e spot pattern is repeated
o5er the reser5oir?
Prior to the initiation of a 3ater flood pro9ect for a reser5oir? 5arious studies 3ill ha5e
been "ade in desi-nin- the 3ater flood. *hese "i-ht include "odel studies in the
laboratory? di-ital and analo- co"puter si"ulations? and pilot floods "ay ha5e been run
in a portion of the reser5oir as a preli"inary study? so that an analysis of the 3ater flood
plan "i-ht be "ade.
8t is desirable to conduct the 3ater flood so as to "axi"iEe the s3eep efficiency 3ithin
econo"ic li"its relati5e to production? so that 3hen the 3ater front fro" the in9ection
3ells brea+s into the producin- 3ells? a "axi"u" percent of the reser5oir 5olu"e 3ill
ha5e been s3ept by the flood. %nce this 3ater front reaches the producin- 3ells? further
hydrocarbon production 3ill be ne-li-ible? in that the 3ells 3ill no3 produce essentially
3ater. 8n order to reco5er further hydrocarbons? a different E%6 techni2ue "ust no3 be
applied as a tertiary Aor thirdB "ethod for reco5ery.
7hate5er the techni2ue used for enhanced reco5ery? it is desirable that the "obility ratio
of dri5in- fluid be less than the "obility ratio for the dri5en fluid. *he "obility ratio is
the ratio of the per"eability to the flo3 of the li2uid to the dyna"ic 5iscosity of that
li2uid. *he oil ratio "obility ratio 3ill be

N+
o
R
o
O H %il )obility 6atio
!nd? in the case of the 3ater flood? the 3ater "obility ratio of the 3ater 3ill be
N+
3
R
3
O H 7ater )obility 6atio
8f the "obility ratio of the dri5in- fluid is -reater than the "obility ratio of the dri5en
fluid? the dri5in- fluid 3ill tend to channel or fin-er throu-h the hydrocarbon? tendin- to
bypass the hydrocarbon in the s"aller per"eability channels? lea5in- it behind in the
reser5oir.
1&.
Fas G$ap 'n3ection
8n the -as cap dri5e in9ection secondary reco5ery techni2ue? -as is in9ected into the -as
cap abo5e the oil Eone? to pressuriEe the -as cap. 8n reser5oirs 3here reser5oir fluid
pressure is hi-her than the bubble point pressure? a -as cap "ay be created by -as
in9ection so that the expendin- -as cap 3ith further -as in9ection 3ill displace the oil into
the producin- 3ells. !s pre5iously discussed? -as cap dri5e or -as cap dri5e enhance"ent
is often used as a reser5oir pressure "aintenance techni2ue.
E"1$"-.% R.-o4.r(
Processes that in9ect fluids other than natural -as and 3ater to au-"ent a reser5oir1s
ability to produce oil ha5e been desi-nated Ci"pro5ed?D Ctertiary?D and CenhancedD oil
reco5ery processes. *he ter" used in this assess"ent is enhanced oil reco5ery AE%6B.
!ccordin- to !"erican Petroleu" 8nstitute esti"ates of ori-inal oil in place and ulti"ate
reco5ery? approxi"ately t3o#thirds of the oil disco5ered 3ill re"ain in an a5era-e
reser5oir after pri"ary and secondary production. *his inefficiency of oil reco5ery
processes has lon- been +no3n and the +no3led-e has sti"ulated laboratory and field
testin- of ne3 processes for "ore than /' years.
Early experi"ents 3ith un#con5entional fluids to i"pro5e oil reco5ery in5ol5ed the use
of stea" A1&'1sB and air for co"bustion to create heat A1./B. $urrent E%6 processes
"ay be di5ided into four cate-ories,
AaB ther"al? AbB "iscible? HcIche"ical? and AdB other.
)ost E%6 processes represent essentially untried? hi-h#ris+ technolo-y. %ne ther"al
process has achie5ed "oderately 3idespread co""ercialiEation. *he "echanis"s of
"iscible processes are reasonably 3ell understood? but it is still difficult to predict
3hether they 3ill 3or+ and be profitable in any -i5en reser5oir. *he che"ical processes
are the "ost technically co"plex? but they also could produce the hi-hest reco5ery
efficiencies.
*he potential applicability of all E%6 processes is li"ited not only by technolo-ical con#
straints? but by econo"ic? "aterial? and institutional constraints as 3ell.
(hermal Processes
Iiscosity? a "easure of a li2uid1s ability to flo3? 5aries 3idely a"on- crude oils. So"e
crudes flo3 li+e road tar? others as readily as 3ater. Hi-h 5iscosity "a+es oil difficult to
reco5er 3ith pri"ary or secondary production "ethods.
1&4
*he 5iscosity of "ost oils dra"atically decreases as te"perature increases? and the pur#
pose of all ther"al oil#reco5ery processes is therefore to heat the oil to "a+e it flo3 or
"a+e it easier to dri5e 3ith in9ected fluids. !n in9ected fluid "ay be stea" or hot 3ater
Astea" in9ectionB? or air Aco"bustion processesB.
