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CHAPTER 4

PERIODIC
TABLE OF
ELEMENTS


Groups

1. Elements whose atoms have a similar electronic configuration and have
the same number of valence electrons are placed in the same group.
2. Elements in the same group have similar Chemical Properties.
3. Group 1 elements (excluding Hydrogen) are also known as Alkali Metals.
Each element in the group has only one valence electron.
4. Group 2 elements are also known as Alkali Earth Metals. Each element
in this group has two valence electrons.
5. The elements from Group 3 through to Group 12 are classified as the
transition elements.
6. Group 13 elements each have three valence electrons. These elements
are metalloids or semi-metals.
7. Group 14 elements each have four valence electrons. Some of these
elements are also semi-metals, some are non-metals.
8. Group 15 elements each have five valence electrons. These elements
are generally non-metals.
9. Group 17 elements are also known as halogens. These elements are
non-metals. Each element in this group has seven valence electrons.
10. Group 18 elements are known as noble gases / inert gases and are non-
metals. The first element in this group has a complete duplex and has
only one shell of electrons. Every other element in this group has a
complete octet of electrons in its outermost shell.




Periods

1. Number of valence electrons in elements of the same period gradually
increases from left to right until the last element in each period has
acquired a full octet.

Arrangement of elements in Periodic Table

1. Arranged in ascending order of the proton number.

Example :-

The atom of element D has a nucleon number of 27 and has 14 neutrons.
Where is D located in the Periodic Table?

Solution :-
Nucleon Number = 27
Number of Neutrons = 14
Number of Protons = 27 14
= 13 (number of electrons)
Electronic Configuration = 2.8.3
So, Element D is located in period 3 and in Group 13


Exercise



Elements



Nucleon
Number

Proton
Number

Electron
Configuration
Number
of
Valence
Electrons


Group
Number


Period
Number
Boron, B


11
5 3
Oxygen,
O


16

2.6

Sodium,
Na


23

11
1
Silicon,
Si


28

14

Argon,
Ar


40

2.8.8

Calcium,
Ca


40

2.8.8.2

Bromine,
Br


80

35







Location in the Periodic
Table
Group 18 Elements (Noble Gases)
1. Known as Noble gases.
2. They are all monoatomic gases and are all very un-reactive (inert gases).
3. Inert Without any active chemical or other properties.


Physical Properties
1. Group 18 elements are all coloured gases.
2. Atomic radius (atomic size) of each element increases down the group.
3. Very low melting points and boiling points.
4. The melting point and boiling point of each gas increases down the
group.
5. The density of each element is very low with the value increasing down
the group.
6. Do not conduct heat or electricity (because non-metals).
7. The gases do not dissolve in water.

8. Proton number effective positive charge going down the group.
9. Atomic radius going down the group.
10. The intermolecular forces (van der Waals forces) in strength going
down the group.
11. Melting and boiling points going down the group.


Chemical Properties

1. All elements are very stable in this group. Outermost shell are fully filled.
2. These elements neither release any electrons nor accept any electrons.
3. Non-reactive chemical properties.
4. All the elements in Group 18 are monoatomic gases.

Uses of Group 18 Elements

HELIUM
Is very light and non-reactive, so it is used to fill air balloons.
NEON
Used in television tubes, gas lasers and high-voltage indicators.
Argon
Used as a gas shield such as arc welding and cutting.
Krypton
Used in some photographic flash lamps for high-speed photography.
Xenon
Used in high-intensity aviation approach lights.
Radon
Being radioactive is useful in the treatment of cancer.

Group 1 Elements (Alkali Metals)

Physical Properties

1. Soft metals, can be cut with knife. The hardness decreases going down
the group.
2. The metals are god conductors of heat and electricity.
3. The atomic radius of the elements increases gradually down the group.
4. Proton number increases going down the group.
5. Density of each alkali metal is low, but the density of each element
increases going down the group.
6. Melting point and boiling point decreases going down the group.
7. Strength of the metallic bond between adjacent atoms of the metals
decreases.
8. The electronegativity (attract atom) decreases going down the group.
9. Reactivity of the metals increases going down the group.








Group 17 Elements (Halogens)

Physical Properties

1. The Group 17 elements are reactive non-metals, the most reactive being
fluorine.
2. They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
3. Atomic Radii increases going down the group.
4. Size of molecules increases, the van der Waals forces between
molecules also increases.
5. Boiling points and melting points also increases.
6. The density also increases down the group, as the relative atomic mass
(RAM) increases.
7. The Physical state of the halogens change from gaseous to liquid to solid
down the group.
8. The electronegativity of the halogens decreases down the group.








Chemical Properties

1. Chemically very reactive non metals.
2. The reactivity of the halogens decreases down the group.
3. Atomic radius increases down the group, the valence electrons in the
outermost shells are further away from the nucleus.
4. Being electron acceptors, the halogens are oxidizing agents.



ELEMENTS IN PERIOD

1. Atomic size (atomic radius) decreases across the period.
2. The electronegativity of the elements increases across the period.

Transition Elements (Group 2 Group 13)

1. Tend to form coloured compounds and ions.
2. They show catalytic activities, that is, they help to increase the rate
of certain reactions without being affected by the reaction itself.
3. They form complex ions that are colourful.
4. The atomic Radii decreases quickly due to an increase in effective
nuclear charge.
5. The effective nuclear charge is the positive charge felt by an electron
after subtracting the effect of electron shielding by other electrons.
6. Melting point and boiling points of the transition metals increases.
7. Density of the transition metals increase from Scandium to Copper,
then it drops form Copper to Zinc.
8. Electronegativity increases across the period.

Uses of Transition Metals in Industries
1. Iron is widely used in the form of Steel.
2. Chromium is also used in Chromium plating because of its great
resistance to corrosion.
3. Copper is good conductor of heat and electricity, widely used for wiring
purposes.