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A Coatings - Coatings on hot-dipped galvanized steels processed to convert the

coating completely to zinc-iron alloys; dull gray in appearance, have no spangle, and
after proper preparation, are well suited for painting.
A Elevation - The top level of the boiler firebox where four oil guns are located. The
oil guns are used to produce steam and maintain pressure while the boiler is on oil
fire.
A.G.C. Systems - (utomatic !auge Control" #ydraulic or electric system that
supplies the force to the .!.C. roll force cylinders.
A Sheet Metal Screw - $heet metal screws with (a" sharp-pointed ends; and (b"
fewer threads per inch than type % screws; and (c" deeper threads with bettere
gripping power than type %. The industrial &asteners 'nstitue incorrectly labes type
an (obsolete) thread though it is universally preferred in *+-+ stainless over type
%, especially by the marine industry.
AB Srews - $heet metal screws with pointed ends similar to type- screws and
thread dimensions similar to type-%. Type % screws are seldom used in stainless.
Abrasion - The displacement and,or detachment of metallic particles from a surface
as a conse-uence of being exposed to flowing solids, fluids or gases. The process of
rubbing, grinding, or wearing away by friction.
Abrasion Resistance - .egree of resistance of a material to abrasion or wear
Abrasion-Resistant Steels - family of steel products developed for those
applications involved in sliding and,or impact abrasion.
Abrasive - /aterial for grinding, polishing, blasting, either in loose form or bonded
to form wheels, bric0s, or files, or applied to paper and cloth by glue or resin. 1atural
abrasives include emery, corundum, garnet, sand, flint, etc. /etallic shot and grit are
also used as abrasives in cleaning castings.
Abrasive - 1atural 2 sandstone,emery,corundum,diamonds, or rtificial 2 silicon
carbide,aluminum oxide 2 material used for ma0ing grinding
wheels,andpaper,abrasive and lapping compunds.
Abrasive Wheels - 3heels of a hard abrasive, such as Carborundum used for
grinding.
Abrasive Wear - The displacement and , or detachment of metallic particles from a
surface as a conse-uence of being exposed to flowing fluids or gases.
Ac1 - The temperature at which austenite begins to form on heating.
Ac3 - 'n hypoeutectoid steel, the temperature at which transformation of ferrite into
austenite is completed upon heating.
Accelerator - substance that hastens a reaction usually acting as a catalyst; as
used in sand additive resins.
Accm - 'n hypereutectoid steel, the temperature at which cementite goes into
complete solution with austenite.
Accorion Ree Steel - #ardened, tempered, polished and blued or yellow flat
steel with dressed edges. Carbon content about *.44. /aterial has to possess good
flatness, uniform hardness and high elasticity.
Acc!m!lator - device used to dampen pressure pulsations in the hydraulic and
morgoil systems.
Acc!rate - Conforms to a standard or tolerance.
Acetyl "rib!tyl Citrate - 5ne of the lubricating oils generally applied on tin /ill
6roducts (tin plate, T&$-chrome,chrome oxide coated steel, and blac0plate".
Aci - *" solution or li-uid with a p# less than 7, 8" term applied to slags,
refractors, and minerals containing a high percentage of silica.
Aci Brittleness #$ic%ling Brittleness& - %rittleness resulting from pic0ling steel in
acid; hydrogen, formed by the interaction between iron and acid, is partially
absorbed by the metal, causing acid brittleness.
Aci Embrittlement - 9mbrittlement during pic0ling due to absorption of hydrogen.
Aci $rocess - process of ma0ing steel, either %essemer, open-hearth or electric,
in which the furnace is lined with a siliceous refractory and for which low phosphorus
pig iron is re-uired as this element is not removed.
Aci $rocess - steel ma0ing method using an acid refractory-lined (usually silica"
furnace. 1either sulfur or phosphorus is removed.
Acme "hrea - screw thread having a 8: degree included angel. ;sed largely for
feed and ad<usting screws on machine tools.
Activation - The changing of the passive surface of a metal to a chemically active
state. Contrast with passivation.
Act!al Weight - The customer buys by the actual (scale" weight of the steel. The
theoretical weight is used in estimating, however, it is not to be used for billing.
Ac!te Angle - n angle that is less than :4 degrees.
Aa'ters - $teel segments that are bolted to the reel mandrel to increase their
diameter so that large (8=> '." coils can be run.
Aa'ti (nvestment Casting $rocess - lost wax process employing one of three
methods; centrifugal, vacuum or gravity-pouring casting.
Aition Agent - *" ny material added to a charge of molten metal in bath or ladle
to bring alloy to specifications, 8" reagent added to plating bath.
Aen!m - That portion of a gear tooth that extends from the pitch circle to the
outside diameter.
Aeline Steelma%ing $rocess - /ethod of producing a precision casting of steel or
steel alloys using aluminolthermic process and lost wax, followed by centrifugal
action.
Aecm) Ae1) an Ae3 - 9-uilibrium transformation temperatures in steel.
Aeration - /a0ing contact between air and a li-uid by spraying li-uid into the air or
by agitating the li-uid to promote absorption of air. lso act of fluffing molding sand.
A*S "ests - number of standard tests determined by merican &oundrymen?s
$ociety to evaluate molding and core sands.
Age +arening - #ardening by aging, usually after rapid cooling or cold wor0ing.
The term as applied to soft, or low carbon steels, relates to a wide variety of
commercially important, slow, gradual changes that ta0e place in properties of steels
after the final treatment. These changes, which bring about a condition of increased
hardness, elastic limit, and tensile strength with a conse-uent loss in ductility, occur
during the period in which the steel is at normal temperatures.
Agglomerating $rocesses - >&ine particles of limestone (flux" and iron ore are
difficult to handle and transport because of dusting and decomposition, so the
powdery material usually is processed into larger pieces. The raw material?s
properties determine the techni-ue that is used by mills. *" $'1T9@ %a0ed particles
that stic0 together in roughly one-inch chun0s. 1ormally used for iron ore dust
collected from the blast furnaces. 8" 69AA9T$ 'ron ore or limestone particles are
rolled into little balls in a balling drum and hardened by heat. B" %@'C;9TT9$ $mall
lumps are formed by pressing material together. #ot 'ron %ri-uetting (#%'" is a
concentrated iron ore substitute for scrap for use in electric furnaces.
Aging - change in the properties of certain metal and alloys (such as steel" that
occurs at ambient or moderately elevated temperatures after a hot wor0ing heat
treatment or cold wor0ing operation. Typical properties impacted are hardness, yield
strength, tensile strength, ductility, impact value, formability, magnetic properties,
etc. $ee also 1on-aging.
Air *!rnace - @everbatory-type furnace in which metal is melted by heat from fuel
burning at one end of the hearth, passing over the bath toward the stac0 at the
other end. #eat also is reflected from the roof and side walls.
Air +arening Steel - steel containing sufficient carbon and other alloying
elements to harden fully during cooling in air or other gaseous mediums from a
temperature above its transformation range. $uch steels attain their martensitic
structure without going through the -uenching process. dditions of chromium,
nic0el, molybdenum and manganese are effective toward this end. The term should
be restricted to steels that are capable of being hardened by cooling in air in fairly
large sections, about 8 in. (D* mm" or more in diameter.
Air +eaters - %an0 of boiler tubes located in the exhaust gas ductwor0 which
preheats the incoming combustion air by transferring heat from the exhaust gases
passing through them to the incoming air passing around them. 6reheating the air
reduces boiler fuel re-uirements.
Aircra,t -!ality - .enotes stoc0 of sufficient -uality to be forged into highly
stressed parts for aircraft or other critical applications. $uch materials are of
extremely high -uality, re-uiring closely controlled, restrictive practices in their
manufacture in order that they may pass rigid re-uirements, such as magnetic
particle inspection (@efE erospace /aterial $pecification 8B4*".
Air-.i,t +ammer - type of gravity drop hammer where the ram is raised for each
stro0e by an air cylinder. %ecause length of stro0e can be controlled, ram velocity
and thus energy delivered to the wor0piece can be varied.
Air -!enching - ccelerated cooling of alloy in an air stream from temperatures
above the cB temperature.
Air Scale - $cale left on ferrous metal in processing, usually from heating in
presence of air.
Airblasting - cleaning operation, as cleaning sand from molds.
A(S( Steels - $teels of the merican 'ron and $teel 'nstitute. Common and alloy
steels have been numbered in a system essentially the same as the $9. The '$'
system is more elaborate than the $9 in that all numbers are preceded by lettersE
represents basic open-hearth alloy steel, % acid %essemer carbon steel, C basic
open-hearth carbon steel, C% either acid %essemer ar basic open-hearth carbon
steel, 9 electric furnace alloy steel.
Alcla - Composite sheet produced by bonding either corrosion-resistant aluminum
alloy or aluminum of high purity to base metal of structurally stronger aluminum
alloy. The coatings are anodic to the core so they protect exposed areas of the core
electrolytically during exposure to corrosive environment.
Align - To ad<ust or set to a line or center.
Al%aline /er!sting - n electrical process for derusting steel, cast iron and other
ferrous alloys without using heat.
Al%y - type of resin made from a polyhydroxy alcohol combined chemically with
the acids of various oils. They are particularly adapted for use where hardness and
high gloss are re-uired. ;sed largely for outside decoration.
Allotro'y - The property whereby certain elements may exist in more than one
crystal structure.
Allowance #"olerance& - 'n a foundry, the clearance specified; difference in
limiting sizes, as minimum clearance or maximum interference between mating
parts, as computed arithmetically.
Alloy - substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more
chemical elements of which at least one is metal. ;sually possesses -ualities
different from those of the components.
Alloy Steel - $teel with modified properties that is made by combining iron with one
or more elements in addition to carbon. lloys change the properties of the steel
ma0ing it, for example, harder, more formable, etc., depending on the combination
and amounts of alloys used. n iron-based mixture is considered to be an alloy steel
when manganese is greater than *.FDG, silicon over 4.DG, copper above 4.FG, or
other minimum -uantities of alloying elements such as chromium, nic0el,
molybdenum, or tungsten are present. n enormous variety of distinct properties
can be created for the steel by substituting these elements in the recipe.
Alloy S!rcharge - The addition to the producer?s selling price included in order to
offset raw material cost increases caused by higher alloy prices.
Alloying Element - ny metallic element added during the ma0ing of steel for the
purpose of increasing corrosion resistance, hardness, or strength. The metals used
most commonly as alloying elements in stainless steel include chromium, nic0el, and
molybdenum.
Al'ha Bron0e - copper-tin alloy consisting of the alpha solid solution of tin in
copper. Commercial forms contain = or DG of tin. This alloy is used in
coinage,springs,turbine,blades,etc,
Al'ha - ,errite - %ody-centered cubic type of pure iron stable below *F74& (:*4C".
Al'ha (ron - The polymorphic form of iron, stable below *F74 (degrees" &. has a
body centered cubic lattice, and is magnetic up to *=*4 (degrees" &.
Al'ha Martensite - form or stage of martensite of somewhat arbitrary distinction,
probably representing the least developed and most distorted stage in the
transformation of austenite to martensite at ordinary temperatures.
Al'ha $rocess - shell molding and core-ma0ing method in which a thin resin-
bonded shell is ba0ed with a less expensive, highly permeable material.
Alternating Stress - $tress produced in a material by forces acting alternating in
opposite directions.
Al!mina - luminum oxide produced fron bauxite by a complicated chemical
process. 't is a material that loo0s li0e granulated sugar. lumina is an intermediate
step in the production of aluminum from bauxite, and is also a valuable chemical on
its own.
Al!min!m - silver-white soft metal, noted for its lightness, high reflectivity, high
thermal conductivity, non-toxicity, and corrosion resistance. 't is the most abundant
metallic element, comprising about *,*8th of the earthHs crust. 't is never found in
nature as an elemental metal, but only in combination with oxygen and other
elements. 'n ordinary commercial and industrial use, the word (aluminum) is often
understood to mean aluminum alloy, rather than the pure metal.
Al!min!m o1ie - chemical compound of aluminum with oxygen, which forms
immediately on an unprotected surface exposed to air. ;nli0e iron oxide (the rust
that forms on steel" aluminum oxide does not fla0e off, but forms a protective layer
that bloc0s further oxidation and so protects the integrity of the metal. 't is
transparent and does not alter the appearance of the aluminum surface.
Al!min!m 2ille Steel - ($pecial Iilled" $teel deoxidized with aluminum in order to
reduce the oxygen content to a minimum so that no reaction occurs between carbon
and oxygen during solidification.
Ambient "em'erat!re - Temperature of the surrounding air.
American (ron an Steel (nstit!te #A(S(& - non-profit association of 1orth
merican producers, suppliers to and users of steel. 'ts mission is to promote steel
as the material of choice and to enchance the competetiveness of its members and
the 1orth merican $teel 'ndustry.
American Stanar Beam - Common name for a $-shape steel beam.
Ames $ortable +arness "ester - The @oc0well penetration method of testing
hardness of metals can be made with this tester by applying pressure to the
penetrator by screw action.
Amor'ho!s - 1on-crystalline.
Angle - $tructural steel resembling A. /ay be 9-ual Aeg ngle or ;ne-ual Aeg ngle.
;sed in trusses and built-up girders.
Angle (ron - n iron or steel structural member that has been cast,rolled or bent
(folded" so that its cross section is l-shaped.
Angle $late - precision holding fisture made of cast iron,steel or granite. The two
principal faces are at right angles and may be slotted for holding the wor0 or
clamping to a table.
Anneal - To heat a metal to a temperature slightly below its melting point, then cool
it gradually so as to soften it thoroughly. &ully annealed aluminum is said to be in the
(5) temper.
Anneal Cycle Coe - $teel heat specification uni-ue to the annealing base being
charged.
Annealing - >3#T heat or thermal treatment process by which a previously cold-
rolled steel coil is made more suitable for forming and bending. The steel sheet is
heated to a designated temperature for a sufficient amount of time and then cooled.
3#J The bonds between the grains of the metal are stretched when a coil is cold
rolled, leaving the steel brittle and brea0able. nnealing >>recrystallizes>> the grain
structure of steel by allowing for new bonds to be formed at the high temperature.
#53 There are two ways to anneal cold-rolled steel coils .*batch and continuous.
(*" %TC# (%5K". Three to four coils are stac0ed on top of each other, and a cover is
placed on top. &or up to three days, the steel is heated in a non-oxygen atmosphere
(so it will not rust" and slowly cooled. (8" C51T'1;5;$. 1ormally part of a coating
line, the steel is uncoiled and run through a series of vertical loops within a heaterE
The temperature and cooling rates are controlled to obtain the desired mechanical
properties for the steel.>
Arbor $ress -
Ann!l!s - ring-li0e part or, the orifice of a hollow die, through which extruded
metal flows from the press.
Anoes - Tin bars that are put in the plater cells and are important to the
Anoi0e #An $ainte& Al!min!m - luminum coated with a thin film of oxide
(applied by anodic treatment" resulting in a surface with extreme hardness. wide
variety of dye-colored coatings are made possible by impregnation in the anodizing
process.
Anoi0ing - &orming or thic0ening an oxide coating on aluminum by immersing it in
an eletrolyte bath and passing a current through the bath, using the aluminum as
the anode. The process may be used to increase the protective effect of aluminumHs
transparent natural oxide surface; it may also be given a decorative coloration.
plating process in the Tin /ill.
A3S( - $tands for merican 1ational $tandards 'nstitute
Antimony - Chemical symbol $b. $ilvery white and lusteous, it exhibits poor heat
and electrical conductivity. 't is used primarily in compunds such as anitmony
trioxide for flame-retardents. 5theer applications include storage battery
components.
Anticarb!ri0ing Com'o!ns - Compounds applied to metallic surfaces to prevent
surface carbonization.
Anvil - heavy iron or steel bloc0 upon which metal is forged or hammered. lso
the fixed <aw on a micrometer against which parts are measured.
A4/ - rgon 5xygen .ecarburization
A$( - merican petroleum institute-issues stamdards for oil industry
A'ert!re - 'n an extrusion die, the shaped opening through which the heat-softened
metal is forced and which gives the extruded product its cross-sectional shape. lso
called the (orifice).
A''arent Contraction - The net contraction of a casting dimension due to true
metal contraction, mold wall movement and restraint during solidification and
cooling.
A'ron - .evice that the molten slag flows across on its way from the spout to the
doughnut. 't is cooled by water spray.
Arbor - shaft or spindle for holding cutting tools; most usually on a milling
machine.
Arbor $ress - 1;AA
Arc C!tting - ;sing an electric arc to cut metal.
Arc *!rnace - steel melting furnace in which heat is generated by an arc between
graphite electrodes and the metal. %oth carbon and alloy steels are produced in
electric arc furnaces and scrap,rather than molten metal,is used as the base
material. &urnaces with capacities up to 844 tonnes are now in use.
Arcair "orch - n electric arc torch with air ducts running parallel to the electrode,
used to remove metal and surface defects from ferrous castings.
Architect!ral ,inish - n architectural finish is a standard finish characterized by a
uniformly good appearance. This finish is most often specified for (exposed)
surfaces.
Argon-41ygen /ecarb!ri0ation #A4/& - >3#T process for further refinement
of stainless steel through reduction of carbon content. 3#J The amount of carbon in
stainless steel must be lower than that in carbon steel or lower alloy steel (i.e., steel
with alloying element content below DG". 3hile electric arc furnaces (9&" are the
conventional means of melting and refining stainless steel, 5. is an economical
supplement, as operating time is shorter and temperatures are lower than in 9&
steelma0ing. dditionally, using 5. for refining stainless steel increases the
availability of the 9& for melting purposes. #53 /olten, unrefined steel is
transferred from the 9& into a separate vessel. mixture of argon and oxygen is
blown from the bottom of the vessel through the melted steel. Cleaning agents are
added to the vessel along with these gases to eliminate impurities, while the oxygen
combines with carbon in the unrefined steel to reduce the carbon level. The presence
of argon enhances the affinity of carbon for oxygen and thus facilitates the removal
of carbon. >
Arnol5s *atig!e "est - test for fractures using +D4 cyclic stress reverses per
min., recording the number of cycles re-uired to produce fracture. 1amed after Lohn
rnold, %ritish /etallurgist"
As Cast #as-cast) !.m.& - @eferring to metal which has not received finishing
(beyond gate removal or sandblasting" or treatment of any 0ind including heat
treatment after casting. $imilarly, as drawn, as forged and as rolled. ($ee &inishing"
AS/ - luminum $tandards and .ata published by the luminum ssociation.
Ash Bo1 - %ric0 lined collection point for slag and ash.
Ash "an% - #olding tan0 for ashes. The tan0 is located outside the boiler house. The
ashes are dumped once or twice a wee0, depending on the ash accumulation.
As%ania - *." strip-centering device consisting of two electric eyes to ensure that
the strip will stay centered during re-coiling. 8" .evice with an electronic eye which
is associated with trac0ing of strip going through the side trimmers.
Assembly - unit of fitted parts that na<e yo a mechanism or machine, such as the
headstoc0 assemble of a lathe.
Assembly ,it - @efers to two parts designed for mating assembly and re-uiring
exact dimensions and contours to assure a proper fit.
AS"M - merican $tandard of Testing and /aterials. non-profit organization that
parovides a forum for producers,users,ultinmate consumers, and those having a
general interest (representatives of government and academia" to meet on common
ground and write standards for materials,products,systems and services.
AS"M Stanars - series of documents, approved and published by $T/, that
include specifications or re-uirements, practices, guides, test methods, etc., covering
various materials, products, systems or services. 'n the steel industry, the steel
related $T/ standards are used by both the producers and users to ensure that a
steel product or service meets all intended re-uirements. $ee merican $ociety for
Testing and /aterials.
A63A) A63B) A63*) A178 - $T/ grades of carbon steel pipe.
A"BC - cetyl Tributyl Citrate.
Atmos'here) *!rnace - !ases with which metal is in contact during melting or heat
treating.
Atmos'here) 3e!tral - &urnace atmosphere which is neither oxidizing nor reducing
can be made up of an inert gas e.g. argon, or the products of combustion.
Atmos'here) 41ii0ing - &urnace atmosphere which gives off oxygen under certain
conditions or where there is an excess of oxygen in the product of combustion, or the
products of combustion are oxidizing to the metal being heated.
Atmos'here) Re!cing - &urnace atmosphere which absorbs oxygen under suitable
conditions or in which there is insufficient air to completely burn the fuel, or the
product of combustion is reducing to the metal being heated.
Atmos'here 9alve - valve that is located in the exhaust line of a turbine and is
designed to open and get a positive pressure in the exhaust line.
Atomic-+yrogen Wel) - rc welding with heat from an arc between two tungsten
or other suitable electrodes in a hydrogen atmosphere. The use of pressure and filler
metal is optional.
Atomi0ing Steam - Aow pressure steam which is introduced to the oil gun to help
atomize the oil, to assist the burning process, and to 0eep the oil gun from plugging.
Attem'erator - #eader connecting the primary and finishing superheaters into
which feed water is sprayed to control the final temperature of the steam leaving the
boiler.
Attrition - natural redcution in wor0 force as a result of resignations, retirements
or death. /ost unionized companies cannot unilaterally reduce their employment
levels to cut costs, so management must rely on attrition to provide openings that
they, in turn, do not fill. %ecause the median ages of wor0 forces at the integrated
mills may be more than D4, an increasing number of retirments may provide these
companies with added flexibility to improve their competitiveness.
A!stenite - 6hase in certain steels, characterized as a solid solution, usually of
carbon or iron carbide, in the hamma form of iron. $uch steels are 0nown as
austenitic. ustenite is stable only above *BBB (degrees" &. in a plain carbon steel,
but the presence of certain alloying elements, such as nic0el and manganese,
stabilizes the austenitec form, even at normal temperatures.
A!stenite Steel - ny steel containing sufficient alloy to produce a stable austenitic
(gamma iron" crystalline structure at ambient temperatures.
A!stenitic - $teel which, because of the presence of alloying elements, such as
manganese,nic0el,chromium,etc., shows stability of ustenite at normal
temperatures
A!to Stam'ing $lant - facility that presses a steel blan0 into the desired form of
a car door or hood, for example, with a powerful die (pattern". The steel used must
be ductile (malleable" enough to bend into shape without brea0ing.
A!tomatic - .escribes the status of the operation when the 58 pulpit has control
and the boiler logic has control.
A!tomatic Ga!ge Control - ;sing hydraulic roll force systems, steelma0ers have
the ability to control precisely their steel sheet?s gauge (thic0ness" while it is
traveling at more than D4 miles per hour through the cold mill. ;sing feedbac0 or
feed-forward systems, a computer?s gap sensor ad<usts the distance between the
reduction rolls of the mill D4-F4 times per second. These ad<ustments prevent the
processing of any off-gauge steel sheet.
A!tomatic Sto' - device which may be attached to any of several parts of a
machine tool to stop the operation of the machine at any predetermined point.
A!toraiogra'h - radiograph recorded photgraphically by radiation spontaneously
emitted by radioisotopes that are produced in or added to the material. This
techni-ue identifies the location of the radioisotopes.
A!1iliary Air - controller for auxiliary air dampers on boilers. &or proper
combustion on oil fire.
A!1iliary +yra!lic System - #ydraulic system that supplies the force to run the
various hydraulic cylinders associated with the finishing mill which are not ta0en care
of by the .!.C. or C.M.C hydraulic system.
A!1iliary 4il $!m' - steam or electric pump that maintains oil pressure on the
controls and the bearings of a turbo blower when it is not up to maximum speed.
A!1illiary 4'erations - dditional processing steps performed on forgings to obtain
properties, such as surface conditions or shapes, not obtained in the regular
processing operation.
A!1iliary $!m' - 6ump on the auxiliary system which supplies the pressure for the
system.
AW-177 - The hydraulic oil used in all the hydraulic systems located in the finishing
mill oil cellar and the furnace hydraulic system.
AWG #American Wire Ga!ge& - system of conventional designations of standard
wire diameters. &or example, (*4 gauge) denotes wire of 4.*BD-inch diameter. 'n the
3! system, higher numbers designate smaller diameters and lower numbers
designate larger diameters.
A1il Rolls - 'n ring rolling, vertically displaceable frame opposite from but on the
same centerline as the main roll and rolling mandrel. The axial rolls control the ring
height during the rolling process.
A1is - The line,real or imaginery,passing through the center of an ob<ect about
which it could rotate; a point of reference.
Abrasion - The process of rubbing, grinding, or wearing away by friction.
Abrasive - substance capable of grinding away another material.
Aci Steel - $teel melted in a furnace with an acid bottom and lining and under a
slag containing an excess of an acid substance such as silica.
Aci-Brittleness - %rittleness resulting from pic0ling steel in acid; hydrogen,
formed by the interaction between iron and acid, is partially absorbed by the metal,
causing acid brittleness.
Aci-$rocess - process of ma0ing steel, either %essemer, open-hearth or electric,
in which the furnace is lined with a siliceous refractory and for which low phosphorus
pig iron is re-uired as this element is not removed.
Aging - change in properties that occurs at ambient or moderately elevated
temperatures after hot wor0ing or a heat treating operation (-uench aging in ferrous
alloys", or after a cold wor0ing operation (strain aging". The change in properties is
often, but not always, due to a phase change (precipitation", but does not involve a
change in chemical composition. 'n a metal or alloy, a change in properties that
generally occurs slowly at room temperature and more rapidly at higher
temperatures.
Air Cooling - Cooling of the heated metal, intermediate in rapidity between slow
furnace cooling and -uenching, in which the metal is permitted to stand in the open
air.
Air-+arening Steel - steel containing sufficient carbon and other alloying
elements to harden fully during cooling in air or other gaseous mediums from a
temperature above its transformation range. $uch steels attain their martensitic
structure without going through the -uenching process. dditions of chromium,
nic0el, molybdenum and manganese are effective toward this end. The term should
be restricted to steels that are capable of being hardened by cooling in air in fairly
large sections, about 8 in. or more in diameter.
Allotriomor'h - particle of a phase that has no regular external shape.
Alloy - substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more
chemical elements of which at least one is a metal.
Alloy Steel - $teel containing substantial -uantities of elements other than carbon
and the commonly-accepted limited amounts of manganese, sulfur, silicon, and
phosphorus. ddition of such alloying elements is usually for the purpose of
increased hardness, strength or chemical resistance. The metals most commonly
used for forming alloy steels areE nic0el, chromium, silicon, manganese tungsten,
molybdenum and vanadium, Aow lloy steels are usually considered to be those
containing a total of less than DG of such added constituents.
Alloying Element - n element added to a metal, and remaining in the metal, that
effects changes in structure and properties.
Al'ha Brass - copper-zinc alloy containing up to B+G of zinc. ;sed mainly for cold
wor0ing.
Al'ha Bron0e - copper-tin alloy consisting of the alpha solid solution of tin in
copper. Commercial forms contain = or DG of tin. This alloy is used in coinage,
springs, turbine, blades, etc.
Al!mini0ing - &orming an aluminum or aluminum alloy coating on a metal by hot
dipping, hot spraying, or diffusion.
Al!min!m #Chemical symbol Al& - 9lement 1o. *B of the periodic system; tomic
weight 8F.:7; silvery white metal of valence B; melting point *884 (degrees" &;
boiling point approximately =**+ (degrees" &.; ductile and malleable; stable against
normal atmospheric corrosion, but attac0ed by both acids and al0alis. luminum is
used extensively in articles re-uiring lightness, corrosion resistance, electrical
conductivity, etc. 'ts principal functions as an alloy in steel ma0ing; (*" .eoxidizes
efficiently. (8" @estricts grain growth (by forming dispersed oxides or nitrides" (B"
lloying element in nitriding steel.
Al!min!m 2ille Steel - steel where aluminum has been used as a deoxidizing
agent.
Angstrom :nit - (" unit of linear measure e-ual to *4(-*4"m, or 4.* nm; not an
accepted $i unit, but still sometimes used for small distances such as interatomic
distances and some wavelengths.
Anisotro'y - The characteristics of exhibiting different values of a property in
different directions with respect to a fixed reference system in the material.
Annealing - #eating to and holding at a suitable temperature and then cooling at a
suitable rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machinability,
facilitating cold wor0ing, producing a desired microstructure, or obtaining desired
mechanical, physical, or other properties. 3hen applicable, the following more
specific terms should be usedE blac0 annealing, blue annealing, box annealing, bright
annealing, flame annealing, graphitizing, intermediate annealing, isothermal
annealing, malleablizing, process annealing, -uench annealing, recrystallization
annealing, and spheroidizing. 3hen applied to ferrous alloys, the term annealing,
without -ualification, implies full annealing. 3hen applied to nonferrous alloys, the
term annealing implies a heat treatment designed to soften an age-hardened alloy
by causing a nearly complete precipitation of the second phase in relatively coarse
form. ny process of annealing will usually reduce stresses, but if the treatment is
applied for the sole purpose of such relief, it should be designated stress relieving.
Annealing "win - twin formed in a metal during an annealing heat treatment.
Anoi0ing #Al!min!m A ic 41ie Coating& - process of coating aluminum by
anodic treatment resulting in a thin film of aluminum oxide of extreme hardness.
wide variety of dye colored coatings are possible by impregnation in process.
Arc Weling - group of welding processes wherein the metal or metals being
<oined are coalesced by heating with an arc, with or without the application of
pressure and with or without the use of filler metal.
Arti,act - 'n microscopy, a false structure introduced during preparation of a
specimen.
Arti,icial Aging - n aging treatment above room temperature.
AS"M - bbreviation for merican $ociety &or Testing /aterial. n organization for
issuing standard specifications on materials, including metals and alloys.
Atomic-+yrogen Wel - rc welding with heat from an arc between two tungsten
or other suitable electrodes in a hydrogen atmosphere. The use of pressure and filler
metal is optional.
Atten!ation - The fractional decrease of the intensity of an energy flux, including
the reduction of intensity resulting from geometrical spreading, absorption, and
scattering.
A!senitic Grain Si0e - The size of the grains in steel heated into the austenitic
region.
A!stem'ering - Cuenching a ferrous alloy from a temperature above the
transformation range, in a medium having a rate of heat abstraction high enough to
prevent the formation of high-temperature transformation products, and then
holding the alloy, until transformation is complete, at a temperature below that of
pearlite formation and above that of martensite formation.
A!stenitic Steel - $teel which, because of the presence of alloying elements, such
as manganese, nic0el, chromium, etc., shows stability of ustenite at normal
temperatures.
A!steniti0ing - &orming austenite by heating a ferrous alloy into the transformation
range (partial austenitizing" or above the transformation range (complete
austenitizing".
A!stentite - solid solution of one or more elements in face-centered cubic iron.
A!to,rettage - 6re-stressing a hollow metal cylinder by the use of momentary
internal pressure exceeding the yield strength.
A!toraiogra'h - radiograph recorded photographically by radiation
spontaneously emitted by radioisotopes that are produced in, or added to, the
material. This techni-ue identifies the locations of the radioisotopes.
B Elevation - The bottom level of the boiler firebox where two oil guns are located.
The oil guns are used if the boiler needs extra steam while on oil fire.
BA - %atch nneal
Babbitt - n antifriction metal alloy used for bearing inserts;made of
tin,antimony,lead and copper.
Bac% /ra,t - @everse taper which would prevent removal of a pattern from a mold
or a core from a corebox.
Bac% En - *" ;sually refers to the entry end of process lines. 8" The outside lap 8"
of the produced coil, or the inside lap of the consumed coil.
Bac% Gears - !ears fitted to a machine to increase the number of spindle speeds
obtainable with a cone or step pulley belt drive.
Bac% Ra%e - The angular surface ground bac0 from the cutting edge of cutting tools.
5n lathe cutting tools. The ra0e is positive if the face slopws down from the cutting
edge toward the shan0, and negative if the face sloopes upward toward the shan0.
Bac%lash - The lost motion or looseness (play" between the faces of meshing gears
or threads.
Bac%-!' Balance - Cylinders that supply the force used to hold the bac0-up rolls up
in place.
Bac%-!' Roll - *" @oll used as a support roll mainly for plater rolls. 8" Two rolls, one
on top and one on bottom of the two wor0 rolls which apply pressure and reduce the
flexing of the wor0 rolls.
Bac%er #bac%-!' 'late& - (tool) or reinforcing part, which presses against the
outer surface of an extrusion die, supporting it against the pressure of the extruding
metal. The bac0er has an opening larger than the die aperture, allowing the extruded
product to emerge without marring its soft surface.
Bac%ing Boar #Bac%ing $late& - second bottom board on which molds are
opened.
Bac%ing San - The bul0 of the sand in the flas0. The sand compacted on top of the
facing sand that covers the pattern.
Bac%o,, - @emoval of part of coil from entry end of unit; may be necessitated by a
defect in coil or by a wrec0 in the mill, etc. %ac0off weight is the part of the coil that
is removed and not finished,produced.
Bac%war E1tr!sion - &orcing metal to flow in a direction opposite to the motion of
a punch or die.
Bac%waration - /ar0et condition where the spot, or current price for a metal is
higher than the three-month delivery price. This usually indicates immediate demand
is perceived to be stronger than long-term demand. 1ot considered to be a >normal>
mar0et state ($ee Contango".
Bainite - eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and a fine dispersion of
carbide, generally formed at temperatures below +=4 to :B4 & (=D4 to D44 C"E upper
bainite is an aggregate containing parallel lath-shape units of ferrite, produces the
so-called feathery appearance in optical microscopy, and is formed at temperatures
above about FF4 & (BD4 C"; lower bainite consists of individual plate-shape units and
is formed at temperatures below about FF4 & (BD4 C". lso, a slender, needle-li0e
(acicular" microstructure appearing in spring steel strip characterized by toughness
and greater ductility than tempered /artensite. %ainite is a decomposition product of
ustenite best developed at interrupted holding temperatures below those forming
fine pearlite and above those giving /artensite.
Ba%e - #eat in an oven to a low controlled temperature to remove gases or to
harden a binder.
Ba%e +arenable Steel - cold-rolled, low-carbon sheet steel used for automotive
body panel applications. %ecause of the steelHs special processing, it has good
stamping and strength characteristics and after paint is ba0ed on, improved dent
resistance.
Ba%e Core - core which has been heated through sufficient time and
temperature to produce the desired physical properties attainable from its oxidizing
or thermal-setting binders.
Ba%e Strength - Compressive, shear, tensile or transverse strength of a mold
sand mixture when ba0ed at a temperature above 8B* %4& (*** %4C" and then
cooled to room temperature.
Balance Steel - $teels in which the deoxidisation is controlled to produce an
intermediate structure between a rimmed and 0illed steel, $ometimes referred to as
semi-0illed steels, they possess uniform properties throughout the ingot and
amongst their applications are boiler plate and structural sections.
Ball B!rnishing - method of obtaining a high luster on small parts by rotating
them in a wooden-lined barrel with water, burnishing soap, and stainless steel shot.
Baller Stic% - 5ctagon-shaped wooden stic0 approximately D? long. This stic0 is used
in the baller area, to change burr mashers, to start a coil with a large '., etc.
Balling /r!m - rotating drum that is used for adding moisture to the sinter mix in
the %last &urnace. lso, it enhances a balling action where the smaller sized
materials adhere to larger materials.
Ban - @efers to metal strap $ignode band that is one half inch wide. This band is
used to thread and pull the strip through the line.
Ban /is'enser - .evice that holds that roll of steel banding.
Ban Saw Steel #Woo& - hardened tempered bright polished high carbon cold
rolled spring steel strip produced especially for use in the manufacture of band saws
for sawing wood, non ferrous metals, and plastics. ;sually carries some nic0el and
with a @oc0well value of approximately C=4,=D.
Ban Wareroom - storage area in $trip $teel used for storing hot bands (coil
made from slab".
Ban) (nsie - loose steel frame placed inside a removable flas0 to reinforce the
sand at the parting line after the flas0 has been removed.
Baner - /achine located at each delivery reel to automatically place circumference
bands around completed coils.
Baning "ool - Tool used to tighten a steel band around a coil.
Bansaw - power saw, the blade of which is a continuous,narrow,steel band
having teeth on one edge and passing over two large pulley wheels.
Bar - Aong steel products that are rolled from billets. /erchant bar and reinforcing
bar (rebar" are two common categories of bars, where merchants include rounds,
flats, angles, s-uares, and channels that are used by fabricators to manufacture a
wide variety of products such as furniture, stair railings, and farm e-uipment. @ebar
is used to strengthen concrete in highways, bridges and buildings (see $heet $teel".
Bar) *las% - rib in the cope of a tight flas0 to help support the sand.
Bare S'ot - location on the strip where coating did not adhere.
Bar% - $urface of metal, under the oxide-scale layer, resulting from heating in an
oxidizing environment. 'n the case of steel, such bar0 always suffers from
decarburization.
Bars - relatively long straight, rigid piece pf metal; long steel products rolled from
billets into such shapes as s-uares,rectangles, rounds,angles,channels,hexagons,and
tees. 'n steel, (merchant bars) include rounds,flats,angles,s-uares,and channels that
are used by fabricators to manufacture a wide variety of products such as
furniture,stair railings and farm e-uipment. Concrete reinforcing bar (rebar" is used
to strengthen concrete in highways,bridges and buildings.
Base - The steel or concrete pedestal on which the coils are stac0ed during the batch
annealing process.
Base Bo1 - ;nit of area of **8 sheets of tin mil products (tin plate, tin free steel or
blac0 plate" *= by 84 inches, or B*,BF4 s-uare inches. Tin 6late is sold, and carried
in finished inventory, on a weight per unit area rather than on a thic0ness basis.
Base Metal - (*" The metal present in the largest proportion in an alloy; (8" the
metal to be brazed, cut or welded; (B" after welding the part of the metal that was
not melted during the process.
Base Metal Contamination - .irt or other impurities in the steel strip.
Base $late - plate to which the pattern assemblies are attached and to which a
flas0 is subse-uently attached to form the mold container.
Base "y'e - Tin /ill term; Thic0ness divided by .444**. lso weight in pounds of
one %ase %ox of Tin plate. 'n finished inventory base weight is specified instead of
decimal thic0ness.
Basic 41ygen *!rnace #B4*& - >3#T pear-shaped furnace, lined with
refractory bric0s, that refines molten iron from the blast furnace and scrap into steel.
;p to B4G of the charge into the %5& can be scrap, with hot metal accounting for
the rest. 3#J %5&s, which can refine a heat (batch" of steel in less than =D minutes,
replaced open-hearth furnaces in the *:D4s; the latter re-uired five to six hours to
process the metal. The %5&?s rapid operation, lower cost and ease of control give it a
distinct advantage over previous methods. #53 $crap is dumped into the furnace
vessel, followed by the hot metal from the blast furnace. lance is lowered from
above, through which blows a high-pressure stream of oxygen to cause chemical
reactions that separate impurities as fumes or slag. 5nce refined, the li-uid steel and
slag are poured into separate containers. >
Basic 41ygen $rocess - (%56" process in which molten steel is produced in a
furnace by blowing oxygen into molten iron, scrap and flux materials. The furnace is
0nown as %asic 5xygen &urnace (%5&".
Bas%et Screen - first stage in-line water filter for water delivered from the 1ew
%lowing @oom 6ump @oom to the %last &urnace. The strainer contains an electric-
driven rotary sieve that catches particulates and prevents them from entering the
water system.
Bastar - Threads,parts,tools and sizes that are not standard, such as, (%astard
1uts), (%astard 6lus), (bastaard fittings and so forth. The term also refers to a
standard coarse cut file.
Batch - mount or -uantity of core or mold sand or other material prepared at one
time.
Batch Anneal - The process by which a large, stationary stac0 of steel coils (= coils
high" is sub<ected to a long heat-treating cycle. This process enables the cold-rolled
sheet to fully recrystallize into the softest possible product conforming to customer
specifications. Controlling the recrystallization process ma0es a fine-grained
microstructure easy to obtain, and minimizes the tendencies for retention of
directional properties of the rolled steel which could produce undesirable shapes in
the stamping of a cylindrical part such as a can. lso see nneal and Continuous
nneal.
Batch 4ven - 5ven use to ba0e a number of cores at one time.
Bath - /olten metal on the hearth of a furnace, in a crucible, or in a ladle.
Batten - wooden bar or strip fastened to bottom or follow board for rigidity or to
prevent distortion during ramming of the mold.