Steam 'n3ection.
Stea" in9ection is the "ost ad5anced and "ost 3idely used E%6 process. 8t has been
successfully used in so"e reser5oirs in $alifornia since the "id#16'1s. *here are t3o
5ersions of the process, cyclic stea" and stea" dri5e.
8n the first? hi-h#pressure stea" or stea" and hot 3ater is in9ected into a 3ell for
a period of days or 3ee+s. *he in9ection is stopped and the reser5oir is allo3ed to Csoa+.D
!fter a fe3 days or 3ee+s? the 3ell is allo3ed to bac+flo3 to the surface. Pressure in the
producin- 3ell is allo3ed to decrease and so"e of the 3ater that condensed fro" stea"
durin- in9ection or that 3as in9ected as hot 3ater then 5aporiEes and dri5es heated oil
to3ard the producin- 3ell.
/igure "4
7hen oil production has declined appreciably? the process is repeated. (ecause of its
cyclic nature? this process is occasionally referred to as the Chuff and puffD "ethod.
*he second "ethod? stea" dri5e or stea" floodin-? in5ol5es continuous in9ection of
stea" or stea" and hot 3ater in "uch the sa"e 3ay that 3ater is in9ected in 3ater
floodin-. ! reser5oir or a portion thereof is de5eloped 3ith interloc+in- patterns of
in9ection and production 3ells. Durin- this process? a series of Eones de5elop as the fluids
1&/
"o5e fro" in9ection 3ell to producin- 3ell. Nearest the in9ection 3ell is a stea" Eone?
ahead of this is a Eone of stea" condensate A3aterB? and in front of the condensed 3ater is
a band or re-ion of oil bein- "o5ed by the 3ater. *he stea" and hot 3ater Eone to-ether
re"o5e the oil and force it ahead of the 3ater.
$yclic stea" in9ection is usually atte"pted in a reser5oir before a full#scale stea" dri5e is
initiated? partially as a "eans of deter"inin- the technical feasibility of the process for a
particular reser5oir and partly to i"pro5e the efficiency of the subse2uent stea" dri5e.
! stea" dri5e? 3here applicable? 3ill reco5er "ore oil than cyclic stea" in9ection.
$om!ustion Processes.
$o"bustion pro9ects are technolo-ically co"plex? and difficult to predict and control.
8n9ection of hot air 3ill cause i-nition of oil 3ithin a reser5oir. !lthou-h so"e oil is lost
by burnin-? the hot co"bustion product -ases "o5e ahead of the co"bustion Eone to
distill oil and push it to3ard producin- 3ells. !ir is in9ected throu-h one pattern of 3ells
and oil is produced fro" another interloc+in- pattern of 3ells in a "anner si"ilar to
3aterfloodin-.
*his process is referred to as fire floodin-? in situ Ain placeB co"bustion? or for3ard
co"bustion. !lthou-h ori-inally concei5ed to apply to 5ery 5iscous crude oils not
susceptible to 3ater floodin-? the "ethod is theoretically applicable to a relati5ely
3ide ran-e of crude oils.
!n i"portant "odification of for3ard co"bustion is the 3et co"bustion process. )uch
of the heat -enerated in for3ard co"bustion is left behind the burnin- front. *his heat
3as used to raise the te"perature of the roc+ to the te"perature of the co"bustion. So"e
of this heat "ay be reco5ered by in9ection of alternate slu-s of 3ater and air. *he 3ater is
5aporiEed 3hen it touches the hot for"ation. *he 5apor "o5es throu-h the co"bustion
Eone heatin- the oil ahead of it and assists the production of oil.
&isci!le Processes
)iscible processes are those in 3hich an in9ected fluid dissol5es in the oil it contacts?
for"in- a sin-le oil#li+e li2uid that can flo3 throu-h the reser5oir "ore easily then the
ori-inal crude.
! 5ariety of such processes ha5e been de5eloped usin- different fluids that can "ix 3ith
oil? includin- alcohols? carbon dioxide? petroleu" hydrocarbons such as propane or
propane#butane "ixtures? and petroleu" -ases rich in ethane? propane? butane? and
pentane.
*he fluid "ust be carefully selected for each reser5oir and type of crude to ensure that the
oil and in9ected fluid 3ill "ix. *he cost of the in9ected fluid is 2uite hi-h in all +no3n
processes? and therefore either the process "ust include a supple"entary operation to
1&6
reco5er expensi5e in9ected fluid? or the in9ected "aterial "ust be used sparin-ly. 8n this
process? a Cslu-?D 3hich 5aries fro" / to /' percent of the reser5oir 5olu"e? is pushed
throu-h the reser5oir by -as? 3ater AbrineB? or che"ically treated brine to contact and
displace the "ixture of fluid and oil.