Ba0oo%a - 6erforms functions of !alvanneal &urnace; set of torches on wheels used
to shoot flames onto a strip to further heat it.
BE - Chemical symbol for %eryllium
Bea - *"#alf-round cavity in a mold, or half-round pro<ection or molding on a
casting, 8" a single deposit of weld metal produced by fusion.
Beam - The principal horizontal load-bearing member of a structure.
Beam an Sling - Tac0le used in con<unction with a crane for turning over the cope
or drag of a mold prior to assembly.
Bearing - @ollers and balls placed between moving parts to reduce friction and
wear.-
Bearing Strength - The maximum bearing load at failure divided by the effective
bearing area. 'n a pinned or riveted <oint, the iffective area is calculated as the
product of the diameter of the hole and the thic0ness of the bearing member.
Be - 5ne of the principal parts of a machine tool having accurately machined ways
or bearing surfaces for supporting and aligning other parts of the machine.
$tationary platen of a press to which the lower die assembly is attached.
Be-(n - /ethod whereby drag may be rammed in the pit or flas0 without necessity
of rolling over. 6rocess used in production of heavy castings.
Being - $in0ing a pattern down into the sand to the desired position and ramming
the sand around it.
Being a Core - @esting an irregularly shaped core on a bed of sand for drying.
Bell Mo!th - The flaring or tapering of a machined hole, usually made at the
entrance end because of misalignment or spring of the cutting tool.
Belly Roll - @oll used on the line to steady plate.
Belt Wra''er - Aine e-uipment used in the Tin /ill for starting coils on prime or
re<ect reels. The belt wrapper ensures a proper start.
Bench Rammer - short rammer used by bench molders.
Bench-Blower - small core-blowing machine, utilizing a removable sand magazine
and blow heat.
Bench Griner - small grinding machine for shaping and sharpening the cutting
edges of tools.
Bench .athe - small lathe mounted on a bench or table.
Bench Wor% - 3or0 done primarily at a bench with hand tools. 5ccasionlly
suplemented by small power-driven tools.
Ben "est - Marious tests which is used to ascertain the toughness and ductility of a
metal product, in which the material is bent around its axis and, or around an
outside radius. complete test might specify such a bend to be both with and
against the direction of grain. &or testing, samples should be edge filed to remove
burrs and any edgewise crac0s resulting from slitting or shearing. 'f a vice is to be
employed, then you must line the <aws with some soft metal, to permit a flow of the
metal in the piece being tested.
Bening - preliminary forging operation to give the piece approximately the
correct shape for subse-uent forming.
Bening Angle - ?M-shaped? piece of angle iron attached to the rear of the coil car
in the $trip $teel, which is used to help the operator put bends into the front end of
a coil.
Bening Strength - ;pper limit of normal stress of a beam at which fracture or
excessive plastic deformation occurs.
Bentonite - colloidal clay derived from volcanic ash and employed as a binder in
connection with synthetic sands, or added to ordinary natural (clay-bonded" sands
where extra strength is re-uired.
Berylli!m Co''er - n alloy of copper and 8-BG beryllium with optionally fractional
percentages of nic0el or cobalt. lloys of this series show remar0able age-hardening
properties and an ultimate hardness of about =44 %rinell (@oc0well C=B". %ecause of
such hardness and good electrical conductivity, beryllium-copper is used in electrical
switches, springs, etc.
Bevel - ngle formed between the prepared edge of the end of tube and a plane
perpendicular to the surface. $tandard pipe bevel is B4 degrees.
B+3 - %rinell #ardness 1umber
B( - Chemical symbol for %ismuth
Bi-Coil - lso %J-C5'A. Tin /ill term. Customers buy >by coil> or >bi-coil> rather than
cut sheets.
Bi,l!orie *eeer - machine in the Tin /ill that automatically puts bifluoride into
the plater bath.
Big Winch - The tool used to spot (or position" the rail cars for unloading. 't is
located on the north end of the unloading area.
Billet - (*" semi-finished section hot rolled from a metal ingot, with a rectangular
cross section usually ranging from *F to BF in., the width being less than twice the
thic0ness. 3here the cross section exceeds BF in., the term (bloom) is properly but
not universally used. $izes smaller than *F in. are usually termed (bars); a solid
semi-finished round or s-uare product which has been hot wor0ed by forging, rolling,
or extrusion. (8" semi-finished, cogged, hot rolled or continuous-cast metal
product of uniform section, usually rectangular with radiused corners. %illets are
relatively larger than bars.
Billet container - The part of the extrusion press into which the billet to be
extruded is placed.
Bimetal - Casting, usually centrifugal, made of two different metals, fused together.
Biner - The bonding agent used as an additie to mold or core sand to impart
strength of plasticity in a dry state.
Bism!th - Chemical symbol %i. soft, course cystalline heavy metal with a silvery
white color and pin0ish tinge; usually produced as a by-product of copper,leaad and
other metals. #as a thermal conductivity lower than all other metals except mercury.
;sed as alloying agent but leading use is in pharmaceuticals.
Bit) "ool #c!tter& - hardened steel bar or plate that is shaped accordidng to the
operation to be performed and the material to be machined.
Blac% $i'e /enotes lac;!ere 4/ ,inish #as o''ose to bare or galvani0e& -
Blac% (ron - ;ncoated steel product.
Blac% 4il "em'ere S'ring Steel Stri' #Scaleless Bl!e& - flat cold rolled
usually .74,.+4 medium high carbon steel strip, blue-blac0 in color, which has been
-uenched in oil and drawn to desired hardness. 3hile it loo0s and acts much li0e
blue tempered spring steel and carries a @oc0well hardness of C==,=7, it has not
been polished and is lower in carbon content. ;sed for less exacting re-uirements
than cloc0 spring steel, such as snaps, loc0 springs, hold down springs, trap springs,
etc. 't will ta0e a more severe bend before fracture than will cloc0 spring, but it does
not have the same degree of spring-bac0.
Blac% $late - light weight or a thin uncoated steel sheet or strip so called because
of its dar0 oxide coloring prior to pic0ling. 't is manufactured by two different
processes. (*" &orm sheet bar on single stand sheet mills or sheet mills in tandem.
This method is now almost obsolete. (8" 5n modern, high speed continuous tandem
cold reduction mills from coiled hot rolled pic0led wide strip into ribbon wound coils
to finished gage. $izes range from *8 to B8 in width, and in thic0nesses from DD lbs.
to 87D lbs. base box weight. 't is used either as is for stampings, or may be
enameled or painted or tin or terne coated.
Blac% $i'e /enotes lac;!ere 4/ ,inish #as o''ose to bare or galvani0e& -
1;AA
Blac%ening Scab - form of casting defect related to an improper coating rather
than to the sand.
Blac%ing +ole - 'rregular-shaped surface cavities in a casting containing
carbonaceous matter. Caused by spilling off of the blac0ing from the mold surface.
Blan% - $olid metal dis0 or plate inserted into a line to prevent the flow of gases or
li-uids through the line.
Blan% - piece of stoc0 (also call a (slug) or (multiple)" from which a forging is to
be made.
Blan%ing - n early step in preparing flat-rolled steel for use by an end user.
blan0 is a section of sheet that has the same outer dimensions as a specified part
(such as a car door or hood" but that has not yet been stamped. $teel processors
may offer blan0ing for their customers to reduce their labor and transportation costs;
excess steel can be trimmed prior to shipment.
Blast Cleaning #blasting& - process for cleaning or finishing metal ob<ects by use
of an air <et or centrifugal wheel that propels abrasive particles (grit, sand, or shot"
against the surfaces of the wor0piece at high velocity.
Blast *!rnace - *" furnace in which solid fuel (limestone, co0e, iron ore" is
combined with high-pressure, hot air blast (*84,444 psi" to smelt ore in a continuous
process (They are never stopped. They can be slowed down or idled". %last
&urnace in the iron and steel industry is used to produce li-uid iron.
Blast *!rnace Gas - %y-product gas created by the iron ma0ing process which is
used as fuel for the boilers.
Blasting #Blast Cleaning& - process for cleaning or finishing metal ob<ects by use
of an air blast or centrifugal wheel that throws abrasive particles against the surface
of the wor0 pieces. $mall, irregular particles of steel or iron are used as the abrasive
in grit blasting, and steel or iron balls in shot blasting.
Bleeer - defect wherein a casting lac0s completeness due to moltn metal
draining or lea0ing out of some part of the mold cavity after pouraing has stopped.
Blin Bole - hole made in a wor0piece that does not pass through it.
Blister - *" Coating defect consisting of the formation of bubbles in a coating, which
appear as hemispherical elevations. The blisters are hollow, and are usually caused
by entrapped air or solvent. 8" raised spot on the surface on the surface of metal
due to expansion of gas which causes a subsurface metal separation such as
inclusions and small laminations.
Blister Steel - #igh-carbon steel produced by carburizing wrought iron. The bar,
originally smooth, is covered with small blisters when removed from the cementation
(carburizing" furnace.
Bloc% - The forging operation in which metal is progressively formed to general
desired shape and contour by means an impression die (used when only one bloc0
operation is scheduled".
Bloc%) <o - $hop name for a Lohnnson gage bloc0, a very accurate measuring
device.
Bloc% 4,, - *" 3ooden separators which are used at both the bottom of a lift and
between '6/?s (bundles" of a lift. 8" The act of placing =x=s between the lifts in the
piler?s box.
Bloc%ing - coating defect consisting of the adhesion of two ad<oining coatings or
materials. ;sually this term refers to the coating on one side of coated plate being
tac0y or stic0y and adhering to the ad<acent sheet.
Bloc%er - 6reform die or impression, used when part cannot be made in a single
operation.
Bloom - (*" ncient .efinitionE iron produced in a solid condition directly by the
reduction of ore in a primitive furnace. The carbon content is variable but usually
low. lso 0nown as bloomery iron. The earliest iron ma0ing process, but still used in
underdeveloped countries. (8" /odern .efinitionE a semi-finished hot rolled steel
product, rectangular in section, usually produced on a blooming mill but sometimes
made by forging.
Blow - The impact or force delivered by one wor0stro0e of the forging e-uipment.
Blow Bac% - coating defect consisting of a lower coating film weight on the bottom
of the coated sheet caused by high velocity air in the oven. %low bac0 usually occurs
with high solids coatings which have little solvent to evaporate and >set> the film.
Blow /own - 6rocess that rids boiler feed water of solids and maintains the proper
chemical balance of the feed water. %low down can also be used to rid drum(s" of
excess water.
Blowhole - defect in a casting caused by trapped steam or gas.
Bl!e Annealing - #eating hot rolled ferrous sheet in an open furnace to a
temperature within the transformation range and then cooling in air, in order to
soften the metal. The formation of a bluish oxide on the surface is incidental.
Bl!e Brittleness - %rittleness exhibited by some steels after being heated to some
temperature within the range of B44 (degrees" to FD4 (degrees" &, and more
especially if the steel is wor0ed at the elevated temperature. Iilled steels are
virtually free of this 0ind of brittleness.
Bl!e $rint - pen or in0 line drawing reproduced (printed" on sensitized paper by
direct exposure.
Bl!e 9itriol Co''er s!l,ate - layout solution which turns a copper color when
applied to a clean,polished metal surface.
Bl!ing - $ub<ecting the scale-free surface of a ferrous alloy to the action of air,
steam, or other agents at a suitable temperature, thus forming a thin blue film of
oxide and improving the appearance and resistance to corrosion. 15T9E This term is
ordinarily applied to sheet, strip, or finished parts, 't is used also to denote the
heating of springs after fabrication in order to improve their properties.
Bl!sh - coating defect consisting of the whitening of a cured film which results in a
translucent or opa-ue appearance with accompanying loss of gloss. %lushing usually
occurs during the pasteurization or steam processing of films which are undercured
or water sensitive.
Boil - gitation of a bath of metal caused by the liberation of a gas beneath its
surface. /ay be deliberately induced by the addition of oxidizing material to a bath
containing excess carbon. 'n the later case it is called a carbon boil and C5 or C58
are liberated.
Boiler - closed vessel in which water, is transformed into steam at a given
pressure and temperature under controlled conditions.
Bolster #ie bloc%& - (tool) or reinforcing part which supports the bac0er-which,
in turn, supports an extruding die against the pressure of extrusion.
Bon - The material that holds the abrasive grains together to form a grinding
wheel.
Boneri0e Coating - thin film of phosphate pretreatment applied to a steel
surface (bare or zinc coated" to enhance paintability.
Boning Clay #Bonerise& - ny clay suitable for use as a bonding material.
Bore - To enlarge and finish the surface of a cylindrical hole by the action of a
rotating boring bar (cutting tool" or by the action of a stationary tool pressed (fed"
against the surface as the part is rotated.
Boring Bar #c!,,er bar& - combination tool holder and shan0.
Boring "ool - cutting tool in which the tool bit,the boring bar and in some cases
the tool holder are incorporated.
Boron # chemical symbol B& - 9lement 1. D of the periodic system. tomic weight
*4.+8. 't is gray in color, ignites at about ***8 (degrees" &. and burns with a brilliant
green flame, but its melting point in a non-oxidizing atmosphere is about =444
(degrees" &. %oron is used in steel in minute -uantities for one purpose only- to
increase the hardenability as in case hardening and to increase strength and
hardness penetration.
Boron Steels - The addition of boron in the range 4.444D-4.44DG to certain steels
increases the hardenability. range of boron steels is now listed in the current %$
:74 and are widely used for the production of cold headed fastenings.
Boss - pro<ection or an enlarged section of a casting through which a hole may be
machine.
Bottom /ie - The stationary half-die.
Bottom Roll - $ubmerged roll in the pot used to 0eep the strip submerged in the
pot.
Bottom :' - @eversing the wrap of a coil putting the top surface on the bottom.
Bow - The lateral deviation from straightness
Bo1 - 'nteranl (female" threaded end.
Bo1 Annealing - process of annealing a ferrous alloy in a suitable closed metal
container, with or without pac0ing material, in order to minimize oxidation. The
charge is usually heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range, but
sometimes above or within it, and is then cooled slowly.
Bra%e - piece of e-uipment used for bending sheet; also called a bar folder. 'f
operated manually, it is called a hand bra0e; if power driven, it is called a press
bra0e.
Bra%e $ress Bening - n operation which produces various degree bends when
fabricating parts from steel.
Brass - n alloy that is 74G copper,B4G zinc. 5ne of the most widely used of the
copper-zinc alloys; malleable and ductile; excellent cold-wor0ing but poor hot-
wor0ing and machining properties; excellent for soft-soldering; good for silver alloy
brazing or oxyacetylene welding, but fair for resistance or carbon-arc welding. ;sed
for drawn cartridges, tubes, eyelets machine items and snap fasteners.
Bra0ing - Loining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points
above +44 & (=8DC", but lower than those of the metals being <oined. /ay be
accomplished by a torch. &iller metal is ordinarily in rod form in torch brazing;
whereas in furnace and dip brazing the wor0 material is first assembled and the filler
metal may then be applied as wire, washers, clips, bands, or may be bonded, as in
brazing sheet.
Brea% "est #,or tem'ere steel& - method of testing hardened and tempered
high carbon spring steel strip wherein the specimen is held and bent across the grain
in a vice-li0e calibrated testing machine. 6ressure is applied until the metal fractures
at which point a reading is ta0en and compared with a standard chart of bra0e
limitations for various thic0ness ranges.
Brea%age - Crac0s or separation of the steel.
Brea%er - ;ncoiler rolls through which the strip passes; composed of a mandrel and
leveling rolls which unwind the strip prior to processing through the 6ic0ler. %rea0er
rolls assist in brea0ing up the #ot /ill surface scale.
Brea%o!t - n accident caused by the failure of the walls of the hearth of the
furnace resulting in li-uid iron or slag (or both" flowing uncontrolled out of the blast
furnace.
Brige - 'n extrusionE the part of an extrusion (bridge die) that supports a void-
forming mandrel. .uring extrusion, the metal divides and flows around the bridge,
reuniting as it is extruded through the die orifice. The resulting weld line can be
detected upon microscopic examination, but the extrusion appears functionally and
visually seamless.
Brile - set of rolls used to maintain tension on the strip as it goes through the
line.
Brile Rolls - series of neoprene or steel rolls.
Brile Sn!bber - The roll above the bridle rolls used to thread the strip. lso is used
to steer the strip through the bridle.
Brile :nit - three-roll cluster used to control line tension at strategic locations on
the line.
Briling - The cold wor0ing of dead soft annealed strip metal immediately prior to a
forming, bending, or drawing operation. process designed to prevent the
formulation of Auder?s lines. Caution-%ridled metal should be used promptly and not
permitted to (of itself" return to its pre-bridled condition.
Bright Annealing - process carried out usually in a controlled furnace
atmosphere, so surface does not oxidize, remaining bright.
Bright Basic Wire - %right steel wire, slightly softer than %right %essemer 3ire.
;sed for round head wood screws, bolts and rivets, electric welded chain, etc.
Bright Bessemer Wire - $tiff bright wire of hard temper. 1ormally wire is drawn
down to size without annealing.
Bright /i''ing - Chemical polishing of aluminum, often by treatment with a mixture
of nitric acid and phosphoric acid, yielding a mirror-shiny (specular" highly reflective
surface. 't is almost always followed by anodizing to protect the surface and provide
some choice of color.
Bright /rawing - The process of drawing hot rolled steel through a die to impart
close dimensional tolerances, a bright scale free surface and improved mechanical
properties. The product is termed bright steel.
Brine - saltwater solution for -uenching or cooling when heat treating steel.
Brinell +arness - The hardness of a metal or part, as represented by the number
obtained from the ratio between the load applied on the spherical area of the
impression made by a steel ball forced into the surface of the material tested.
Brinell +arness 3!mber - The value of hardness of a metal on an arbitrary scale
representing 0g,mm8, determined by measuring the diameter of the impression
made by a ball of given diameter applied under a 0nown load. Malues are expressed
in %rinell #ardness 1umbers, %#1
Brinell +arness "esting - /ethod of determining the hardness of materials;
involves impressing a hardened ball of specified diameter into the material surface at
a 0nown pressure (*4-mm ball, D44-0g load for aluminum alloys". The %rinell
hardness number results from calculations involving the load and the spherical area
of the ball impression. .irect-reading testing are generally used for routine
inspection of forgings, and as a heat treat control function.
Brite - *" @egular galvanize coating (not minimized spangle or L6". 8" @olls that
have no grit; smooth finish on surface of steel.
Brittle *ract!re - &racture with little or no plastic deformation.
Brittle (nter-metallic .ayer - n iron-zinc alloy layer formed between the steel
substrate and the free zinc of galvanized coatings.
Broach - long, tapered cutting tool with serrations which,when forced through a
hole or across a surface, cuts a desired shape or size.
Broaching - $moothing machined holes or outside surfaces of castings by drawing
pushing on or more broaches (special cutting tools" through the roughed out hole.
Bron0e - n alloy containing :4G copper and *4G tin. ;sed for screws, wire,
hardware, wear plates, bushings and springs; it is somewhat stronger than copper
and brass and has e-ual or better ductility.
Br!ise - mar0 transferred to the strip surface from a defective process roll. $imilar
to dent or punchmar0.
B"C - %uttress threaded and coupled
B!c%les - ppeaars li0e a series of waves and are created during rolling as a result
of mechanical misalignment or cross-section irregularities in supply coil.
B!,, - To polish smooth finish of high luster with a cloth or fabric wheel to which a
compund has been added.
B!il :' Coil - coil made by putting together two or more coils to ma0e one max
coil or one shippable coil.
B!ilt!' $late - > pattern plate of suitable material, with the cope pattern mounted
on or attached to one side; the drag pattern may be attached to the other side or to
a separate mounting. $ee /atchplate >
B!l% /ensity - The ratio of the weight of a material to its over-all volume (including
any inherent porosity".
B!ll Gear - The large cran0 gear of a shaper.
B!nle - $pecific number of sheets which e-uals * unit of production. 1umber is
determined by multiplying sheets,6ac0ages,%;1.A9. &or example, an order calls for
**8 sheets,pac0age. ccording to the maximum height allowed for a lift. Therefore,
multiplying *D pac0ages K **8 sheets B. *F+4 sheets,bundle.
B!rn - *" 6rocess of cutting metal by a stream of fuel and oxygen, 8" to
permanently damage a metal or alloy by heating to cause either incipient melting or
intergranular oxidation.
B!rn-4n-San - $and adhering to the surface of the casting that is extremely
difficult to remove.
B!rn-4!t - &iring a mold at a high temperature to remove pattern material residue.
B!rning - (*" 6ermanently damaging a metal or alloy by heating to cause either
incipient melting or intergranular oxidation. (8" 'n grinding getting the wor0 hot
enough to cause discoloration or to change the microstructure by tempering or
hardening.
B!rnishing - .eveloping a smooth finish on a metal by tumbling or rubbing with a
polished hand tool.
B!rnt R!bber - $mall or large blac0 spots that generally show up on surface and
are generally caused by pic0ling steel too hot.
B!rnthro!gh - 'n shell molding, resin burned out too soon.
B!rr - The very subtle ridge on the edge of strip steel left by cutting operations such
as slitting, trimming, shearing, or blan0ing. &or example, as a steel processor trims
the sides of the sheet steel parallel or cuts a sheet of steel into strips, its edges will
bend with the direction of the cut.
B!rr Mashers - .evices used to remove build up on edge of strip after the slitting
process.
B!rst - 'nternal pressure at which a tube will yield-often tested hydrostatically
B!sheling - widely traded form of steel scrap consisting of sheet clips and
stampings from metal production. %ushel bas0ets were used to collect the material
through 3orld 3ar '', giving rise to the term.
B!shing - sleeve or a lining for a bearing or a drill <ig to guard against wear.
B!st Coil - Coils removed from the off-gauge reel. The %;$T (build up side trimmer"
coil contains defects (gauge variation and -uality defects" and off-spec widths.
B!tt en - The residual portion of an extrusion billet that is not forced through the
die at the end of the extrusion cycle.
B!tt Wel - 3eld made to <oin two strip ends set against each other.
B!tt-Wel $i'e - The standard steel pipe used in plumbing. #eated s0elp is passed
continuously through welding rolls, which form the tube and s-ueeze the hot edges
together to ma0e a solid weld.
B!tyl Stearate - (%$5" lubricant applied on electrolytic chromium coated steel
By Coil - $elling term which refers to product sold in the form of a coil vs. cut plate.
>%i Coil> is also used in production to refer to coils vs. cut plate
By-$ass - /anual control used to by-pass automatic valve if it fails or in an
emergency.
Bamboo Grain Str!ct!re - structure in wire or sheet in which the boundaries of
the grains tend to be aligned normal to the long axis and to extend completely
through the thic0ness.
Bane Str!ct!re - ppearance of a metal showing parallel bands in the direction
of rolling or wor0ing.
Baning - 'nhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements or phases aligned in
filaments or plates parallel to the direction of wor0ing.
Basic 41ygen $rocess - steel ma0ing process wherein oxygen of the highest
purity is blown onto the surface of a bath of molten iron contained in a basic lined
and ladle shaped vessel. The melting cycle duration is extremely short with -uality
comparable to 5pen #earth $teel.
Basic Steel - $teel melted in a furnace with a basic bottom and lining and under a
slag containing an excess of a basic substance such as magnesia or lime.
Bath Annealing - 's immersion is a li-uid bath (such as molten lead or fused salts"
held at an assigned temperature-when a lead bath is used, the process is 0nown as
lead annealing.
Ba!1ite - The only commercial ore of aluminum, corresponding essentially to the
formula l85Bx#85.
Beaing - @aising a ridge on sheet metal.
Bearing .oa - compressive load supported by a member, usually a tube or
collar, along a line where contact is made with a pin, rivet, axle, or shaft.
Ben Rai!s - The inside radius of a bent section,
Bessemer $rocess - process for ma0ing steel by blowing air through molten pig
iron contained in a refractory lined vessel so that the impurities are thus removed by
oxidation.
Billet - solid semi-finished round or s-uare product that has been hot wor0ed by
forging, rolling, or extrusion. n iron or steel billet has a minimum width or thic0ness
of * *,8 in. and the cross-sectional area varies from 8 *,= to BF s-. in. &or
nonferrous metals, it may also be a casting suitable for finished or semi-finished
rolling or for extrusion.
Binary Alloy - n alloy containing two elements, apart from minor impurities, as
brass containing the two elements copper and zinc.
Blac% Annealing - process of box annealing or pot annealing ferrous alloy sheet,
strip or wire after hot wor0ing and pic0ling.
Blast *!rnace - vertical shaft type smelting furnace in which an air blast is used,
usually hot, for producing pih iron. The furnace is continuous in operation using iron
ore, co0e, and limestone as raw materials which are charged at the top while the
molten iron and slag are collected at the bottom and are tapped out at intervals.
Blister - defect in metal, on or near the surface, resulting from the expansion of
gas in a subsurface zone. Mery small blisters are called pinheads or pepper blisters.
Bloom - semi-finished hot rolled product, rectangular in cross section, produced
on a blooming mill. &or iron and steel, the width is not more than twice the
thic0ness, and the cross-sectional area is usually not less than BF s-. in. 'ron and
steel blooms are sometimes made by forging.
Bloomery - primitive furnace used for direct reduction of ore to iron.
Blooming-Mill - mill used to reduce ingots to blooms, billets slabs, sheet-bar etc.,
Blowhole - cavity which was produced during the solidification of metal by
evolved gas, which in failing to escape is held in poc0ets.
Bl!e Brittleness - @educed ductility occurring as a result of strain aging, when
certain ferrous alloys are wor0ed between B44 and 744 (degrees" &. This
phenomenon may be observed at the wor0ing temperature or subse-uently at lower
temperatures.
Boy-Centere - #aving the e-uivalent lattice points at the corners of the unit cell,
and at its center; sometimes called centered, or space-centered.
Boneri0ing - The coating of steel with a film composed largely of zinc phosphate in
order to develop a better bonding surface for paint or lac-uer.
Bottle "o' Mol - 'ngot mold, with the top constricted; used in the manufacture of
capped steel, the metal in the constriction being covered with a cap fitting into the
bottle-nec0, which stops rimming action by trapping escaping gases.
Bo1 Annealing - nnealing a metal or alloy in a sealed container under conditions
that minimize oxidation. 'n box annealing a ferrous alloy, the charge is usually
heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range, but sometimes
above or within it, and is then cooled slowly; this process is also called close
annealing or pot annealing.
Bo1 Annealing - process of annealing a ferrous alloy in a closed metal container,
with or without pac0ing materials, in order to minimize the effects of oxidation. The
charge is normally heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range,
but occasionally above or within it, and then is slowly cooled.
Brale - diamond penetrator, conical in shape, used with a @oc0well hardness
tester for hard metals.
Brasses - Copper base alloys in which zinc is the principal alloying element. %rass is
harder and mechanically stronger than either of its alloying elements copper or zinc.
't is formable and ductile; develops high tensile strength with cold-wor0ing and is not
heat treatable.
Bra0e Weling - family of welding procedures where metals are <oined by filler
metal that has a melting temperature below the solidus of the parent metal, but
above +=4 (=D4 C".
Bright Anneale Wire - $teel wire bright drawn and annealed in controlled non-
oxidizing atmosphere so that surface oxidation is reduced to a minimum and the
surface remains relatively bright.
Bright Annealing - The process of annealing in a protective atmosphere so as to
prevent discoloration of the bright surface desired.
Bright /i' - n acid solution into which pieces are dipped in order to obtain a clean,
bright surface.
Brinell +arness "est - common standard method of measuring the hardness of
materials. The smooth surface of the metal is sub<ected to indentation by a hardened
steel ball under pressure. The diameter of the indentation, in the material surface, is
then measured by a microscope and the hardness value is read from a chart or
determined by a prescribed formula.
Brittle *ract!re - &racture preceded by little or negligible plastic deformation.
Brittleness - The tendency of a metal or material to fracture without undergoing
appreciable plastic deformation.
Broaching - /ultiple shaving, accomplished by pushing a tool with stepped cutting
edges along the piece, particularly through holes.
Bron0e - 6rimarily an alloy of copper and tin, but additionally, the name is used
when referring to other alloys not containing tin, for example, aluminum bronze,
manganese bronze, and beryllium bronze.
Brown =am'> Shar' Gages #B=am'>S& - standard series of sizes refered to by
numbers, in which the diameter of wire or thic0ness of sheet metal is generally
produced and which is used in the manufacture of brass, bronze, copper, copper-
base alloys and aluminum. These gage numbers have a definite relationship to each
other. 'n this system, the decimal thic0ness is reduced by D4G every six gage
numbers- while temper is expressed by the number of %Namp;$ gage numbers as
cold reduced in thic0ness from previous annealing. &or each %Namp;$ gage number
in thic0ness reduction, where is assigned a hardness value of *,= hard.
B!c%le - %ulges and, or hollows occurring along the length of the metal with the
edges remaining otherwise flat.
B!,,er - substance added to a-ueous solutions to maintain a constant hydrogen-
ion concentration, even in the presence of acids or al0alis.
B!rning - #eating a metal beyond the temperature limits allowable for the desired
heat treatment, or beyond the point where serious oxidation or other detrimental
action begins.
B!rnishing - $moothing surfaces through friction between the material and material
such as hardened metal media.
B!rnt - definition applying to material which has been permanently damaged by
over-heating.
B!rr - @oughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting, shearing, blan0ing ,
etc.
B!tcher Saw Steel - hardened, tempered, and polished high carbon spring steel
strip material (carbon content is generally higher than that of a material used for
wood band saw applications" with a @oc0well value of roughly C=7,=:.
B!tt Weling - Loining two edges or ends by placing one against the other and
welding them.
C - Chemical symbol for carbon
CA - Chemical symbol for calcium
CA/ - Computer ssisted .esign. The use of computer programs to generate,
analyse and modify designs. 9xtrusion dies and their supporting tools, for example,
may be designed with the aid of computers.
CAM - Computer aided manufacturing
C3C - Computer numerically controlled-refers to machinery
Cai!m - Chemical symbol Cd. Cadium is produced primarily as a by-product of zinc
refining, but also is recovered during the benefication and refining of some lead ores
and complex copper-zinc ores. Cadmium is bluish-white soft metal that can be cut
with a 0nife. The principal use of cadmium, which was discovered in !ermany in
*+*7, has been in nic0el-cadmium batteries for personal, portable communications,
electronic and electrical e-uipment. 5ther applications include pigments, coatings
and plating, stabilizers for plastics and similar synthetics, alloys, lasers and solar
cells.
Calci!m - 'n the form of calcium silicide acts as a deoxidizer and degasifier when
added to steel. @ecent developments have found that carbon and alloy steels
modified with small amounts of calcium show improved machinability and longer tool
life. Transverse ductility and toughness are also enhanced.
Calci!m Silicie - n alloy of Calcium, silicon, and iron containing 8+-BDG Ca, F4-
FDG $i, and FG &e, max., used as a deoxidizer and degasser for steel and cast-iron;
sometimes called calcium silicide.
Calci!m Silicon - n alloy of calcium, silicon, and iron containing 8+-BDG Ca, F4-
FDG $i, and FG &e, max., used as a deoxidizer and degasser for steel and cast-iron;
sometimes called calcium silicide.
Calci!m Wire (n?ection - 3ire feeding of steel clad calcium wire into molten bath
to provide favorable 0inetics for inclusion modification.
Cali'er - deice used to measure inside or outside dimensions.
Cali'er) Gear "ooth - special caliper used to measure both the (choral thic0ness)
and the depth of a gear tooth.
Cam - device for converting regular rotary motion to irregular rotary or
reciprocating motion. $ometime the effect of off-center lathe operations.
Camber - (*" .eviation from edge straightness usually referring to the greatest
deviation of side edge from a straight line. (8" $ometimes used to denote crown in
rolls where the center diameter has been increased to compensate for deflection
cause by the rolling pressure.
Camber "olerances - Camber is the deviation from edge straightness. /aximum
allowable tolerance of this deviation of a side edge from a straight line are defined in
$T/ $tandards.
Camera Sh!tter Steel - #ardened, tempered and bright polished extra flat and
extra precision rolled. Carbon content *.8D - Chromium .*D.
Can /imensions - Can measurements are expressed in inches and sixteenths of
inches in a 0ind of shorthand. The standard *8 ounce beverage can, for example, is
described as 8** by =*B, which translates to a 8 **,*F inches in diameter by =
*B,*F inched in height. 3hen a two piece can is described as 8**,84:,=*B, this
means 8 **,*F inches in diameter, nec0ed in at the top to a 8 :,*F inches by a =
*B,*F inches in height.
Cannon $l!g - 5il gun safety switch used when oil gun is out of boiler.
Ca'acity - 1ormal ability to produce steel in a given period. This rating should
include maintenance re-uirements, but because such service is scheduled to match
the machineryHs needs (not the calendarHs", a mill might run at more than *44G of
capacity one month and then fall well below rated capacity as maintenance is
performed. 9ngineered capacity. The theorectical volume of a mill, given its
constraints of raw material supply and normal wor0ing speed (True) Capacity.
Molume at full utilization, allowing for the maintenance of e-uipment and reflecting
current material constraints. (%ottlenec0s of supply and distribution can change over
time 2 capacity will expand or reduce."
Ca''e Steel - $emi0illed steel cast in a bottle-top mold and covered with a cap
fitting into the nec0 of the mold. The cap causes to top metal to solidify. 6ressure is
built up in the sealed-in molten metal and results in a surface condition much li0e
that of rimmed steel.
Carbie "ool bits - Aathe cutting tools to which carbide tip inserts have been
brazed to provide cutting action on harder materials than the hight speed cutteres
are capable of.
Carbon - 9lement occurring as diamond and as graphite. Carbon reduces many
metals from their oxides when heated with the latter, and small amounts of it greatly
affect the properties of iron. Though classed as a nonmetallic, metallurgically, li0e
boron, it is treated as a metal.
Carbon /io1ie $rocess #Silicate $rocess) Schmit $hili' $rocess - process
for hardening molds or cores in which carbon dioxide gas is blown through dry clay-
free silica sand to precipitate silica in the form of a gel from the sodium silicate
binder.
Carbon E;!ivalent - @eferring to the rating of weld-ability, this is a value that
ta0es into account the e-uivalent additive effects of carbon and other alloying
elements on a particular characteristic of a steel. &or rating of weld-ability, a formula
commonly used isE C9 B. C O (/n,F" O P(Cr O /o O M",DQ O P(1i O Cu",*DQ.
Carbon *ilter - unit containing a media of activated carbon to remove organic
impurities and residual chlorine from the water.
Carbonitriing A 'rocess o, case harening a ,erro!s material in a gaseo!s
atmos'here containing both carbon an nitrogen -
Carbon San - molding aggregate consisting principally of carbon (graphite"
granules.
Carbon Steel - $teel containing carbon up to about 8G and only residual -uantities
of other elements except those added for deoxidization, with silicon usually limited to
4.F4G and manganese to about *.FDG. lso termed plain carbon steel, ordinary
steel, and straight carbon steel.
Carbon) Combine - The carbon in iron or steel which is combined with other
elements and therefore is not in the free state as graphite or as temper carbon.
Carbonitriing A 'rocess o, case harening a ,erro!s material in a gaseo!s
atmos'here containing both carbon an nitrogen - 1;AA
Carboni0ing - Thr process of adding carbon the the outer surface of steel to
improve its -uality by heat treating it in contact with carbonaceous material.
Carbor!n!m - trade name for an abrasive compounded of silicon and carbon
(silicon carbide".
Carb!ri0ing - 'ntroducing carbon into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above c* in
contact with a suitable carbonaceous material, which may be a solid, li-uid, or gas.
The carburized alloy is usually -uench hardened.
Carboar /r!m - Cardboard insert placed on the reel around which the coil is
wound. The drum is used to eliminate damage in the center of the coil.
Carriage - belt mounted on wheels that is used to move materials from one
storage bin to another.
Case - The surface layer of an iron-base alloy which has been suitably altered in
composition and can be made substantially harder than the interior or core by heat
treatment.
Case +arening - #ardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer portion, or case, is
made substantially harder than the inner portion, or core. Typical processes used for
case hardening are carburizing, cyaniding, carbonitriding, nitriding, induction
hardening, and flame hardening.
Casing - The structural retainer for the walls of oil and gas wells and account for
7DG (by weight" of 5CT! shipments. Casing is used to prevent contamination of
both the surrounding water table and the well itself. Casing lasts the life of a well
and is not
Cast - (*" term indicating in the annealed state as Cast $pring $teel 3ire. (8" 'n
reference to %right or 6olished $trip $teel or 3ire, the word cast implies discoloration
as a shadow. (B" term implying a lac0 of straightness as in a coil set.
Cast-Wel - >3elding one casting to another to form a complete unit. >
Castigate 3!t #Castle 3!t& - nut with grooves cut entirely across the top face.
Casting - (*" n ob<ect at or near finished shape obtained by solidification of a
substance in a mold. (8" 6ouring molten metal into a mold to produce an ob<ect of
desired shape.
Casting Alloy - n alloy formulated for casting
Casting /rawing - n engineering drawing which depicts the shape and size of a
part to be cast.
Casting .ayo!t - chec0 of dimensions against applicable drawings and
specifications.
Casting @iel - The weight of casting or castings divided by the total weight of
metal poured into the mold, expressed as a percent.
Cathea - collar or sleeve which fits loosely over a shaft to which it is clamped by
setscrews.
Cathoe - 6rimary non-ferrous metal casting to be rolled or forged into other
shapes; usually copper or nic0el.
Cathoic Soi!m /ichromate - common treatment applied to passivate the
surface of electroytic tin plate against the formation of tin oxides.
Ca!stic - n al0aline solution used to neutralize the acid in the discharge water from
the scrubbers when it goes to the sewer.
Cavitation - The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny voids or
cavities within a li-uid sub<ected to rapid and intense pressure changes. Cavitation
produced by ultrasonic radiation is sometimes used to give violent localized agitation.
That caused by severe turbulent flow often leads to cavitation damage.
Cavity - The impression in either the upper or lower die.
Cb - Chemical symbol for columbium
Ce - Chemical symbol for cerium
Cell - 'n aluminum production the electrolytic reduction cell, commonly called a (pot)
in which alumina dissolved in molten cryloite is reduced to metallic aluminum.
series of cells connected electrically is called a (pot line).
Cells - 6lastic tan0s that contain anodes and plater solution. The strip goes through
the cells during the coating process.
Center - point or axis around which anything evloves or rotates. 'n the lathe, one
of the parts upon which the wor0 to be turned is placed. The center in the headstoc0
is referred to as the (live) center and the one mounted in the tailstoc0 as the (dead)
center.
Center) /ea - center that does not rotate;commonly found on the tailstoc0 of a
lathe. lso, an expression for the exact center of an ob<ect.
Center /rill - combined countersin0 and ddrill used to prepare wor0 for mounting
centers.
Center Gage - small flat gage having F4 degree angles that is used for grinding
and setting the thread cutting tools in a lathe. 't may also be used to chec0 the pitch
of threads and the points of center.
Center) +al, Male - dead center that has a portion of the F4 degree cone cut
away.
Center +ea - part of combination s-uare set that is used to find the center of or
to bisect a round or s-uare wor0piece.
Center) .ive - center that revolves with the wor0. !enerally this is the headstoc0
center; however, the ball bearing type tailstoc0 center is also called a live center.
Center) $!nch - pointed hand tool made of hardened steel and shaped somewhat
li0e a pencil.
Centering Arms - 'n ring rolling, externally mounted rolls, ad<usted to the outside
diameter of the ring during rolling. The rolls maintain and guide the ring in a
centerline position to achieve.
Cementation - (*" 'ntroduction of one or more elements into the outer layer of a
metal ob<ect by means of diffusion at high temperature. (8" n obsolete process
used to convert wrought iron to blister steel by carburizing. 3rought iron bars were
pac0ed in sealed chests with charcoal and heated at about 8444 & (**44 C" for F to
+ days. Cementation was the predominant method of manufacturing steels
particularly high-carbon tool steels, prior to the introduction of the bessemer and
open-hearth methods.
Cementite - compound of iron and carbon commonly 0nown as iron carbide and
having the approximate chemical structure, &eBC. Cementite is characterized by an
orthorhombic crystal structure.
Center B!c%le - condition in the band of steel where the center (in the direction
of rolling" is longer than the edges and has a wave or buc0le.
Ceramic - new type of cutting tool material made of aluminum oxide or silicon
carbide that is finding increased use where high speed and resistance to high
temperatures and weaar are factors.
Cermet - powder metallurgy product consisting of ceramic particles bonded with
metal
Cesi!m - Chemical Cs. silver-white metal refined from pollucite ore, usually as a
co-product in the processing of titanium, beryllium, or lithium minerals. Cesium
ignites when exposed to air; has a 8+.D degree & melting point; used in ma0ing
specialized energy converters and electric power generators.
Chain Gearing #Chain /rive& - 6ower transmission by means of an endless chain
running around chain wheels (chain pully" and,or sproc0et wheels.
Cham,er - (*" beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner. (8"
relieved angular cutting edge at a tooth corner.
Cha'let - sma;; metal imsert or spacer used in molds to provide core support
during the casting process.
Charge - To >charge> the % furnace refers to the process of lighting or firing the
furnace. This process involved turning on the pilot gas, turning on the main gas, and
then using a torch to light the pilot light so that the temperature of the furnace
begins to rise to the desired >coo0ing or soa0> temperature.
Charging Whistle - warning sound to personnel that production is charging a
vessel with scrap and hot metal. 't also alerts personnel to prepare the scrubber to
switch from oil fire operation to steel-ma0ing operation.
Char'y (m'act "est - pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the
specimen, usually notched, is supported at both ends as a simple beam and bro0en
by a falling pendulum. The energy absorbed in fracture, as impact strength or notch
toughness.
Chasing "hreas - Cutting threads in a lathe or srew machine.
Chatter - surface defect consisting of alternating ridges and valleys at right angles
to the direction of extrusion.
Chatter Mar% - (.efect"- 6arallel indentaions or mar0s appearing at right angles to
edge of strip forming a pattern at close and regular intervals, caused by roll
vibrations.
Chattering - coating defect consisting of the washboard appearance of the cured
film with variations of color or opacity. >!ear mar0s> is another synonym when the
defect is caused by the gear lash of the coating machine. Chattering occurs when the
coating machine permits the uneven application of the coating.
Chec%ing - coating defect consisting of the crac0ing of the cured film into small
segments, with hairline crac0s separating the segments. The similar defects of mud
crac0ing or alligatoring are the same as chec0ing, but they are larger. Crazing is a
synonymous term.
Chemical "reatment - *" (Chem. Treat" customer-specified rust inhibitor applied
to the coated product. 8" passivating chemical treatment normally applied to the
steel surface to control oxide formation and growth.
Chemically Brightene - chemical addition made to the plating bath that results
in a coating with a bright appearance as opposed to the mechanically brightened
surface appearance .
Chemistries - The chemical composition of steel indicating the amount of carbon,
manganese, sulfur, phosphorous and a host of other elements.
Chill - metal insert in the sand mold used to produce local chilling and e-ualize
rate of solidification throughout the casting.
Chi' Brea%er - small groove ground bac0 of the cutting edge on the top of a
cutting tool to 0eep the chips short.
Chi''ing - method for removing seams and other surface defects with chisel or
gouge so that such defects will not be wor0ed into the finished product. Chipping is
often employed also to remove metal that is excessive but not defective. @emoval of
defects by gas cutting is 0nown as deseaming or scarfing.
Chisel - hydraulic coil opener used for preparing the front end of a coil before
loading it into the feeder.
Cho' - die forging defect; metal sheared from a vertical surface and spread by the
die over an ad<oining horizontal surface.
Chromi!m - steel-gray, lustrous, hard and brittle metallic element that ta0es its
name from the !ree0 word for color--chrome--because of the brilliant colors of its
compounds. 't is found primarily in chromite. @esistant to tarnish and corrosion, it is
a primary component of stainless steel and is used to harden steel alloys.
Chromi!m-3ic%el Steel - $teel usually made by the electric furnace process in
which chromium and nic0el participate as alloying elements. The stainless steel of
*+G chromium and +G nic0el are the better 0nown of the chromium-nic0el types.
Ch!c% - device on a machine tool to hold the wor0piece or a cutting tool.
Ch!c%) (ne'enent <aw - chuc0, each of whose <aws (ususlly four" is ad<usted
with a screw action independantly of the other <aws.
Ch!c%) :niversal #sel,-centering ch!c%) concentric ch!c%& - chuc0 whose
<aws are so arranged that they are all moved together at the same rate by a special
wrench.
Cigarette 2ni,e Steel - #ardened, tempered and bright polished, *.8D Carbon
content- Chromium .*D. ccurate flatness necessary and a high hardness with
@oc0well C D* to DB. ;sual sizes are = B,= wide and F wide x .44= to .4*4.
Circore#r& - >3#T gas-based process developed by Aurgi /etallurgie in
!ermany to produce .@' or #%' (see .irect @educed 'ron and #ot %ri-uetted 'ron".
#53 The two-stage method yields fines with a :BG iron content. 'ron ore fines pass
first through a circulating fluidized-bed reactor, and subse-uently through a bubbling
fluidized-bed reactor. >
Circ!lar $itch - The distance measured on the pitch circle from a point on a gear
tooth to the same point on the next gear tooth.
Circ!m,erences - %ands wrapped around the outside of the coil.
Circ!mscribing circle - The smallest circle that will completely enclose the cross
section of an extruded shape.
Claing - process for covering one metal with another. ;sually the surfaces of
fairly thic0 slabs of two metals are brought carefully into contact and are then
sub<ected to co-rolling so that a clad composition results. 'n some instances a thic0
electroplate may be deposited before rolling.
Clari,ication "an% - water filled settling tan0 used to remove particulate from the
water off the scrubbers at the %last &urnace.
Clari,iers - unit that removes solids for clarification of the raw river water. 't is
aided by in<ecting polyelectrolyte and ferric for coagulation, caustic for stabilization of
p#, and chlorine for removal of bacteria. $ludge is discharged and clear effluent sent
on through the water plant.
Class 1 S!r,ace -!ality - class of cold rolled steel processed to meet
re-uirements for controlled surface texture, flatness, and temper re-uirements.
6roduced for exposed applications.
Cleaning - The process of removing scale, oxides, or lubricant-ac-uired during
heating for forging or heat treating 2 from the surface of the forging. (also see
%lasting, 6ic0ling, tumbling"
Cleaning "an% - This section of the plater is used to remove dirt, oil, grease, oxides
and other contaminates from the surface of material to be electroplated. cleaning
agent is used at a temperature of *+4-*:4 degrees.
Cleanliness - &or internal steel -uality, a measure of the size and fre-uency of
inclusions; for external steel surface -uality, a measure of the amount of extraneous
materials (such as dirt, iron particles, carbon, etc." on the steel surface.
Clearance - (*"The gap between two mating parts; (8" the space provided between
the relief of a cutting tool and the surface being cut.
Clearance Angle - The angle between the rear surface of a cutting tool and the
surface of the wor0 at the point of contact.
Climb illing - method of milling in which the wor0 table moves in the same
direction as the direction of rotation of the milling center. $ometimes called down
cutting or down milling.
Cli' - /etal device used to hold the ends of steel strapping (bands" together.
Cl!tch) *riction #,riction co!'ling& - shaft coupling used where it is necessary
to provide a connection that can be readily engaged or disengaged while on of the
shafts is in motion.
CM* - Cast /etals &ederation
CMM - Coordinate /easuring /achine.
C3C - Computer 1umerical Controlled /achine Tools.
Co - Chemical symbol for colbalt.
Coal *ilter - filter which contains a bed of anthracite media material used to
remove contaminants, mud, and debris from the river water as part of the feed
water treatment process.
Coalescence - *" the growth of particles of a dispersed phase by solution and
reprecipitation, 8" the growth of grains by absorption of ad<acent undistorted grains.
Coate Metals - $heet and strip steel or aluminum, usually in coil form, which has
been covered on one or both sides with paint,enamel, adhesive, anti-corrosive
coatings, and,or laminates.
Coating - The process of covering steel with another material (for example tin,
chrome, and zinc", primarily for corrosion resistance.
Coating "est - 6erformed by the /etallurgical Aab to chec0 the amount of coating
applied.
Coating Weight - *" 'n the $heet /ill, the amount of Rinc on a galvanized sheet
measured in ounces per s-uare foot. 8" $pecified in pounds (or parts thereof" of tin
coating per base box. This term is often misunderstood because in most cases the
decimal point is omitted when written or printed.
Coating Weight "est - test of the weight of the coating measured 8 inches from
each side of the strip and at the center.
Cobalt - %lue-white metal, melting at 87*D %4& (*=:8 %4C", used in very hard alloy
such as stellite, and a binder in carbide cutting tools.
Colbalt-Base S!'eralloys - 9ight specific alloys of at least D4G cobalt blended
with traces of such other metals as
iron,nic0el,chrome,titanium,tungsten,carbom,zirconium, and,or tantalum; used in
high-temperature,high-strength,anti-corrosion applications (such as aircraft gas
turbines and <et engine components".
Cobbles - $trip of steel which, during processing, does not go through line evenly,
begins piling up - loo0s li0e ribbon candy.
Cocoon $rocess - method of protecting metal parts by spraying on a cover of
plastic filaments.
Coe - 'n 9.6, a system of symbols and their use in representing rules for handling
the flow or processing of information.
Coe +oles - The information holes in perforated tape, as opposed to feed or
sproc0et holes.
Coe,,icient o, thermal e1'ansion - The relative rate at which a substance
expands on heating, compared to a standard rate.
Cog - tooth in the rim of a wheel-a gear tooth in a gear wheel.
Cogging - The reducing operation in wor0ing the ingot into a billet by the use of
forging hammer or a forging press.
Cohesion - The force by which li0e particles are held together. 't varies with
different metals and depends upon molecular arrangement due to heat treatment.
Coil - length of steel wound into roll-form.
Coil Car - ;nit that the coil sits on. ;sed to move a coil to the entry or from the
delivery.
Coil En - '. of a coil that is left because of a defect. @anging from D44 - *4,444
pounds. nything *4,444 pounds and over get an '6/. coil with a weight less than
D444 lbs. that does not meet customer specifications is called a salvage coil. These
coils do not get an '6/ number
Coil .ine Mar%ings - been placed on the strip by the platers. This mar0 serves as
an indication to the feeder that the placement of the coil on the entry reel must be
placed correctly to meet customer specifications (external customers re-uest this
mar0 to distinguish coating on the strip". The &eeder must refer to the scheduling
boo0 to determine how to place the coil on the entry reel for over or under wind.
Coil 3!mber - 6roduced '6/ 1umber assigned to a coil. '6/ ('n 6rocess /aterial"
1umber.
Coil Set - curvature of the strip in the lengthwise sense, parallel to the direction in
which the strip was rolled or uncoiled.
Coil Set or .ongit!inal C!rl - lengthwise curve or set found in coiled strip
metals following its coil pattern. departure from longitudinal flatness. Can be
removed by roller or stretcher leveling from metals in the softer temper ranges.
Coil Stri''er - piece of e-uipment on the off-gauge reel used to help remove a
coil from the reel.
Coils - $teel sheet that has been wound. slab, once rolled in a hot-strip mill, is
more than one--uarter mile long; coils are the most efficient way to store and
transport sheet steel.
Coining - The process of applying necessary pressure to all or some portion of the
surface of a forging to obtain closer tolerances or smoother surfaces or to eliminate
draft. Coining can be done while forgings are hot or cold and is usually performed on
surfaces parallel to the parting of the forging.
Co%e - Carbonizing coal made in oven by driving off volatile elements. 't is a hard
porous substance that is principally pure carbon. 'n blast furnaces, co0e helps
generate the B444 &. temperatures and reducing gases needs to smelt iron ore.
Co%e Be - &irst layer of co0e placed in the cupola. lso the co0e as the foundation
in constructing a large mold in a flas0 or pit.
Co%e Bree0e - &ines from co0e screening, used in blac0ing mixes after grinding;
also bri-uetted for cupola use.
Co%e Bree0e - &ine screens that come from %last &urnace co0e and are used to
ma0e sinter.
Co%e *!rnace - Type of pot or crucible furnace using co0e as the fuel.
Co%e 4ven Battery - set of ovens that process coal into co0e. Co0e ovens are
constructed in batteries of *4 .**44 ovens that are 84 feet tall, =4 feet long, and
less than two feet wide. Co0e batteries, because of the exhaust fumes emitted when
co0e is pushed from the ovens, often are the dirtiest area of a steel mill complex.
Co%e $late #+ot /i''e "in $late& - $tandard tin plate, with the lightest
commercial tin coat, used for food containers, oil canning, etc. higher grade is the
best co0es, with special co0es representing the best of the co0e tin variety. &or high
-ualities and heavier coatings.
Co%e $orosity - The percentage volume of cell space in co0e.
Co%e) Beehive - Co0e produced from a bituminous coal by the beehive process
where heat for the co0ing process comes from a partial combustion of the co0e.
!enerally characterized by an elongate stringy structure.
Co%e) By-$ro!ct - Co0e produced from bituminous coal in airtight code ovens
where heat for co0ing process is externally applied. !enerally more uniform in size
than beehive co0e, and usually ball or cube shape.
Co%e) $etrole!m - @esidue left from the distillation of petroleum crude, used as a
carbon raiser.
Col Chamber Machine - diecasting machine where the metal chamber and
plunger are not immersed in hot metal.
Col Chamber) Cl!b Sanwich) "wo-*ace) "hree-$iece /ie - diecasting die
in which two different pieces are cast in two widely separated cavities.
Col Coine ,orging - forging that has been re-struc0 cold in order to hold closer
face distance tolerances, sharpen corners or outlines, reduces section thic0ness,
flatten some particular surface, or in non-heat treatable alloys, increase hardness.
Col Crac%ing - Crac0s in cold or nearly cold metal due to excessive internal stress
caused by contraction. 5ften brought about when the mold is to hard or casting is of
unsuitable design
Col /rawing - The process of reducing the cross sectional area of wire,bar or tube
by drawing the material through a die without any pre-heating. Cold drawing is used
for the production of bright steel bar in round s-uare, hexagonal and flat section.
The process changes the mechanical properties of the steel and the finished product
is accurate to size,free from scale with a bright surface finish.
Col-*inishe Steel Bars - #ot-rolled carbon steel bars after secondary cold-
reduction processing with better surface -uality and strength.
Col *inishing - The cold finishing of steel, generally used for bars and shafting,
may be defined as the process of reducing their cross sectional area, without
heating, by one of five methods Cold @olling 8. Cold .rawing B. Cold drawing and
!rinding =. Turning and polishing D. Turning and !rinding
Col (ns'ection - visual (usually final" inspection of the forgings for visual
defects, dimensions, weight and surface conditions at room temperature. The tern
may also be used to describe certain nondestructive tests, such as magnetic particle,
dye penetrant and sonic inspection.
Col .a' - 3rin0led mar0ings on the surface of an ingot or casting from incipient
freezing of the surface.
Col Re!ction Mill - $heet and strip are cold reduced to the desired thic0ness for
the following reasons *" To obtain the desired surface. 8" To impart desired
mechanical properties. B" To ma0e gauges lighter than the hot strip mill can produce
economically. =" To produce sheet and strip of more uniform thic0ness.
Col Roll Base - Coils that are cold wor0ed or reduced to gauge on the tandem mill.
Col Rolle Sheet - product manufactured from hot rolled descaled (pic0led" coils
by cold reducing to the desired thic0ness, generally followed by annealing and
temper rolling. 'f the sheet is not annealed after cold reduction it is 0nown as full
hard. ($ee &ull #ard Cold @olled".
Col Rolling - @olling metal at a temperature below the softening point of the metal
to create strain hardening (wor0-hardening". $ame as cold reduction, except that the
wor0ing method is limited to rolling. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties
of strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness, strength, stiffness,
ductility and other characteristics 0nown as tempers, which see.
Col Rolling #Col-Re!cing& - @olling of cooled metal sheet (or other form which
previously has been hot-rlled" t ma0e the steel thinner,smoother and stronger by
applying pressure. cold-reduction sheet mill, for example, will roll-press a sheet of
metal from one--uarter inch into less than an eighth of an inch, while more than
doubling its length.
Col Rolling Mill - mill that reduces the cross sectional area of the metal by
rolling at approximately room temperature.
Col Screens - screening device that removes sinter that is smaller than five
millimeters in diameter before it goes to the %last &urnace.
Col Setting Biners - Term used to describe any binder that will harden the core
sufficiently at room temperature so core can be removed from its box without
distortion; commonly used in reference to oil-oxygen type binders.
Col Setting $rocess - n of several systems for bonding mold or core aggregates
by means of organic binders, relying upon the use of catalysts rather than heat for
polymerization (setting".
Col Short - characteristic of metals that are brittle at ordinary or low
temperatures.
Col Shot - $mall globule of metal embedded in but not entirely fused with the
casting.
Col Sh!t - defect characterized by a fissure or lap on the surface of a forging
that has been closed without fusion during the forging operation. folding of the
surface. 't may have the appearance of a crac0 or seam with smooth, rounded
edges. lso see Cold Aap
Col Stac% - 9xhaust stac0 located at the %56 $crubber. The %oiler 5perator
monitors the emissions through the cold stac0.
Col Stri' Mill - mill that rolls strip without first reheating.
Col "reatment - 9xposing steel to suitable subzero temperatures (-+DSC, or
-*84S&" for the purpose of obtaining desired conditions or properties such as
dimensional or microstructural stability. 3hen the treatment involves the
transformation of retained austenite, it is usually followed by tempering.
Col Wor% - 6lastic deformation at such temperatures and rates that substantial
increases occur in the strength and hardness of the metal visible structural changes
include changes in grain shape and, in some instances, mechanical twinning or
banding.
Col Wor%ing - 6lastic deformation, such as rolling, hammering, drawing, etc., at a
temperature sufficiently low to create strain-hardening (wor0-hardening".
Commonly, the term refers to such deformation at normal temperatures.
Col-Bo1 $rocess - *" ny core binder process that uses a gas or vaporized
catalyst to cure a coated sand while it is in contact with the core box at room
temperature.
Col-Rolle Stri' #Sheet& - $heet steel that has been pic0led and run through a
cold-reduction mill. $trip has a final product width of approximately *8 inches, while
sheet may be more than +4 inches wide. Cold-rolled sheet is considerably thinner
and stronger than hot-rolled sheet, so it will sell for a premium (see $heet $teel".
Col-rolling - (C@"@olling steel without first reheating it. This process reduces
thic0ness of the steel, produces a smoother surface and ma0es it easier to machine.
Colla'se Reel - mandrel in the collapsed position.
Colla'sibity - The re-uirement that a sand mixture brea0 down under the pressure
and temperatures developed during casting, in order to avoid hot tears or facilitate
the separation of the sand and the casting.
Colla'sible S'r!e - sprue pattern of flexible material, or of spring-tube design,
used in s-ueeze-molding of plated patterns, and incorporating a pouring cup.
Collate - *" to merge items from two or more similarly se-uenced files into one
se-uenced file, 8" to compare one thing critically with another of the same 0ind.
Collector Main - The duct wor0 used for moving air from the sinter machine to the
fans.
Collet - precision wor0 holding chuc0 which centers finished round stoc0
automatically when tightened. $pecialized collets are also available in shapes for
other than round stoc0.
Collimator - device for confining the elements of a beam of radiation within an
assigned solid angle.
Colloial Clay - &inely divided clay of montmorillonite, 0aolinite, or illite class;
prepared for foundry purposes as in sand bonding.
Collois) Colloial Material - &inely divided material less than 4.D micron (4.44448
in." in size, such as albumin, glue, starch, gelatin, and bentonite.
Coloimetric Analysis - .etermining the amount of an element in a solution by
measuring the intrinsic color.
Color Etching - micro-etch resulting from the formation of a thin film of a definite
compound of the metal.
Color Metho - techni-ue of heat treating metal by observing the color changes
that occur to determine the proper operation to perform to achieve the desired
results.
Col!mbi!m - Chemical symbol Co. @efractory metal used as an alloying agent in
steel ma0ing; essential for high-strength,low-alloy grades. #as some (wor0ed metal)
applications, mostly alloyed with zirconium or titanium for aerospace applications.
Called1iobium (1b" everywhere but the ;.$.
Col!mnar Str!ct!re - coarse structure of parallel columns of grains, which is
caused by highly directional solidification.
Combination /ie #M!lti'le-Cavity /ie& - 'n die casting, a die with two or more
different cavities for different castings.
Combination S;!are - drafting and layout tool combining a s-uare,level,
protractor and a center head.
Combine Carbon - Carbon in iron and steel which is combined chemically with
other elements; not in the free state as graphitic or temper carbon.
Combine Water - That water in mineral matter which is chemically combined and
driven off only at temperatures above 8B* %4& (*** %4C".
Comb!stion - Chemical change as a result of the combination of the combustible
constituents of the fuel with oxygen, producing heat.
Comb!stion Air *low - The measured and controlled amount of air flow delivered
to a boiler to promote proper combustion.
Comb!stion Chamber - $pace in furnace where combustion of gaseous products
from fuel ta0es place.
Commercial Bron0e - copper-zinc alloy (brass" containing :4G copper and *4G
zinc; used for screws, wire, hardware, etc. lthough termed commercial-bronze it
contains no tin. 't is somewhat stronger than copper and has e-ual or better
ductility.
Commercial -!ality Steel Sheet - 1ormally to a ladle analysis of carbon limit at
4.*D max. $tandard Cuality Carbon $teel $heet.
Commercial "olerance - range by which a product?s specifications can deviate
from those ordered and still meet the industry accepted ranges (defined in $T/
$tandards, etc."
Comoi0ing - rust-proofing process for steel.
Com'osite alloy - n aluminum alloy containing relatively large amounts of two or
more other elements.
Com'osite Constr!ction - >3elding a steel casting to a rolled or forged steel
ob<ect or to another casting. $ee Cast-3eld >
com'osite ?oint - <oint that is both welded and <oined mechanically.
Com'osite Material - combination of two or more materials (reinforcing
elements,fillers and composite matrix binder", differing in forms or composition on a
macroscale. The constituents retain their identities,that is, they do not dissolve or
merge completley into one another although they act in concert. 1ormally, the
components can be physically identified and exhibit an interface between one
another. 9xamples are cermets and metal-matrix composites.
Com'!n #rest& - The part of a lathe set on the carriage that carries the tool post
and holder. 't is designed to swing in any direction and to provide feed for turning
short angles or tapers.
Com'ression "est - 'mposing a dead load on a small cylindrical test piece to
determine compressive strength, expressed in pounds per s-. in.
Com'ressive Strength - The maximum compressive stress that a material is
capable of developing, based on original area of cross section. 'n the case of a
material which fails in compression by a shattering fracture, the compressive
strength has a very definite value. 'n the case of materials which do not fail in
compression by a shattering fracture, the value obtained for compressive strength is
an arbitrary value depending upon the degree of distortion that is regarded as
indicating complete failure of the material.
Concave - curved depression in the surface of an ob<ect.
Concentric - ccurately centered or having a common center.
Con!ctivity - The ability of a substance to transmit heat, light, or electricity.
luminum has high electrical and thermal conductivity, ma0ing it useful in a wide
range of electrical and heat-exchanging applications.
Cone $!lley - one-piece stepped pully having two or more diameters.
Cons!m'tion - /easures the physical use of steel by end users. $teel
consumptionm estimates, unli0e steel demand figures, account for changes in
inventories. pparent $upply. .erived demand for steel using '$' reported steel mill
shipments plus Census %ureau reported imports, less Census %ureau reported
exports. .omestic mar0et share percentages are based on this figure, which does
not ta0e into account any changes in inventory.
Contact Corrosion - 3hen two disimiliar metals are in contact without a protective
barrier between them and they are in the presence of li-uid, an electrolytic cell is
created. The degree of corrosion is dependent on the area in cantact and the electro-
potential voltage of the metals concerned. The less noble of the metals is liable to be
attac0ed, i.e. zinc will act as a protector of steel in sea water wheras copper or brass
wo;; attac0 the steel in the same enviroment.
Contact $rinting #(n% $rint& - > method of recording details of a macroetched
structure. $ee $ulfur 6rints. >
Contact Rolls - /etal rolls that are used in the chem. treat area. 9lectricity goes
through these rolls.
Container - 'n extrusionE The strong chamber in a extrusion press that holds the
billett while it is extruded through a die at one end, under pressure from a ram
entering at the other end.
Contamination - *" @adioactive deposition of radioactive material in any place
where it is not desired, and particularly in any place where its presence may be
harmful. The harm may be in vitiating the validity of an experiment or a procedure,
or in actually being a source of danger to personnel, 8" presence of small
percentages of deleterious elements in an alloy adversely affecting the alloy?s
mechanical properties and,or casting soundness.
Contango - /ar0et condition where the spot price is less than the three-month
delivery price. This is considered the >normal> mar0et state because the costs of
storing and shipping metal are assumed to be higher in three months than at present
($ee %ac0wardation".
Contin!o!s Casting - method of producing blooms,billets and slabs in long
lengths using water cooled moulds. The castings are continuously withdrawn through
the bottom of the caster whilst the teeming of the metal is proceeding. The need for
primary and intermediate mills and the storage and use of large numbers of ingot
moulds is eliminated. The continuous casting process is also used in the production
of cast iron, aluminium and copper alloys.
Contin!o!s "a''ing - furnace or holding ladle that is made of discharge molten
metal continuously during normal operation.
Contin!o!s Anneal - process by which the steel is rapidly heated, soa0ed and
cooled at a confirmed rate by passing the coil at a relatively high speed through a
furnace consisting of numerous sections.
Contin!o!s Annealing *!rnace - &urnace in which castings are annealed or heat
treated by passing through different zones at constant temperatures.
Contin!o!s Blow /own - (Continuous Concentration" The process of removing
undesired solids from the boiler feed water at the upper drum by means of a
s0imming header. Chemical analysis of the blow down establishes treatment needs
and helps maintain optimum feed water -uality.
Contin!o!s Casting - >3#T method of pouring steel directly from the furnace
into a billet, bloom, or slab directly from its molten form. 3#J Continuous casting
avoids the need for large, expensive mills for rolling ingots into slabs. Continuous
cast slabs also solidify in a few minutes versus several hours for an ingot. %ecause of
this, the chemical composition and mechanical properties are more uniform. #53
$teel from the %5& or electric furnace is poured into a tundish (a shallow vessel that
loo0s li0e a bathtub" atop the continuous caster. s steel carefully flows from the
tundish down into the water-cooled copper mold of the caster, it solidifies into a
ribbon of red-hot steel. t the bottom of the caster, torches cut the continuously
flowing steel to form slabs or blooms. >
Contin!o!s Casting - process that continuously casts molten steel into a
semifinished product such as slab. 't bypasses the traditional process of pouring
(teeming" molten steel into ingots, reheating those ingots, and then rolling them into
semifinished steel shapes.
Contin!o!s /es!l,!ri0ation - process of removing sulfur from molten ferrous
alloys on a continuous basis.
Contin!o!s Stri' Mill - series of synchronized rolling mill stands in which coiled
flat rolled metal entering the first pass (or stand" moves in a straight line and is
continuously reduced in thic0ness (not width" at each subse-uent pass. The finished
strip is recoiled upon leaving the final or finishing pass.
Contin!o!s 9ariable Crown System - (C.M.C. $ystem " #ydraulic system that
supplies the force to all the cylinders associated with wor0-roll balance and bending
and bac0-up roll balance (also supplies force for wor0 roll shifting".
Contin!o!s Wel - Continuously welding one coil to another at the entry end and
splitting off coils of a specific weight at delivery end.
Contract Sales - $teel products committed to customers through price agreements
extending B-*8 months. bout one-half of all flat-rolled steel is sold on this basis,
primarily because the auto companies sign agreements to cover at least one year?s
model. 6rice increases that the steel mills might announce during the year do not
generally affect the revenues from the contract side of the business.
Contraction - The volume change occurring in metals (except antimony and
bismuth" and alloys on solidification and cooling to room temperature.
Contraction Crac%s - >Crac0s formed by restriction of the metal while contracting in
the mold; may occur <ust after solidification (called a hot tear" or a short time after
the casting has been removed from the mold. $ee #ot Tears >
Contraction R!le - $ee $hrin0age, 6atternma0er?s
Control Stool - $tool used to monitor the annealing temperature and gas stream.
probe is inserted into the test area, and readings are ta0en to determine the -uality
of the annealing process.
Controlle Atmos'here - ny gas or mixture of gases that prevents or retards
oxidation and decarburization.
Controlle Cooling - $ee Cooling, Controlled
Controllers - .evices that are used to control the flow of the water and gas in the
sinter machine as well as to control the louvers on the fans.
Conto!r - The outling of an ob<ect.
Convection - The motion resulting in a fluid from the differences in density. 'n heat
transmission, this meaning has been extended to include both forced and natural
motion or circulation.
Conventional ,orging - forging characterized by design complexity and
tolerances that fall within the broad range of general forging practice.
Conversion Cost - @esources spent to process material in a single stage, from one
type to another. The costs of converting iron ore to hot metal or pic0ling hot-rolled
coil can be isolated for analysis.
ConverterA$rocessor - .emand from steel customers such as rerollers and tube
ma0ers, which process steel into a more finished state, such as pipe, tubing and
cold-rolled strip, before selling it to end users. $uch steel generally is not sold on
contract, ma0ing the converter segment of the mills? revenues more price sensitive
than their supply contracts to the auto manufacturers.
Convery) 9ibratory - materials-handling device used usually with sha0eout
operations, to help clean sand from the castings as they are moved from one place
to another in the foundry and as a feeding device to regulate materials flow.
5perations with vibrational energy.
Conve1 - The curved surface of a cylindet as a sphere when viewed from without.
Conveyor - mechanical apparatus for carrying or transporting materials from
place to place. Types include apron, belt, chain, gravity, roller, monorail, overhead,
pneumatic, vibrating, etc.
Conveyor Belt - continuously moving belt used in an automated or semiautomatic
foundry to move materials from one station to another.
Conveyor Screw - @otary worm-type blade used to move materials in automated
core and mold ma0ing and other continuous sand-mixing operations.
Conveyor) $allet - materials-handling device that holds one or more molds and
transports them from the molding station through pouring to sha0eout.
Conveyor) $ne!matic "!be - n air-tube means of moving materials from on place
to another, primarily orders, light metal samples, and sand and other finely divided
materials, as bentonite.
Conveyor) Roller - line of conveyance in an automated or semiautomated foundry
which employs a series of steel roller for moving ob<ects.
Conveyor) Slat - materials-handling device built on a continuous belt of metal
slats that moves granular materials and castings throughout a foundry.
Coo% #Anneal& +o!rs - The number of hours the coils will be heated in the furnace.
lso referred to as soa0 time.
Coolant - cimmon term given to the numerous cutting fluids or compounds used
with cutting tools to increase the tool life and to improve surface finish on the
material.
Cooler - The largest of three water coolers surrounding the cinder notch of a blast
furnace.
Cooler Machine - machine used to cool sinters before placing them on the
conveyor belt.
Cooling Cover - cylindrical cover which is placed over the coils and the heat cover
once the furnace is removed. This cover contains a fan that aids in the cooling of the
coils. The 1orth nneal has one cooling cover.
Cooling C!rve - curve showing the relationship between time and temperature
during the solidification and cooling of a metal sample. $ince most phase changes
involve evolution or absorption of heat, there may be abrupt changes in the slope of
the curve.
Cooling *in - $ee Crac0ing $trip
Cooling .ines - The water lines that go to the bearings on a pump to 0eep the
bearings cool.
Cooling "ower - *" The heat exchanger and everything associated with it that
removes the heat from the coolant used in the cooling system. This device is located
outdoors. 8" Tower in the $heet /ill that suspends the strip that allows the zinc to
cool and dry before the strip contacts any rolls.
Cooling :nit - Consists of the cooler and all the devices needed for the cooler?s
operation.
Cooling Water - 3ater that 0eeps the pac0ing cool on the circulator and feed water
pumps.
Cooling) Controlle - process of cooling from an elevated temperature in a
predetermined manner used to produce a desired microstructure to avoid hardening,
crac0ing or internal damage
Co'e - ;pper or topmost section of a flas0, mold or pattern.
Co'e) *alse - Temporary cope used only in forming the parting and therefore not a
part of the finished mold
Co'ing 4!t - The extension of sand of the cope downward into the drag, where it
ta0es an impression of a pattern.
Co''er - Chemical symbol Cu" 9lement 1o. 8: of the periodic system, atomic
weight FB.D7. characteristically reddish metal of bright luster, highly malleable and
ductile and having high electrical and heat conductivity; melting point *:+*
(degrees" &.; boiling point =B87 &.; specific gravity +.:=. ;nibersally and extensively
used in the arts in brasses, bronzes. ;niversally used in the pure state as sheet,
tube, rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements and an alloy with other
metals.
Co''er ca%e - by-product of electolytic zinc refining, usually containing a fair
amount of cobalt.
Co''er) Electrolytic - Copper produced by the electrolysis method.
Corbel - 5ne or more pro<ecting courses of bric0 each pro<ecting beyond the course
below.
Core - The softer interior portion of an alloy piece that has been surface (case"
hardened; or, that portion of a forging removed by trepanning or punching.
Core Assembly - 6utting together a complex core made of a number of sections.
Core Barrel - 6ipe-shaped device upon which a cylindrical core is formed.
Core Biner - ny material used to hold the grains of core sand together.
Core Blow - gas poc0et in a casting ad<acent to a core cavity caused by
entrapping gases from the core.
Core Bo1) Combination - Core box and core dryers from the same pattern. 5ne
half is used as a half core box and a core drier.
Core Branch - 6art of a core assembly.
Core Brea%er - machine for crushing cores or for removing cores from castings.
Core Cavity - The interior form of a core box that gives shape to the core. lso, the
cavity produced in a casting by use of a core.
Core Colla'sibility - The rate of disintegration of the core at elevated temperature.
Core Com'o!n - commercial mixture used as a binder in core sand.
Core Crab - n iron framewor0 embedded in a large core to stiffen it and for
convenience in handling.
Core /ensity - *" 6ermeability of core or 8" weight per unit volume.
Core /riers - $upports used to hold cares in shape while being ba0ed; constructed
from metals or sand for conventional ba0ing, or from plastic material for use with
dielectric core-ba0ing e-uipment.
Core E1tr!er - special shell-core-ma0ing machine that produces a continuous
length of cores, usually of cylindrical cross-section.
Core *iller - /aterial used in place of sand in the interiors of large cores - co0e,
cinder, sawdust, etc., usually added to aid collapsibility.
Core *in - casting defect, a depression in the casting caused by a fin on the core
that was not removed before the core was set, or by paste that has oozed out from
between the <oints.
Core *loat - casting defect caused by core movement towards the cope surface of
the mold, as a result of core buoyancy in li-uid steel, resulting in a deviation from
the intended wall thic0ness.
Core *rame - &rame of s0eleton construction used instead of a complete core box in
forming intermediate and large cores.
Core Griner - /achine for grinding a taper on the end of a cylindrical core or to
grind a core to a specified dimension, usually flat face.
Core G!m - pitch material used as a core binder.
Core +arness - The ability of a core to resist scratching or abrasion.
Core <ig - device for setting core assemblies outside of the mold and placing the
whole assembly in the mold.
Core 2noc%o!t Machine - mechanical device for removing cores from castings.
Core .ightener - core material of any size and shape used to lighten pattern
castings and match plates.
Core Ma%er - core seat so shaped or arranged that the core will register correctly
in the mold; also termed locator, indicator, register, telltale.
Core M! - daubing mixture used to correct defect in cores.
Core $rints - 6ortions of a pattern that locate and anchor the core in the proper
position in the sand.
Core Re,ractiveness - The ability of a core to resist brea0down when exposed to
heat.
Core Ro - wire or rod of steel used to reinforce and stiffen the core.
Core San - $and for ma0ing cores to which a binding material has been added to
obtain good cohesion and permeability after drying. ;sually low in clays.
Core Setting <ig - device used to help set a core into the mold.
Core Setting <igAGage - device used to help position a core in the mold.
Core Shi,t - variation from specified dimensions of a cored section due to a
change in position of the core or misalignment of cores in assembling.
Core Shooter - device using low air pressure to fluidize the sand mix which is
released -uic0ly in such a way as to force it into a core box.
Core S'inle - shaft on which a core barrel is rotated in ma0ing cylindrical cores.
Core S'rayer - device for spraying a coating on cores.
Core Stic%le "em'late #Swee'& - .evice of wood or metal to give shape to certain
types of cores or molds.
Core Strainer #Strainer "!b& - %a0ed sand or refractory disc with uniform size
holes through its thic0ness used to control the discharge of metal from pouring
basins into sprues or to regulate the flow of metal in gates systems of molds; also to
prevent entrance of dross or slag into the mold cavity.
Core "r!c% - Truc0 or carriage used for transporting cores.
Core 9ents - *" holes made in the core for escape of gas. 8" metal screen or
slotted piece used to form the vent passage in the core box employed in a core-
blowing machine. B" wax product, round or oval in form, used to form the vent
passage in a core.
Core Wires or Rolls - $ee Core @od
Core-Ba%ing /ielectric - #eating cores to ba0ing temperatures by means of high-
fre-uency dielectric e-uipment; particularly adapted to thermo-setting resin core
binders.
Core-Maing Machine - device to ma0e cores.
Coreless (n!ction *!rnace - $ee 'nduction &urnace
Corema%er - craftsman s0illed in the production of cores for foundry use.
Corer) Sag - decrease in the height of a core, usually accompanied by an increase
in width, as a result of insufficient green strength of the sand to support its own
weight.
Coreroom - .epartment of the foundry in which cores are made.
C4REB#r& - C5@9K is a coal-based smelting process that yields hot metal or pig
iron. The output can be used by integrated mills or 9& mills. #53The process
gasifies non-co0ing coal in a smelting reactor, which also produces li-uid iron. The
gasified coal is fed into a shaft furnace, where it removes oxygen from iron ore
lumps, pellets or sinter; the reduced iron is then fed to the smelting reactor. >
Coring :' - 6lacement of cores chills, and chaplets in mold halves before closing the
mold.
Corners - &our corners on each boiler where the oil guns and the oil and steam auto
valves for the oil guns are located.
Cornerslic% #insie an 4!tsie Corners& - molder?s tool used for repairing and
slic0ing the sand in molds. ;sed primarily on .ry sand and loam.
Corrective E,,ective "em'erat!re Chart - chart on which information can be
plotted resulting in an ad<ustment temperature reading more indicative of human
comfort.
Corrective .eveling - Capability of a leveling machine to remove or reduce shape
defects across the strip, coil, or sheet, in addition to flattening lengthwise curvatures.
!enerally employs *7 to 8B small diameter rolls with ad<ustable bac0 ups for varying
nest across face of machine.
Corrosion - *" !radual chemical or electrochemical attac0 on a metal by
atmosphere, moisture or other agents, 8" chemical attac0 of furnace linings by
gases, slags, ashes or other fluxes occurring in various melting practices.
Corrosion Embrittlement - The embrittlement caused in certain alloys by exposure
to a corrosive environment. $uch material is usually susceptible to the intergranular
type of corrosion attac0.
Corrosion (ne1 - number expressing the maximum depth in mils to which
corrosion would penetrate in one year on the basis of a linear extrapolation of the
penetration occurring during the lifetime of a given test or service.
Corrosion Resistance - The intrinsic ability of a material to resist degradation by
corrosion. This ability can be enhanced by application of >special> coatings on the
surface of the material.
Corrosion Wear - 3ear in which chemical or electrochemical reaction with the
environment is significant.
Corr!gate - s a defect. lternate ridges and furrows. series of deep short
waves.
Cor!n!m - 1ative alumna, or aluminum oxide, l85B, occurring as rhombohedral
crystals and also in masses and variously colored grains. pplied specifically to
nontransparent 0inds used as abrasives. 't is hardest mineral except the diamond.
Corundum and its artificial counterparts are abrasives especially suited to the
grinding of metals.
Cosletti0ing - 6roducing a blac0, rust-resisting surface on iron and steel by boiling
for some hours in water containing phosphoric acid and iron filings.
Cottrell $rocess - n electrostatic method of removing solid particles from gases.
Co!nt Rate Meter - device which gives a continuous indication of the average
rate of ionizing events.
Co!nterbore - To enlarge the top part of a hole to specific size, as for the head of a
soc0et-head or cap screw. lso the tool that is used.