)iscible processes in5ol5e only "oderately co"plex technolo-y co"pared 3ith other
E%6 processes. !lthou-h "any "iscible fluids ha5e been field tested? "uch re"ains to
be deter"ined about the proper for"ulation of 5arious che"ical syste"s to effect
co"plete solubility and to "aintain this solubility in the reser5oir as the sol5ent slu- is
pushed throu-h it.
(ecause of the hi-h 5alue of hydrocarbons and che"icals deri5ed fro" hydrocarbons? it
is -enerally felt that such "aterials 3ould not "a+e desirable in9ection fluids under
current or future econo"ic conditions. 0or this reason? attention has turned to $'
&
as a
sol5ent. $onditions for co"plete "ixin- of $'
&
3ith crude oil depend on reser5oir
te"perature and pressure and on the che"ical nature and density of the oil.
$hemical Processes
*hree E%6 processes in5ol5e the use of che"icals , surfactantRpoly"er? poly"er? and
al+aline floodin-.
Surfactant0Polymer Flooding.
SurfactantRpo8y"er floodin-? also +no3n as "icroe"ulsion floodin- or "icellar floodin-?
is the ne3est and "ost co"plex of the E%6 processes. 7hile it has a potential for
superior oil reco5ery? fe3 "a9or field tests ha5e been co"pleted or e5aluated.
Se5eral "a9or tests are no3 under 3ay to deter"ine its technical and econo"ic
feasibility. SurfactantRpoly"er floodin- can be any one of se5eral processes in 3hich
deter-ent#li+e "aterials are in9ected as a slu- of fluid to "odify the che"ical interaction
of oil 3ith its surroundin-s.
*hese processes e"ulsify or other3ise dissol5e or partly dissol5e the oil 3ithin the
for"ation. (ecause of the cost of such a-ents? the 5olu"e of a slu- can represent only a
s"all percenta-e of the reser5oir 5olu"e. *o preser5e the inte-rity of the slu- as it "o5es
throu-h the reser5oir? it is pushed by 3ater to 3hich a poly"er has been added.
*he che"ical co"position of a slu- and its siEe "ust be carefully selected for each reser#
5oirRcrude oil syste". Not all para"eters for this desi-n process are 3ell understood.
1&7
Polymer Flooding.
Poly"er floodin- is a che"ically au-"ented 3aterflood in 3hich s"all concentrations of
che"icals? such as polyacryla"ides or polysaccharides? are added to in9ected 3ater to
increase the effecti5eness of the 3ater in displacin- oil.
Alaline Flooding.
7ater solutions of certain che"icals such as sodiu" hydroxide? sodiu" silicate? and
sodiu" carbonate are stron-ly al+aline. *hese solutions 3ill react 3ith constituents
present in so"e crude oils or present at the roc+Rcrude oil interface to for" deter-ent#li+e
"aterials 3hich reduce the ability of the for"ation to retain the oil.
*he fe3 tests 3hich ha5e been reported are technically encoura-in-? but the technolo-y
is not nearly so 3ell de5eloped as those described pre5iously.
6eser5oirs not considered for al+aline floodin- beca"e candidates for other processes.
Other EO. Processes
%5er the years? "any processes for i"pro5in- oil reco5ery ha5e been de5eloped? a lar-e
nu"ber of patents ha5e been issued? and a si-nificant nu"ber of processes ha5e been
field tested. 8n e5aluatin- a conceptual process? it should be reco-niEed that a sin-le field
test or patent represents but a s"all step to3ard co""ercial use on a scale lar-e enou-h
to influence the supply of crude oil.
So"e +no3n processes ha5e 5ery li"ited application? for exa"ple? if thin coalbeds lay
under an oil reser5oir this coal could be i-nited? the oil abo5e it 3ould be heated? its
5iscosity 3ould be reduced? and it 3ould be easier to reco5er. *his relationship bet3een
oil and coal is rare? ho3e5er? and the process is not i"portant to total ener-y production.
!nother exa"ple in5ol5es use of electrical ener-y to fracture an oil#bearin- for"ation
and for" a carbon trac+ or band bet3een 3ells. *his band 3ould then be used as a hi-h#
resistance electrical path3ay throu-h 3hich electric current 3ould be applied? causin- the
CresistorD to heat the for"ation? reduce oil 5iscosity? and increase oil reco5ery. *he
process 3as concei5ed o5er &/ years a-o and has been tested sporadically? but
does not appear to ha5e si-nificant potential.
! third process in this cate-ory is the use of bacteria for reco5ery of oil. Se5eral
5ariations ha5e been concei5ed. *hese include use of bacteria 3ithin a reser5oir to
-enerate surface#acti5e Adeter-ent#li+eB "aterials that 3ould perfor" "uch the sa"e
function as a surfactantRpoly"er flood. !lthou-h so"e bacteria are able to 3ith#stand
te"peratures and pressure found in oil reser5oirs? none ha5e been found that 3ill both
successfully -enerate useful "odifyin- che"icals in sufficient a"ounts and also tolerate
the che"ical and ther"al en5iron"ents in "ost reser5oirs.8t is uncertain 3hether
1&8
nutrients to +eep the" ali5e could be pro5ided. 0urther? any strain of bacteria de5eloped
3ould need to be carefully screened for potential en5iron"ental haEards.