Co!ntersin% - To enlarge the topo part of a hole at an angle for a flat-head screw.
lso, the tool that is used.
Co!'le - Two dissimilar conductors in electrical contact. n electromotive force in
created under proper electrolytic influences or during heating.
Co!'ling - $hort piece used to connect two lengths of pipe
Co!'on - piece pf metal from which a test specimen is to be prepared-often an
extra piece (as on a casting or forging" or a separare piece made for test purposes
(such as a test weldment"
Co!rses - lternate layers of material in a pattern, or bric0wor0.
Cover - protective blan0et laid on a melt to exclude oxidizing atmosphere and in
the case of magnesium to prevent its igniting. 1eutral covers simply protect metal
from atmosphere; reacting covers contain an agent such as a deoxidizer.
Cover Core - core set in place during the ramming of a mold to cover and
complete a cavity partly formed by the withdrawal of a loose part of the pattern. lso
used to form part or all of the cope surface of the mold cavity. core placed over
another core to create a flat parting line.
Cover +al, - 'n .ie casting, the stationary half of the die.
Covere Electroe - filler-metal electrode, used in arc welding, consisting of a
metal core vire with a relatively thic0 covering which provides protection for the
molten metal form the atmosphere, improves the properties of the weld metal and
stabilizes the arc. The covering is usually mineral or metal powders mixed with
cellulose or other binder.
CR - (Cold-rolling"@olling steel without first reheating it. This process reduces
thic0ness of the steel, produces a smoother surface and ma0es it easier to machine.
Crab - $ee Core Crab
Crac%) +ot "ear - > rupture occurring in a casting at or <ust below the solidifying
temperature by a pulling apart of the soft metal, caused by thermal contraction
stresses. $ee also Cuench Crac0 >
Crac%e Eges - .iscontinuity or crac0ed condition on the edge of the strip.
Crac%ing - coating defect consisting of a brea0 in the cured film which exposes the
bare substrate. Crac0ing usually occurs during fabrication of the coated plate when
the coating is too brittle or the adhesion is too low.
Crac%ing Stri' - fin of metal molded on the surface of a casting to prevent
crac0ing.
Crane - machine for lifting heavy weights; may be hand or power operated. Type
include electric, gantry, <ib, monorail, etc.
Crane) Gantry - bridge carrying a traveling crane and supported by a pair of
trestles running on parallel trac0s.
Crane) <ib - crane suspended from a <ib.
Crane) Mobile - crane supported on structure that rolls on wheels; may be moved
manually or by its own power.
Crane) Wall <ib - <ib crane mounted on a wall rather than on an overhead beam.
Crash /ec% - The impact dec0 between the discharge of the sinter machine and the
sinter brea0er.
Cratering - coating defect consisting of small, apparently uncoated, spots of
coated plate consisting of a very thin film of coating which was contaminated by oil,
silicone, or foreign matter. 9yeholing is similar to cratering, but with metal exposure
in the crater.
Crawling - coating defect consisting of a lac0 of adhesion to, or dewetting of, the
substrate while the coating or in0 is wet. The cause is due to a difference in surface
tension of the coating and substrate. Crawling is also 0nown as cissing and
dewetting.
Cra0e Crac% #Cra0ing& - /inute crac0 on ceramic or refractory surface caused by
thermal or mechanical shoc0.
Cra0ing #Worming& - defect found in pac0-hardened tools, manifested in surface
mar0ings.
Cree' - The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at
stresses lower than the normal yield strength. The effect is particularly important if
the temperature of stressing is above the recrystallization temperature of the metal.
Cree' .imit - The maximum stress that will result in creep at a rate lower than an
assigned rate.
Cree' Strength - (*" The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified
-uantity of creep in a given time at constant temperature. (8" The constant nominal
stress that will cause a specified creep react at constant temperature.
Crib - 1etwor0 of cast iron used to support the cope when no cope flas0 is used.
Crim'e Ege A amage - damaged edge due to the strip wandering side-to-
side into obstructions as it moves down the line.
Crim'er - Tool used to secure a metal clip on the steel band.
Cristobalite - $implest crystallographic form of $i58.
Critical Cooling Rate - The minimum rate of continuous cooling <ust sufficient to
prevent undesired transformations. &or steel, the slowest rate at which it can be
cooled form above the upper critical temperature to prevent the decomposition of
austenite at any temperature above the /s.
Critical #tem'erat!re&Range - Temperatures at which changes in the phase of a
metal ta0e place. Changes are determined by absorption of heat when the metal is
heated and liberation of heat when it is cooled.
Critical Shear Stress - The shear stress re-uired to cause slip in a single crystal, in
a designated slip direction on a given slip plane. @eferred to as the critical resolved
shear stress if the shear stress reaches a threshold level.
Critical Strain - term used in stress corrosion crac0ing tests to indicate the
maximum strain rate necessary to promote stress corrosion crac0s.
Crona% $rocess - method of producing a film of chromium salts on since surfaces
to inhibit corrosion.
Croning $rocess #C $rocess) Croni0ing& - > casting process name after its
!erman developer Lohannes Croning. 't is a precision production process using a
phenol formaldehyde resin binder. $ee $hell /olding >
Cro''ing - Cutting off ends of billets ingots or slabs containing pipe or other
defects.
Cross Brea%s - *" Creases which appear as parallel lines transverse to the direction
of rolling. 8" Cuality defect on the edge of plate coming to the line (bro0en steel but
not open brea0s". B" #ard spots caused by abrupt deformation of the strip after hot
rolling and due to stressing beyond the elastic limit of the metal.
Cross /irection #in rolle or rawn metal& - The direction parallel to the axes of
the rolls during rolling. The direction at right angles to the direction of rolling or
drawing.
Cross *ee - The feed that operates across the axis of the wor0piece or at right
angles to the main or principal feed on a machine.
Cross Gate - $ee @unner
Cross +ea - $ee ?6ressure @oll.?
Cross Section - view of the interior of an ob<ect that is represented as being cut
in two, the cut surface presenting the cross section of the ob<ect.
Crossbar - 3ood or metal bar placed in a flas0 to give greater anchorage to the
sand than is afforded by its four walls.
Crossbow - curvature across the width of the strip at a :4-degree angle to the
direction in which the strip has been rolled or uncoiled.
Crown - &urnace roof, especially when dome-shaped; highest point of an arch.
Cr!cible - ceramic pot or receptacle made of graphite and clay, or clay or other
refractory material, and used in the melting of metal. The term is sometimes applied
to pots made of cast iron, cast steel or wrought steel.
Cr!cible *!rnace - furnace fired with co0e, oil, gas, or electricity in which metals
are melted in a refractory crucible.
Cr!cible Steel - #igh-carbon steel produced by melting blister steel in a covered
crucible. Crucible steel was developed by %en<amin #untsman in about *7D4 and
remained in use until the late *:=4?s.
Cr!cible Cone - The zone in the cupola between the bottom and the tuyere.
Cr!sh - %uc0ling or brea0ing of a section of mold due to incorrect register when
closing. lso, an indentation in the casting surface due to displacement of sand in the
mold when the mold is closed.
Cr!sh Stri' or Bea - n indentation in the parting line of a pattern plate which
ensures that cope and drag have good contact by producing a ridge of sand which
crushes against the other surface of the mold or core.
Cryogenic - 6ertaining to very low temperature. luminum gains strength as
temperature is reduced, ma0ing it an appropriate material for cryogenic applications
Crystal - (*" physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms. ions or molecules
are arranged in a three-dimensional repetitive pattern. (8" coherent piece of
matter, all parts of which have the same anisotropic arrangement of atom; in metals,
usually synonymous with grain and crystallite.
Crystal Analysis - .etermination of crystal structure.
Crystal .attice - The way atoms are arranged in a crystal. $pacewise, there are
only *= different lattices.
Crystalline *ract!re - fracture of a polycrystalline metal characterized by a
grainy appearance. Compare fibrous fracture.
Crystalli0ation - The formation of crystals by the atoms assuming definite positions
in a crystal lattice. This is what happens when a li-uid metal solidifies. (&atigue, the
failure of metals under repeated stresses, is sometimes falsely attributed to
crystallization."
C"/ - Cumulative Trauma .isorder. 'llnesses that develop gradually over time and
involve disorders of the soft tissues of the body. Caused or aggravated by repeatedly
or constantly applied excessive forces, aw0ward postures, or highly repetitive
movements of the body.
C! - Chemical symbol for Copper.
C!be-Centere - /etallography- (concerning space lattices" - %ody-centered cubic.
@efers to crystal structure.
C!lvert $i'e - #eavy gauge, galvanized steel that is spiral-formed or riveted into
corrugated pipe, which is used for highway drainage applications.
C!no *ilter - n in-line filter that ta0es the dirt out of the oil on a turbine.
C!'loa - cylindrical,straight shaft furnace (usually lined with refractories" for
melting metal in direct contact with co0e by forcing air under pressure through
openings near its base.
C!re - To hardenT
C!re "ime - &ull polymerization is a function of time and temperature.
C!ring - The process by which synthetic materials form continuous films by various
combinations of oxidation, solvent evaporation and heat of polymerization according
to their basic resin structures.
C!ring "ime #3o Ba%e& - That period of time needed before a sand mass reaches
maximum hardness.
C!rl - ppears as a relatively uniform curvature or sweep along the length of coiled
metal.
C!rrent - The movement of free electrons in a meterial.
C!stomer "est Stri' - full width sample of steel used in performing testing
procedures.
C!t - .efect in a casting resulting from erosion of the sand by metal flowing over the
mold or cored surface.
C!t Ege - The normal edge that results from the shearing, slitting or trimming of a
mill edge.
C!t in hal, - $plit one (*" coil into two (8" coils (not necessarily D4G in each coil".
C!t o!t - '/'$ term meaning loss of prime weight of a coil or cutting out rips and
crac0s on the edges of a coil.
C!t o!t the center - The act of removing the center laps or '. of a coil with long
handled sheers to remove defects. The @eelman is sometimes directed to perform
this tas0.
C!t-to-.ength - 6rocess to uncoil sections of flat-rolled steel and cut them into a
desired length. 6roduct that is cut to length is normally shipped flat-stac0ed.
C!to,, Machine) Abrasive - device using a thin abrasive wheel rotating at high
speed to cut off gates and risers from castings, or in similar operations.
C!tter) Gate - scoop or other form of cutting gates in the mold.
C!tting *l!i - li-uid used to cool and lubricate the cutting to improve the wor0
surface finish.
C!tting "ool - hardened piece of metal (tool steel" that is machined and grounc
so that it has the shape and cutting edges appropriate for the operation for which it
is to be used.
C!tting Wheel - The plastic discs impregnated with an abrasive for cutting ceramics
and metals. ;sed on abrasive cutoff machines.
CW - Continuous weld-amethod of produciong small diameter (*,8-=)"
Cyanie +arening - process of introducing carbon and nitrogen into the surface
of steel by heating it to a suitable temperature in a molten bath of sodium cyanide,
or a mixture of sodium and potassium cyanide, diluted with sodium carbonate and
-uenching in oil or wate. This process id used where a thin case and high hardness
are re-uired.
Cycles - $ee hertz
Cyclone #Centri,!gal Collector& - 'n air pollution control, a controlled descending
vortex created to spiral ob<ectionable gases and dust to the bottom of a collector
core.
Cyclone Se'arator - @otating strainer that uses a centrifugal process to remove
particulates from water.
Cyclonic Scr!bber - 'n air pollution control, radial li-uid (usually water" sprays
introduced into cyclones to facilitate collection of particles.
Cyclotron - device for accelerating charged particles to high energies by means of
an alternating electric field between electrodes placed in a constant magnetic field.
com'ressive ,orce) with or witho!t ies. -
com'ressive ,orce) with or witho!t ies. - 1;AA
Ca%e - copper ingot rectangular in cross section intended for rolling.
Camber or Bow - 9dgewise curvature. lateral departure of a side edge of sheet or
strip metal from a straight line.
Canning - dished distortion in a flat or nearly flat surface, sometimes referred to
as oil canning.
Carbie - compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements.
Carbon - Chemical symbol C. 9lement 1o. F of the periodic system; atomic weight
*8.4*; has three allotropic modifications, all non-metallic. Carbon is present in
practically all ferrous alloys, and has tremendous effect on the properties of the
resultant metal. Carbon is also an essential component of the cemented carbides. 'ts
metallurgical use, in the form of co0e, for reduction of oxides, is very extensive.
Carbon E;!ivalent - @eferring to the rating of weld-ability, this is a value that
ta0es into account the e-uivalent additive effects of carbon and other alloying
elements on a particular characteristic of a steel. &or rating of weld-ability, a formula
commonly used isE C9 U C O (/n,F" O P(Cr O /o O M",DQ O P(1i O Cu",*DQ.
Carbon *ree - /etals and alloys which are practically free from carbon.
Carbon $otential - measure of the capacity of an environment containing active
carbon to alter or maintain, under prescribed conditions, the carbon concentration in
a steel.
Carbon Range - 'n steel specifications, the carbon range is the difference between
the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable.
Carbon Restoration - @eplacing the carbon lost in the surface layer during previous
processing by carburizing this layer to substantially the original carbon level.
Carbon Steel - Common or ordinary steel as contrasted with special or alloy steels,
which contain other alloying metals in addition to the usual constituents of steel in
their common percentages.
Carbon Steel - steel containing only residual -uantities of elements other than
carbon, except those added for deoxidization or to counter the deleterious effects of
residual sulfur. $ilicon is usually limited to about 4.F4G and manganese to about
*,FDG. lso termed plain carbon steel, ordinary steel, straight carbon steel.
Carbonitriing - 'ntroducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by
holding above c* in an atmosphere that contains suitable gases such as
hydrocardons, carbon monocide, and ammonia. The carbonitrided alloy is usually
-uench hardened.
Carbonitriing. - case hardening process in which a suitable ferrous material is
heated above the lower transformation temperature in a gaseous atmosphere having
a composition that results in simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitrogen by the
surface and, by diffusion, creates a concentration gradient. The process is completed
by cooling at a rate that produces the desired properties in the wor0 piece.
Carb!ri0ing - process in which an austenitized ferrous material is brought into
contact with a carbonaceous atmosphere having sufficient carbon potential to cause
absorption of carbon at the surface and, by diffusion, create a concentration
gradient.
Carb!ri0ing #Cementation& - dding carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by
absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in
contact with carbonaceous solids, li-uids or gases. The oldest method of case
hardening.
Cartrige Brass - 74G copper B4G zinc. This is one of the most widely used of the
copper-zinc alloys; it is formable and ductile and possesses excellent cold-wor0ing,
poor hot wor0ing and poor machining properties. @ated excellent for soft-soldering;
good for silver alloy brazing or oxyacetylene welding and fair for resistance of carbon
arc welding. The alloy develops high tensile strength with cold-wor0ing. Temper is
obtained by cold rolling.
Case - 'n a ferrous alloy, the outer portion that has been made harder than the
inner portion, or core.
Case +arening - Carburizing and subse-uently hardening by suitable heat-
treatment, all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron-base alloy.
Case +arening - generic term covering several processes applicable to steel that
change the the chemical composition of the surface layer by absorption of carbon or
nitrogen, or a mixture of the two, and, by diffusion, create a concentration gradient.
Cast (ron - 'ron containing more carbon than the solubility limit in austenite (about
8G".
Cast Steel - $teel in the form of castings, usually containing less than 8G carbon.
Cast Steel - ny ob<ect made by pouring molten steel into molds.
Cavitation /amage - 3earing away of metal through the formation and collapse of
cavities in a li-uid.
Cementite - compound of iron and carbon 0nown as 'ron carbide, which has the
approximate chemical formula &eBC containing F.F:G of carbon. #ard and brittle, it
is the hard constituent of cast iron, and the normal form in which carbon is present
in steel. 't is magnetizable, but not as readily as ferrite.
Cementite - compound of iron and carbon, 0nown chemically as iron carbide and
having the approximate chemical formula &eBC. 't is characterized by an
orthorhombic crystal structure. 3hen it occurs as a phase in steel, the chemical
composition will be altered by the presence of manganese and other carbide-forming
elements.
Cementite - metastable carbide, with composition &eBC and orthorhombic crystal
structure, having limited substitutional solubility for the carbide-forming elements,
notably manganese.
Centri,!gal Casting - casting made by pouring metal into a mold that is rotated
or revolved.
Ceramic "ools - Cutting tools made from fused, sintered, or cemented metallic
oxides.
Cha,ery - charcoal-fired furnace used in early iron ma0ing processes to reheat a
bloom of wrought iron for forging to consolidate the iron and expel entrapped slag.
Charcoal "in $late - Tin 6late with a relatively heavy coating of tin (higher than the
Co0e Tin 6late grades".
Char'y "est - pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen
usually notched, is supported at both ends as a simple beam and bro0en by a falling
pendulum. The energy absorbed, as determined by the subse-uent rise of the
pendulum, is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness.
Chatter Mar%s - 6arallel indentations or mar0s appearing at right angles to edge of
strip forming a pattern at close and regular intervals, caused by roll vibrations.
Chemical Milling - @emoving metal stoc0 by controlled selective chemical etching.
Chemical $olishing - 'mproving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by
chemical treatment.
Chromai0ing #Chromoi0ing) Chromati0ing& - &orming an acid surface to
improve paint adhesion on aluminum or aluminum alloys, mainly aircraft s0ins, by
treatment with a solution of chromic acid.
Chromi!m - Chemical symbol Cr. 9lement 1o. 8= of the periodic system; atomic
weight D8.4*. 't is of bright silvery color, relatively hard. 't is strongly resistant to
atmospheric and other oxidation. 't is of great value in the manufacture of $tainless
$teel as an iron-base alloy. Chromium plating has also become a large outlet for the
metal. 'ts principal functions as an alloy in steel ma0ing; (*" increases resistance to
corrosion and oxidation (8" increases harden-ability (B" adds some strength at high
temperatures (=" resists abrasion and wear (with high carbon".
Chromi0ing - surface treatment at elevated temperature, generally carried out in
pac0, vapor, or salt bath, in which an alloy is formed by the inward diffusion of
chromium into the base metal.
Cla Metal - composite metal containing two or three layers that have been
bonded together. The bonding may have been accomplished by co-rolling, welding,
heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating.
Cla Metal - composite metal containing two or three layers that have been
bonded together. The bonding may have been accomplished by corolling, welding,
casting, heavy chemical deposition, or heavy electroplating.
Cleavage - &racture of a crystal by crac0 propagation across a crystallographic plane
of low index.
Cleavage *ract!re - &racture of a grain, or most of the grains, in a polycrystalline
metal by cleavage, resulting in bright reflecting facets.
Cleavage $lane - characteristic crystallographic plane or set of planes in a crystal
on which cleavage fracture occurs easily.
Cl!ster Mill - rolling mill where each of the two wor0ing rolls of small diameter is
supported by two or more bac0-up rolls.
Cobalt - Chemical symbol Co. 9lement 1o. 87 of the periodic system; atomic weight
D+.:=. gray magnetic metal, of medium hardness; it resists corrosion li0e nic0el,
which it resembles closely; melting point 8F:F (degrees" &.; specific gravity +.:. 't is
used as the matrix metal in most cemented carbides and is occasionally electroplated
instead of nic0el, the sulfate being used as electrolyte. 'ts principal function as an
alloy in tool steel; it contributes to red hardness by hardening ferrite.
Coil Brea%s - Creases or ridges across a metal sheet transverse to the direction of
coiling, occasionally occurring when the metal has been coiled hot and uncoiled cold.
Coil Wel - <oint between two lengths of metal within a coil - not always visible in
the cold reduced product.
Coils - Coiled flat sheet or strip metal- usually in one continuous piece or length.
Coining - process of impressing images or characters of the die and punch onto a
plane metal surface.
Col Re!ce Stri' - /etal strip, produced from hot-rolled strip, by rolling on a
cold reduction mill.
Col Re!ction - @eduction of metal size, usually by rolling or drawing particularly
thic0ness, while the metal is maintained at room temperature or below the
recrystallization temperature of the metal.
Col Rolle *inish - &inish obtained by cold rolling plain pic0led sheet or strip with
a lubricant resulting in a relatively smooth appearance.
Col Short - condition of brittleness existing in some metals at temperatures
below the recrystalization temperature.
Col Sh!t - (*" discontinuity that appears on the surface of cast metal as a result
of two streams of li-uid meeting and failing to unite. (8" portion of the surface of a
forging that is separated, in part, from the main body of metal by oxide.
Col Wor% - 6ermanent strain produced by an external force in a metal below its
recrystallization temperature.
Col!mbi!m - Chemical symbol Cb. 9lement 1o. =* of the periodic system. tomic
weight :8.:*. 't is steel gray in color and brilliant luster. $pecific gravity +.D7.
/elting point at about =B+4 (degrees" &. 't is used mainly in the production of
stabilized austenitic chromium-nic0el steels, also to reduce the air-hardening
characteristics in plain chromium steels of the corrosion resistant type. (1ow 0nown
as 1iobium (1b", element 1o. =* of the periodic system."
Col!mnar Str!ct!re - structure consisting of elongated grains whose tong axes
are parallel.
Col!mnar Str!ct!re - coarse structure of parallel columns of grains, having the
long axis perpendicular to the casting surface.
Constit!te - phase, or combination of phases, that occurs in a characteristic
configuration in a microstructure.
Constit!tional /iagram - graphical representation of the temperature and
composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they actually exist under
specific conditions of heating and cooling (synonymous with phase diagram".
constitutional diagram may be, or may approximate, and e-uilibrium diagram, or
may represent metastable conditions or phases. Compare e-uilibrium diagram.
Contin!o!s Casting - casting techni-ue in which the ingot is continuously
solidified while it is being poured, and the length is not determined by mold
dimensions.
Contin!o!s Casting - casting techni-ue in which an ingot, billet, tube, or other
shape is continuously solidified while it is being poured, so that its length is not
determined by mold dimensions.
Contin!o!s *!rnace - &urnace, in which the material being heated moves steadily
through the furnace.
Contin!o!s $hase - 'n an alloy or portion of an alloy containing more than one
phase, the phase that forms the bac0ground or matrix in which the other phase or
phases are present as isolated volumes.
Contin!o!s $ic%ling - 6assing sheet or strip metal continuously through a series of
pic0ling and washing tan0s.
Controlle Atmos'here *!rnaces - furnace used for bright annealing into which
specially prepared gases are introduced for the purpose of maintaining a neutral
atmosphere so that no oxidizing reaction between metal and atmosphere ta0es
place.
Controlle Rolling - hot rolling process in which the temperature of the steel is
closely controlled, particularly during the final rolling passes, to produce a fine-grain
microstructure.
Converter - furnace in which air is blown through the molten bath of crude metal
or matte for the purpose of oxidizing impurities.
Cooling Stresses - $tresses developed by uneven contraction or external constraint
of metal during cooling; also those stresses resulting from localized plastic
deformation during cooling, and retained.
Coring - variation of composition between the center and surface of a unit of
structure (such as a dendrite, a grain or a carbide particle" resulting from non-
e-uilibrium growth over a range of temperature.
Corrosion - !radual chemical or electrochemical attac0 on a metal by atmosphere,
moisture or other agents.
Corrosion - .eterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its
environment.
Corrosion Embrittlement - The severe loss of ductility of a metal resulting from
corrosive attac0, usually intergranular and often not visually apparent.
Corrosion *atig!e - 9ffect of the application of repeated or fluctuating stresses in a
corrosive environment characterized by shorter life than would be encountered as a
result of either their repeated or fluctuating stresses alone or the corrosive
environment alone.
Cree' - Time-dependent strain occurring under stress.
Cree' - Time-dependent strain occurring under stress. The creep strain occurring at
a diminishing rate is called primary creep; that occurring at a minimum and almost
constant rate, secondary creep; that occurring at an accelerating rate, tertiary creep.
Cree' .imit - (*" The maximum stress that will cause less than a specified -uantity
of creep in a given time. (8" The maximum nominal stress under which the creep
strain rate decreases continuously with time under constant load and at constant
temperature. $ometimes used synonymously with creep strength.
Crevice Erosion - type of concentration-cell corrosion; corrosion of a metal that is
caused by the concentration of dissolved salts, metal ions, oxygen, or other gases,
and such, in crevices or poc0ets remote from the principal fluid stream, with a
resultant building up of differential cells that ultimately cause deep pitting.
Critical Cooling Rate - The limiting rate at which austenite must be cooled to
ensure that a particular type of transformation product is formed.
Critical $oint - (*" The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal
structure, phase or physical properties occurs; same as transformation temperature.
(8" 'n an e-uilibrium diagram, that specific combination of composition, temperature
and pressure at which the phases of an inhomogeneous system are in e-uilibrium.
Critical $oint - (*" The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal
structure, phase, or physical properties occurs. $ame as transformation temperature.
(8" 'n an e-uilibrium diagram, that specific value of composition, temperature and
pressure, or combinations thereof, at which the phases of a heterogeneous systems
are in e-uilibrium.
Critical $oints - Temperatures at which internal changes or transformations ta0e
place within a metal either on a rising or falling temperature.
Critical Range - temperature range in which an internal change ta0es place within
a metal. lso termed transformation range.
Critical Strain - That strain which results in the formation of very large grains
during recrystallization.
Critical "em'erat!re - $ynonymous with critical point if pressure is constant.
Cro' - The defective ends of a rolled or forged product which are cut off and
discarded.
Cross Rolling - The rolling of sheet so that the direction of rolling is changed about
:4 (degrees" from the direction of the previous rolling.
Cross Rolling - @olling at an angle to the long dimension of the metal; usually done
to increase width.
Cross Rolling - (hot" rolling process in which rolling reduction is carried out in a
direction perpendicular to, as well as a direction parallel to, the length of the original
slab.
Crown - contour on a sheet or roll where the thic0ness or diameter increases from
edge to center.
Crown or +eavy Center - 'ncreased thic0ness in the center of metal sheet or strip
as compared with thic0ness at the edge.
Crystalline - Composed of crystals.
C!' *ract!re - type of fracture in a tensile test specimen which loo0s li0e a cup
having the exterior portion extended with the interior slightly depressed.
C!' *ract!re #C!'-an-Cone *ract!re& - &racture, fre-uently seen in tensile test
pieces of a ductile material, in which the surface of failure on one portion shows a
central flat area of failure in tension, with an exterior extended rim of failure in
shear.
C!tting S'ee - The linear or peripheral speed of relative motion between the tool
and wor0 piece in the principal direction of cutting.
Cyaniing - 'ntroducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding
above c* in contact with molten cyanide of suitable composition. The cyanided alloy
is usually -uench hardened.
Cyaniing - $urface hardening of an iron-base alloy article or portion of it by
heating at a suitable temperature in contact with a cyanide salt, followed by
-uenching.
/ #*orath& $rocess - $hell molding in which the shell is made by blowing sand
into a box li0e heated structure so that a shell of controlled thic0ness is created.
/am'er Roll - roll used to control the line tension on the plate.
/am'ers - (various types" $crubber isolation damper, emergency stac0 cap
damper, fuel air damper.
/at!m $lane - 'n layout and machining operations the reference plane from which
dimensions are measured in the perpendicular direction.
/at!m $oints - 'n layout and machining operations the reference points on a datum
plane from which dimensions are measured.
/a!bing - &illing of crac0s in molds or cores by specially prepared pastes or coatings
to prevent a mechanical penetration of metal into these crac0s during pouring. lso,
the final plastering or coating of the cupola or ladle after shrin0age has ta0en place
during the drying period. Clay slurry or clay wash with various coating compounds
are applied.
B - .ecibel
/C - The second of the two types of electricity. 't stands for direct current. 'n a .C
circuit, current is always flowing in the same direction and (for a given voltage" is of
the same magnitude.
/C #/irect Chill& Casting - continuous method of ma0ing ingots or billets for
sheet or extrusion by pouring the metal into a short mold. The base of the mold is a
platform that is gradually lowered while the metal solidifies, the frozen shell of metal
acting as a retainer for the li-uid metal below the wall of the mold. The ingot is
usually cooled by the impingement of water directly on the mold or on the walls of
the solid metal as it is lowered. The length of the ingot is limited by the depth to
which the platform can be lowered; therefore, it is often called semicontinuous
casting.
/C #/irect Chill& Casting - continuous method of ma0ing ingots or billets or
extrusion by pouring the metal into a short mold. $ome times called semi-continuous
casting.
/ea Annealing - $ee nnealing
/ea En - The end of a water line, the point where the flow stops.
/ea *lat - 6erfectly flat. s pertaining to sheet, strip or plate. @efer to $tretcher
Aeveling.
/ea Smooth - The term applied to the finest cut of a file.
/ea Steel - &ully 0illed steel, also applied to steel which fails to respond to heat
treatment.
/eab!rne - Term applied to refractory materials obtained by calcimining at a
temperature high enough to form a product inert to atmospheric moisture and
carbon dioxide, and less apt to contract.
/eab!rne /olonite - .olonite burned at high temperature with additions of an
agent, such as oxide of iron.
/eahea - (.#" .eadheading is to run a coil through a stand with the rolls open;
no reduction in gauge.
/eb!rr - To remove sharp edges.
/eb!rris - #orizontal 0nife used to remove burrs after slitting.
/ecalescence - term used in reference to the absorption of heat without a
corresponding indrease in temperature, when steel is heated through the ctitical
points (phase changes".
/ecant - *" 6our from one vessel to another, 8" pour off molten metal without
disturbing the sludge.
/ecarb!ri0ation - The loss of carbon from the surface of steel by heating above
lower critical temperature or by chemical action. .ecarburization is usually present to
a slight extent in steel forgings. 9xcessive decarburization can result in defective
products.
/ecibel #B& - ;nit for measuring the ration amounts of acoustical power; one-
tenth of a bel.
/ecoration #o, islocations& - $egregation of solute atoms to the line of a
dislocation in a crystal. 'n ferrite, the dislocations may be decorated with carbon or
nitrogen atoms.
/een!m - The depth or that portiono of a gear tooth from the pitch circle to root
circle of gear.
/ee' /rawing - The fabrication process of flat rolled steel to ma0e drawn parts.
The part is mechanically formed through or in a die. The blan0 diameter is reduced;
the blan0 contracts circumferentially as it is drawn radially inward. ($ee .eep
.rawing pplications".
/ee' /rawing A''lications - 6arts,applications that re-uire deep drawing in their
fabrication. 9xamples are motor shells, fenders, -uarter panels, door panels.
/ee' Etching - /acroetching; etching for examination at a low (less that *4K"
magnification, in a reagent that attac0s the metal to a much greater extent than
normal for microscopic examination. !ross features my be developed; i.e., abnormal
grain size, segregation, crac0s, or grain flow.
/ee'be *ilter - gas filter in air pollution control, consisting of a loosely pac0ed
mat of fibrous materials; not practical where high grain loading are encountered.
/e,ect - *" nything that renders the steel unfit for the specific use for which it was
ordered. 3hat is defective for one customer may be prime steel for another. 8"
variety of -uality problems in a coil. 9xamples are punchmar0s, roll mar0s, oil spots,
and scratches.
/e,lector Roll - roll used to change the direction of the strip.
/e,ormation "est - n !$ test using an instrument such as the .ietert ;niversal
$and-$trength Testing machine (with deformation accessory" to determine the
amount in inches that the sand specimen is compressed before it ruptures.
/egas +eat - heat of degas steel is a heat that is produced to extremely low
carbon levels through vacuum degassing.
/egasser - material employed for removing gases from molten metals and alloys.
/egassing - ;sually a chemical reaction resulting from a compound added to
molten metal to remove gases from the metal. 5ften inert gases are used in this
operation.
/egassing *l!1 - flux for removing gas from the melt.
/egenerate Str!ct!re - ;sually refers to pearlite that does not have an ideally
lamellar structure. The degree of degeneracy may vary from slight perturbations in
the lamellar arrangement to structures that are not recognizably lamellar.
/egreasing - @emoval of grease,oil or other lubricant-type materials by immersion
in an effective solvent. primarily al0aline cleaners are used,although an organic
solvents are useful.
/egree o, Ramming - The extent of hardness to which a sand mold is rammed.
/elay Coe - four-character code used to identify the type and reason for a delay.
/elay Screen #S%im Gate #Erroneo!sly&)S%im Strainer& - small piece of
perforated light gage tinned sheet steel, or of copper, aluminum, and,or magnesium
alloys, fre-uently placed in the pouring basin at the top of the downsprue. 't delays
the flow of metal long enough to allow the basin to fill before it melts to permit only
clean metal from the bottom of the basin to enter the downsprue. .elay screens are
also use elsewhere in the gating system.
/elivery En - The exit end of the line.
/elivery "ail En "he o!tsie - The outside lap of the produced coil on the
delivery reel.
/elta (ron - llotropic modification of iron, stable above 8DD8 (degrees" &. to
melting point. 't is of body-centered cubic crystal structure.
/eminerali0ation "rain - Two units, a cation tan0 and an anion tan0, wor0ing in
con<ugation. 3ater flows through the tan0s and undergoes a positive and negative
ion exchange that removes hardness.
/eminerali0e Water - City water which is circulated through a series of three
demineralizing filters to soften it and remove residuals. 't is then delivered to a
storage tan0 for use in overflowing the superheater elements and headers on the
boiler during hydrostatic tests. &illing the superheaters with demineralized water
prevents the raw water used in a hydrostatic test from entering the superheaters
where it could cause corrosion problems.
/ensitometer - 'nstrument utilizing the photoelectric principle to determine the
degree of dar0ening of developed photographic film.
/ensity - The mass per unit volume of a substance, usually expressed in grams per
cubic centimeter or in pounds per cubic foot.
/ensity #$hotogra'hic& - .ensity is used to denote the degree of dar0ening of
photographic film. Aogarithm of opacity of exposed and processed film. 5pacity is the
reciprocal of transmission; transmission is the ratio of transmitted to incident
intensity.
/eo1iation - (*" @emoval of oxygen from molten metals by use of suitable
chemical agents. (8" $ometimes refers to removal of undesirable elements other
than oxygen by the introduction of elements or compounds that readily react with
them.
/eo1ii0ing - @emoval of oxygen. 'n steel sheet, strip, and wire technology, the
term refers to heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere, to lessen the amount of
scale.
/e'hos'hori0ation - 9limination of phosphorus from molten steel.
/e'th Car - notched paper card used in setting the depth of the 0nives.
/e'th o, ,!sion - The depth to which base matel melts during welding
/ermatis - n inflammation of the s0in, which may be caused by allergy to certain
casting ad<uncts, as resins; particularly in the shell process.
/escale - @emove the fire scale from the surface of casting.
/escaling - The process of removing scale from the surface of steel. $cale forms
most readily when the steel is hot by union oxygen with iron. Common methods of
descaling are (*" crac0 the scale by use of roughened rolls and remove by a forceful
water spray, (8" throw salt or wet sand or wet burlap on the steel <ust previous to its
passage through the rolls.
/eseaming - process of burning out defective areas on the surface of
ingots,blooms or billets. The condition of the surface is such that it can then be rolled
or forged intoa saticfactory product.
/esign Base .ine - The noise spectrum which is the goal of any particular noise
reduction program.
/esignations - Type of metal named, as steel, malleable, nonferrous, etc.
/eslagger - rotating retractable steam lance used to remove slag from the boiler
tubes and walls.
/es'ersion +arening - >#ardening by the formation of hard microconstituents
dispersed in a softer matrix. $ee 6reciptitation #ardening >
/es!l,!ri0ation - 5peration that in<ects a chemical mixture into a ladle full of hot
metal to remove sulfur prior to its charging into the %asic 5xygen &urnace. $ulfur
enters the steel from the co0e in the blast furnace smelting operation, and there is
little the steelma0er can do to reduce its presence. %ecause excess sulfur in the steel
impedes its welding and forming characteristics, the mill must add this step to the
steelma0ing process.
/es!l,!ri0er - material used to remove sulfur from molten metals and alloys.
lso, a form of holding ladle or basin in which the molten metal and desulfurizing
material are brought into contact.
/es!'erheater - 6ressure reducing station which reduces +44 psi high pressure
steam to 88D psi low pressure steam to supplement the low pressure system
throughout the mill.
/etroit C!' "est - cupping test for sand, using a steel ball as plunger, the depth
of cup being shown on a dial
/evelo'e +arness - #ardness capability of a metal or alloy after a hardening
heat-treating process.
/e9ries "est - test to give the relative hardness of deep hardening steels.
/ew $oint - The dew point of the atmosphere inside the furnace. The higher the
negative number, the dryer the furnace. dry furnace is desired.
/ewa1ing - The process of melting out the expendable was pattern from an
investment mold by the application of heat, usually at temperatures less than 8D4
%4& (*8*" %4C".
/e1iation - @emoval of excess oxygen from molten metal, usually accomplished
by adding materials with a high affinity for oxygen, the oxides of which are either
gaseous or readily form slags.
/e1trin - $oluble gummy carbohydrate formed by the decomposition of starch by
heat, acids, or enzymes; it is use din core compounds, mold compounds, mold
washes, core pastes, and other compounds re-uiring high dry compressive
strengths.
/e0incing - coating defect consisting of the removal of the zinc oxide in a >C>
enamel film by chemical reaction with food products. .ezincing appears as a lac0 of
opacity in the film and usually occurs in a random pattern.
/e0!ri% 9alve - %utterfly or slide-plate type stop valve that allows emergency
-uencher and -uencher flow to the bull nozzle of the ductwor0. 1ame refers to
manufacturer.
/e E8rator "an%s - Treated water storage tan0s which help remove excess air from
the feed water by spraying the water into an atmosphere of exhaust steam as it
enters the tan0. @emoval of all possible air helps prevent corrosion of the boiler
internals. &rom the tan0s, the feed water is pumped to the boilers at approximately
:D4 psi.
/ia-"ester #Wol'ert +arness "ester& - hardness testing machine using the
Mic0ers or %rinell ball indenter.
/iameters - 'n microscopy, an indication of the amount of magnification. *444
diameters B.*444 times original size.
/iametral $itch - @atio of the number of teeth on a gear to the number of inches of
pitch diameter or the number of teeth to each inch of pitch diameter.
/iammoni!m $hos'hate - ;sed to fireproof clothing of foundry wor0ers.
/iamon $yrami +arness "est - This test, more commonly 0nown as the
vic0ers test finds greater use in the laboratory than the wor0shop. 't employs a
pyramid shaped diamond with an included angle of *BFS which is impressed into the
specimen using loads of D to *84 0g ma0ing a small s-uare impression. This test is
used for finished or polished components because the impression can be very small.
The diamond pyramid hardness number is obtained from a calculation based on
measuring the diagonals of the impressions in the steel.
/ia'hragm Shell Moling Machine - n arrangement for applying a s-ueeze
pressure with a high-temperature silicone rubber diaphragm.
/ias'ore Clay - roc0li0e mineral consisting chiefly of diaspore (#l58" bonded by
fire clay substance with an alumina content higher than FBG.
/iathermometer - n instrument for examining the thermal resistance or the heat
conducting power of ob<ects.
/iatomaceo!s Earth #(n,!sorial Earth& - hydrous of silica which is soft, light in
weight and consists mainly of microscopic shells of diatoms or other marine
organisms.
/ie - metal bloc0 used in forming materials by casting, molding, stamping,
threading, or extruding.
/ie Assembly - The parts of a die stamp or press that hold the die and locate it for
the punches.
/ie Casting #Brit. $ress!re /ie Casting& - rapid, water-cooled permanent mold
casting process limited to nonferrous metals. There are three typesE the plunger-
type operated hydraulically, mechanically or by compressed air with or without a
goosenec0; the direct-air in<ection which forces metal from a goose-nec0 into the
die, and the Cold-Chamber /achine. ll force the metal into the die with a pressure
greater than that of gravity flow.
/ie Cavity - The impression in a die into which pattern material is forced.
/ie Coating - $ee @elease gent
/ie (nsert - removable liner or part of a die body or punch.
/ie lines - Aongitudinal mar0ing which may be imparted to the surface of an
extrusion by irregularities in a die aperture
/ie Set - 'n stamping, the parts of the press that hold the die and locate it in proper
relation to the punches.
/ie Shi,t - The impression of the top die not being in alignment with the impression
of the bottom die, also, the amount of misalignment.
/ie-Cleaning Area - section of the coating of the strip which is produced when
the 5perator cleans the die.
/ielectric 4ven #/ryer& - rapid-drying high fre-uency electric oven used to ba0e
cores.
/ies - (!alvanize" ir pressure devices in the $heet /ill which, depending on
distance from coil, determine coating thic0ness by removing excess metal from the
strip; the farther the die is from the steel, the heavier the coating - also called
>0nives> on this line.
/ie Stoc% - The frame and two handles (bars" which hold the dies (chasers" used
for cutting (chasing" external screw threads.
/ietert $rocess - patented process for the production of precision molds involving
blowing a contoured core around a pattern to form half a mold.
/ietert "ester - patented apparatus for the direct reading of a %rinell hardness
after impression without using magnification or conversion tables.
/i,,erential Coatings - Coatings on flat rolled products whereby the thic0ness of
the coating on the one side is heavier than the other side. t 3eirton $teel, the term
is applied to a tin plate product which re-uires one side of the steel to have a heavier
tin coating than the other side.
/i,,erential +eat "reatment - heating process by which the temperature is
varied within the ob<ect so that, after cooling, various parts may have different
properties as desired.
/i,,!ser - K-ray e-uipment, a portion of the condensing and focusing system that
permits even distribution of energy.
/igital .evel (nicator - .evices that electronically measures the level of oil in a
tan0. The readout is given in a percentage of the tan0 that is full (*44G".
/i%e - patented flexible seal to prevent blow-by in core boxes.
/imensional allowance - The specified diffferance in size between mating parts
/imensional "olerance Graes - system of classifying the tightness of
tolerances for the purpose of defining accurately the tolerances involved, and for
simplifying the communication process between customer and producer regarding
what is wanted, and what is possible, respectively.
/imentional "olerance - range by which a product?s width and gauge can
deviate from those ordered and still meet the order?s re-uirements. (lso $ee
Commercial Tolerance"
/i' Coat - >'n solid and shell mold investment casting, a fine ceramic coating
applied as a slurry to the pattern to produce maximum surface smoothness, followed
by a cheaper conventional investment. $ee 'nvestment 6recoat >
/i' "an% - tan0, preferably lined with rubber, epoxy, or other nonmetallic, into
which diecastings are dipped for cooling after leaving the machine.
/i''e <oint - thin <oint made by dipping of the bric0 in a thin mortar.
/irect Blowing - The term used when one blower is blowing to one furnace at a
time.
/irect Casting - Teeming from the ladle into the casting mold without the use of a
tundish.
/irect Re!ce (ron #/R(& - >3#T 6rocessed iron ore that is iron-rich enough to
be used as a scrap substitute in electric furnace steelma0ing. 3#J s mini-mills
expand their product abilities to sheet steel, they re-uire much higher grades of
scrap to approach integrated mill -uality. 9nabling the mini-mills to use iron ore
without the blast furnace, .@' can serve as a low residual raw material and alleviate
the mini-mills? dependence on cleaner, higher-priced scrap. #53 The impurities in
the crushed iron ore are driven off through the use of massive amounts of natural
gas. 3hile the result is :7G pure iron (compared with blast furnace hot metal,
which, because it is saturated with carbon, is only :BG iron", .@' is only
economically feasible in regions where natural gas is attractively priced. >
/irect-Arc *!rnace - n electric arc furnace in which the metal being melted is one
of the poles.
/irect-re!ce iron - (.@'" metallic iron product made from iron ore pellets,
lumps or fines that is reduced (by removing only the oxygen" from the ore at a
temperature below the melting point of the iron. .@' is used as feedstoc0 in electric-
arc furnaces, blast furnaces and in other iron and steelma0ing processes.
/irectional Solii,ication - The solidification of molten metal in a casting in such a
manner that li-uid feed metal is always available for that portion that is <ust
solidifying.
/irt "ra' - > well employed in a gating system to entrap the first metal poured,
which may contain dirt or unwanted particles (ineffective". $ee $lag Trap >
/irty Casting - casting containing an excessive amount of nonmetallic inclusions
in the body of the metal.
/(S - .uctile 'ron $ociety
/isa''earing *ilament $yrometer #4'tical $yrometer& - telescope in which a
hot body is viewed through an eyepiece; temperature is measured by the matching
color of a calibrated lamp filament with color of hot metal.
/ischarge 9alve 4n a $!m' - valve that isolates a pump from the rest of the
pumping system.
/iscoloration - change in the visual appearance of the material caused by
formation of oxides when exposed to contaminating atmosphere, always at elevated
temperatures.
/isconnect - /echanical device, resembling a large 0nife switch, that is used as a
safety device for isolating electrical e-uipment.
/ish - concave surface departing from a straight line edge to edge. 'ndicates
transverse or across the width.
/istrib!tor #See SER9(CE CE3"ER& -
/is'erse Shrin%age - $mall shrin0age cavities dispersed through the casting,
which are not necessarily cause for re<ection.
/issolve Carbon - Carbon in solution in steel in either the li-uid or solid state.
/istorte $attern - pattern untrue to the specified dimensions.
/istortion - $ee 3arpage
/istribon - siliceous clay containing %entonite used as bond in molding sands.
/istrib!tion) San Grain - Mariation or uniformity in particle size of a sand
aggregate when properly screened by ;.$. $tandards screens.
/istrib!tor #See SER9(CE CE3"ER& - 1;AA
/istr!'tive Strength - /aximum strength of a metal when sub<ected to three
principal tensile stresses at right angles to one another and of e-ual magnitude.
/ist!rbe Metal - The cold wor0ed metal formed on a polished surface during the
processes of grinding and polishing.
/itch 9alve - valve for controlling high pressure raw water <ets. The <ets wash the
ash from the sluice way to the ash pump hole.
/iversion - *." situation that occurs when a coil,s intended for an order doesn?t
meet -uality standards or customers specifications and is therefore diverted to meet
another customer?s specifications. 'n addition, coils can be diverted to complete
another customer?s order or for other reasons as necessary. 8" @emoving a product
from it?s original order. $ynonymous with @eapplication.
/iverte Coil - (.@M" coil that is no longer being sent to its original order but is
being sold elsewhere.
/iviers) S'rings - .ividers whose legs are held together at the hinged end by the
pressure of a c-shaped spring.
/iviing +ea #ine1 bea& - machine tool holding fixture which positions the
wor0 for accurately spacing holes,slots,flutes and gear teeth and for ma0ing
geometric shapes. 3hen geared to the table lead screw, it can be used for helical
milling operations.
/ivorce $earlite #Gran!lar $erlite) S'heroiite) S'heroii0e Cementite& -
6earlite in which the cementite has been spheroidized by prolonged annealing <ust
below the c* point, or by annealing at the same temperature after cold wor0ing.
/octor Blae Steel Stri' - hardened and tempered spring steel strip, usually
blued, produced from approximately .+D carbon cold rolled spring steel strip specially
selected for straightness and good edges. $ometimes hand straightened or
straightened by grinding and cur to desired lengths. This product is used in the
printing trade as a blade to uniformly remove excess in0 (dope" from the rolls; hence
its name.
/o-All-Saw - trade name given to a type of band saw used for sawing metal.
/og - clamping device (lathe dog" used to drive wor0 being machined between
centers. lso, a part pro<ecting on the side od a machine wor0table to trip the
automatic feed machanism off or to reverse the travel.
/ogho!se - $tructure on the %56 roof where the <unction header power relief vents
through to the atmosphere.
/olomite - material that is used to add magnesium oxide to the sinter.
/ose - -uantity of radiation measured at a certain point expressed in roentgens,
rems or rads.
/ose Meter) (ntegrating - 'onization chamber and measuring system designed for
determining total radiation administered during an exposure. 'n medical radiology
the chamber is usually designed to be placed on the patient?s s0in. device may be
included to terminate the exposure when it has reached a desire value.
/ose Rate - .ose per unit time.
/ose) E1'os!re - Cuantity of radiation measured in air in roentgens without
bac0scatter at a given point.
/osimeter - >'nstrument used to detect and measure an accumulated dosage of
radiation; in common usage it is a pencil-size ionization chamber with a built-in self-
reading electrometer; used for personal monitoring. $ee .osimeter, 6oc0et >
/osimeter) $oc%et - poc0et ionization chamber containing it own electrometer.
n auxiliary charging device is usually necessary.
/o!ble #Col& Re!ce #/R& - *" /aterial that has been cold reduced in thic0ness
twice. The first reduction is at the tandem /ill (where it is reduced at five different
locations" and the second is at the 3eirlite /ill. 8" 6late given a second ma<or cold
reduction following annealing. .ouble reduced products are relatively hard, have
limited ductility, and highly directional mechanical properties. im @oc0well hardness
B4T hardness is 7F; im yield strength (varying from materials" is +4,444 psi to
:4,444 psi; approximate tensile strength is :4,444 psi.
/o!ble Annealing - s applied to hypoeutectoid steel, a process of heating to
above the upper critical point (CB" and holding at that temperature until complete
solution of the carbide has been achieved then cooling rapidly and reheating
immediately to above B and slowly cooling.
/o!ble (m'ression Metho - way of determining approximate %rinell hardness
by placing a hardened steel ball between a specimen of 0nown hardness and the
metal to be tested and pressurizing in an arbor press.
/o!ble S%in #bottom S'lash) (ngot Shell) $laster& - defect consisting of a
secondary layer of metal sometimes found on top-poured ingots.
/o!ble "em'ering - retempering operation sometimes necessary for steel
containing retained austenite which brea0s down during cooling from the first
tempering to form a new and hence untempered martensite.
/o!blebr!ne - .eadburn; not be mista0en for two firing.
/o!ghn!t - venturi system that creates a draft with <ets of water that draws the
molten slag from the spout and to the sluiceway.
/ove-tail - n interloc0ing connection fre-uently used for the assembly of
interloc0ing extrusions; it is assembled by a sliding action
/owel - *" a wooden or metal pin of various types used in the parting surface of
parted patterns and core boxes, 8" in diecasting dies, metal pins to ensure correct
registry of cover and e<ector halves.
/owncomers - #ollow pipes that allow the plater solution to return from the plater
cells to the distribution tan0.
/own *ee #climb c!tting) climb milling& - seldom used method of feeding
wor0 into milling cutters. The wor0 is fed in the same direction as the portion of the
cuttere which comes in contact with it.
/owngate - $ee .ownsprue
/ownhan Weling - 3elding deposited along a horizontal line and surface.
/owns'r!e #S'r!e) /owngate& - The first channel, usually vertical, which the
molten metal enters; so called because it conducts metal down into the mold.
/owntime - Time lost from normal casting activity, due to unscheduled
interruptions.
/- - .raw -uality B. more flexible grade of steel.
/ra,t - The measured positive or negative pressure maintained within the boiler and
produced by the use of forced draft and induced draft fans. 1egative draft helps
ensure that the fire and exhaust gases are controlled within the boiler.
/ra,t) $attern - $ee 6attern .raft
/rag - Aower or bottom section of a mold or pattern.
/rain .ine - ny hose, pipe or tube connected to a valve that is opened to remove
oil pressure from a system or a component of a system.
/rain 9alve - valve that is opened to remove oil pressure from a system or a
component of a system.
/raw - term used for *" to temper, 8" to remove pattern from mold, B" an
external contraction defect on surface of mold.
/rawing - &orcing metal through a die by pulling it. (pushing metal through a die is
called extrusion" $mall tube, wire, or pipe is commonly made by drawing down a
larger extruded size
/raw $eg - wooden peg used for drawing patterns.
/raw $late - plate attached to a pattern to facilitate drawing of a pattern from the
mold.
/raw ;!ality - /ore flexible grade of steel
/raw Screw - threaded rod with an eye screwed into a pattern to enable it to be
drawn from the mold.
/raw S'i%e - steel spi0e used to rap and draw a pattern from the sand; it is
driven into the wood of the pattern, as opposed to a .raw $crew, which threaded.
/raw-Reraw - (.@." Two-piece. 6rocess for ma0ing two-piece cans in which a
circular blan0 is drawn into a die to form a shallow cup and then is redrawn on a
second or third die to produce a can body of the desired dimensions. 6late is coated
prior to the forming process.
/raw-"hin-Reraw - (.T@" n enhancement of the .@. process for ma0ing two-
piece can body utilizing high tensile T&$ that has an organic polymeric coating
applied prior to the forming operations. The patented .T@ process is a means of
sub<ecting the coated feedstoc0 to forming strains such that the metal and coating
avoid compacting and subse-uent sidewall burnishing, thus enhancing the integrity
of the organic coating. The resultant sidewall is thinned during the drawing and
redrawing operations, thus facilitating the specified can body dimensions using a
smaller starting blan0 size than that re-uired for .@..
/rawing - (*" &orming recessed parts by forcing the plastic flow of metal in dies.
(8" @educing the cross section of wire or tubing by pulling it through a die. (B"
misnomer for tempering.
/rawing - >@emoving pattern from the mold or mold from pattern in production
wor0. $ee also Temper >
/rawing -!ality - (.C" &lat-rolled products produced from either deep drawing
rimmed steel or extra deep drawing aluminum 0illed steels. $pecial rolling and
processing operations aid in producing a product, which can stand extreme pressing,
drawing or forming, etc., without creating defects.
/rawn - /echanically formed by tension through or in a die.
/rawn = (rone - (.N'" process primarily used to manufacture two-piece beer or
carbonated beverage can bodies, although some canned food product is pac0aged in
steel .N' can bodies. n appropriately sized circular dis0 is drawn into a cup to
approximately the finished can diameter. The side wall height is created by forcing
the cup through a series of rings, ironing the metal thinner than the starting material
thic0ness. Can bodies are coated with organic lac-uers after forming.
/rawn-4ver-Manrel - procedure for producing specialty tubing using a
drawbench to pull tubing through a die and over a mandrel, giving excellent control
over the inside diameter and wall thic0ness. dvantages of this techni-ue are its
inside and outside surface -uality and gauge tolerance. /a<or mar0ets include
automotive applications and hydraulic cylinders.
/ressing - The act of removing the glaze and dulled abrasives from the face of a
ginding wheel to ma0e it clean and sharp. $ee Truing.
/rie San - $and which bas been dried by mechanical dryer prior to use in core
ma0ing.
/rier #/ryer& - material, as alcohol ammonium nitrate, sodium perborate and
manganese oleate, added to a core or mold mixture to remove or reduce the water
content.
/ri,t - /inimum '. clearance verified by pulling a mandrel of size throught a length
of pipe.
/rill - pointed tool that is rotated to cut holes in material.
/rill B!shing - hardened steel guide inserted in <igs,fixtures or templates for the
purpose of providing a guide for the drill in drilling holes in their proper or exact
location.
/rill) Center - combination drill and countersin0.
/rill Ch!c% - device used to grip and attach them to a rotating spindle.
/rill <ig - <ig which holds parts or units of a structure and by means of
bushings,guides the drill so that the holes are properly located.
/rill $i'e - 6ipe used in the drilling of an oil or gas well. .rill pipe is the conduit
between the wellhead motor and the drill bit. .rilling mud is pumped down the
center of the pipe during drilling, to lubricate the drill bit and transmit the drilled core
to the surface. %ecause of the high stress, tor-ue and temperature associated with
well drilling, drill pipe is a seamless product.
/rill $ress - drilling machine with a counterbalanced spindle which ma0es it
possible for the operator to control accurately the rate at which the drill is fed into
the wor0. The sensitive drill press usually contains drills that are less than V inch
diameter and which rotate at high speeds.
/rill Ro - term given to an annealed and polished high carbon tool steel rod
usually round and centerless ground. The sizes range in round stoc0 from .4*B to *
*,8 diameter. Commercial -ualities embrace water and oil hardening grades. less
popular but nevertheless standard grade is a non-deforming -uality. .rill @ods are
used principally by machinists and tool and die ma0ers for punches, drills, taps,
dowel pins, screw machine parts, small tools, etc.
/rill Sleeve - n adapter with an internal and external taper which fits tapered
shan0 tools such as drills or reamers to adapt them to a larger size machine spindle.
/rill Soc%et - n adapter similar to a sleeve except that it is made to adapt a larger
tapered-shan0 tool to smaller size spindle.
/rill) "wist - commonly used metal-cutting drill, usually made with two fluted
running around the body.
/rillings) "est - Chips, or small particles of metal removed from a test specimen for
chemical analysis.
/ri' "!be - $mall sight glasses used to chec0 and ad<ust the rate of flow of drive
oil.
/rive *it - 5ne of several classes of fits in which parts are assembled by pressing or
forcing one part into another.
/rive 4il - Aubricating oil used on different components of the finishing mill.
/rive 4il Alarm - warning received when drive oil pressure is low or pressure is
stopped.
/rive 4il System - system which encompasses all the components needed to
deliver drive oil to the finishing mill. 't consists of both W* and W8 drive oils pumped
from the roughing mill.
/rive Sie - The side of the strip that is nearest to the drive motors that power the
line.
/R. - .ouble random length-line pipe with a BDHO average lengths
/ro' #/ro'o!t& - casting defect caused by sand dropping from the cope or other
overhanging section.
/ro' Ball - heavy weight, usually ball or pear shaped, dropped from a height to
brea0 large pieces of metal scrap. lso used to strengthen warp castings.
/ro' Gate - term for a pouring gate or runner leading directly into the top of the
mold.
/ro' 4,, or /ro' 4!t - >$and falling from the Cope of a mold. $ee .rop >
/ross - $ediment which settles in bottom of the R'1C pot on the galvanize line. lso
top dross, which floats on surface of pot and is s0immed off. different type of dross
also occurs on the top of the zinc pot, which is s0immed off on a regular time frame.
/r!m +eas - @emovable hinged man-way cover on both ends of a boiler drum.
/r!m .ale - cylindrical refractory-lined ladle that is completely enclosed.
removable cover at the pouring spout permits addition of molten metal.
/r!m $!sher - .evice used to remove a steel drum from the entry coil traverse
car.
/r!m 9ent - /anual valve that is used to relieve pressure on drums.
/r!m) Magnetic - n electrically energized pulley or drum used for removing
magnetic materials from sand, nonferrous borings and turnings, etc.
/ry Analysis - term applied to spectrographic analysis.
/ry an Ba%e Com'ression "est - n &$ test to determine the maximum
compressive stress that a ba0ed sand mixture is capable of developing.
/ry *ilm Weight - .ry coating film weight is normally calculated in grams per
s-uare meter(gm,m %8" or milligrams per s-uare inch(mg,in %8". ccurate control of
dry film weight is essential to ensure that the coating material will possess its
intended properties of physical and chemical resistance.
/ry $an - grinding machine of heavy rollers or millers testing on a bed. $creens or
slits allow fine material to pass through.
/ry $ermeability - The property of a molded mass of sand bonded or unbonded,
dried at 884-8B4 %4& (*4D-**4 %4C" and cooled to room temperature that allows
passage of gases resulting during pouring of molten metal into a mold.
/ry R!n - The process of chec0ing the control panel to assure that all controls are
functioning properly.
/ry San Casting - The process in which the sand molds are dried at above 8*8
%4& (*44 %4C" before using.
/ry San Core - $ee Core
/ry San Mol - mold from which the moisture has been removed by heating.
/ry Strength) or /ry Bon Strength - The maximum compressive, shear, tensile,
or transverse strength of a sand mixture which has been dried at 884 to 8B4 %4&
(*4D to **4 %4C" and cooled to room temperature.
/ryer - .ries the strip after a rinsing process.
/ryer) Core - $ee Core .riers
/ryer) /ielectric - $ee .ielectric 5ven
/!al Metal Centri,!gal Casting - Centrifugal castings produced by pouring a
different metal into the rotating mold after the first metal poured.
/!ctile (ron - $ee 1odular 'ron
/!ctile (ron Society - $ee .uctile 'ron $ociety for address
/!ctility - bility of steel to undergo permanent changes in shape without fracture
at room temperature.
/!ctwor% - .ucts that carry exhaust solids from the boilers to the scrubber area.
/!mmy bloc% - tight-fitting steel bloc0 placed between the ram and the billet in
an extrusion press to prevent metal from lea0ing bac0ward along the ram during
extrusion.
/!m'ing - .umping occurs when imported merchandise is sold in, or for export to,
the domestic mar0et at less than the normal value of the merchandise, i.e., a price
which is less than the price at which identical or similar merchandise is sold in the
comparison mar0et, the home mar0et (mar0et of exporting country" or third-country
mar0et (mar0et used as proxy for home mar0et in cases where home mar0et cannot
be used". The normal value of the merchandise cannot be below the cost of
production.
/!m'ing Margin - The amount by which the normal value exceeds the export price
or constructed export price of the sub<ect merchandise.
/!m'ing 9alve - type of single solenoid valve that when energized will open to
-uic0ly release the pressure in a hydraulic cylinder.
/!n%er Roll - roll used in the tan0s that 0eeps the strip going through the tan0.
/!'le1 - category of stainless steel with high amounts of chromium and moderate
nic0el content. The duplex class is so named because it is a mixture of austenitic
(chromium-nic0el stainless class" and ferritic (plain chromium stainless category"
structures. This combination was originated to offer more strength than either of
those stainless steels. .uplex stainless steels provide high resistance to stress
corrosion crac0ing (formation of crac0s caused by a combination of corrosion and
stress" and are suitable for heat exchangers, desalination plants, and marine
applications.
/!rability - The ability to accept permanent deformation.
/!st - $mall solid particles created by the brea0ing up of larger particles by an
process.
/ye $enetrant (ns'ection - method for detecting surface porosity or crac0s in
metal. The part to be inspected is cleaned and coated with a dye which penetrates
any flawa that may be present. The surface is wiped clean and coated with a a white
powder. The powder absorbs the dye held in the defects indicating their location.
/ea So,t Annealing - #eating metal to above the critical range and appropriately
cooling to develop the greatest possible commercial softness or ductility.
/ea So,t Steel - $teel, normally made in the basic open-hearth furnace or by the
basic oxygen process with carbon less than 4.*4G and manganese in the 4.84-
4.D4G range, completely annealed.
/ea So,t "em'er - Condition of maximum softness commercially attainable in
wire, strip, or sheet metal in the annealed state.
/eb!rring - method whereby the raw slit edge of metal is removed by rolling or
filing.
/ecarb!ri0ation - @emoval of carbon from the outer surface of iron or steel, usually
by heating in an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere. 3ater vapor, oxygen and carbon
dioxide are strong decarburizers. @eheating with adhering scale is also strongly
decarburizing in action.
/ecarb!ri0ation - Aoss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of
heating in a medium that reacts with carbon.
/ecarb!ri0ation - The loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result
of heating in a medium that reacts with the carbon at the surface.
/ee' /rawing - The process of cold wor0ing or drawing sheet or strip metal blan0s
by means of dies on a press into shapes which are usually more or less cup-li0e in
character involving considerable plastic deformation of the metal. .eep-drawing
-uality sheet or strip steel, ordered or sold on the basis of suitability for deep-
drawing
/e,ormative Bans - !enerally, bands in which deformation has been concentrated
inhomogeneously.
/egassing $rocess #(n steel ma%ing& - @emoving gases from the molten metal
by means of a vacuum process in combination with mechanical action.
/enrite - crystal that has grown in treeli0e branching mode.
/enrite - crystal that has a tree-li0e branching pattern, being most evident in
cast metals slowly cooled through the solidification range.
/enritic Segregation - 'nhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements through
the arms of dendrites.
/ie Sin%ing - &orming or machining a depressed pattern in a die.
/ie-.ines - Aines of mar0ings daused on drawn or extruded products by minor
imperfections in the surface of the die.
/i,,!sion - (*" $preading of a constituent in a gas, li-uid or solid, tending to ma0e
the composition of all parts uniform. (8" The spontaneous movement of atoms or
molecules to new sites within a material.
/ilatometer - n instrument for measuring the expansion or contraction of a solid
metal resulting from heating, cooling, polymorphic changes, etc.
/islocation - linear defect in the structure of a crystal.
/rawing - (*" &orming recessed parts by forcing the plastic flow of metal in dies.
(8" @educing the cross section of wire or tubing by pulling it through a die. (B"
misnomer for tempering.
/rawing Bac% - @eheating after hardening to a temperature below the critical for
the purpose of changing the hardness of the steel.
/ro' *orging - forging made with a drop hammer.
/ro' +ammer - forging hammer than depends on gravity for its force.
/ry Rolle *inish - &inish obtained by cold rolling on polished rolls without the use
of any coolant or metal lubricant, of material previously plain pic0led, giving a
burnished appearance.
/!ctile Crac% $ro'agation - $low crac0 propagation that is accompanied by
noticeable plastic deformation and re-uires energy to be supplied from outside the
body.
/!ctility - The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing, being
measured by elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test, by height of cupping in
an 9richsen test or by other means.
/!ctility - The capacity of a material to deform plastically without fracturing.
/!ctility - The property of metals that enables them to be mechanically deformed
when cold, without fracture. 'n steel, ductility is usually measured by elongation and
reduction of area as determined in a tensile test.
/!ral!min - The trade name applied to the first aluminum-copper-magnesium type
of age-hardenable alloy (*7$", which contains nominally =G Cu, *,8G /g. The term
is sometimes used to include the class of wrought aluminum-copper-magnesium
alloys that harden during aging at room temperature.
/!ral!min #obsolete& - term formerly applied to the class of age-hardenable
aluminum-copper alloys containing manganese, magnesium, or silicon.
E.C.#orEC& alloy or grae - 9lectrical conductor aluminum, an alloy specifically
formulated for good electrical conductivity; it is about ::.DG aluminum
E.C.A. 3!mber - 9ngineering Corporation of merica -- This is the computerized
annealing se-uence number used by the &iring /odel.
Easy 4'en En - convenience feature can end designed to be opened by utilizing
an integral tab opener to tear the container lid along a tear line formed in the lid.
Eccentricity - The degree to which two forms fail to share a common center; for
example, in a pipe or tube whose inside is off-center toth regard to the outside. 'n
hollow extrusionsE the difference between the maximum and minimum wall thic0ness
at any single cross-section. The degree of eccentricity can be expressed by a plus or
minus wall thic0ness tolerance.
ECCS - 9lectrolytic Chromium Coated $heets.
Eccentric - circle not having a geometric center. lso, a device such as a
cran0shaft or a cam for converting rotary motion to reciprocating motion.
Economi0er - specially designed ban0 of boiler tubes used to heat the boiler feed
water before it enters the boiler drum. %oiler exhaust gases pass across the
economizers which are located in the exhaust ductwor0 and the heat is transferred to
the feed water. 6reheating of the feed water helps to reduce boiler fuel
re-uirements.
Economi0er Recirc!lator - Aine that connects waterwall to economizer to ensure
positive flow through economizer so as to not allow steam in the economizer during
58 blow.
Ey-C!rrent "esting - 1ondestructive testing method in which eddy-curent flow is
induced in the test ob<ect. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the ob<ect are
reflected into a nearby coil or coils for subse-uent analysis by suitable
instrumentation and techni-ues.
Ege Brea% - condition caused by an uneven roll surface. 't is seen on the edges
of a coil, not across the full width of the coil.
Ege B!c%le - 9dge buc0le is similar to center buc0le except that the condition
occurs in one, or both edges, of the strip and is generally confined to a narrow
portion of the width.
Ege B!il!' - Condition that results when burred or damaged plate causes the
edge of the coil to be higher in coating than the center of the coil.
Ege *iling - method whereby the raw or slit edges of strip metal are passed or
drawn one or more times against a series of files, mounted at various angles. This
method may be used for deburring only or filing to a specific contour including a
completely rounded edge.
Ege Rolling #Ege Conitioning& - @olling a strip of steel to smooth the edges.
%y removing the burr off the coil, it is safer for customers to manipulate.
Ege Wave - condition in the band of steel where the edges (in the direction of
rolling" are longer than the center.
Eges - /any types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal
products. 5ver the years the following types of edges have become recognized as
standard in their respective fields. . Copper %ase lloys- $lit, $lit and 9dge @olled,
$heared, $awed, /achined or .rawn . $heet $teels or luminum $heet- /ill 9dge,
$lit 9dge or $heared 9dge. . $trip $teels and $tainless $trip . 1o. * 9dge - $mooth,
uniform, round or s-uare edge, either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified,
width tolerance O,- .44D. . 1o. 8 9dge- natural sound mill edge carried through
from the hot rolled band. #as not been slit, filed, or edge rolled. Tolerances not
closer than hot-rolled strip limits. . 1o. B 9dge - $-uare, produced by slitting only.
1ot filed. 3idth tolerances close. . 1o. = 9dge - round edge produced by edge
rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. 1ot as perfect as 1o. *
edge. 3idth tolerances liberal. . 1o. D 9dge - n approximately s-uare edge
produced by slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr. . 1o. F 9dge -
s-uare edge produced by s-uare edge rolling, generally from s-uare edge hot-rolled
occasionally from slit strip. 3idth tolerances and finish not as exancting as 1o. *
edge.
E,,l!ent - combination of water and particulates pulled from exhaust gases that is
sent to #ydromation for treatment.
E?ector $ins - /oveable pins in tahe pattern die tha t)push) to remove cast pattern
form the dies.
Elastic /e,ormation - $tretching of the material below the point at which a
permanent >set> ta0es place. That is, in the range where the metal acts spring-li0e or
elastic.
Elastic .imit - >/aximum stress that a material will withstand without permanent
deformation. $ee Jield $trength >
Elastic Resistance Wele $i'e - 9@3 pipe is made from strips of hot-rolled stee,
which sre passed through forming rolls and welded. 3hile seamless pipe is
traditionally stronger and more expensive than 9@3 pipe, 9@3 technology is
improving and the techni-ue now accounts for approximately =+G of annual tonnage
shipments of oil country tublular goods.
Elasticity - The property of recovering original shape and dimensions upon removal
of a deforming force.
Electocleaning #Electrolytic Brightening& - n anodic treatment. cleaning,
polishing, or oxidizing treatment i which the specimen or wor0 is made the anode in
a suitable electrolyte; an inert metal is used as cathode and a potential is applied.
Electric *!rnace Steel - $teel made in any furnace where heat is generated
electrically, almost always by arc. %ecause of relatively high cost, only tool steels and
other high-value steels are made by the electric furnace process.
Electric +eaer 9alve - n electric valve that will isolate a blower from the rest of
the blowers that are on line.
Electric Shears - Tool used to cut heavy gauge steel.
Electric-arc ,!rnace - (9& or 9&" n economical method of steelma0ing that is
energized by an electric arc flowing between two bottom electrodes. &urnace charges
consist of purchased scrap.
Electric *!rnace Steel - $teel made in any furnace where heat is generated
electrically, almost always by arc. %ecause of relatively high coast,only tool steels
and other high value steels are made by the electric furnace process
Electrical $reci'itator - 'n air pollution control, the use of electrodes in stac0
emissions emitting high voltage; particles 4.* micron and smaller can be attached
and collected at discharge electrode.
Electrical steel - $teel that includes silicon. The silicon content allows the steel to
minimize energy loss during electrical applications. ($ee $ilicon 9lectrical $teel"
Electrochemical - 6ertaining to chemical reactions induced by an electric current,
such as electrolysis or electroplating
Electrochemical Corrosion - >(Contact corrosion, 9lectrolytic corrosion, !alvanic
corrosion" Aocalized corrosion from exposure of an assembly of dissimilar metals in
contact or coupled with one another, i.e., electrochemical action. >
Electroe - Compressed graphite or carbon cylinder or rod used to conduct electric
current in electric arc furnaces, arc lamps, carbon arc welding, etc.
Electroe'osition - pplication of a coating by immersing the parts in a bath of
water containing resin, electrolytic stabilizers and pigments. n electric current is
passed through the bath using the parts as anodes, plating them with resins and
colors.
Electrogalvani0e - Rinc plating process whereby the molecules on the positively
charged zinc anode attach to the negatively charged sheet steel. The thic0ness of the
zinc coating is readily controlled. %y increasing the electric charge or slowing the
speed of the steel through the plating area, the coating will thic0en
Electro-Galvani0ing - !alvanizing by 9lectro deposition of zinc on steel
Electrolysis - The separation of a chemical compound into its components by
passing an electric current through it.
Electrolyte - dissolved or fused substance capable of conducting an electric
current; examples include the molten solution electrolysed in an aluminum reduction
cell, or the acid solution in a wet-cell battery
Electrolytic Galvani0e - Cold @olled or %lac0 6late to which a coating of zinc is
applied by electro-deposition; used for applications in which corrosion resistance and
paintability is a primary concern.
Electrolytic "in $late - (9T6" *" Aight-gauge, low-carbon, cold reduced steel on
which tin has been electrodeposited. 8" %lac0 plate coated with Tin $n electron
deposition.
Electron Beam Micro'robe Analy0er - n instrument for selective chemical
analysis of a small volume of material. n electron beam bombards the area of
interest and x-radiation thereby emitted is analyzed in a spectrometer.
Electron Micro'robe Analy0er - n instrument for selective analysis of a
microscopic area, in which an electron beam bombards the point of interest in Macuo
at a given energy level. 'ntensity of bac0scatter is measured to interpret which
chemical elements are present, and by scanning a large area the microprobe can
analyze chemical composition and indicate the distribution of an element.
Electro'lating - The production of a thin coating of one metal on another by
electodeposition. 't is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge
its useful functions. Marious plated metal and combinations therof are being used for
different purposes, to illustrateE *. .ecorative and protection against
corrosioncopper, nic0el and chromium . 8. 6rotection against corrosioncadmium or
zinc B. 6rotection against wearchromium . =. %uild-up of a part or parts
undersizechromium or nic0el . D. 6ate for rubber adhesionbrass . F. 6rotection
against carburization and for brazing operationscopper and nic0el
Electroslag Re,ining - specialised steel ma0ing process in which a rolled or a cast
ingot in the form of an electrode is remeltec in a water cooled copper mould. The
melting is activated by resistive heaat generated in a conductive slag. The resulting
product has a similar basic chemical composition to the original ingot, but is
characterised by high purity and low inclusion content. Typical applications include
high integrity components for the aerospace industry.
Electrostatic 4iler - device used to apply a thin coating of oil to the strip.
Electrostatic s'raying - pplication of a coating by applying a static electricity
charge to the doplets of a spray and an opposite charge to the part being sprayed,
which then attracts the droplets directly to its surface.
Element - /atter which cannot be bro0en up into simpler substances by chemical
action, that is, whose molecules are all composed of only one 0ind of atom.
Elevate "em'erat!re /rawing - process of drawing steel bars at elevated
temperatures (normally 8D4-B44oC" which under optimum conditions produce steels
that have higher tensile and yield strengths than those cold drawn with the same
degree of reduction. The process is little used in the united 0ingdom.
Elongation - 'ncrease in length which occurs before a metal is fractured, when
sub<ected to stress. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length
and is a measure of the ductility of the metal.
Embosse Al!min!m - &lat-rolled aluminum with a surface appearance that has a
stucco or grained loo0.
Embossing - coating defect consisting of the crawling or dewetting condition
where the wet film recedes and forms a raised (in relief" impression.
Embrittlement - >Aoss of ductility of a metal due to chemical or physical change.
$ee cid 9mbrittlement and #ydrogen 9mbrittlement >
Emergency Stac% /am'er - $et of two per boiler. n open damper allows exhaust
to vent to the atmosphere rather than to the scrubber.
Emery - natural abrasive used for grinding or polishing. 't is being largely replaced
by artificial abrasives.
Em!lsion - coolant formed by mixing soluble oils or compounds with water.
Enamel - 5rganic material, which is applied in a film to protect or decorate
aluminum, tinplate, blac0plate or paper.
En-4, .ine-*ilter - filter on the end of the auxiliary hydraulic accumulator
manifold which allows a small amount of oil to circulate bac0 to the storage tan0
while cleaning that oil.
En--!ench +arenability "est - standardized method for comparing the
hardenability of different steels.
Enothermic Reaction - The reaction which occurs with absorption of heat.
En!rance .imit - /aximum alternating stress which a given material will
withstand for an infinite number of times without causing fatigue failure. $ame as
fatigue limit
Engineering Stress #s& - The load divided by the original area.
E$C #E1'enable $attern Casting& - $ee Aost &oam 6rocess.
E'o1y Amino - Clear thermosetting coating with a combination epoxy resin and
amino resin to give adhesion, flexibility and toughness. They offer good chemical and
solvent resistance.
E'o1y $henolic - 6hysical blends of epoxy and phenolic resins. !old thermosetting
coating with a combination of epoxy resin and amino resin to give adhesion,
flexibility and toughness. They offer good chemical and solvent resistance.
E;!ia1e Crystals - Crystals,each of which has axes approximately e-ual in length.
These are normally present in centre of a steel ingot.
E;!ilibri!m - dynamic condition of balance between atomic movements, where
the resultant is zero and the condition appears to be one of rest rather than change.
Ergonomics - The science which deals with the interaction between people, their
wor0 place and environment. 't also considers the physiology of wor0ers in the
design of tools, e-uipment, and the wor0 methods needed.
Erichsen "est - cupping test in which a piece of sheet metal, restrained except at
the center, is deformed by a cone-shaped spherical-end plunger until fracture occurs.
The height of the cup in millimeters at fracture is a measure of the ductility.
Erosion - brasion of metal or other material by li-uid or gas, usually accelerated by
pressure of solid particles of matter in suspension, and sometimes by corrosion.
ERW - 9lectric resistance weld 2 most common form of manufacturing for pipe in
sizes from 8 B,+-88) 5.
E"CS - $ee 9lectrolytic Tin Coated $heets.
E"$ - $ee 9lectrolytic Tin 6late.
E:E - 9xternal upset ends 2 forging of ends on (6'" tubing and pipe to provide
additional thic0ness for strengthening connections
E!tectic - *" n isothermal reversible reaction in which a li-uid solution
decomposes, on cooling, into two or more intimately mixed solids. The number of
solids formed are the same number of components in the system. 8" n alloy having
the chemical composition indicated by the eutectic point on a e-uilibrium diagram.
E!tectoi - *" n isothermal reversible reaction in which a solid solution on cooling
is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids. The number of solids formed
are the same number of components in the system. 8" n alloy having the same
chemical composition indicated by the eutectoid point on a e-uilibrium diagram.
E!tectoi Steel - $teel representing the eutectoid composition of the iron-carbon
system, with about 4.+4G to 4.+BG carbon, the eutectoid temperature being about
*BBB (degrees" &. $uch steel in the annealed condition consists exclusively of
pearlite. $teels with less than this -uota of carbon are 0nown as hypo-eutectoid and
contain free ferrite in addition to the pearlite. 3hen more carbon is present, the steel
is 0nown as hyper-eutectoid and contains free cementite. The presence of certain
elements, such as nic0el or chromium, lowers the eutedtoid carbon content.
Eva'oration $attern Casting A E1'enable $attern Casting A E$C - $ee Aost
&oam 6rocess.
E1cess Base - (9.%." chemical analysis that indicates the percent of basic over
acid of the sinter.
E1citer - The part of the generator that produces the .C current that is re-uired to
ma0e an 9lectromagnet out of the rotating part (called the rotor" of the generator.
E1ha!st Steam - $team that is exhausted from a turbine. This steam is reduced in
pressure and temperature as it exits the turbine and is returned to the plant for
heating and various feed water treatment needs. 1ormal exhaust steam pressure is
8 to B psi and the temperature averages 88D degrees &ahrenheit.
E1it En - The delivery end of the line.
E1it Reel - (.elivery @eel or 6rime @eel" @eel used to wind the strip after the side
trimming process.
E1othermic - &ormed by or characterized by heat reaction as in oxidation.
E1othermic Reaction - >Chemical reactions involving the liberation of heat. $ee
9ndothermic @eaction. >
E1'aner Steel - #ardened and tempered, blue polished. Carbon content about
*.44, Chromium .*7. ;sed for the expanders in oil piston rings. #ardness B4 1 74 to
7B. @ange of sizes run for grooves B,B8 to *,= wide with the steel approximately .
44B less than the grooves and thic0ness from .4*8 to .484.
E1'ansion "an% - component of the cooling system that 0eeps the coolant
volume constant.
E1tensometer - n apparatus for indicating the deformation of metal while it is
sub<ected to stress.
E1tensometer - n instrument used in the testing of metals to measure small
increments of deformation.
E1tensometer "est - The measurement of deformation during stressing in the
elastic range, permitting determination of elastic properties such as properties such
as proportional limit, proof stress, yield strength by the offset method and so forth.
@e-uires the use of special testing e-uipment and testing procedures such as the use
of an extensometer or the plotting of a stress-strain diagram.