R.-o4.r( E,,!-!."-!.'
Experience has deter"ined expected ran-es of efficiencies of reco5ery of hydrocarbons
by pri"ary and enhanced techni2ues. *hese reco5ery efficiencies are nor"ally expressed
in one of t3o 3ays,
i.B Percent of %ri-inal#%il#in#Place reco5ered
ii.B Percent of re"ainin-#%il#in#Place reco5ered
*he ran-es of reco5ery efficiencies for pri"ary reco5ery and enhanced "ay be
su""ariEed as follo3s,
Pri"ary 6eco5ery Efficiencies
%il APercent of %ri-inal %il# in# PlaceB

Dissol5ed ;as Dri5e /J to .'J
;as#$ap Dri5e &'J to 4'J
7ater Dri5e ./J to 7/J

;as APercent of %ri-inal#;as#8n =PlaceB
;as Expansion and 7ater Dri5e 'J G

Enhanced 6eco5ery Efficiencies
%il APercent of %ri-inal# %il# 8n# PlaceB

7ater flood ASecondary 6eco5eryB .'J to 4'J
$%& )iscible 0lood A*ertiary 6eco5eryB /J to 1'J
Stea" Dri5e AHea5y %ilB /'J to 8'J

1&
(<+<.I25 -<55 -%(F
Gr$4.0 &$-:!"#
;ra5el pac+s can be perfor"ed in either open hole or cased hole co"pletions? in 3ell
de5iations fro" 'e to 11'e and in Eone len-ths up to a fe3 thousand feet. Syste"s are
a5ailable for 5irtually any 3ell te"perature? pressure? and en5iron"ent. ;ra5el pac+ed
3ells can be produced under hi-h dra3do3n 3ithout concern of sand production.
Producti5ity of the open or cased hole -ra5el pac+ed co"pletion is deter"ined in part by
the condition of the reser5oir behind the filter ca+e? 2uality of the filter ca+e? and stability
of the 3ellbore.
/igure "8
Sand#free production? hi-h producti5ity? and co"pletion lon-e5ity are pri"ary ob9ecti5es
for -ra5el pac+ operations. *o achie5e these ob9ecti5es? operators "ust be able to perfor"
-ra5el pac+ applications under 5arious 3ell conditions.
Se5eral techni2ues are a5ailable for dealin- 3ith sand production fro" 3ells. *hese
ran-e fro" si"ple chan-es in operatin- practices to co"pletions such as Sand
1.'
C32(D O<( >R3?(< *3CK COM*<(5.O1
16 18) 9 #ole
1- -8$9 casing
1) 18%9 #ole
casing liner #anger
9 ,8$9 casing
>ravel *ack *acker
*er@oration >ravel
>ravel *ack 2creen
%ydrocarbon
69 casing
$onsolidation and ;ra5el Pac+in-. *he sand control "ethod selected depends on site
specific conditions? operatin- practices? and econo"ic consideration.
A-!%!'!"#
*he purpose of acidisin- is to sti"ulate or effecti5ely increase the flo3 capacity of 3ells.
*he increase in flo3 capacity is acco"plished by the acid1s ability to dissol5e roc+?
certain scale? "ud and other soluble "aterial? 3hich "ay be bloc+in- the flo3 channels.
!cids that are co""only used for sti"ulation are,
iB Hydrochloric acid AH$lB
iiB Hydrofluoric acid AH0B
iiiB !cetic !cid
i5B 0or"ic !cid
5B %ther !cid !dditi5es
%f the four acids "entioned abo5e? hydrochloric acid is the "ost 3idely used due to its
hi-h carbonate dissol5in- ability and lo3 cost. 8t reacts 3ith li"estone to for" 3ater?
carbon dioxide and calciu" chloride.
H$8RH0? also +no3n as "ud acid? is used exclusi5ely for sandstone reser5oirs 3ith little
calciu". ! pre#flush of 1'J H$l is used to dissol5e any calciu" 3hich is in the pore
throats. Hydrofluoric acid is used on sandstone reser5oirs since it reacts 3ith siliceous
co"pounds,
Si%
&
G 6H0 H H
&
Si0
6
G &H
&
%
! "ixture of .J H0 and 1&J H$l? +no3n as "ud acid? is used to dissol5e clays and and
re"o5e "ud ca+es created durin- the drillin- process.
!cetic and 0or"ic acids are used in sti"ulations 3here their slo3er reaction ti"e and
ease of inhibition is re2uired. %n the basis of cost? these acids are . to / ti"es "ore
expensi5e than H$l.
A-!% Fr$-*r!"#
1.1
8n acid fracturin-? the acid is in9ected at hi-her rates and pressures ? 3hich fractures the
reser5oir. *he acid then tra5els alon- the ne3ly created flo3 path and etches sides of the
fracture as 3ell as the "atrix pores alon- the fracture. *his "ethod is useful 3here deep
penetration is re2uired.
H(%r$*0!- Fr$-*r!"#
Hydraulic fracturin- is a techni2ue used to allo3 oil and natural -as to "o5e "ore freely
fro" the roc+ pores 3here they are trapped to a producin- 3ell that can brin- the" to the
surface. *he technolo-y 3as de5eloped in the late 14's and has been continuously
i"pro5ed and applied since that ti"e.
Hydraulic fracturin- is used to create s"all crac+s in subsurface -eolo-ic for"ations to
allo3 oil or -as to "o5e to3ard a producin- 3ell. ! fracture acts "uch li+e a road?
speedin- up the 9ourney of oil or -as "olecules on their 3ay to the 3ellbore that 3ill
produce the".
8f only 3ater 3as bein- pu"ped into the 3ell? the fracture 3ould -radually close 3hen
the operator stopped pu"pin-? and 3ithin "inutes the for"ation 3ould be bac+ to its
ori-inal non#fractured condition. 8n a hydraulic fracturin- 9ob? the fluid pu"ped into the
3ell contains a proppant Ausually sandB to +eep the fracture open.
*his proppant collects inside the created fracture? so 3hen the fracture tries to close? it
cannot? because the proppant is holdin- it open. *he operator has no3 Cconstructed a
roadD that "olecules of -as far out in the coal can use to tra5el to the 3ell. So"e of these
-as "olecules "i-ht not ha5e been able to "a+e it to the 3ell other3ise. E5en thou-h
this ne3 fracture is full of proppant? it is still "uch "ore per"eable and easier to tra5el
throu-h than the coal itself.
*he extent of the fracture is controlled by the characteristics of the -eolo-ic for"ation? its
depth? the fluid type? and pu"pin- pressure. *he fracture 3ill -ro3 if the operator
continues to pu"p fluid at hi-her rates? or if the operator pu"ps a "ore 5iscous fluid into
the for"ation Ae.-.? "olasses H hi-h 5iscosity? 3ater H lo3 5iscosityB.
7hether the fracture -ro3s hi-her or lon-er is deter"ined by the surroundin- roc+
properties. 7hen the fracture reaches the shale abo5e Aor belo3B the -eolo-ic for"ation
bein- fractured? it 3ill stopL shale does not fracture easily. 8n nature? fluids that are under
pressure Asuch as fracturin- fluidsB 3ill follo3 the path of least resistance. ! hydraulically
created fracture 3ill al3ays ta+e the path of least resistance? 3hich "eans stayin- 3ithin
the for"ation that fractures easiest.

P(%$<**ING %/ P(%.0$<. /50I.*
1.&
0or oil 3ells and -as 3ells? surface processin- is intended to reduce the presence of
undesirable produced fluids and other "aterials to a sufficiently lo3 le5el Apercent by
5olu"e or percent by 3ei-htB to "a+e transportation of the desirable fluids
AhydrocarbonsB econo"ic to facilities at other locations for further processin- and
con5ersion into "ar+etable products.
8n the case of crude oil it is nor"ally desirable to reduce 3ater present to a le5el no
-reater than t3o percent of the total 5olu"e of the li2uids to be transported. 8n so"e
instances? ho3e5er? it is necessary to co"pletely re"o5e conta"inants durin- the initial
processin-. *his 3ould be the re2uire"ent if hydro-en sulfide AH&SB should be present?
in that not only does it create a corrosi5e en5iron"ent in the presence of 3ater? but it is
also toxic and potentially deadly.
*he surface processin- syste" is desi-ned to perfor" its necessary functions at "ini"u"
cost? 3ithout endan-erin- personnel or en5iron"ent? and to retain "axi"u" 5alue of the
hydrocarbons 3hile still fulfillin- the functions of the processin- syste". 0or exa"ple?
for crude oil in -eneral? the hi-her the !P8 -ra5ity of oil? the -reater its 5alue. 6e"o5al of
the li-hter 3ei-ht hydrocarbon "olecules? such as paraffin series hydrocarbons? reduces
the !P8 -ra5ity of the re"ainin- li2uids and increases the producin- -as#oil ratio 3ith a
net loss of hydrocarbon li2uid 5olu"e. Since the hydrocarbon li2uid Acrude oilB is
nor"ally of -reater 5alue than hydrocarbon -as? the processin- syste" is desi-ned to
"axi"iEe the 5olu"e of crude oil a5ailable for "ar+etin- at as hi-h an !P8 -ra5ity as
possible.