E1ternal :nerc!t - ny recess or pro<ection on the outside of the die bloc0 which
prevents its removal from the cavity.
E1tra +ar "em'er - 'n brass mill terminology, 9xtra #ard is six %N$ numbers hard
or D4.*DG reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage.
E1tra S'ring "em'er - 'n brass mill terminology. 9xtra $pring is ten numbers hard
or F+.DDG reduction in thic0ness from the previous annealing or soft stage.
E1tr!sion - $haping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die
5f an appropriate shape.
E1tr!sion 'rocess - &orcing heated alloy billet through a die by pressure
Eye Bans - /etal bands wrapped through the center or >eye> of the coil to prevent
it from uncoiling and to hold strip mults together.
Eyeholing - coating defect, similar to cratering, but with exposed metal in the
void.
EC@ 4:" - tool for removing bro0en bolts or studs from a hole.
Earing - 3avy pro<ections formed at the open end of a cup or shell in the course of
deep drawing because of difference in directional properties. lso termed scallop.
Earing - The formation of scallops (ears" around the top edge of a drawn part
caused by differences in the directional properties of the sheet metal used.
Ege Strain or Ege Brea%s - Creases extending in from the edge of the temper
rolled sheet.
Eges - /any types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal
products. 5ver the years the following types of edges have become recognized as
standard in their respective fields. Copper %ase lloys- $lit, $lit and 9dge @olled,
$heared, $awed, /achined or .rawn . $heet $teels or luminum $heet- /ill 9dge,
$lit 9dge or $heared 9dge. . $trip $teels and $tainless $trip 1o. * 9dge - $mooth,
uniform, round or s-uare edge, either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified,
width tolerance O,- .44D. 1o. 8 9dge- natural sound mill edge carried through
from the hot rolled band. #as not been slit, filed, or edge rolled. Tolerances not
closer than hot-rolled strip limits. 1o. B 9dge - $-uare, produced by slitting only. 1ot
filed. 3idth tolerances close. . 1o. = 9dge - round edge produced by edge rolling
either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. 1ot as perfect as 1o. * edge.
3idth tolerances liberal. 1o. D 9dge - n approximately s-uare edge produced by
slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr. . 1o. F 9dge - s-uare edge
produced by s-uare edge rolling, generally from s-uare edge hot-rolled occasionally
from slit strip. 3idth tolerances and finish not as exancting as 1o. * edge.
Eging - The dressing of metal strip edges by rolling, filing or drawing.
Elastic .imit - /aximum stress that a material will stand before permanent
deformation occurs.
Elastic .imit - The maximum stress to which a material may be sub<ected without
any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of stress.
Elastic .imit - The maximum stress to which a material may be sub<ected without
any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of the stress.
Elastic Strain - .imensional changes accompanying stress where the original
dimensions are restored upon release of the stress.
Electro-Galvani0ing - !alvanizing by 9lectro deposition of zinc on steel.
Electrolytic "in $late - %lac0 6late that has been Tin plated on both sides with
commercially pure tin by electrodeposition.
Electro'lating - The production of a thin coating of one metal on another by
electodeposition. 't is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge
its useful functions. Marious plated metal and combinations therof are being used for
different purposes, to illustrateE *. .ecorative and protection against
corrosion..............copper, nic0el and chromium . 8. 6rotection against
corrosion.......................................cadmium or zinc . B. 6rotection against
wear..............................................chromium . =. %uild-up of a part or parts
undersize............................chromium or nic0el . D. 6ate for rubber
adhesion.............................................brass F. 6rotection against carburization
and for brazing operations....copper and nic0el
Electro'olishing - 'mproving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by
electrochemical dissolution.
Elongation - 'n tensile testing, the increase in the gauge length, measured after
fracture of the specimen within the gauge length, usually expressed as a percentage
of the original gauge length.
Elongation A,ter *ract!re - 'n tensile testing, the increase in the gauge length
measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length and usually
expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.
Embossing - @aising or indenting a design in relief on a sheet or strip of metal by
passing between rolls of desired pattern.
En!rance .imit - $ame as fatigue limit.
En!rance .imit - /aximum alternating stress which a given material will
withstand for an infinite number of times without causing fatigue failure.
E'ita1y - 'nduced orientation of the lattice of a crystal of a surface deposit by the
lattice of the substrate crystal.
E;ilibri!m /iagram - graphical representation of the temperature, pressure and
composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they exist under conditions of
thermodynamical e-uilibrium. 'n condensed systems, pressure is usually considered
constant.
E;!ia1e Str!ct!re - structure in which the grains have approximately the same
dimensions in all directions.
Erichsen "est - $imilar to the 5lsen Test. @eadings are in millimeters.
Etchant - chemical solution used to etch a metal to reveal structural details.
Etching - $ub<ecting the surface of a metal to preferential chemical or electrolytic
attac0 to reveal structural details.
Etching - 'n metallography, the process of revealing structural details by the
preferential attac0 of reagents on a metal surface.
E!tectoi - (*" n isothermal reversible transformation in which a solid solution is
converted into two or more intimately mixed solids, the number of solids formed
being the same as the number of components in the system. (8" n alloy having the
composition indicated by the eutectoid point on an e-uilibrium diagram. (B" n alloy
structure of intermixed solid constituents formed by a eutectoid transformation.
E1,oliation - type of corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the outer
surface of the metal, causing layers of the metal to be elevated by the formation of
corrosion product.
E1tra +ar "em'er - 'n brass mill terminology, 9xtra #ard is six %Namp;$
numbers hard or D4.*DG reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage.
E1tr!sion - $haping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die
of appropriate shape.
*. /. ,an - &orced .raft &an.
*.A.4. - n abbreviation of (finish all over); it designates that a forging must have
sufficient size over the dimensions given on the drawing so that all surfaces may be
machined in order to obtain the dimensions shown on the drawing. The amount of
additional stoc0 necessary for machining allowance depends on the size and shape of
the part and is agreed on by the vendor and the user.
*.4.B. - 6rices denote the so-called free-on-board payment, for material that a
consumer or agent will give when he pic0s it up at a dealer?s doc0. The f.o.b. prices
are usually less than delivered-to-wor0s prices for the same items.
*abricating (ngot - cast form suitable for subse-uent wor0ing by such methods
as rolling, forging, extruding, etc. ((@olling ingot.) (&orging ingot.) (9xtrusion
'ngot.)"
*abrication - The <oining, usually by welding, of two or more parts to produce a
finished assembly. The components of the assembly may be a combination of cast
and wrought materials.
*abricator - producer of intermediate products that does not also produce primary
metal. 9xamples include brass, wire and rod mills which buy copper and other
primary or secondary metals to produce brass and other copper alloys or ta0e raw
forms of metal and ma0e building,magnet,telecommunications and,or industrial
wire,rod and similar products.
*ace - To machine a flat surface, as in the end of a shaft in the lathe. The operation
is 0nown as facing.
*ace Centere #concerning c!bic s'ace lattices& - #aving e-uivalent points at
the corners of the unit cell and at the centers of its six faces. face-centered cubic
space lattice is characteristic of one of the slose-pac0ed arrangements of e-ual hard
spheres.
*ace Milling - /illing a large flat surface with a milling cutter that operates in a
plane that is at right angles to its axis.
*ace $late - large circular plate with slots and holes for mounting the wor0piece
to be machined. 't is attached to the headstoc0 of a lathe.
*acing - The process of ma0ing a flat or smooth surface (usually the end" on a piece
of stoc0 or material.
*acing San - $pecially prepared molding sand mixture used in the mold ad<acent
to the pattern to produce a smooth casting surface.
*aing - coating defect consisting of the condition in a colored coating where the
color, either transparent or opa-ue, appears to get lighter or bleached out. #eat,
light, or chemical exposure usually causes fading.
*ar Sie - The drive side of the line (farthest away from the pulpit".
*arval System - lubrication system. $ee !rease $ystem.
*astmet - process to directly reduce iron ore to metallic iron pellets that can be
fed into an electric arc furnace with an e-ual amount of scrap. This process is
designed to bypass the co0e oven-blast furnace route to produce hot metal from iron
ore. 't is also one of several methods that mini-mills might use to reduce their
dependence on high--uality scrap inputs (see .irect @educed 'ron and #ot
%ri-uetted 'ron".
*atig!e - The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating
stresses (having maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material".
*atig!e Crac% or *ail!re - fracture starting from a nucleus where there is an
abnormal concentration of cyclic stress. The fracture surface is smooth and
fre-uently shows concentric (sea shell" mar0ings with a nucleus as a center.
*atig!e .imit #En!rance .imit& - /aximum stress that a material can
presumable endure without failure for an infinite number of load cycles.
*atig!e Strength - /aximum stress that a material will endure without failure for a
specified number of load cycles.
*ati;!e "esting - &ati-ue tests are made with the ob<ect of determining the
relationship between the stress range and the number of times it can be applied
before causing failure. Testing machines are used for applying cyclically varying
stresses and cover tension, compression, torsion and bending or a combination of
these stresses.
*e - Chemical symbol for 'ron.
*eather Ege - sharp reduction in gauge on the edge of a band which is caused
be grooves worn in rolls due to extensive rolling of the same width material. This is
done for coating control on edge. The gauge variations on a feathered edge generally
does not extend in from the edge more than one inch.
*ee - The rate of travel of a cutting tool across or into the wor0, expressed in
inches per minute or in inches per revolution.
*ee mechanism - The mechanism,often automatic, which controls the advancing
movement (ffed" of the cutting tools used in machines.
*ee Water - Cleaned and softened, chemically treated and steam heated, raw
water used for steam generation within the boiler. The temperature of feed water
normally is 87D-8+4 %4 &.
*ee Water $!m's - &our pumps (B in service" used to supply water to the boiler.
*eeer - lso called (@iser), it is part of the gating system that forms the reservoir
of molten metal necessary to compensate for losses due to shrin0age as the metal
solidifies.
*eeer "able - round table that rotates material onto the W*4 and W8* conveyor
belts.
*eeing - The process of supplying molten metal to compensate for volume
shrin0age while the casting is solidifying.
*eestoc% - ny raw material.
*eeler Ga!ge - *" !auge used to gap the slitter 0nives. The steel being side-
trimmed determines the gap between the slitter 0nives. The gauge slides between
the 0nives measuring the gap between them. 8" tool used to set the gap of the
slitter 0nives.
*emale 'art - concave piece of e-uipment which receives a mating male (convex"
part.
*erralloy - metal product commonly used as a raw material feed in steelma0ing,
usually containing iron and otheer metals to aid various stages of the steelma0ing
process such as deoxidation, desulfurization and adding strength. 9xamplesE
ferrochrome,ferromanganese and ferrosilicon.
*erran - device that senses the amount of travel of the .!.C. cylinders.
*errite - solid solution of one or more elements in the body-center-cubic phase of
iron or steel.
*errite Baning - 6arallel bands of free ferrite aligned in the direction of wor0ing.
$ometimes referred to a ferrite strea0s.
*erritic - >The second-largest class of stainless steel, constituting approximately
8DG of stainless production. &erritic stainless steels are plain chromium steels with
no significant nic0el content; the lac0 of nic0el results in lower corrosion resistance
than the austenitics (chromium-nic0el stainless steels". &erritics are best suited for
general and high-temperature corrosion applications rather than services re-uiring
high strength. They are used in automotive trim and exhaust systems, interior
architectural trim, and hot water tan0s. Two of the most common grades are type
=B4 (general-purpose grade for many applications, including decorative ones" and
type =4: (low-cost grade well suited to withstanding high temperatures". >
*erro Alloy - metal product commonly used as a raw material feed in
steelma0ing, usually containing iron and other metals, to aid various stages of the
steelma0ing process such as deoxidation, desulfurization, and adding strength.
9xamplesE ferrochrome, ferromanganese, and ferrosilicon.
*erro-Manganese - n alloy of iron and manganese (+4G manganese" used in
ma0ing additions of manganese to steel or cast-iron. &erroalloy, n alloy of iron with
a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium, or
vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel.
*errochrome - n alloy of iron and chromium with up to 78G chromium.
&errochrome is commonly used as a raw material in the ma0ing of stainless steel.
*erromagnetic - The ability to become highly magnetic and have the ability to
retain a permanent magnetic moment. The elementary magnetic dipoles inside the
domain are all oriented in a direction parallel to each other.
*erro!s - /etals that consist primarily of iron.
*ettle - %ritish term meaning the process of removing all runners and risers and
cleaning off adhering sand from the casting. lso refers to the removal of slag from
the inside of the cupola and in %ritain to repair the bed of an open hearth.
*iber - (*" The characteristic of wrought metal that indicates directional properties.
't is revealed by etching a longitudinal section or manifested by the fibrous
appearance of a fracture. 't is caused chiefly by extension of the constituents of the
metal, both metallic and nonmetallic, in the direction of wor0ing. (8" The pattern of
preferred orientation of metal crystal after a given deformation process.
*ibers - 9nsures the proper alignment of the strip as it enters the 0nives in the
$heet /ill.. &ibers are used to hold the strip <ust above the 0nife to prevent 0nife
mar0s on the steel.
*ile +arness - #ardness as determined by the use of file of standarized hardness
on the assumption that a material which cannot be cut with the file is as hard as,or
harder than the file. &iles covering a range of hardnesses may be employed.
*ile Ras' - Tool used to remove zinc or tin buildup from the welder wheels.
*ile "est - test for hardness in which a corner of a file is run across the piece of
metal being tested. The hardness is shown by the dent the file ma0es.
*ile Eges - &inished edges, the final contours of which are produced by drawing
the strip over a series of small steel files. This is the usual and accepted method of
dressing the edges of annealed spring steel strip after slitting in cases where
edgewise slitting crac0s are ob<ectionable or slitting burr is to be removed.
*iller Metal - third material that is melted concurrently with the parent metal
during fusion or braze welding. 't is usually, but not necessarily, of different
composition from the parent metals.
*illet - concave corner piece used on foundry patterns, a radius <oint replacing
sharp inside corners.
*ilter Canister - The portion of the filter assembly that holds the filter element.
*ilter Element - (&ilter" disposable unit that removes solid contamination from
the oil.
*ilter +o!sing - (#ead"The portion of the filter assembly in which the filter element
is seated.
*ilter Sl!ge - material that is produced when the water from the clarification
tan0s is filtered for the scrubber system.
*in - thin pro<ection on a forging resulting from trimming or from the metal under
pressure being forced into hairline crac0s in the die or around die inserts
*in stoc% - Coiled sheet or foil in specific alloys, tempers, an thic0ness ranges
suitable for manufacture of fins for heat-exchanger applications
*inery - charcoal-fueled hearth furnace used in early processes for converting cast
iron to wrought iron by melting and oxidizing it in an air blast, then repeatedly
oxidizing the product in the presence of a slag. The carbon oxidizes more rapidly
than the iron so that a wrought iron of low carbon content is produced.
*inish - The surface appearance of steel after final treatment.
*inish Allowance - The amount of stoc0 left on the surface of a casting, forging or
mill products for machining.
*inish Mar% - symbol (f, f*, f8, etc." appearing on the line of a drawing that
represents the edge of the surface of the casting to be machined or otherwise
finished.
*inish Weling - 6roduction welding carried out in order to ensure the agreed
-uality of the casting.
*inishe Steel - $teel that is ready for the mar0et without further wor0 or
treatment. %looms, billets, slabs, sheet bars, and wire rods are termed semi-finished
produced by the in-the-line thermal treatment following electrodeposition.
*inishes - The surface appearance of the various metals after final treatment such
as rolling, etc. 5ver the years the following finishes have become recognized as
standard in their respective fields A;/'1;/ $#99T (" Commercially %right (%"
%right one side (C" %right both sides %ACI 6AT9 (" .ull finish without luster
produced by use of roughened rolls. (%" %right finish 2 a luster finish produced by
use of rolls having a moderately smooth surface. C5A. @5AA9. $T99A $#99T$ ("
Commercial finish. dull satin surface texture produced by roughened rolls (%"
Commercial %right &inish. %right in appearance with a texture between luster and a
very fine matte finish. (C" Auster &inish. 6roduced by use of ground and polished
rolls. (1oteE This is not a number B finish". C5A. @5AA9. $T@'6 $T99A$ 1o. * &inish
2 dull finish produced without luster by rolling on roughened rolls. 1o. 8 &inish 2
regular bright finish produced by rolling on moderately bright rolls. 1o. B finish 2
%est %right &inish. lustrous or high floss finish produced by rolling on highly
polished rolls. lso referred to as (/irror &inish). C5669@ %$9 AA5J$ cid .ipped
2 .ry rolled finished. 6roduced by dry cold rolling bi-chromate dipped alloy with
polihed rolls, resulting in a burnished appearnace and retaining the color obtained by
dipping(True /etal Color". %right .ipped &inish 2 &inish resulting from an acid dip.
%uffed or 6olished $urface 2 a finish obtained by buffing, resulting in a high gloss or
polished finish. Cold @olled &inish 2 relatively smooth finish obtained by cold rolling
plain pic0led strip with a lubricant. .ry rolled &inish 2 burnished finish resulting
from dry cold rolling by use of polished rolls without any metal lubricant #ot @olled
&inish 2 dar0 relatively rough oxidized finish resulting from rolling the metal while
hot. /ay subse-uently be pic0led or bright dipped but the rough surface remains.
$tretched %rushed &inish ($atin finish" - 5btained by mechanically brushing with
wire brushes or by buffing. &AT 3'@9 1o.8 &inish 2 regular bright finish. 1o.B
&inish 2 %est %right #igh !loss finish produced by use of poplished rolls. 5r by
special buffing 2 this is a negotiated finish $T'1A9$$ C5A. @5AA9. $#99T and
$T@'6 15$. *,8% N 8. 1o.* finish 2 C.@. nnealed and pic0led appearance varies
from dull gray matte finish to a fairly reflective surface 1o.8% &inish 2 $ame as 1o.*
finish followed by a final light cold rolled pass generally on highly polished rolls.
1o.8. finish 2 dull cold rolled finish produced by cold rolling on dull rolls.
$T'1A9$$ C.@. $#99T 2 6olished &inishes 1o.B &inish 2 This is an intermediate
polished finish. 1o.= &inish 2 !round and polished finish. 1o.F &inish 2
!round,polished and Tampico %rushed. 1o.7 &inish 2 !round and #igh Auster
6olished 1o.+ &inish 2 !round and polished to /irror &inish. T9/69@9. and
;1T9/69@9. C5A. @5AA9. C@%51 $6@'1! $T99A $T@'6 Classified by description
as followsE (". %lac0 5il Tempered (%". $caless Tempered (C". %right Tempered (.".
Tempered and 6olished (9". Tempered, 6olished and Colored (%lue or $traw" T'1
6AT9(". %right #ot .ipped &inish (%". 9lectro /atte .ull finish (C". 9lectro %right
@eflow &inish 2 produced by the in-the-line thermal treatment following
electrodeposition
*inishing *acilities - The portion of the steelma0ing complex that processes semi-
finished steel (slabs or billets" into forms that can be used by others. &inishing
operations can include rolling mills, pic0le lines, tandem mills, annealing facilities,
and temper mills.
*inishing Stan - The last stand in a rolling mill, which determines the surface
finish and final gauge.
*inite /i,,erence Analysis #*/A& - computerized numerical modeling approach
for solving differential e-uations. ;sed primarily in solving heat transfer and
solidification problems.
*inite Element Analysis #*EA& - computerized numerical analysis techni-ue
used for solving differential e-uations to primarily solved mechanical engineering
problems relating to stress analysis.
*inmet - The process reduces iron ore fines with gas in a descending series of
fluidized bed reactors. The reduced iron is hot bri-uetted.
*ire Crac%s - n irregular pattern of lines on the surface of a sheet caused by rolling
with a fire crac0ed roll. &ire crac0s will develop when a roll is not properly cooled.
*irecrac%er Core - $ee 6encil Core
*iring Moel - the furnace, the 9C, and the Cycle 1umber. The system determines
the furnace type, base type, heat hours, cool hours, uncover temperature, and gas
stream.
*ish Eyes - coating defect consisting of the undissolved particles in the coating
usually surrounded by a circular crater. The particles are usually resinous and are
raised up from the cured surface with the appearance of the eye of a fish.
*ish mo!thing - $ee (lamination.)
*ishtail - common name for the center gage. 't is used to set thread cutting tools
and has scales on it for determing the numbet of threads per inch.
*it - The relation between mating or matching parts, that is, the amount of, or lac0
of, play between then
*itting - The connection point for two pipes or conduit or the point where grease is
inserted into a piece of e-uipment.
*i1t!re - production wor0-holding device used for machining duplicate wor0pieces.
lthough the term is used interchangeably with <ig, a fixture is not designed to guide
the cutting tools as the <ig does.
*lag - mar0er inserted ad<acent to the edge at a splice or lap in a roll or foil
*la%es - $hort discontinuous internal fissures in ferrous metals attributed to stresses
produced by lacalized transformation and decreased solubility of hydrogen during
cooling after hot wor0ing. 'n a fractured surface, fla0es appear as bright silvery
areas; on an etched surface thay appear as short discontinuous crac0s. lso called
shatter crac0s and snowfla0es.
*la%ing - condition in coated sheet where portions of the coating become loosened
due to inade-uate adhesion
*lange - $ee (@ib.)
*la''er 9alve Steel - n extremely flat, very smooth, very accurate to gage,
polished, hardened and tempered spring steel produced from approximately *.*D
carbon. The name is derived from its common and principle usage.
*lare "est - test applied to tubing, involving a tapered expansion over a cone.
$imilar to pin expansion test.
*lash - thin section of metal formed at the mold, core, or die <oint or parting in a
casting due to the cope and drag not matching completely or where core and
coreprint do not match.
*lash e1tension - The amount of metal extending beyond the part at the flash line.
*lash line - line left on a forging where flash has been removed
*lash Stain - stain that occurs in the rinse tan0s when the line has stopped. 't
appears blue, green, or blac0.
*lash "an%s - 3here blow down is converted to water for feed water and steam for
the plant header.
*lashb!rn - defect made by contact rolls when an arc is passed through the strip.
!enerally on lighter baseweight. (..@. coils"
*lashing - coating defect consisting of the uneven, random distribution of a
coating on coated substrate. variation in the color of a coating which is due to
variations of the &ilm weight. coating defect consisting of the flame weight
fluctuation is caused by disproportionate amount of coating transferring from the
application roll.
*las% - metal frame used for ma0ing or holding a sand mold. The upper part is the
cope and the bottom half is the drag.
*las% Bar - reinforcing member attached within either half of a flas0 to assist in
holding the rammed sand in position.
*las% Clam' - device for holding together the cope, drag, and chee0 of a flas0.
*las% $in G!ies - !uides used to accurately align the match plate pattern in the
flas0 and flas0 to flas0 location.
*lat Bac% - pattern with a flat surface at the <oint of the mold. 't lies wholly within
the drag and the <oint of the cope is a plane surface.
*lat Ban - band with location mar0s used to position a coil on reel.
*lat Coil - Coil that has collapsed center.
*lat /ie *orging#o'en ie ,orging& - &orging wor0ed between flat or simple
contour dies by repeated stro0es and manipulation of the wor0piece. lso 0nown as
(hand) or (smith) forging.
*lat .atch 3eele Steel - $upplied cold rolled and annealed. Carbon content .+D.
$upplied both in coil and flat length. ;sed to ma0e flat latch needles which are used
in the manufacture of 0nitted goods.
*latness - (*" &or rolled products, a distortion of the surface of sheet such as a
bulge or a wave, usually transverse to the direction of rolling. 5ften described by
location across width, i.e., edge buc0le, -uarter buc0le, center buc0le, etc. (8" &or
extrusions, flatness (off contour" pertains to the deviation of a cross-section surface
intended to be flat. &latness can be affected by conditions such as die performance,
thermal effects and stretching
*lat Rolle Steel - $teel produced on rolling mills utilizing relatively smooth,
cylindrical rolls. The width to thic0ness ratio of flat rolled products is usually fairly
large. 9xamples of flat rolled steel are hot-rolled, cold-rolled, and coated sheets and
coils, tin mill products, etc.
*lat Wire - flat Cold @olled, prepared edge section up to * *,= wide, rectangular in
shape. !enerally produced from hot rolled rods or specially prepared round wire by
one or more cold rolling operations, primarily for the purpose of obtaining the size
and section desired. /ay also be produced by slitting cold rolled flat metal to desired
with followed by edge dressing.
*lat-rolle steel - $teel processed on rolls with flat faces as opposed to grooved or
cut faces. &lat-rolled products include sheet, strip and tin plate, among others.
*latness - The absence of any gap or clearance when a strip is placed, without
applying any pressure, between two parallel-faced plates. 3herever a gap exists
under this condition, the strip is >unflat>. There are two 0inds of >unflatness>--
thic0ness non-uniformity (such as frown, profile, etc." and geometric non-uniformity
called shape defects such as (wavy strip, bent strip, coil set, center buc0le, etc.".
*./ - &ull length drift ( as opposed to (end drift)" 2 usually performed as part of
used tubing or casing (5CT!" inspection
*locc!lation - coating defect consisting of the formation of clusters of particles
separable by relatively wea0 mechanical forces, or by a change in the physical forces
at the interface between the li-uid and the dispersed particles.
*loor $late - ;sually carbon (but also alloy and stainless" steel plate rolled with
raised lug patterns to provide traction for feet and wheels; as the name suggests,
used widely for flooring.
*low Control 9alve - valve that is ad<usted to allow oil to move through it at a
predetermined rate.
*low .ines - (*" Texture showing the direction of metal flow during hot or cold
wor0ing. &low lines often can be revealed by etching the surface or a section of a
metal part. (8" 'n mechanical metallurgy, paths followed by volume elements of
metal during deformation.
*low Mar%s A coating - coating defect consisting of the poor flow out of the
coating on the substrate causing a ribbed (ribbing" or ridged appearance.
*low Meter - device that will show mechanically and or electronically the amount
of oil moving through it.
*low-4,, #$o'-4,,& - large vent, usually located at the high of the mold cavity. 'n
addition to letting air and mold gases escape as metal fills the mold cavity, the flow-
off fills with metal and acts to relieve the surge of pressure near the end of the
pouring.
*low thro!gh - forging defect caused when metal flows past the base of a rib
resulting in rupture of the grain structure.
*l!iity - The ability of molten metal to flow. Common devices used to measure
fluidity areE spiral casting and the Chinese 6uzzle.
*l!ii0e - To impart fluid li0e properties to powders or sands e.g. fluidized beds.
*l!sh <oint - Connection with male and female threads cut directly in pipe (as
opposed to TNC". This provides the same '. clearance as in the middle of the tube,
once lengths and <oined.
*l!te - The groove in a cutting tool which provides a cutting edge and a space for
the chips to escape and pernits the cutting fluids to reach the cutting edges.
*l!ting - *" Misible line mar0ings that sometimes appear on the surface of flat rolled
products during forming; associated with non-uniform yielding of the metal; occurs
when the steel is formed into cylindrical or arc shaped parts. 8" The 0in0ing, or
brea0ing of a sheet generally caused by curing the sheet on two small a diameter.
&luting, or paneling as it is often called, can be avoided by wor0ing the steel before
bending. $teel with a definite yield point (a visible brea0 in the stress-strain curve"
will generally tend to flute.
*l!1 - n iron cleaning agent. Aimestone and lime react with impurities within the
metallic pool to form a slag that floats to the top of the relatively heavier (and now
more pure" li-uid iron.
*ly C!tter - single-point cutter mounted on a bar in a fly cutter holder or a fly
cutter arbor. ;sed for special applications for which a milling cutter is not available.
*lying Shear - shear which severs steel as the piece continues to move. 'n
continuous mills, the piece being rolled cannot be stopped for the shearing operation,
so the shear 0nives must move with it until it is severed.
*oil - rolled product rectangular in cross section of thic0ness less than 4.44F inch.
'n 9urope, foil is e-ual to and less than 4.84 mm
*oil) Anneale - &oil completely softened by thermal treatment
*oil) Bright "wo Sies - &oil having a uniform bright specular finish on both sides
*oil) Chemically Cleane - &oil chemically washed to remove lubricant and foreign
material
*oil) Embosse - &oil on which a pattern has been impressed by means of an
engraved roll or plate
*oil) Etche - &oil roughened chemically or electrochemically to provide an increase
surface area
*oil) +ar - &oil fully wor0-hardened by rolling
*oil. (ntermeiate "em'er - &oil intermediate in temper between nnealed &oil
and #ard &oil
*oil) matte 4ne Sie #M(S& - &oil with a diffuse reflecting finish on one side and a
bright specular finish on the other
*oil) Mechanically Graine - &oil mechanically roughened for such applications as
lithography
*oil) Mill *inish #M*& - &oil having a non-uniform finish which may vary form soil to
coil and within a coil
*oil) Scratch Br!she - &oil abraded, usually with wire brushes, to produce a
roughened surface
*ol - forging discontinuity caused by metal folding bac0 on its own surface during
flow in the die cavity
*orging) /ie a ,orging ,orme to the re;!ire sha'e an si0e by wor%ing in
im'ression ies -
*ollower Rest - support for long,slender wor0 turned in the lathe. 't is mounted
on the carriage,travels close to and with the cutting tool and 0eeps the wor0 from
springing away.
*ootage o, Coil - The length of the steel strip that ma0es up a coil.
*ootstoc% - 6art of an indexing attachment which has a center and serves the same
purpose as the tail stoc0 of a lathe.
*orce *it - fitting which one part is forced pressed into another to form a single
unit. There are different classes of force fits depending on standard limits between
mating parts.
*orce /ra,t *an - &an that provides ambient air to the boiler to facilitate proper
combustion.
*orge - To form or shape heated metal by hammering. lso, the name of the unit
used for heating metal, such as the blac0smithHs forge.
*orgeability - The term used to describe the relative wor0ability of forging material
*orging - 6lastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with
*orging - The production of semi-finished forms from wrought metal blan0s hot or
cold in closed dies by a sudden, sharp impact. $ee (#ammer &orging) nand (#ot
6ress &orging).
*orging Billet - The term (&orging $toc0) is preferred
*orging (ngot - cast form intended and suitable for subse-uent wor0ing by the
forging process
*orging $lane - reference plane or planes normal to the direction of applied force
from which all draft angles are measured
*orging -!ality - Term describing stoc0 of sufficiently superior -uality to ma0e it
suitable for commercially satisfactory forgings.
*orging Stoc% - wrought or cast rod, bar or other section suitable for forging
*orging) Bloc%er-"y'e - forging made in a single set of impressions to the
general contour of a finished part
*orging) Col-coine - forging that has been restruc0 cold in order to obtain
closer dimensions, to sharpen corners or outlines and in non-heat-treatable alloys, to
increase hardness
*orging) /ie a ,orging ,orme to the re;!ire sha'e an si0e by wor%ing in
im'ression ies - 1;AA
*orging) /ra,tless - forging with zero draft on vertical walls
*orging) *lashless - closed die forging made in dies constructed and operated to
eliminate, in predetermined area, the formation of flash
*orging) +ammer - forging produced by repeated blows in a forging hammer
*orging) +an - forging wor0ed between flat or simply shaped dies by reapeated
stro0es or blows and manipulation of the piece.
*orging) 3o-/ra,t - $ee (forging, .raftless.)
*orging) $recision - forging produced to tolerances closer than standard
*orging) $ress - die forging produced to tolerance closer to standard
*orging) Rolle Ring - cylindrical product of relatively short height,
circumferentially rolled from a hollow section
*orging) :'set - forging having part or all of its cross section greater than that of
the stoc0
*orging - metal part wor0ed to predetermined shape by one or more processes
such as hammering, upsetting, pressing, rolling, etc.
*ormability - The relative ease with which a metal can be shaped through plastic
deformation.
*orme C!tters - /illing cutters which will produce shaped surfaces with a single
cut and so designed that they may be sharpened without changing their outline or
shape.
*orming "ool - Tool ground to a desired shape to reproduce this shape on the
wor0piece.
*o!nry Ret!rns - /etal (of un0nown compostion" in the form of gates,
sprues,rummers,risers and scraped castings returned to the furnace or re-melting.
*ractogra'hy - .escriptive treatment of fracture,especially in metal,with specific
reference to photography of the fracture surface.
*ract!re - &ractures are often described by the appearance of the surface of the
brea0 in a piece of steel. Crystalline is bright and glittering, failure having developed
along the cleavage planes of individual crystals and can be typical of brittle material.
sil0y fracture has a smooth dull grain indicative of ductile material such as mild
steel. 'n tensile testing fractures are described by shape, e.g.cup and cone.
*ract!re "o!ghness - generic term for measure of resistance to extension of a
crac0. The term is sometimes restricted to results of a fracture mechanics test, which
is directly applicable to fracture control.
*ree machining - 6ertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which one
or nmore ingredients have been inrroduced to produce small bro0en chips, lower
poweer consumption, betteer surface finish, and longer tool life; among such
additions are sulfur or lead to steel, lead to brass, lead and bismuth to aluminum,
and sulfur or selenium to stainless steel.
*ree C!t - n additional cut with no advancement of depth.
*reec!tting Steels - $teels which have had additions made to improve
machinability. The most common additives are sulphur and lead, other elements
used include tellurium, selenium and bismuth.
*ree ,it - class of fit intended for use where accuracy is not essential or where
large temperature variations are li0ely to be encountered or both conditions.
*retting - $ee (/ar0, Traffic)
*riction Scratch - $ee ($cratch, &riction)
*o!nry Ret!rns - /etal in the form of sprues, gates, runners, risers and scrapped
castings, with 0nown chemical composition that are returned to the furnace for
remelting. $ometimes referred to as > revert >.
*ragmentation - The subdivision of a grain into small discrete crystallites outlined
by a heavily deformed networ0 of intersecting slip bands as a result of cold wor0ing.
These small crystals or fragments differ from one another in orientation and tend to
rotate to a stable orientation detemined by the slip systems.
*ree .oo' $it - rea below floor level (delivery end 1o. D 6ic0ler; where free-
running strip ensures synchronization between the tan0 section and the delivery end.
'f the delivery end runs too fast, the coil strip is pulled out of the pit and the line
shuts down.
*re;!ency Relay - device that monitors the fre-uency of the electricity in a given
area of the plant. $hould the fre-uency drop off from F4 #z, the fre-uency relay is
designed to trip at its designated fre-uency and open various circuit brea0ers.
&re-uency relays in the plant are set up to operate from D: #z down to D+ #z.
*riction Go!ges or Scratches - series of relatively short surface scratches
variable in form and severity. @efer to !alling.
*rictional Wear - The displacement and,or detachment of metallic particles from a
surface as a conse-uence of being in contact with another moving component.
*ront En - The inside lap of the produced coil, or the outside lap of the consumed
coil.
*ro!e 3!mber - ;sed in hydraulics as an analog to the @eynolds number. 't is the
ratio of inertial forces to gravitational forces.
*!el Air - controller for fuel air dampers on boilers. To maintain proper
combustion on oil fire.
*!el *low - The measured flow of the various fuels supplied to the boilers.
*!lcr!m - The point or support on which a lever turns.
*!ll Annealing #,erro!s materials& - n annealing treatment in which a steel is
ausenitized by heating to a temperature above the upper critical temperature (B or
cm" and then cooled slowly to room temperature. typical cooling rate would be
8*4&,h *44 C,h. Compare normalizing. ;se of the term annealing without
-ualification implies full annealing.
*!ll Center - $ee (%uc0le, Center)
*!ll +ar - Cold rolled coils coming from the $trip $teel that have not been
annealed.
*!ll +ar Col Rolle - #ot rolled pic0led steel that is cold reduced to a specified
thic0ness and sub<ect to no further processing (not annealed or temper rolled". The
product is very stiff; it is intended for flat wor0 where deformation is very minimal.
*!ll +ar "em'er - (" (1o. * Temper" 'n low carbon sheet or strip steel, stiff and
springy, not suitable for bending in any direction. 't is the hardest temper obtainable
by hard cold rolling. (%" 'n $tainless $teel $trip, tempers are based on minimum
tensile or yield strength. &or Chromium-1ic0el grades &ull #ard temper is *+D,444
T$, *=4,444 J$ /in. Term also used in connection with copper base alloys and
considered synonymous with #ard Temper.
*!ll +ar "em'er - &ull #ard Cold @olled steel produced to a @oc0well hardness of
+= and higher on the % scale.
*!ller #,!llering im'ression& - 6ortion of the die that is used in hammer forging
primarily to reduce the cross section and lengthen a portion of the forging stoc0. The
fullering impression is often used in con<unction with an edger (or edging
impression".
*!rnace - The cylindrical or rectangular heating device placed on the base after the
base has been loaded and the coils have been covered.
*!rnace $ress!re - 6ositive or negative atmospheric pressure inside the furnace,
measured in water columns.
*!t!res contract - Aegally binding agreement to buy or sell a commodity.
*atig!e - The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating
stresses having a maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material.
&atigue fractures are progressive, beginning as minute crac0s that grow under the
action of the fluctuating stress.
*atig!e - The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stress.
&atigue fractures are progressive beginning as minute crac0s and grow under the
action of fluctuating stress.
*atig!e - The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeatef or fluctuating stresses
(having maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material".
*atig!e .i,e - The number of cycles of stress that can be sustained prior to failure
for a stated test condition.
*atig!e .imit - The maximum stress below which a materiel can presumable endure
an infinite number of stress cycles. 'f the stress is not completely reversed, the value
of the mean stress, the minimum stress or the stress ratio should be stated.
*atig!e Strength - The maximum stress that can be sustained for a specified
number of cycles without failure, the stress being completely reversed within each
cycle unless otherwise stated.
*errite - solid solution of one or more elements in body-centered cubic iron.
;nless otherwise designated (for instance, as chromium ferrite", the solute is
generally assumed to be carbon. 5n some e-uilibrium diagrams ther are two ferrite
regions separated by an austenite area. The lower area is alpha ferrite; the upper,
delta ferrite. 'f there is no designation, alpha ferrite is assumed.
*errite - !enerally, a solid solution of one or more alloying elements in the bcc
polymorph of iron ( -&e". $pecifically, in carbon steels, the interstitial solid solution of
carbon in -&e.
*errite-'earlite Baning - 'nhomogeneous distribution of ferrite and pearlite
aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of wor0ing.
*erritic Grain Si0e - The grain size of the ferric matrix of a steel.
*erro-Manganese - n alloy of iron and manganese (+4G manganese" used in
ma0ing additions of manganese to steel or cast-iron. &erroalloy, n alloy of iron with
a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium, or
vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel.
*erro!s - @elated to iron (derived from the Aatin ferrum". &errous alloys are,
therfore, iron base alloys.
*iber or *ibre - .irection in which metals have been caused to flow, as by rolling,
with microscopic evidence in the form of fibrous appearance in the direction of flow.
*iber Stress - ;nit stress which exists at any given point in a structural element
sub<ected to load; given as load per unit area.
*iber Stress - Aocal stress through a small area (a point or line" on a section where
the stress is not uniform, as in a beam under a bending load.
*ibro!s *ract!re - fracture whose surface is characterized by a dull gray or sil0y
appearance.
*inishing "em'erat!re - The temperature at which hot wor0ing is completed.
*inishing "em'erat!re - Temperature of final hot-wor0ing of a metal.
*ish eyes - reas on a fractured steel surface having a characteristic white
crystalline appearance.
*lame Annealing - nnealing in which the heat is applied directly by a flame.
*lame Annealing - process of softening a metal by the application of heat from a
high-temperature flame.
*lame +arening - process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the
transformation range by means of a high-temperature flame, and then cooling as
re-uired.
*lame +arening - Cuench hardening in which the heat is applied directly by a
flame.
*lash - (*" 'n forging, the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies.
(8" 'n resistance butt welding, a fin formed perpendicular to the direction of applied
pressure.
*lash - (*" 'n forging, the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies.
(8" 'n die casting, the fin of metal which results form lea0age between the mating
die surfaces. (B" 'n resistance butt welding, a fin formed perpendicular to the
direction of applied pressure.
*lash Weling - resistance butt welding process in which the weld is produced
over the entire abutting surface by pressure and heat, the heat being produced by
electric arcs between the members being welded.
*low Stress - The shear stress re-uired to cause plastic deformation of solid metals.
*low Stress - The uniaxial true stress re-uired to cause plastic deformation at a
specified value of strain.