*he hi-her the processin- te"perature to 3hich crude oil is sub9ected? the lo3er the !P8
-ra5ity of the resultant crude oil and the lo3er the 5olu"e of crude oil a5ailable for
transport and sale. *herefore? it is desirable to desi-n the surface processin- syste" to
"ini"iEe the "axi"u" te"perature to 3hich the crude oil is exposed? 3hile still "eetin-
the necessary functions of the syste". *he desi-n of this syste" is therefore an
opti"iEation process.
O!0 3.00'
*he "ost co""only produced fluids and "aterials fro" oil 3ells are oil? -as? 3ater
Ausually salt 3aterB? e"ulsions? and solids. %il 3ells are -enerally classified as either hi-h
pressure 3ells or lo3 pressure 3ells. 8f both 3ell classifications are producin-
into a central -atherin- syste"? the hi-h pressure 3ells 3ill ha5e their production
directed to a hi-h pressure "anifold? and the lo3 pressure 3ells 3ill ha5e their
production directed to a lo3 pressure "anifold.
0luids produced fro" hi-h pressure 3ells nor"ally ha5e a hi-h solution -as#oil ratio?
conse2uently resultin- in a hi-her producin- -as#oil ratio. *here are se5eral options for
this -as? and the option selected 3ill affect specifications for the surface processin-
e2uip"ent. *he three "ost co""on options for the -as are,
1..
1. )ar+et the -as Aor use the -as as a fuel at the locationB
&. 6e#in9ect the -as into the hydrocarbon reser5oir fro" 3hich it 3as produced or
into so"e other reser5oir.
.. 0lare or 5ent the -as as 3aste.
8f si-nificant -as is bein- produced? the third option is not nor"ally per"itted be
-o5ern"ent re-ulations? in that a natural resource 3ould be destroyed? 3ith ad5erse
effect on the en5iron"ent. Either of the first t3o options is "ore li+ely to be selected.
*herefore? the surface syste" is desi-ned so that -as produced at the surface is
"aintained as nearly as possible at the pipeline pressure or the re#in9ection pressure to
"ini"iEe cost of reco"pression of the -as.
O!0 3.00 S*r,$-. Pro-.''!"# S('.5
*he hi-h pressure 3ell production fro" the hi-h pressure "anifold 3ill initially be
directed throu-h sta-e separators? so that -as is per"itted to escape fro" the oil in sta-es.
0ro" each sta-e separator? -as? oil? salt 3ater? e"ulsions and solids "ay be re"o5ed. *he
solids 3ould tend to settle out due to -ra5ity? but the li2uids 3ould essentially flo3
throu-h each sta-e of separation? to the free 3ater +noc+out essentially at at"ospheric
pressure Aor at least at a relati5ely lo3 pressure as co"pared to the 3ellhead pressureB
*he produced fluid fro" the lo3#pressure 3ells is ta+en throu-h the sa"e syste"? 3ith
the exception of the "ulti#sta-e separation process. *he production fro" the lo3#pressure
3ell is directed to a lo3#pressure "anifold? fro" 3here it flo3s directly to the free 3ater
+noc+out. 0ro" that point to the transportation syste"? the process syste" is the sa"e for
hi-h#pressure and lo3#pressure 3ell production.
*he free 3ater +noc+out is essentially a -ra5ity separator 3ith baffles to enhance the
separation. *he hi-h 5elocity fluids flo3 into this separator and upon entry? the flo3 area
is si-nificantly -reater? thereby reducin- the 5elocity of flo3 and enhancin- the -ra5ity
separation of fluids and other "aterials into their different densities. Solid particles
transported fro" the reser5oir 3ill fall to the botto" of the syste"? 3ith the fluids
stratifyin- accordin- to density Asalt 3ater on botto"? e"ulsion in the next layer? crude
oil in the next layer? 3ith -as risin- to the top of the syste"B. *he 3ater 3ill contain
droplets of oil? the oil droplets of 3ater? and the -as both oil and 3ater droplets? possibly
in the for" of a "ist. !s the fluids flo3 throu-h bafflin- 3ithin the free 3ater +noc+out?
fluid droplets suspended 3ithin the other fluids 3ill tend to coalesce? for"in- lar-er
droplets and enhancin- their -ra5ity separation.
1.4
!s the separated fluids exist fro" the free 3ater +noc+out? the salt 3ater is re"o5ed fro"
the botto"? oil and e"ulsions are re"o5ed fro" the top of the salt 3ater? and -as is
re"o5ed fro" the top. *he 3ater li+ely contains sufficient oil to pre5ent its bein-
exhausted to the en5iron"ent? and "ay re2uire further processin- to re"o5e any
re"ainin- oil or other conta"inants to a sufficiently lo3 le5el to per"it its disposal
o5erboard? in the case of an offshore operation? into the surface en5iron"ent? or re#
in9ection into a subsurface for"ation throu-h a salt 3ater disposal syste". *he oil? and
certainly the e"ulsion? flo3s fro" the free 3ater +noc+out to an e"ulsion treater to brea+
the e"ulsion and re"o5e as "uch additional 3ater as is practical.
/igure "1 @ %il Processing *ystem
*here are se5eral different e"ulsion treatin- processes. Historically? one of the "ost
co""on has been the heater treater? in that increased te"perature 3ill brea+ the
e"ulsion. *he oil and the e"ulsion flo3s fro" the free 3ater +noc+out into the heater
treater? 3here it flo3s do3n the Cdo3n#co"erD to the botto" of the heater treater. *here
it is exposed to the heater? thereby increasin- its te"perature.
*he increased te"perature tends to brea+ the e"ulsion 3ith the hea5ier 3ater "o5in-
do3n3ard and the li-hter oil up3ard? throu-h -ra5ity separation. *here "ay be bafflin-
in the syste" throu-h 3hich the oil passes? further brea+in- the e"ulsion. *he oil is
s+i""ed fro" the top of the 3ater and? if the processin- syste" has ser5e its function? is
then transported for stora-e or to the transportation syste" Apipeline? offshore tan+er? rail
cars etc.B
Since the heater treater has increased the te"perature of the syste"? additional -as is
for"ed and is re"o5ed fro" the top of the heater treater? to be co"bined 3ith the -as
obtained fro" the free 3ater +noc+out. 8t is then reco"pressed for transport or rein9ection
into the reser5oir. *he 3ater fro" the e"ulsion treater "ust be transported for disposal.
1./
Water
2alt Water
Clean Oil
2torage
(mulsion
5reater
Aree Water
Knockout
Oil Wells
Oil4 >as B
Water
Water
Oil B
(mulsion
Clean Oil
?a+or
Recovery
>as sales
>as
>as
Dis+osal
8f hydro-en sulfide AH&SB andRor carbon dioxide A$%&B are present in the produced fluid?
they are nor"ally re"o5ed fro" the oil and -as after exitin- fro" the free 3ater
+noc+out? to "ini"iEe exposure of do3nstrea" processin- syste"s to the corrosi5e
en5iron"ent 3hich exists 3hen H&S andRor $%& is present. Dependent upon the 5olu"es
of H&S andRor $%& produced? 5arious re"o5al syste"s are a5ailable. %ne of the "ost
co""on is the a"ine syste".
Since the heater treater increases the te"perature of the produced fluids? the !P8 -ra5ity
as 3ell as oil 5olu"e are both reduced? thereby reducin- the 5alue of the produced
hydrocarbons. *herefore? other e"ulsion treater syste"s "ay be used. %thers a5ailable
include electrostatic e"ulsion treaters? che"ical treat"ent to brea+ the e"ulsions? and
"olecular sie5es. *he electrostatic treaters ta+es ad5anta-e of the fact that the H&%
"olecule is an electric dipole so that? 3hen exposed to an electrostatic field there is an
attraction for the 3ater "olecule? thereby enhancin- separation fro" the hydrocarbon.
*he -as is re"o5ed fro" the sta-e separators? the free 3ater +noc+out? and the e"ulsion
treater 3ill li+ely be directed to a dehydrator for further re"o5al of H&% "olecules. *he
dehydration process is the sa"e as that process 3hich 3ill be discussed relati5e to
production fro" -as 3ells. (oth the crude oil and the hydrocarbon -as lea5in- the syste"
3ill be transported for processin- into "ar+etable products.
G$' 3.00'
Production fro" -as 3ells "ay include hydrocarbon -as? carbon dioxide A$%&B?
hydro-en sulfide AH&SB? hydro-en? heliu"? oxy-en? nitro-en? other -ases? hydrocarbon
li2uids and 3ater in the for" of droplets or 5apor? and suspended solid particles such as
sand particles. Solid particle suspension? ho3e5er? should "ini"iEed at the reser5oir to
reduce the Csand blastin-D effect on the production casin- andRor tubin-? 3ellhead
co"ponents? and surface e2uip"ent. Surface processin- of production fro" -as 3ells is
usually less co"plex than for oil 3ells. 0ro" the 3ellhead? production passes into a
-atherin- syste" deli5erin- production to the central processin- facilities or topside
facilities on an offshore -as production platfor".
G$' 3.00 S*r,$-. Pro-.''!"# S('.5
8n nor"al operations? -as 3ell production flo3 into a -ra5ity separator? 3hich is basically
a lar-e tan+. *he 5elocity of the flo3 fro" the -atherin- pipeline decreases si-nificantly
upon enterin- the separator? so that -ra5ity separation occurs. Solid particles and li2uid
droplets fall to the botto" of the separator? and -ases "o5e to the top. 8f there is
sufficient li2uid accu"ulation fro" -ra5ity separation? the hydrocarbons? usually
condensate 3ill float to the top of any 3ater present.