*lowlines - lways visible to a greater or less degree when a longitudinal section
has been sub<ected to /acro etching, indicating the direction of wor0ing or rolling.
*l!ting - Iin0ing or brea0age due to curving of metal strip on a radius so small, with
relation to thic0ness, as to stretch the outer surface above its elastic limit. 1ot to be
confused with the specific product, &luted Tubes.
*l!1 - (*" 'n refining, a material used to remove undesirable substances as a molten
mixture. 't may also be used as a protective covering for molten metal. (8" 'n
welding, a material used to prevent the formation of, or to dissolve and facilitate the
removal of, oxides and other undesirable substances.
*oil - /etal in sheet form less than 4.44F in. in thic0ness.
*oil - /etal in any width but no more than about 4.44D thic0.
*ols - .efects caused in metal by continued fabrication of overlapping surfaces.
*orge Weling - 3elding hot metal by applying pressure or blows.
*orging - 6lastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with
compressive force, with or without dies.
*ractogra'hy - .escriptive treatment of fracture, especially in metals, with specific
reference to photographs of the fracture surface. /acrofractography involves
photographs at low magnification; microfractography, at high magnification.
*ract!re - $urface appearance of metals when bro0en.
*ract!re "est - 1ic0ing and brea0ing a bar by means of sudden impact, to enable
macroscopic study of the fractured surface.
*ract!re "est - %rea0ing a specimen and examining the fractured surface with the
unaided eye or with a low-power microscope to determine such things as
composition, grain size, case depth, soundness, and presence of defects.
*ree Machining - 6ertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which one
or more ingredients have been introduced to produce small bro0en chips, low power
consumption, better surface finish or longer tool life.
*ree Machining - 6ertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which an
ingredient has been introduced to give small bro0en chips, lower power consumption,
better surface finish, and longer tool life; among such additions are sulfur or lead to
steel, lead to brass, lead and bismuth to aluminum, and sulfur or selenium to
stainless steel.
*retting #*retting Corrosion& - ction that results in surface damage, especially in
a corrosive environment, when there is relative motion between solid surfaces in
contact under pressure.
*!ll Annealing - nnealing a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling slowly
through the transformation range. The austenitizing temperature to hypoeutectoid
steel is usually above cB; and for hypereutectoid steel, usually between c* and c
(cm".
*!ll Annealing - ;sed principally on iron and steel, means heating the metal to
about *44 (degrees" &. above the critical temperature range, followed by soa0ing at
this point and slow cooling below the critical temperature.
*!ll *inish $late - $teel sheet or strip, reduced either hot or cold, cleaned,
annealed, and then cold-rolled to a bright finish.
*!sion Weling - ny welding process in which fusion is employed to complete the
weld.
Ga - Chemical symbol for !allium
G Coatings - !alvanize Coatings
Gage - ny one of a large variety of devices for measuring or chec0ing the
diemsions of ob<ects.
Gage Bloc%s - $teel bloc0s machined to extremely accurate dimesions.
Gage) Center - $ee center gage
Gage) e'th - tool used in measuring the depth of holes or recesses.
Gage) /rill - flat steel plate drilled with holes of various sizes, each mar0ed with
the correct size or number, into which small twist drills may be fitted to determine
the size of their diameters.
Gage) /rill $oint - gage used to chec0 the D:) angle on drills
Gage) *eeler #thic%ness gage& - gage consisting of a group of very thin blades,
each of which is accurately ground to a specific thic0ness.
Gage) inicating #ial inicator& - gage consisting of a dial,commonly
graduated (mar0ed" in thousandths of an inch, to which is fastened an ad<ustable
arm.
Gage .ength - The original length of that portion of the specimen over which strain
or change of length is determined.
Gage Mar%s - @eference mar0s; in tensile testing, the mar0s which indicate the
gage length, used in determination of tensile elongation.
Gage) Rai!s #,illet gage& - ny one of a number of small,flat,standard-shaped
metal leafs or blades used for chec0ing the accuracy of regular concave and convex
surfaces.
Gage) Screw $itch - gage consisting of a group of thin blades used for chec0ing
the number of screw threads per unit of distance, usually per inch on a
screw,bolt,nut,pipe or fitting.
Gage) S!r,ace #scribing bloc%& - gage used to chec0 the accuracy of plane
surfaces to scribe lines at desired distances from a given surface and to chec0 the
height of a point or points on a piece of or0 from a given surface.
Gage) "elesco'ing - T-shaped gage used to measure the diameter or width of
holes.
Gaggers - /etal pieces of irregular shape used to reinforce and support the sand in
the mold.
Gagging - Chec0ing dimensional re-uirement by means of a gage.
Gal,an - galvanized product coated with :DG free zinc, DG aluminum and traces
of mish metal in the coating; provides extra corrosion protection with lighter coating
weight; has improved formability over regular free zinc coatings (hot dipped
galvanized regular products".
Galval!me#r& - $teel sheet with a uni-ue coating of DDG aluminum and =DG zinc
that resists corrosion. The coating is applied in a continuous hot-dipped process,
which improves the steel?s weather resistance. !alvalume + is a trademar0 of %#6
$teel, and the product is popular in the metal building mar0et.
Galvaneal Coating #A& - Coatings on hot-dipped galvanized steels processed to
convert the coating completely to zinc-iron alloys; dull gray in appearance, have no
spangle, and after proper preparation, are well suited for painting.
Galvanic Action - 3hen iron and steel are sub<ect to conditions of a-ueous
corrosion the incidence and rate at which the corrosion ta0es place will alter if the
steel is coupled with other metals or alloys that are also exposed to the electrolyte.
Copper, brass, bronze, lead and nic0el are more (noble) and act as auxiliary
cathodes to the steel and accelerate its anodic dissolution, that is, its corrosion.
/agnesium, zinc and zinc-base alloy are nearly always less noble and tend to divert
the attac0 from the steel to themselves. The galvanic relationship of various metals
is an important factor affecting corrosion.
Galvanic Corrosion - Corrosion associated with the current of a galvanic cell
consisting of two dissimilar conductors in an electrolyte or two similar conductors in
dissimilar electrolytes. 3here the two dissimilar metals are in contact, the resulting
action is referred to as couple action.
Galvani0e - sheet product substrate to which free zinc is applied either by hot-
dipping or electro-plating.
Galvani0e Coatings #G& - &ree zinc coatings applied to a hot rolled or cold rolled
steel to produce !alvanized steel. The coating can be applied by the hot-dip or
electrodeposition process.
Galvani0e Steel - >$teel coated with a thin layer of zinc to provide corrosion
resistance in underbody auto parts, garbage cans, storage tan0s, or fencing wire.
$heet steel normally must be cold-rolled prior to the galvanizing stage. #5T-.'669..
$teel is run through a molten zinc coating bath, followed by an air stream >>wipe>>
that controls the thic0ness of the zinc finish. 9A9CT@5!AM1'R9.. Rinc plating
process whereby the molecules on the positively charged zinc anode attach to the
negatively charged sheet steel. The thic0ness of the zinc coating is readily controlled.
%y increasing the electric charge or slowing the speed of the steel through the
plating area, the coating will thic0en. .'&&9@91C9$. 9lectrogalvanizing e-uipment is
more expensive to build and to operate than hot dipped, but it gives the steelma0er
more precise control over the weight of the zinc coating. The automotive
manufacturers, because they need the superior welding, forming and painting ability
of electrogalvanized steel, purchase :4G of all tonnage produced. >
Galvani0ing - Coating steel with a thin layer of zinc to increase its corrosion
resistance. /ost galvanizing is done on a hot-dip operation, but electrogalvalizing is
becoming more important today. 9lectrogalvanizing is a cold-coating electroplating
process that, unli0e the hot-dip process, does not influence the mechanical
properties of the sheet steel. 9lectrogalvanizing provides a more uniform coating.
Galvani0ing $ot - #olds the molten free zinc coatings applied to a hot rolled or cold
rolled steel to produce #ot-dip !alvanized steel.
Galvanneale - n extra tight coat of galvanizing metal (zinc" applied to a soft steel
sheet, after which the sheet is passed through an oven at about *844 degrees &. The
resulting coat is dull gray without spangle especially suited for subse-uent painting.
Gamma (ron - face-centered cubic form of pure iron, stable from *F74 to 8DD*
%4& (:*4 to *=44 %4C".
Gang Milling - milling set-up where a number of cutters are arranged on an arbor
so that tseveral surfaces can be machine at one time. 't is commonly used for
production purposes.
Gannister - n acid (silicious" refractory often used in furnace linings.
Ga' - The distance between the slitter 0nives (ex .44*>, .448>".
Gas Carb!rising - heat treatment method used in the case-hardening of steel.
Carbon is absorbed into the outer layers of the components by heating in a current
of gas, rich in carbon compounds. The process is more versatile than some other
methods as the depth of the case and the limiting carbon content of the case can be
controlled by the composition of the atmosphere, the dew point and the
temperature.
Gas $orosity - condition existing in a casting by the trapping of gas in the molten
metal or by mold gases evolved during the pouring of the casting.
Gas Stream "em' - The temperature of has stream used in heating the coils.
Typical temperatures range from **+4 degrees to *BB4 degrees. The system will
accept a number X *D44 degrees &.
Gate - The end of a runner in a mold where molten metal enters the mold cavity.
Gate 9alve - type of valve that is opened or closed by turning the 0nob
countercloc0wise or cloc0wise respectively.
Gating System - The complete assembly of sprues, runners and gates in a mold
through which steel flows before entering the casting cavity.
Ga!ge - The thic0ness of sheet steel. %etter--uality steel has a consistent gauge to
prevent wea0 spots or deformation.
Ga!ge Chart - paper strip used to record the gauge of the strip as it runs on the
side trimmers.
Ga!ge Coe - 'ndustry-standard code that indicates -uality tolerance of the
thic0ness of the steel.
Ga!ge .ength - ;sed in the mechanical testing of steel. %etter--uality steel has a
consistent gauge to prvent wea0 spots or deformation.
Ga!ge $late - n alloy tool steel supplied in flat and s-uare section with the
surfaces ground to close limits. 't is also 0nown as !round &lat $toc0 and is used for
the manufacturing of gauges, punches, dies, <igs, templates, ect..
Ga!ge "olerance - range by which a product?s gauge can deviate from those
ordered and still meet the order?s re-uirements.
Ge - Chemical symbol for !ermanium
Gear) Blan% - stamping,casting or any piece of material from which a gear is to be
machined. 't is usually a dis0
Gear 4il - $ee .rive 5il.
Gel S'otting - coating defect consisting of the uniform circular spots or droplets
of higher film thic0ness on the coated sheet. !el spotting, while appearing similar to
slinging, is much more uniform in appearance and caused by a different mechanism.
!el spotting occurs when a partially gelled coating is applied to the substrate.
Gem Switch - n electronic module clamped to a tan0 sight glass used to transmit
information to the computer regarding tan0 level.
Generating "!bes - %oiler tubes that extend from the three upper drums to the
mud drum. !enerating tubes are used to generate the ma<ority of steam produced
by the boiler.
Generator - The combination of an electrical generator and the steam turbine that
drives it to produce electricity.
Geometric Mar%ing - ;nusual design put on one side (lite coating" of a coil to
identify a different coating weight.
Germani!m - Chemical symbol !e. rare,grayish-white metal chemcically similar
to tin; obtained from processing copper and zinc. ;sed in the production of infrared
glasses, fiber optics,electronic detectors and semiconductors.
Ghosting - coating defect consisting of an image on the freshly coated plate giving
the appearance of the substrate being bent or dar0er in color.
Gib - tapered strip of metal placed between the bearing surface of two machine
parts to ensure a precision fit and provide an ad<ustment for wear.
Giling Metal - copper-zinc alloy containing :DG copper and DG zinc. 3hile
similar to deoxidized copper in physical properties, it is somewhat stronger and very
ductile. 't has thermal and electrical conductivity slightly better than half that of
electrolytic copper and corrosion resistance comparable to copper.
Glan Evac!ation $!m' - pump that ta0es the water that has condensed from
steam of the seals on the W: !enerator.
Glan Water - $ame as seal water.
Gla0e - $ee (6ic0-up, @olled.)
Globe 9al!e - $ee !ate Malve.
Going /own - Term referring to moving the strip to the prime reel.
Gol - Chemical symbol u. The heraldic metal. rare yellow mineral that is the
most malleable and pliable of all metals. !old does not tarnish or corrode, and is
unaffected by exposure to air or water.
Go!ging Abrasion - brasion involving gross surface indentation and possible
removal of sizable metal fragments.
Governor - .evice that controls the steam control valves on a turbine. Turning the
handle in the >raise> position opens the steam control valves and will either speed
the machine up if it is off-line or will cause the machine to produce more electricity if
it is on-line. Turning the handle to >lower> has the opposite effect.
Grae - The term grade designates divisions within different types based on carbon
content or mechanical properties; for example, >This is a high tensile (grade"
structural steel.>
Grain Bo!nary - %ounding surface between crystals. 3hen alloys yield new phases
(as in cooling", grain boundaries are the preferred location for the appearance of the
new phase. Certain deterioration, such as season crac0ing and caustic
embrittlement, occur almost exclusively at grain boundaries.
Grain *ineness 3!mber - system developed by &$ for rapidly expressing the
average grain size of a given sand. 't approximates the number of meshes per inch
of that sieve that would <ust pass the sample if its grains of uniform size. 't is
approximately proportional to the surface area per unit of weight of sand, exclusive
of clay.
Grain Si0e Control - 3hen a steel is austenitised by heating to above the critical
range, time is re-uired for the production of a #omogeneous structure during which
there is a tendency towards grain growth. lthough subse-uent hot and cold wor0ing
affect the grain size, it is originally controlled at the steel ma0ing stage by the
addition of aluminium.
Grain Si0e Meas!rement - !rain size is normally -uantified by a numbering
system. Coarse *-D and fine D-+. The number is derived fron the formula 1 8n-*
where n is the number of grains per s-uare inch at a magnification of *44 diameters.
!rain size has an important effect on physical properties. &or service at ordinary
temperatures it is generally considered that fine grained steels give a better
combination of strength and toughness, whereas coarse grained steels have better
machinability.
Grain Str!ct!re - /icrostructure consisting of grains (crystals" and phases in
metals; generally re-uires examination under a microscope of an etched, polished
specimen for observation.
Grain-Bo!nary .i;!iation - n advanced stage of overheating in which material
in the region of austenitic grain boundaries melts. lso 0nown as burning.
Gran!lar *ract!re - type of irregular surface produced when metal fractures,
characterized by a rough, grain li0e appearance as differentiated from a smooth
sil0y, or fibrous, type. 't can be sub classified into trans-granular and inter-granular
forms.. This type of fracture is fre-uently called crystalline fracture, but the
implication that the metal has crystallized is completely misleading.
Gran!lar *ract!re #Crystalline *ract!re& - type of irregular surface produced
when metal is bro0en.
Grassho''er - vibrating unit that is used to carry hot fines from the hot screens
to the W8* conveyor belt. lso called the hot fines vibrator.
Gratebars - $paced to allowed air to pass through the sinter mix for
aglomation,sintering process. They are located on the pallets on the sinter machine.
Gravity *ilter - unit of coal and sand media that utilizes gravity to draw water
through it. The filter removes any solids carried over from the clarifiers.
Gravity +ammer - class of forging hammer wherein energy for forging is obtained
by the mass and velocity of a freely falling ram and the attached upper die.
9xamples are board hammers and air-lift hammers.
Gray Cast (ron - cast iron that gives a gray fracture due to the presence of fla0e
graphite. 5ften called gray iron.
Grease System - Aubricating system that supplies grease to various parts of the
finishing mill.
Grease System "imer - n electronic or mechanical device used to start a grease
system at predetermined intervals.
Green Rot - form of high-temperature attac0 on stainless steels,nic0el-chromium
alloys and nic0el-chromium iron alloys sub<ected to simultaneois oxidation and
carburization. %asically, attac0 occurs by first precipitating chromium as chromium
carbide, then oxidizing the caarbide particles.
Green San - naturally bonded sand or a compounded molding sand mixture
which has been tempered with water for use while still in the damp or wet condition.
Green San Core - sand core used in the unba0ed condition, also a core made
from green sand and used as rammed.
Green San Mol - mold composed of moist molding sand and not dried before
being filled with molten metal.
Green Strength - The strength of a tempered sand mixture at room temperature.
Green,iel Steel Mill - 1ew mill that is built >from scratch,> presumably on a green
field.
Grey (ron - lsoo 0nown as fla0e iron on account of all or part of the carbon content
being in the form of graphite distributed through the metal as fla0es.
Grining - 6rocess of removing metal by abrasion from bar or billet stoc0 to prepare
stoc0 surfaces for forging. 5ccasionally used to remove surface irregularities and
flash from forgings.
Gri''er Bar 2in% - condition created by poor initial start on the reel or a loose
first lap.
Grit - *" Texture of the surface of a roll; applied through sand-blasting and grinding;
the lower the number, the higher the grit and the rougher the surface; D4, :4, *D4,
844, and 884 grit. Temper /ills may run grit. !rit also refers to the finish on the
surface of the steel. 8" The size of the shot blast used to mechanically texture a roll
for producing a grit finish product.
Gro!n *lat Stoc% - nnealed and pre-ground (to close tolerances" tool steel flats
in standard sizes ready for tool room use. These are three common grades; water
hardening, oil hardening, and air hardening -uality.
Gro!n Roll *inish - The bright or smooth microfinish on the last stand of a tandem
mill or temper mill; produced by grinding; determines the surface finish of the
product where brightness is desired.
G!ie Scratch - $cratches or mar0s appearing parallel to edges of cold rolled strip
caused by scale or other particles which have become imbedded in or have adhered
to the rolling mill guide. lso applies to similar scatches appearing as a result of
slitting.
G!ies - .evices used for 0eeping the strip s-uare to produce a proper weld.
G!illotine 9alve - slide-plate type valve which bloc0s the flow of material through
a line.
G!tter - slight depression surrounding the cavity in the die to relieve pressure and
control flash flow.
Gages - /frs. standard numbering systems indicating decimal thic0ness? or
diameters.
Galling - The damaging of one or both metallic surfaces by removal of particles from
localized areas due to seizure during sliding friction.
Galling - .eveloping a condition on the rubbing surface of one or both mating parts
where excessive friction between high spots results in localized welding with
substantial spalling and a further roughening of the surface.
Galvani0ing - Coating steel with zinc and tin (principally zinc" for rust proofing
purposes. &ormerly for the purpose of galvanizing, cut length steel sheets were
passed singly through a bath of the molten metal. Today?s galvanizing processing
method consists of uncoiling and passing the continuous length of successive coils
either through a molten bath of the metal termed #ot .ipped !alvanizing or by
continuously zinc coating the uncoiled sheet electrolytically- termed 9lectro-
!alvanizing.
Gamma (ron - The form of iron stable between *F74 (degrees" &., and 8DD4
(degrees" &., and characterized by a face-centered cubic crystal structure.
Gas Weling - 3elding with a gas flame.
G*M - Gyratory *orging Machine - machine designed to hot forge a cylindrical
bar shape while it is turning at speed.
Grain - solid polyhedral (or many sided crystal" consisting of groups of atoms
bound together in a regular geometric pattern. 'n mill practice grains are usually
studied only as they appear in one plane. (*" (.irection of" @efers to grain fiber
following the direction of rolling and parallel to edges of strip or sheets. (8" To bend
across the grain is to bend at right angles to the direction of rolling. (B" To bend with
the grain is to bend parallel to the direction of rolling. 'n steel, the ductility in the
direction of rolling is almost twice that at right angles to the direction of rolling.
Grain - n individual crystal in a polycrystalline metal or alloy, including twinned
regions or subgrains if present.
Grain Coarsening - heat treatment that produces excessively large austenitic
grains.
Grain *low - &iber li0e lines appearing on polished and etched sections of forgings,
caused by orientation of the constituents of the metal in the direction of wor0ing
during forging.
Grain Growth - n increase in the average size of the grains in polycrystalline metal
or alloy, usually a result of heating at elevated temperature.
Grain Growth - n increase in metallic crystal size as annealing temperature is
raised; growth occurs by invasion of crystal areas by other crystals.
Grain Si0e - (*" &or metals, a measure of the areas or volumes of grains in a
polycrystalline material, usually expressed as an average when the individual sizes
are fairly uniform. !rain sizes are reported in terms of grains per unit area or
volume, average diameter, or as a grain-size number derived form area
measurements.
Grain Si0e - verage diameter of grains in the metal under consideration, or
alternatively, the number of grains per unit area. $ince increase in grain size is
paralleled by lower ductility and impact resistance, the -uestion of general grain size
is of great significance. The addition of certain metals affects grain size, for example
vanadium and aluminum ten to give steel a fine grain. The $T/ has set up a grain
suze standard for steels, and the /cCuaid-9hn Test has been developed as a method
of measurement.
Grain Si0e - measure of the areas or volumes of grains in a polycrystalline metal
or alloy, usually expressed as as average when the individual sizes are fairly uniform.
'n metals containing two or more phases, the grain size refers to that of the matrix
unless otherwise specified. !rain size is reported in terms of number of grains per
unit area or volume, average diameter, or as a number derived from area
measurements.
Grain-Bo!nary S!l,ie $reci'itation - n intermediate stage of overheating in
which sulfide inclusions are redistributed to the austenitic grain boundaries by partial
solution at the overheating temperature and reprecipitation during subse-uent
cooling.
Grains - 'ndividual crystals in metals.
Gran!lar *ract!re - type of irregular surface produced when metal is bro0en,
that is characterized by a rough, grain li0e appearance as differentiated from a
smooth sil0y, or fibrous, type. 't can be sub-classified into trans-granular and inter-
granular forms. This type of fracture is fre-uently called crystalline fracture, but the
inference that the metal has crystallized is not <ustified.
Gran!late - coarse grain or pebbly surface condition which becomes evident
during drawing.
Gran!lation - The formation of grains immediately upon solidification.
Gra'hite - The polymorph of carbon with a hexagonal crystal structure.
Gra'hiti0ation - &ormation of graphite in iron or steel. 6rimary graphitization refers
to formation of graphite during solidification. $econdary graphitization refers to later
formation during heat treatment.
Gra'hiti0ing - heating and cooling process by which the combined carbon in cast
iron or steel is transformed, wholly or partly, to graphitic or free carbon.
Gra'hiti0ing - nnealing a ferrous alloy in such a way that some or all of the carbon
is precipitated as graphite.
Grining - @emoving material from from a wor0 piece with a grinding wheel or
abrasive belt.
Grining Crac%s - $hallow crac0s formed in the surface of relatively hard materials
because of excessive grinding heat or the high sensitivity of the material.
G!ie - .evice for holding the metal in the proper position, during rolling, or slitting.
G!n /rill - drill, usually with one or more flutes and with coolant passages
through the drill body, used for deep hole drilling.
+ - Chemical symbol for hydrogen.
+ac%saw - metal blade of hardened steel having small, close teeth on one edge.
't is held under tension in a ;-shaped frame.
+a,iel Manganese Steel - specially steel which is austenitic and usually
contains approximately *8G /anganese. 't is used in mining, earth- moving
e-uipment and in railroad trac0 wor0.
+air) Slitter - /inute hair-li0e sliver along edge(s"due to shearing or slitting
operation
+al,-+ar "em'er - Cold @olled steel produced to a @oc0well hardness range of 74
to +D on the % scale. 6roduct of this temper is intended for limited cold forming and
will only withstand :4-degree bends made across the rolling direction.
+al, 3!t - lever-operated mechanism that resembles a split nut that can be closed
on the lead screw of a lathe when threads are being.
+alogen Metho - The plating solution basis at 3$C; other methods include
ferrostan and /$ (methyl sulfonic acid".
+ammer *orging - forging that is made on the flat die of a steam hammer.
forged piece produced in a forging hammer, or the process of forming such a piece.
+ammer *orging - &orging in which the wor0 is deformed by repeated blows.
Compare with press forging.
+an *orge #smith ,orge& - The forging operation in which the forming is
accomplished on dies that are generally flat. The piece is shaped roughly to the
re-uired contour with little or no lateral confinement; operations involving mandrels
are included.
+an *orging - forging made by hand on an anvil or under a power hammer
without dies containing an exact finishing impression of the part. $uch forgings
approximate each other in size and shape but do not have the commercial 9xactness
of production die forgings re-uired does not warrant expenditure for special die, or
where the size of shape of the piece is such as to re-uire means other than die
forging. forging wor0ed between flat or simply shaped dies by repeated stro0es
and manipulation of the piece. lso 0now as smith forging or flat die forging.
+an +ole Ca's - @emovable header access plug, which can be used to gain access
to the headers.
+an +oo% - tool made of steel rod used to push crane spreader arms apart or
pull together.
+an Shears - Tool used in cutting steel plate.
+an Weler - 6ortable welder used to weld the strip together at any place
throughout the line.
+anwheel - ny ad<usting or feeding mechanism shaped li0e a wheel and operated
by hand.
+anling Mar% - $ee (/ar0, #andling)
+ar Chromi!m - Chromium deposited for engineering purposes, such as
increasing the wear resistance of sliding metal surfaces, rather than as a decorative
coating. 't is usually applied directly to basis metal and is customarily thic0er than a
decorative deposit.
+ar /rawn S'ring Steel Wire - medium high carbon cold drawn spring steel
wire. ;sed principally for cold wound springs.
+ar Metal *acing - method of increasing the wear resistance of a metal by the
deposition of a hard protective coating. lloys such as $tellite or a metallic carbide
are most often used for the coating.
+ar Metals - group of materials more commonly 0nown as cemented carbides.
They consist of mixtures of one or more of the finely divided carbides of tungsten,
titanium, tantalum and vanadium embedded in a matrix of cobalt or nic0el by
sintering. 3idely used for cutting tools where for many applications they have
replaced conventional high speed steels
+arener - n alloy containing at least some aluminum and one or more added
elements for use in ma0ing alloying additions to molten aluminum. lso referred to
as (/aster lloy).
+arening - 'ncreasing hardness by suitable treatment, usually involving heating
and cooling. 3hen applicable, the following more specific terms should be usedE age
hardening, case hardening, flame hardening, induction hardening, precipitation
hardening, -uench hardening.
+arness - @esistance to plastic deformation, usually by indentation. The term may
also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to scratching, abrasion or cutting.
%rinell #ardnessE %rinell hardness of aluminum alloys is obtained by measuring the
permanent impression in the material made by a ball indenter *4 millimeters in
diameter after loading with D44 0ilogram-force for *D seconds and dividing the
applied load by the area of the impression. @oc0well #ardnessE n indentation
hardness test based on the depth of penetration of a specified penetrator into the
specimen under certain arbitrarily fixed conditions.
+arness 9al!e - .egree to which a material resists deformation, indentation or
scratching. There are many numerical scales (and thus methods" to measure the
hardness value (example %rinell, @oc0well, Mic0ers, etc."
+armonic /istortion - Condition associated with the critical speed of the shaft in a
turbine.
+ea Metal - The reservoir of metal in the feeder or riser of a mold.
+eastoc% - The fixed or stationary end of a lathe or similar machine tool.
+eaer - *" pipe that carries plater solution from the plater pumps to the cells. 8"
The primary or first source of any given boiler system or section.
+eat #,orging& - combination of heating, holding and cooling operations applied
to a metal or alloy in the solid state to produce desired properties.
+eat - The total amount of metal produced which can be represented by one
analysis sample and one set of mechanical tests.
+eat Chec% - &ine crac0s in the forging dies caused by excessive heat or extended
use without polishing. The pattern of these (heat chec0s) is reproduced on the forged
part.
+eat Cover - cylindrical or rectangular inner cover placed over the coils prior to
placing the furnace on the base in the %atch nneal.
+eat E1changer - @emoves heat from oil with water, which comes from WD cell.
+eat 3!mber - 'n the %atch nneal, this is the computerized annealing se-uence
number used by the &iring /odel to associate target values to the #eat $e-uence. 't
is re-uired to run the &iring /odel. 'n the %56 a se-uential number assigned to each
batch of steel.
+eat "reat Stain - discoloration due to non-uniform oxidation of the metal
surface during solution heat treatment
+eat-"reatable Alloy - n alloy which may be strengthed by a suitable thermal
treatment
+eat "reatment - #eating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way that
desired structures, conditions or properties are attained. #eating for the sole purpose
of hot wor0ing is excluded from the meaning of this term.
+eat-resistant alloy - n alloy developed for very-high-temperature service where
relatively hight stresses (tensile,thermal,vibratory or shoc0" are encountered and
where oxidation resistance is fre-uently re-uired.
+eater - device used to maintain oil tan0 temperature.
+eavy Coating - condition caused by too much coating being applied to the strip.
+eavy Ga!ge - 6roduct with a thic0ness above the customer?s maximum gauge
tolerance.
+eavy Str!ct!ral Sha'es - general term given to rolled flanged sections that
have at least one dimension of their cross sections three inches or greater. The
category includes beams, channels, tees and zees if the depth dimension is three
inches or greater, and angles if the length of the leg is three inches or greater.
+eavyA.ight ga!ge - $teel plate not meeting customer gauge specifications.
+eging - Ta0ing an opposite position in the commodity futures mar0et to your
position in the physical mar0et.
+elical Gear - gear with teeth cut at some angle other than at a right angle
across the face of the geaaaar, thus permitting more than one tooth to be engaged
at all times and providing a smoother and -uieter operation than the spur gear.
+eli1 - path formed as a point advances uniformly around a cylinder as the thread
on a screw or the flutes on a drill.
+eli1 Angle - The angle between the direction of the threads around a screw and a
line running at a right angle to the shan0.
+erringbone - $ee ($trea0, #erringbone)
+ert0 - Term used to describe the fre-uency in an C circuit. 9ssentially the same as
cycles. 'f a circuit is F4 #z or F4 cycles, that means that the C wave has gone
through F4 complete waves in one second.
+e1 - term used for anything shaped li0e a hexagon.
+i-S'ee "est - Test conducted on a coil coming to the side trimmers from another
operating unit. The test is conducted at the re-uest of another unit. test cut is
made, a gauge chart produced, and an inspection is made by 6rocess Control.
+ic%ey - coating defect consisting of a randomly oriented small spec0led
appearance on coated plate after in0s are applied.
+igh Brass - FDG copper-zinc alloy containing BDG zinc. 6ossesses high tensile
strength. ;sed for springs, screws, rivets, etc.
+igh-Carbon Steel - $teel with more than 4.BG carbon. The carbon that is
dissolved in the iron, the less formable and the tougher the steel becomes. #igh-
carbon steelHs hardness ma0es it suitable for plow blades, shovels, bedsprings,
cutting edges, or other high-wear applications.
+igh $ress!re Mol - strong high-density mold, made by air, hydraulic, or other
s-ueeze process.
+igh $ress!re Steam - $team that is delivered from the boilers to drive the turbo
generators and turbo blowers. #igh pressure steam is produced at +44 psi and +8D
degrees &ahrenheit.
+igh Roc%well - condition that occurs when the hardness of the steel is above the
maximum limit as specified by the customer.
+igh S'ee Steel - The term (high speed steel) was derived from the fact that it is
capable of cutting meta at a much hight rate than carbon tool steel and continues to
cut and retain its hardness even when the point of the tool is heated to a low red
temperature. ;ngsten is the ma<or alloying element but it is also combined with
molybdenum, vanadium and cobalt in varying amounts. lthough replaced by
cemented carbides for many applications it is still widely used for the manufacture of
taps, dies, twist drills, reamers, saw blades and other cutting tools.
+igh Strength .ow Alloy - (#$A" specific group of steel in which higher
strength, and in some cases additional resistance to atmospheric corrosion or
improved formability, are obtained by moderate amounts of one or more alloying
elements such as columbium, vanadium, titanium, used alone or in combination.
+igh Stress Grining Abrasion - brasion that occurs when the abrasive is
crushed between two opposing surfaces.
+igh-Alloy Steel - &errous alloy with more than *8 weight percent of noncarbon
additions.
+igh-Carbon Steel - $teel with more than 4.BG carbon. The more carbon that is
dissolved in the iron, the less formable and the tougher the steel becomes. #igh-
carbon steel?s hardness ma0es it suitable for plow blades, shovels, bedsprings,
cutting edges, or other high-wear applications. $ee Aow-Carbon $teel and /edium-
Carbon $teel.
+inere Contraction - Casting contraction during solidification and cooling which
is hindered by mold or core restraints.
+ob - cylindrical cutting tool shaped li0e a worm thread and used in industry to cut
gears.
+obbing - The operation of cutting gears with a hob.
+oist - .evice that raises and lowers coils to and from reels.
+ol - Coil type indicating that a produced coil or lift has problems that need to be
resolved by the Cuality ssurance department.
+ol Coil - processed coil that does not meet customer specifications that needs
to be held for disposition.
+ol /own Rolls - Two small rolls used for holding force on the top of the strip as it
runs through slitter 0nives.
+ol "ic%et - tic0et used to -uarantine out-of-spec material.
+ole - Moid in rolled product. Typical cause is a non-metallic inclusion during rolling
+ole $!nch - piece of e-uipment used to put small holes in the strip where welds
are ma0e. ;se of the hole punch is specified by all customers. ;sed for weld
detection.
+ole Saw - cutting tool used to cut a circular groove into solid material.
+oliay - @egion where film is absent due to non-wetting of the metal surface by
the coating
+ollow /rill "est #"re'anning& - @emoving a cylindrical sample from a metal
section or structure to determine soundness of the section.
+ollow Str!ct!ral Sections - Inown in the mar0et as #$$, this is high-strength,
cold formed, electric-welded structural tubing welded steel tubing used as structural
elements in a broad range of construction and architectural applications, structural
components for vehicles and industrial machinery, buildings and other structures,
and a variety of manufactured products. 't is produced in round, s-uare and
rectangular shapes and a broad range of sizes. $tructural tubingHs basic advantages
lie in itHs high strength-to-weight ratio, attractive appearance and cost-effectiveness.
+omogeni0ing - 's a process whereby ingots are raised to temperatures near the
solidus temperature and held at that temperature for varying lengths of time. The
purposes of this process are to (*" reduce microsegregation by promoting diffusion
of solute atoms within the grains of aluminum and (8" improve wor0ability
+oo% - n abrupt deviation from straightness. #oo0 can be caused by non-uniform
metal flow during brea0through. $ee also (%ow)
+oo%e5s .aw - $tress is proportional to strain in the elastic range. The value of the
stress at which a material ceases to obey #oo0e?s law is 0nown as the elastic limit.
+ori0ontal A1is Casting Machine - centrifugal casting machine in which the axis
of rotation of the mold is horizontal.
+ot Ban #+ot-Rolle Steel& - coil of steel rolled on a hot-strip mill (hot-rolled
steel". 't can be sold in this form to customers or further processed into other
finished products.
+ot Bans - $ee #ot @olled $heets.
+ot Bo1 $rocess - furan resin-based process similar to shell corema0ing; cores
produced with it are solid unless mandrelled out.
+ot Bri;!ette (ron #+B(& - .irect reduced iron that has been processed into
bri-uettes. 'nstead of using a blast furnace, the oxygen is removed from the ore
using natural gas and results in a substance that is :4G-:8G iron. %ecause .@' may
spontaneously combust during transportation, #%' is preferred when the metallic
material must be stored or moved.
+ot En - The section of a steelma0ing complex from the furnace up to, but not
including, the hot-strip mill.
+ot Metal - The name for the molten iron produced in a blast furnace. 't proceeds
to the basic oxygen furnace in molten form or is cast as pig iron.
+ot Mill - The rolling mill that reduces a hot slab into a coil of specified thic0ness;
the whole processing is done at a relatively high temperature (when the steel is still
>red>".
+ot $ress *orging - method of forming parts by pressing a heated slug, cut from
wrought material, in closed-impression die.
+ot -!enching - Cooling in a medium, the temperature of which is substantially
higher than room temperature.
+ot Roll - 6roduct that is sold in its >as produced state> off the #ot /ill with no
further reduction or processing steps aside from being pic0led and oiled (if specified".
+ot Roll Base - #ot rolled coils which have been pic0led in an acid solution to
remove surface oxidation, then is oiled to prevent rust. Coils that come directly off of
1o. D 6ic0ler and were not cold roll reduced on the tandem mill. These coils will
usually have a 84> '.. (5utside-supplied hot roll base may have a 8=> '..
+ot Roll) $=4 - #ot @oll 6ic0le and 5il that does not go to a in-house Tandem /ill.
't may not necessarily be shipped out; it could go to the 1o. + Temper /ill.
+ot Rolle Sheets - /anufactured by hot rolling slabs to the re-uired thic0ness.
+ot Rolle Steel #+R& - @olling steel slabs into flat-rolled steel after it has been
reheated.
+ot Rolling Mill - $ee #ot /ill.
+ot Screens - device used to remove hot fines that are less than one-fourth
millimeter in diameter from the sinter before it goes to the cooler.
+ot S'ot - .ar0 gray or blac0 surface patches appearing after anodizing. These
areas are usually associated with lower hardness and coarse magnesium silicide
precipitate Caused by non-uniform cooling after extrusion.
+ot Stan-By - .escribes the status of a boiler that is not in use and not down for
repairs, but that is on 88D warm-up steam and maintaining 844 psi of steam
pressure with oil fire.
+ot Strength #San& - Tenacity (compressive, shear or transverse" of a sand
mixture determined at any temperature above room temperature.
+ot Stri' Mill - mill that rolls reheated slabs into coils. lso, #ot /ill.
+ot "ear - crac0 or fracture formed prior to completion of metal solidification as a
result of hindered contraction. hot tear is fre-uently open to the surface of the
casting and is commonly associated with design limitations.
+ot Wor% - The rolling, forging or extruding of a metal at a temperature above its
recrystallisation point.
+ot Wor%ing - 6lastic deformation of metal at a temperature sufficiently high not to
create strain hardening. The lower limit of temperature for this process is the
recrystallization temperature.
+ot-i' coating - meatllic coating obtained by dipping the substrate into molten
metal.
+ot-rolling - (#@" @olling steel slabs into flat-rolled steel after it has been reheated.
+ot-Stri' Mill - rolling mill of several stands of rolls that converts slabs into hot-
rolled coils. The hot-strip mill s-ueezes slabs, which can range in thic0ness from 8-
*4 inches, depending on the type of continuous caster, between horizontal rolls with
a progressively smaller space between them(while vertical rolls govern the width" to
produce a coil of flat-rolled steel about a -uarter-inch in thic0ness and a -uarter mile
in length.
+o!sing - The inner side of the W* and W8 feeders.
+o!sing :nit - $teel device used to hold the billy roll in place between the slitter
heads and 0nives.
+R - #ot-rolling @olling steel slabs into flat-rolled steel after it has been reheated.
+S.A - #igh $trength Aow lloy $teel. $teel with relatively high strength and impact
properties. The carbon level is low and the alloying additions are significantly less
than D weight percent.
+!b - boss that is in the center of the forging and forms a part of the body of the
forging.
+yra!lic Mani,ol - component of a hydraulic system that functions as a
delivery point for the hydraulic pressures needed to run the different cylinders in that
system. %oth the . !. C. and the C.M.C. systems use manifolds.
+yra!lic 4il - The oil that is pumped under pressure to supply force to the
different cylinders.
+yra!lic Stac% - component of the auxiliary hydraulic system that controls oil
flow to an individual function of the system.
+yra!lic Stan - component of the auxiliary hydraulic system that is made up of
many hydraulic stac0s.
+yro,orming - forming process in which a tube is placed into a forming die. The
tube is then formed to the shape of the die through the application of internal water
pressure. The hydroforming process allows for severe shape deformation, ma0ing it
ideal for automotive structural parts such as engine cradles, radiator supports and
body rails. Marious shaped and sized holes can be punched in the tube almost
anywhere during the process.
+yrogen - n undesirable impurity if present in steel and a cause of fine hairline
crac0s especially in alloy steels. /odern vacuum treatment consists of pearlite and
cementite.
+yrogen Cooler $!m' - pump that delivers diesel treated cooling water to the
hydrogen coolers in W+ and W: !enerators.
+yrogen Embrittlement - (*" %rittleness of metal, resulting from the occlusion of
hydrogen (usually as a by-product of pic0ling or by co-deposition in electroplating".
(8" condition of low ductility resulting from hydrogen absorption and internal
pressure developed subse-uently. 9lectrolytic copper exhibits similar results when
exposed to reducing atmosphere at elevated temperatures.