1.6
Usin- a baffle syste" to separate the li2uid hydrocarbons fro" the 3ater? the
hydrocarbons 3ill be re"o5ed by pipeline to a central -atherin- location. 7ater 3ill be
re"o5ed fro" the botto" of the separator? and solids 3ill accu"ulate. *he -ra5ity
separator tan+ "ust occasionally be flushed or bac+3ashed to re"o5e accu"ulated solids
fro" the botto" of the separator. ;as is ta+en fro" the top of the separator. 8f H&%
content and content of other -ases is sufficiently lo3? the hydrocarbon -as is transported
to "ar+et by pipeline? used as an ener-y source at the location? or re#in9ected.
*he hydrocarbon -as lea5in- the -ra5ity separator "ay contain too "uch H&% for
transport? in9ection? or use as fuel. 8f this should be the case? it 3ill pass to the dehydrator
for re"o5al of H&% "olecules to an acceptably lo3 le5el. *his 3ill usually be a -lycol
dehydrator? usin- co"ponents such as ethylene -lycol? for re"o5al of the H&% "olecules
fro" the hydrocarbon -as. *he -lycol "olecule has a -reater affinity AattractionB for the
H&% "olecule than does hydrocarbon. ;lycol dehydration is therefore a relati5ely si"ple
operation.
/igure 4' @ Gas Processing *ystem
*he hydrocarbon -as is passed into the base of a -lycol dehydration to3er? 3here it rises?
bubblin- throu-h trays containin- -lycol? exposin- the hydrocarbon -as to as lar-e a
surface area of li2uid -lycol as is practical. !s the hydrocarbon -as bubbles throu-h the
-lycol? the H
&
% "olecules are attracted to the -lycol and are re"o5ed fro" the
hydrocarbon -as? 3ith theD dryD -as bein- re"o5ed fro" the top of the -lycol to3er.
CDryD -lycol A-lycol 3ithout the presence of H
&
% "oleculesB flo3s on a continuin- basis
into the top tray of the layered trays in the to3er? and flo3s do3n3ard throu-h the to3er
fro" one tray to the next? accu"ulatin- H
&
% "olecules as the hydrocarbon -as bubbles
throu-h the -lycol. (y the ti"e the -lycol reaches the base of the to3er? it is no3 C3etD
-lycol A-lycol 3ith a si-nificant H
&
% "olecular contentB.
1.7
>ravity
2e+arator
>as Wells
>as4
Con!ensate
B Water
Water
Con!ensate
>as
De#y!rator
Water
>as 2ales
*his process of re"o5in- the H
&
% "olecules fro" the hydrocarbon -as has not been a
che"ical process? in that no che"ical reactions ha5e occurred. *here ha5e been no
"olecular chan-es. *his C3etD -lycol is re"o5ed fro" the base of the dehydration to3er.
*he H
&
% "olecules are then re"o5ed fro" the -lycol as it is prepared for recirculation as
CdryD -lycol? bac+ into the dehydration to3er.
6e"o5al of the H
&
% "olecules fro" the -lycol is not co"plex?? since H
&
% boils at a
lo3er te"perature than does -lycol. *he C3etD -lycol is ta+en to a te"perature hi-her
than the boilin- point of H
&
%? yet lo3er than the boilin- point of -lycol? boilin- the H
&
%
"olecules fro" the li2uid -lycol? lea5in- it CdryD. *he CdryD -lycol is then re#circulated
bac+ to the -lycol dehydration to3er.
8f hydro-en sulfide H
&
S andRor carbon dioxide A$%
&
B should be present in the production
fro" the -as 3ells? the -as ta+en fro" the top of the -ra5ity separator is ta+en throu-h a
process to re"o5e the H
&
S andRor $%
&
before dehydration. Se5eral types of processes are
a5ailable to re"o5e the H
&
S andRor $%
&
? the "ost co""on bein- an a"ine syste" as
"entioned in the discussion for processin- the fluids produced by oil 3ells. H
&
S and $%
&
"olecules ha5e a -reater affinity AattractionB for a"ine "olecules than for hydrocarbon
"olecules? so in a si"ilar fashion to -lycol re"o5al of H&% "olecules fro" hydrocarbon
-as? the a"ine re"o5es H
&
S and $%& "olecules. H
&
S and $%
&
are corrosi5e in the
presence of 3aterL therefore it is desirable to re"o5e the" early in the processin- syste"?
to "ini"iEe exposure of do3nstrea" e2uip"ent to this corrosi5e en5iron"ent.
*he hydrocarbon li2uid? usually condensate? ta+en fro" the botto" of the -ra5ity
separator? is transported for stora-e or used do3nstrea". 8f production is on or near an
offshore platfor" 3ith an oil pipeline? the condensate "ay be used to Cspi+eD the crude
oil in the pipeline by "ixin- it 3ith oil. *his "ixin- of the condensate 3ith the oil
increases the !P8 ;ra5ity of the crude oil. *he hydrocarbon -as exitin- fro" this surface
processin- syste" nor"ally re2uires no further processin-.
1.8