+yrostatic "est - F44 psi feed water test on a down boiler to chec0 for lea0s.
+@. () +@. ((( - 6rocesses for producing .@' and #%' developed by #ylsa. The
processes reduce iron ore lump or pellets with reformed natural gas in a vertical
shaft furnace. The #JA ' process uses four fixed-bed reactors; #JA ''' uses a single-
shaft furnace.
+y'ere!tectoi Steel - steel containing more than the eutectoid percentage of
carbon (4.+B wt.G".
+y'oe!tectoi Steel - steel containing less than the eutectoid percentage of
carbon (4.+B wt. G".
+ysteresis #Cooling .ag& - .ifference between the critical points on heating and
cooling due to tendency of physical changes to lag behind temperature changes.
+al, +ar "em'er - (" 'n low carbon cold-rolled strip steel, produced by cold
rolling to a hardness next to but somewhat softer than full hard temper. (%" 'n brass
mill terminology, half hard is two %Namp;$ numbers hard or 84.74G thic0ness
reduction. (C" 'n $tainless $teel $trip, Tempers are based on minimum tensile or
yield strength. &or Chromium-1ic0el grades #alf-#ard Temper *D4,444 T.$., **4,444
J.$./in.
+ammer *orging - &orging in which the wor0 is deformed by repeated blows.
Compare with press forging.
+ar /rawing - .rawing metal wire through a die to reduce cross section and
increase tensile strength.
+ar /rawn - 3ire or tubing drawn to high tensile strength by a high degree of cold
wor0.
+ar "em'er - (" (&or steel see &ull #ard Temper" (%" 'n brass mill terminology.
#ard Temper is four %Namp;$ numbers hard or B7.*G reduction.
+arenability - 'n a ferrous alloy, the property that determines the depth and
distribution of hardness induced by -uenching.
+arenability - The ability of a metal, usually steel, to harden in depth as
distinguished from the terms hardness.
+arenability - 'n ferrous alloys, the property that determines the depth and
distribution of hardness induced by -uenching.
+arene an "em'ere S'ring Steel Stri' - medium or high carbon -uality
steel strip which has been sub<ected to the se-uence of heating, -uenching and
tempering.
+arening - 'ncreasing the hardness by suitable treatment, usually involving
heating and cooling.
+arening - ny process which increases the hardness of a metal. ;sually heating
and -uenching certain iron base alloys from a temperature either within or above the
critical temperature range.
+arness - .egree to which a metal will resist cutting, abrasion, penetration,
bending and stetching. The indicated hardness of metals will differ somewhat with
the specific apparatus and techni-ue of measuring. &or details concerning the various
types of apparatus used in measuring hardness, $ee %rinell #ardness, @oc0well
#ardness, Mic0ers #ardness, $cleroscope #ardness. Tensile $trength also is an
indication of hardness.
+arness #inentation& - @esistance of a metal to plastic deformation by
indentation. Marious hardness tests such as %rinell, @oc0well and Mic0ers may be
used. 'n the Mic0ers test, a diamond pyramid with an included face angle of *BF is
used as the indenter.
+eat o, Steel - The product of a single melting operation in a furnace, starting with
the charging of raw materials and ending with the tapping of molten metal and
conse-uently identical in its characteristics.
+eat "inting - Colouration of a metal surface through oxidation by heating to reveal
details of structure.
+eat "reatment - ltering the properties of a metal by sub<ecting it to a se-uence
of termperature changes, time of retention at specific temperature and rate of
coolingtherfrom being as important as the temperature itself. #eat treatment usually
mar0edly affects strength, hardness, ductility, malleability, and similar properties of
both metals and their alloys.
+eat-A,,ecte Cone - That portion of the base metal which was not melted during
brazing, cutting, or welding, but whose microstructure and physical peoperties were
altered by the heat.
+eat-A,,ecte Cone - That portion of the base metal which was not melted during
brazing, cutting or welding, but within which microstructure and physical properties
were altered by the treatment.
+ematite - The oxide of iron of highest valency which has a composition close to the
stoichiometric composition &e85B.
+omogeni0ing - #olding at high temperature to eliminate or decrease chemical
segregation by diffusion.
+omogeni0ing Annealing - n annealing treatment carried out at a high
temperature, approaching the solidus temperature, for a sufficiently long time that
inhomogeneous distributions of alloying elements are reduced by diffusional
processes.
+oning - @emoving stoc0 generally on the internal cylindrical surface of a wor0piece
with an abrasive stic0 mounted in a holder.
+ot /i' - 'n steel mill practice, a process wherby ferrous alloy base metals are
dipped into molten metal, usually zinc, tin, or terne, for the purpose of fizing a rust
resistant coating.
+ot Short - %rittleness in hot metal.
+ot Shortness - %rittleness in metal in the hot forming range.
+ot "o' - (*" reservoir, thermally insulated or heated, to hold molten metal on
top of a mold to feed the ingot or casting as it contracts on solidifying to avoid
having pipe or voids.
+ot Wor%ing - .eformation under conditions that result in recrystallization.
+yrogen Embrittlement - condition low ductility in metals resulting from the
absorbtion of hydrogen.
+y'ere!tectoi Alloy - 'n a eutectoid system, any alloy containing more than the
eutectoid concentration of solute.
+y'ere!tectoi Steel - steel having more than the eutectoid percentage of
carbon.
+y'oe!tectic Alloy - 'n a eutectic system, any alloy containing less than the
eutectic concentration of solute.
+y'oe!tectoi Steel - $teel with less than the eutectoid percentage of carbon.
(-Beams - $tructural sections on which the flanges are tapered and are typically not
as long as the flanges on wide-flange beams. The flanges are thic0er at the cross
sections and thinner at the toes of the flanges. They are produced with depths of B-
8= inches.
(./. *an - ('... fan" $team turbine or electric motor driven fan which develops
negative draft within the boiler to pull the hot exhaust gases through the boiler.
(C( - 'nvestment Casting 'nstitute
(/ - 'nside diameter (of a coil".
(/ Grining - Term for internal (dimension" grinding.
(eal Critical /iameter) /1 - The largest diameter of a bar which, upon -uenching
in an ideal -uench, will exhibit D4G martensite at the center of the bar.
(eal -!ench - -uench in which the temperature of an ob<ect being -uenched
instantaneously drops to that of the -uench bath and remains constant.
(ne'enent Ch!c% - chuc0 in which each <aw may be moved independently of
the others.
(ne1 $late - metal dis0 or plate punched with many holes arranged in a series of
rings. 5ne outside the other each ring containing a different number of holes.
(ne1ing - The praocess of positioning a wor0piece for maching it into e-ual spaces.
.imensions or angles using an index or dividing head.
(ne1ing *i1t!re - complete indexing unit composed of dividing head and
rootstoc0.
(le $!m' - pump on an oil system that is not being used. The pump?s selection
button is in the off mode.
(ler - gear or gears placed between two other gears to transfer motion from one
fear to the other gear without changing their speed or ratio.
(gnition *!rnace *an - small series of fans used to mix air with gas for the
ignition of the furnace.
(gnitors - .evices which employ a high-energy electrical spar0 to ignite the pilot
gas flame.
(llinois (ncl!sion Co!nt Metho - determination of the index number of
cleanliness of steel.
(llite - mineral, typically IlB$iB5*4(5#"8, found in many clays, large wor0ing of
which are found in 'llinois and /ichigan.
(M(S - 'ntegrated /anufacturing 'nformation $ystem.
(mmerse Scanning - 'n ultrasonics, a planned, systematic movement of the beam
relative to the ob<ect being inspected, the search unit being coupled to this ob<ect
through a column of li-uid. 'n most cases the ob<ect and the search unit are
submerged in water.
(m'act - part formed in a confining die from a metal slug, usually cold, by rapid
single stro0e application of force through a punch, causing the metal to flow around
the punch and,or through an opening in the punch or die.
(m'act Energy #(m'act 9al!e& - The amount of energy re-uired to fracture a
material, usually measured by means of an 'zod or Charpy test. The type of
speciment and testing conditions affect the values and therfore should be specified.
(m'act Strength - >The resistance to impact loads; usually expressed as the foot
pounds of energy absorbed in brea0ing a standard specimen. $ee Charpy 'mpact
Test. >
(m'act "est - test for determining the behavior of materials when sub<ected to
high rates of loading under conditions designed to promote fracture, usually in
bending, tension or torsion. The -uantity measured is the energy absorbed when the
specimen is bro0en by a single blow.
(m'overishment - Aoss of any constituent from an alloy or from localized areas of
an alloy by oxidation, li-uidation, volatilization, or changes in the solid state. The
term depletion is also used, particularly in referring to the lowering of the
concentration of solute in a solid solution, around particles precipitated from solid
solution.
(m'regnation - The treatment of castings with a sealing medium to stop pressure
lea0s, such as soa0ing under pressure with or without prior evacuation and either
with hot or cold application. /ediums used include silicate of soda, drying oils with or
without styrene, plastics, and proprietary compounds.
(m'ression /ie *orging - forging that is formed to the re-uired shape and size
by machined impressions in specially prepared dies that exert three-dimensional
control on the wor0 piece.
(m'!rity - n element unintentional allowed in a metal or alloy. $ome impurities
have little effect on properties; others will grossly damage the alloy.
(n - Chemical symbol for 'ndium
(n Service - Term that means >in use>.
(nboar Bearing - 6ump bearing that is nearest the driver.
(ncl!sion - 'mpurities in metal, usually in the form of particles in mechanical
mixture.
(ncl!sion Co!nt - method of assessing the number and size of non-metallic
inclusions present in metal.
(ncl!sions - 6articles of impurities (usually oxides, sulfides, silicates, etc." that are
held mechanically or are formed during the solidification or by subse-uent reaction
within the solid metal.
(ncl!sion) Stringer - n impurity, metallic or non-metallic, which is trapped in the
ingot and elongated subse-uently in the direction of wor0ing. 't may be revealed
during wor0ing or finishing as a narrow strea0 parallel to the direction of wor0ing
(ncom'lete seam - $ee (weld, incomplete)
(nconel - n oxidation-resistant alloy, +4G 1i, *=G Cr, and FG &e.
(nentation +arness - >The resistance of a material to indentation. This is the
usual type of hardness test, in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed into a
surface under a substantially static load. $ee %rinell #ardness and #ardness >
(ne1 Start - $tart time for the first coil processed on a new index number.
(nirect-Arc *!rnace - n C (lternating Current" electric-arc furnace in which
the metal is not one of the poles.
(ni!m - Chemical symbol 'n. !rayish-white minor metal obtained by treating
smelter flue dusts and slags or other residue of base metal concentrates. Capable of
mar0ing paper (<ust as lead does", indium is used in low-melting alloys,
solders,electrical contact coatings,infrared detectors,nuclear reactor control rods, and
various electonic components.
(n!ction *!rnace - C melting furnace which utilizes the heat of electrical
induction.
(n!ction +arening - widely used process for the surface hardening of steel.
The components are heated by means of an alternating magnetic field to a
temperature within or aboved the transformation range followed by immediate
-uenching. The core of the component remains unaffected by the treatment and its
physical properties are those of the bar from which it was machined, whilst the
hardness of the case can be within the range B7,D+ @c. Carbon and alloy steels with
a carbon content in the range 4.=4,4.=DG are most suitable for this process.
(n!ction +eating - 6rocess of heating by electrical resistance and hysteresis
losses induced by sub<ecting a metal to the varying magnetic field surrounding a coil
carrying an alternating current.
(nert Gas - gas that will not support combustion or sustain any chemical reaction;
e.g., argon or helium.
(n,rare /ryer - core or mold dryer employing infrared lamps.
(n,rare Raiation $yrometer - This instrument which uses the ratio of the
radiated energy from a body in two wavelength bands and then is a measure of the
body?s surface temperature. Temperatures down to 844 C (B:8 &" may be measured.
(n,rare Rays - 6ertaining to or designating those rays which lie <ust beyond the
red end of the visible spectrum, such as are emitted by a hot non-incandescent
body. They are invisible and nonactinic and are detected y their thermal effect. Their
wave lengths are longer than those of visible light and shorter than those of radio
waves. Can be applied in the foundry for drying or core ba0ing operations and for
heating dies. 'nfrared radiant heat are synonymous.
(n,!sorial Earth #/iatomite) *ossil *lo!r) Mo!ntain Meal) Mo!ntain *lo!r)
"ri'olite) 2ieselg!hr& - very fine whitish powder composed of the siliceous
s0eletons of infusorians (6rotozoa".
(ngates - >The channels through which molten metal enters the mold cavity. $ee
!ate >
(ngot - $teel cast in a metal mold ready for rolling or forging. 't is distinct from a
casting, which is not rolled or forged. 'ngots are usually rectangular, called slabs;
s-uare, called blooms; polygonal, eight- or *8-sided for forging. $-uares and
polygonal ingots can be fluted or corrugated to increase the surface area and reduce
the tendency to crac0 while cooling.
(ngot (ron - 'ron of comparatively high purity produced in open-hearth furnace
under conditions that 0eep down the carbon, manganese, and silicon content; e.g.,
rmco 'ron
(ngot Mo!l - The receptacle into which molten steel is poured to form an ingot.
fter solidification the steel is suitable for subse-uent wor0ing, i.e. rolling or forging.
(nhibitor - substance which retards some specific chemical reaction. 6ic0ling
inhibitors retard the sissolution of metal without hindering the removal of scale from
steel.
(n?ection Moling - The in<ection of molten metal or other material under pressure
into molds.
(n?ection Water - utomatically regulated water that provides a seal in the
circulator pumps. The in<ection water is supplied from the boiler feed water header.
(nlet - 9ntry valve to auto valve or tan0.
(nmetco - Coal-based process similar to &$T/9T that uses iron oxide fines and
pulverized coal to produce a scrap substitute. /ill scale and flue dust, inexpensive
byproducts of steelma0ing, can be mixed with the iron oxide fines. 'nmetco, unli0e
other direct reduction products, is intended to be hot charged into an 9&, with
attendant energy savings. The process includes three steps. &irst, iron oxide fines,
pulverized coal and a binder are formed into pellets. $econd, the pellets, two to
three layers deep, are heated in a gas-fired rotary hearth furnace for *D-84 minutes
to produce sponge iron. $ubse-uently, the iron must be desulfurized. The coal in the
pellets provides much of the energy re-uired in the second phase.
(noc!lant - /aterial which when added to molten metal modifies the structure, and
thereby changes the physical and mechanical properties to a degree not explained on
the basis of the change in composition resulting from its use.
(noc!lation - >ddition to molten metal of substances designed to form nuclei for
crystallization. lso see 'noculant >
(nsert - part usually formed from metal, which is placed in a mold and may
become an integral part of the casting.
(nserte-"ooth C!tter - milling cutter designed with replaceable cutting tooth
inserts to save the expense of a new cutter whenever the teeth become damaged or
worn. !enerally, they are made F inches or more in diameter.
(ns'ection lot - $ee (lot, inspection)
(ns!lating $as an Sleeves - s opposed to chills, insulating material, such as
gypsum, diatomaceous earth, etc., used to lower the rate of solidification. s sleeves
on open risers, they are used to 0eep the metal li-uid, thus increasing the feed
efficiency.
(ntegral /ose #9ol!me /ose& - measure of the total energy absorbed by man
or any ob<ect during exposure to radiation.
(ntegrate Man!,act!ring (n,ormation System - ('/'$" Computer system used
to record production information.
(ntegrate Mills - These facilities ma0e steel by processing iron ore and other raw
materials in blast furnaces. Technically, only the hot end differentiates integrated
mills from mini-mills. #owever, the differing technological approaches to molten steel
imply different scale efficiencies and, therefore, separate management styles, labor
relations and product mar0ets. 1early all domestic integrated mills specialize in flat-
rolled steel or plate.
(ntegrate $lant - mill that produces steel from basic raw materials from the ore
pile to a finished product.
(ntegrate Steel $ro!cer - steel company which manufactures solid steel
products; starts with raw materials such as iron ore, flux, etc, to ma0e molten iron;
converts the molten iron to li-uid steel in the steelma0ing furnaces and processes
li-uid to solid steel products. $ee /inimill $teel 6roducer.
(ntensity #Raiology& - mount of energy per unit time passing through a unit
area perpendicular to the line of propagation at the point in -uestion. 5ften this term
is used incorrectly in the sense of dose rate.
(nter-Chemical Ga!ge - 3et film thic0ness can also be measured using an 'nter-
chemical !auge. graduated circular cam is rolled against the plate between two
parallel rollers. The wet film thic0ness is then read directly on cam at demarcation of
coating wetting the cam.
(ntercast $rocess - patented procedure for die casting > cast-assemble > units
with moving parts.
(ntercrystalline - %etween crystals, or between grains. $ame as intergranular.
(ntercrystalline Corrosion - Chromium-nic0el austenitic stainless steels are prone
to this form of corrosion when they are welded and subse-uently in contact with
certain types of corrosive media. 3hen heated within a temperature range of =D4-
+44oC precipitation of the chromium carbides ta0es place at the grain boundries in
the area of the weld and these areas not longer have the protection of the chromium
on the peripneries of the grains. This type of corrosion is also 0nown as 3eld .ecay
and 'ntergranular Corrosion. The most common way to avoid the problem is to select
a grade of steel that is very low in carbon i.e. 4.4BG or less, or one that is stabilzed
with niobium or titanium.
(ntercrystalline *ail!re - Crac0s or fractures that follow along the grain boundaries
in the microstructure of metals and alloys.
(nterenritic Attac% - type of electrochemical corrosion that sometimes occurs
in as-cast alloys or alloys that have had very little wor0ing.
(ntergran!lar Corrosion - Corrosion in a metal ta0ing place preferentially along
the grain boundaries.
(ntermeiate Gear - $ee 'dler
(ntermeiate "em'er - cold rolled hardness range specified with a *D-point
@oc0well % spread. $ee Cuarter #ard Temper and #alf-#ard Temper.
(nternal Cleanliness - /easure of number and types of non-metallic inclusions
such as oxides, sulfides or silicates.
(nternal *riction - bility of a metal to transform vibratory energy into heat;
generally refers to low stress levels of vibration; damping has a broader connotation
since it may refer to stresses approaching or exceeding yield strength.
(nternal Shrin%age - void or networ0 of voids within a casting caused by
inade-uate feeding of that section during solidification.
(nternal Stresses #or "hermal Stresses& - !enerally stresses which occur during
the cooling of a part.
(nterr!'te Aging - The aging of an alloy at two or more temperatures by steps,
and cooling to room termperature after each step. Compare with progressuve aging.
(nterr!'te -!ench - @emoving the casting from a -uenching bath before it has
reached the temperature of the bath.
(nterstitial *ree Steel - recently developed sheet steel product with very low
carbon levels that is used primarily in automotive deep-drawing applications.
'nterstitial &ree $teel?s improved ductility (drawing ability" is made possible by
vacuum degassing.
(ntracrystalline - 3ithin or across crystals or grains. $ame as transcrystalline and
transgranular.
(nvar - n alloy having practically no expansion when heated; BFG 1i, 4.DG /n,
4.8G C, and the balance &e.
(nverse Chill - The condition in a casting section where tht einterior is molttled or
white, while the other sections are gray iron. lso 0nown as @everse Chill, 'nternal
Chill and 'nverted Chill.
(nverse Segregation - > concentration of certain alloy constituents that have
lower melting points in the region corresponding to that first solidifying; caused by
interdendritic flow of enriched li-uid through channels where the pressure drops with
contraction of dendrites. The internal evolution of hydrogen may also give a positive
pressure, aiding this flow and causing a li-uidated surface as tin sweat. $ee also
$egregation >
(nversion - change in crystal form without change in chemical composition, as
from -uartz to cristobalite.
(nversion Casting - *" The metal is fed through a bottom feeder, the mold being
inverted for pouring, 8" the mold is directly attached to the electric furnace in which
the metal is melted in a reducing atmosphere so no slag is formed. 5n inverting the
furnace the metal runs into the mold. There are no heavy feeders and oxidation is
prevented.
(nvesting - The process of pouring the investment slurry into the flas0 surrounding
the pattern to form the mold.
(nvestment - flowable mixture of a graded refractory filler, a binder and a li-uid
vehicle which when poured around the patterns conforms to their shape and
subse-uently set hard to form the investment mold.
(nvestment Casting - Casting produced in a mold obtained by investing an
expendable pattern with a refractory to produce a shell. The expendable pattern may
consist of wax, plastic, or other material and is removed prior to filling the mold with
li-uid metal.
(nvestment $recoat - >n extremely fine investment coating applied as a thin
slurry directly to the surface of the pattern to reproduce maximum surface
smoothness. The coating is surrounded by a coarser, cheaper, and permeable
investment to form the mold. $ee .ip Coat >
(nwall Bric% - @efractory lining of the inwall section of blast furnace or cupola.
(oni0ation - The process or the result of any process by which a neutral atom or
molecule ac-uires either a positive or a negative charge.
(oni0ation Chamber - n instrument designed to measure -uantity of ionizing
radiation in terms of the charge of electricity associated with ions produced within a
defined volume.
($M - n identifiable piece of steel; can be a slab, coil, or a bundle of sheets, or
several slit mults banded together.
($M 3!mber - ('n-6rocess /aterial" seven-character number, consisting of the
unit '. and se-uential production number, used to trac0 production history of a coil.
The letter and first digit are used to identify the production unit and the last five
digits are the se-uential production identifying number.
(rii!m - noble metal of the platinum group. ;sually extensively as a radiation
source. &or radiography of thin walled castings.
(ron - *" metallic element, mp *DBD C (87:D &", 8" irons not falling into the steel
categories, as !ray 'ron, .uctile 'ron, /alleable 'ron, 3hite 'ron, 'ngot, and
3rought 'ron.
(ron-Base S!'eralloys - lso 0nown as (super chrome steels,) these metals are
at the highest end of the range of high-temperature,high-strength steels. %esides
chrome,other additives can be nic0el, titanium, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium,
silicon, and carbon.
(ron Carbie - 5ne of several substitutes for high--uality, low-residual scrap for use
in electric furnace steelma0ing. 'ron carbide producers use natural gas to reduce iron
ore to iron carbide.
(ron 4re - /ineral containing enough iron to be a commercially viable source of the
element for use in steelma0ing. 9xcept for fragments of meteorites found on 9arth,
iron is not a free element; instead, it is trapped in the earth?s crust in its oxidized
form.
(ron 41ie - This material as prepared for foundry use generally contains about
+DG ferric oxide and is produced by pulverizing a high grade of pure iron ore. 't can
be added to core sand mixes to assist in 0eeping the core from crac0ing before the
metal solidifies during the casting operation and also helps to resist metal
penetration during this period. dded to molding sand mixtures for control of finning
and veining. lso may reduce carbon pic0 up.
(ron San - $ee 'serine
(ron) +ar or White - 'rons (&eBC" possessing white fracture because all or
substantially all of the carbon is in the combined form. 'rons to be malleablized are
cast white, as are many abrasion-resistant irons.
(ron) Malleable - mixture of iron and carbon, including smaller amounts of silicon,
manganese, phosphorus, and sulfur, which after being cast (white iron, carbon in
combined form as carbides" is converted structurally by heat treatment into a matrix
of ferrite containing nodules of temper carbon (graphite".
(ron) $earlitic Malleable - malleable iron having a more or less pearlitic matrix.
(ron-Carbon #Gra'hite& /iagram - diagram representing stable e-uilibrium
conditions between iron and graphite (pure carbon" phase over the entire range of
iron and steel.
(ron-(ron Carbie /iagram - phase diagram representing metastable
e-uilibrium conditions between &e and &eBC over the entire range of carbon steels
and cast irons.
(ron-Cinc Alloy Coating - $ee !alvanized.
(serine - blac0 sand which consists mainly of magnetic iron ore but also contains a
considerable amount of titanium.
(S4 - 'nternational $tandards 5rganization.
(soc!re - 6roprietary name for a binder system developed for use in shland (Cold
%ox" 6rocess, itself a proprietary process.
(socyanate Aci - 'someric cyanic acid (#1C5".
(solate - ('solation" To remove a boiler, or any particular part or system of a boiler,
form service by closing the manual valves.
(solation - The process of de-energizing, line-blan0ing, bleeding, and loc0ing,
tagging and trying to secure a system or piece of e-uipment for wor0.
(somor'ho!s - 6hases with crystal structures of the same type.
(sothermal - 6ertaining to changes or other phenomena occurring at a constant
temperature.
(sothermal "rans,ormation - *" The process of transforming ustenite in a ferrous
ally to &errite or a ferrite-carbide aggregate at any constant temperature within the
transformation range, 8" transformation of one phase in an alloy system to another
phase at any constant temperature.
(sothernal "rans,ormation C!rve - lso 0nown as the Time Temperature
Transformation Curve. 'f a small piece of steel is heated sufficiently slowly for it to
become austenitic and then plunged into a salt bath and held at a constant
temperature below the upper critical point for a definite time followed by rapid
-uenching, it is possible by examination to determine the extent to which the
transformation of the austentite has occurred. %y ta0ing anumbet of speciments of
the same steel and treating them in the same way, but varying the holding
temperature and time behavior of the steel with time and temperature can be
studied. The information obtained can be plotted as time-temperature transformation
curves which is useful in heat treatment practice, particularly for martempering and
austempering.
(soto'e - 5ne of several different nuclides having the same number of protons in
their nuclei, and hence having the same atomic number, but differing in the number
of neutrons and therefore in the mass number.
(0o (m'act "est - test specimen, usually of s-uaare crossed section is notched
and held between a pair of <aws, to be bro0en by a swinging or falling weight. 3hen
the pendulum of the 'zod testing machine is released it wsings with a downward
movement and when it reaches the vertical, the hammer ma0es contact with the
specimen which is bro0en by the force of the blow. The hammer continues its upward
motion by the energy absorbed in brea0ing the test piece reduces its momentum.
graduated scale enables a reading to be ta0en of the energy used to fracture the test
piece. To obtain a representative result the average of three tests is used and to
ensure that the results conform to those of the steel specification the test specimens
should meet the standard dimesions laid down in %$ *B*.
(iomor'h - particle of a phase the has a regular external shape.
(m'act Energy #(m'act 9al!e& - The amount of energy re-uired to ffracture a
material, usually measured by means of an 'zod or Charpy test. The type of
speciment and testing conditions affect the values and therfore should be specified.
(m'act "est - Test designed to determine the resistance of metal to brea0age by
impact, usually by concentrating the applied stress to a notched specimen.
(m'act "est - test to determine the behavior of materials when sub<ected to high
rates of loading,usually in bending, tension, or torsion. The -uantity measured is the
energy absorbed in brea0ing the specimen by a single blow, as in the Charpy or 'zod.
(m'act "est - test for determining the behaviour of materials when sub<ected to
high rates of loading under conditions designed to promote fracture, usually in
bending, tension or torsion. The -uantity measured is the energy absorbed when the
specimen is bro0en by a single blow.
(m'!rities - 9lements or compounds whose presence in a material is undesired.
(ncl!sion - nonmetallic material in a solid metallic matrix.
(ncl!sions - 1on,etallic materials in a solid metallic matrix.
(nentation +arness - The resistance of a meterial to indentation. This is the
usual type osf hardness test, in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed into a
surface under a substantially static load.
(n!ction +arening - Cuench hardening in which the heat is generated by
electrical induction.
(n!ction +arening - process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above
the transformation range by means of electrical induction, and then cooling as
re-uired.
(n!ction +eating - process of heating by electrical induction.
(nert-Gas Shiele-Arc Weling - rc welding in an inert gas such as argon or
helium.
(ngot - casting suitable for hot wor0ing or remelting.
(ngot - casting for subse-uent rolling or forging.
(ngot (ron - Commercially pure iron.
(ngot (ron - Commercially pure open-hearth iron.
(nterleaving - The placing of a sheet of paper between two ad<acent layers of metal
to facilitate handling and shearing of rectangular sheets, or to prevent stic0ing or
scratching.
(ntermeiate Annealing - n annealing treatment given to wrought metals
following cold wor0 hardening for the purpose of softening prior to further cold
wor0ing.
(nternal 41iation - &ormation of oxides beneath the surface of a metal.
(nterr!'te -!enching - Cuenching in which the metal ob<ect being -uenched is
removed from the -uenching medium while the ob<ect is at a temperature
substantially higher than that of the -uenching medium.
(nterstitial Soli Sol!tion - solid solution in which the solute atoms occupy
(interstitial" positions between the atoms in the structure of the solvent.
(nvestment Casting - (*" Casting metal into a mold produced by surrounding
(investing" an expendable pattern with a refractory slurry that sets at room
temperature after which the wax, plastic, or frozed mercury pattern is removed
through the use of heat. lso called precision casting, or lost-wax process. (8"
casting made by the process.
(rom - (Chemical symbol &e." 9lement 1o. 8F of the periodic system; tomic weight
DD.+D. magnetic silver white metal of high tensile strength, ductile and malleable.
/elting point of pure iron about 87:D (degrees" &. Chemically iron is chiefly base
forming. The principal forms of commercial iron are steel, cast iron and wrought iron.
(ron - n element that has an average atomic number of DD.+D and that always, in
engineering practice, contains small but significant amounts of carbon. Thus iron-
carbon alloys containing less than about 4.*G C may be referred to as irons. lloys
with higher carbon contents are always termed steels.
(roning - Thinning the walls of deep drawn articles by reducing the clearance
between punch and die.
(sothermal Annealing - process in which a ferrous alloy is heated to produce a
structure partly or wholly austenitic, and is then cooled to and held at a temperaure
that causes transformation of the austenite to a relatively soft ferrite-carbide
aggregate.
(sothermal "rans,ormation - change in phase at any constant temperature.
(sothermal "rans,ormation #("& /iagram - diagram that shows the isothermal
time re-uired for transformation of austenite to commence and to finish as a function
of temperature. $ame as time-temperature-transformation (TTT" diagram or $-
curve.
(0o "est - pendulum type of single-blow impact test in which the specimen,
usually notched, is fixed at one end and bro0en by a falling pendulum. The energy
absorbed, as measured by the subse-uent rise of the pendulum, is a measure of
impact strength or notch toughness.
< - *" $ymbol for * gram e-uivalent weight, 8" the mechanical e-uivalent of heat.
<-(ntegral - mathematical expression used to characterize the fracture toughness
of a material having appreciable plasticity prior to fracture. The L-integral eliminates
the need to describe the behavior of the material near the crac0 tip. ;nits are /1,m
or in in-lb,in8.
<ac% Arch - spring arch, flat or horizontal on the underside.
<ac%) leveling - $mall <ac0s (usually screw <ac0s" for leveling and holding wor0 on
planner beds and similar places.
<acobs Ch!c% - Common term for the drill chuc0 used in either the headstoc0
spindle or in the tailstoc0 for holding straight2shan0 drills,taps,reamers or small
diameter wor0pieces.
<amb - ;sually an upright structural member forming the side of an opening in a
refractory or furnace wall.
<amb Bric% - bric0 modified so one corner is rounded.
<ar Ramming - 6ac0ing sand in a mold by raising and dropping on a table the sand,
pattern, and flas0. Lolt s-ueezers, <arring machines, and <olt rammers are machines
using this principle.
<arno - standard taper having 4.F44-inch taper per foot used in some machine
tools.
<ersey *ireclay Bric% - #ighly siliceous clay bric0, semisilica bric0.
<et Cooler - .evice that controls the cooling of the strip before it enters the hot-dip
galvanize pot.
<et Scr!bber - '1 air pollution control, a high velocity water <et directed into the
throat of a venture section of a cupola to separate out particulates.
<et "a''ing - method of tapping a melting furnace by firing a small explosive
charge instead of using an oxygen lance. The tapper consists of an explosive charge
enclosed in a plastic case surrounded by a hollow bullet-shaped body.
<ib - 6ro<ecting part of crane from which lifting chain or gear is suspended.
<ig - ny device so arranged that it will expedite a hand or a machine operation.
<ig Saw Steel - #ardened, tempered and bright polished with round edges. Carbon
content .+D. @anges of sizes .4B: to B:B in width and .4*F to .4B: in thic0ness.
<obbing *o!nry - foundry engaged in the manufacture of numerous types of
castings.
<og - ct of moving the strip forward or bac0ward. This can be done with the pinch
rolls or the reel.
<ohannson Bloc%s #<o Bloc%s& - Common term for the precision gage bloc0s used
and accepted as dimensional standards by machinists,toolma0er and inspectors.
<oin - '/'$ action type indicating that parts of two or more coils have been
combined to produce a single unit.
<oin Co!nt - &ield incremented by one each time coil contains more than *
Consumed '6/ number - 8 coils welded together to ma0e <umbo.
<oint - 5ne length of pipe
<oint Weling - 6roduction welding used to weld cast components together to
obtain an integral unit.
<olt Ramming - $ee Lar @amming
<olt-S;!ee0er Machine - combination machine that employs a <olt action
followed by a s-ueezing action to compact the sand around the pattern.
<ominy - hardenability test for steel to determine the depth of hardening
abtainable by a specified heat treatment.
<o!le - unit of energy. 5ne <oule is e-ual to the energy expended in one second
by one ampere against the resistance of one ohm. ' the mechanical testing of steel it
is the unit used in the Charpy M notch impact test.
<$ - *" &ully alloyed galvanneal product. 8" 5n !alvanize the aluminum percentage
is reduced from the pot on the !alvanize lines; primarily zinc left; produces a flat,
dull coating on the steel (Let-6rocess".
<$ Ba0oo%a - .evice that introduces a flame to the strip as it exits the pot (used to
produce L6 product".
<!mbo Coil - single coil produced by welding two or more coils.
<!m'ing Coil (n - /oving a coil ahead of other coils in a line-up.
<!nction +eaer - &irst steam distribution point after exiting the boiler drum.
<!n% Batteries - This term usually refers to spent automotive lead-acid batteries,
which are purchased by secondary lead smelters. The standard form of shipment is
in the whole and undrained state to meet environmental regulations. Aead metal
constitutes around half the weight of a <un0 battery. 5ther parts, including the
plastic case, also are recycled.
2nee "hat 'art o, a col!mn o, a %nee-ty'e milling machine which carries the
sale an the table an 'rovies the machine with vertical ,ee
a?!stments. Also) the name o, a 'recision angle calle a D"oolma%erEs
2neeF. -
2 - $ymbol used in linear elastic fracture mechanics to describe the intensification of
applied stress at the tip of a crac0 of 0nown size and shape. t the onset of rapid
crac0 propagation, the factor is call the critical stress-intensity factor (I'c" or
fracture toughness. Marious subscripts denote loading conditions or fracture
toughness. ;nits are /pa,mm or 0si,in
2 *actor - Tensile strength in pounds per s-uare inch divided by the %rinell
#ardness number.
2-$late - Tin plate with superior corrosion resistance to mild acid food products;
must meet four (=" special property tests *. 6ic0le lags *4 or less. 8. in crystal size
$T/ : or larger. B. '$M (iron solution value" 84 micro rams &e or less. =. TC (lloy
tin couple - merican Can test" or /6 (erated /edia 6olarization test" vg. 4.4D4
micro amps,s-. cm. 5r less - :DG 4.4+D or less. 1o test over 4.*84.
2ahlba!m (ron - n iron of more than ::.:7DG purity, produced in !ermany.
2alo $rocess - method of producing steel from molten iron, using an inclined
rotating converter and a water cooled oxygen lance inserted through the converter
mouth. 5riginating in $weden, this process is no longeer in use in the ;I
2alling-/ommar,vet $rocess - desulfurizing process using powdered burnt iron.
2aolin - The purest form of China clay consisting of silicate of aluminum.
2a''a Carbie - carbide of iron (&e8B, CF" in which all or part of the iron may be
replaced by chromium, molybdenum, and,or tungsten.
2ayser +arness "est - method for determining the true hardness of metals at
high temperatures.
2C #$lane-stress ,ract!re to!ghness& - The value of stress intensity at which
crac0 propagation becomes rapid in sections thinner than those in which plane-strain
conditions prevail. ;nits are /6a,m or 0si,in.
2elvin "em'erat!re Scale - 5ne in which the unit of measurement e-uals that of
the centigrade degree and according to which absolute zero is 4 degrees, e-uivalent
to -87B.*F C.
2er, - The width of a cut.
2ey - 5ne of several types of small metal ob<ects designed to fit mating slots in a
shaft and the hub of a gear or pulley to provide a positive drive between them. los,
the name of the T-handle wrench used on chuc0s.
2ey Rings - .evices used to hold fibers on slitter 0nives. $ometimes referred to as
?snap rings?.
2ey Seat - recessed groove (slot" machined into a shaft or a part going on the
shaft (usually a wheel or gear".
2eyhole S'ecimen - type of notched impact test specimen which has a hole-and-
slot notch shaped li0e a 0eyhole.
2eystone 9alve - gas control valve that is used as a shut off valve for the ignition
furnace.
2eyway - /echanical loc0ing device located on the slitter head spindle shaft that
holds the 0nives and spacers in place.
2(c #$lane-strain ,ract!re to!ghness& - The minimum value of IC. @epresents
the fracture toughness of a material independent of crac0 length, or loading system.
;nits are /6a,m or 0si,in.
2ic% 4,, $late - (I56" product that has went through the reversing mill and the
WD rougher.
2ic%e 4!t - Aoss of electrical power to any operating unit in the mill.
2ieselg!hr - .iatomaceous earth, a finely porous material used for thermal
insulation to **44 C (84*8 &".
2ille Steel - The term 0illed indicates that the steel has been sufficiently
deoxidized to -uiet the molten metal when poured into the ingot mold. The general
practice is to use aluminum ferrosilicon or manganese as deoxidizing agents.
properly 0illed steel is more uniform as to analysis and is comparatively free from
aging. #owever, for the same carbon and manganese content Iilled $teel is harder
than @immed $teel. 'n general all steels above 4.8DG carbon are 0illed, also all
forging grades, structural steels from 4.*DG to 4.8DG carbon and some special
steels in the low carbon range. /ost steels below 4.*DG carbon are rimmed steel.
2iln - n oven or furnace for burning, calcimining or drying a substance.
2iln Mar%s - 'rregularities on the surface of refractors caused by deformation under
load during burning.
2iln-/rie - Aumber artificially dried in a specially designed enclosure or lumber
0iln.
2ilovolt #%9& - ;nit of electrical potential e-ual to *,444 volts.
2ilovolts Constant $otential - The potential in 0ilovolts of a constant voltage
generator.
2ilovolts $ea% - The crest value of the potential wave in 0ilovolts. 3hen only one
half of the wave is used, the crest value is to be measured on this half of the wave.
2in Ban #e,ormation& - 'n polycrystalline materials, a volume of crystal that
has rotated physically to accommodate differential deformation between ad<oining
parts of a grain while the band itself has deformed homogeneously. This occurs by
regular bending of the slip lamellae along the boundaries of the band.
2in% - (*" for rolled products, an abrupt bend or deviation from flat which is caused
by localized bending during handling. (8" for extrusions, an abrupt deviation from
straightness. 0in0 can be caused by handling.
2i' - unit load of *444 lbs.
2ish - &ree graphite which separates upon slow cooling of molten hypereutectic iron.
2issing #"o!ching& - !ating with minimum metal left at casting brea0off point,
having a gate <ust > 0iss > the surface.
2nee "hat 'art o, a col!mn o, a %nee-ty'e milling machine which carries the
sale an the table an 'rovies the machine with vertical ,ee
a?!stments. Also) the name o, a 'recision angle calle a D"oolma%erEs
2neeF. - 1;AA
2ni,e B!il!' - 9xcess metal that attaches to slitter 0nives. 9xcess metal can also
attach to welder wheels, in which case it is called ?welder wheel buildup?.
2ni,e Mar% - $ee (mar0, 0nife)
2ni,e Wrench - Tool used to remove nuts on the 0nives when ma0ing 0nife changes
or ad<ustments.
2nives - Circular metal discs that rotate on the slitter to sidetrim a coil to customer?s
spec. The distance between them determines the width of the coil.
2noc%-o!t Mar% - $ee (/ar0, 0noc0-out)
2noc%-o!t $ins #E?ector $ins& - $mall diameter pins affixed to a pattern bac0-up
plate for removing cured mold in the shell-molding process.
2noo' +arness 3!mber #+2& - number related to the applied load and to the
pro<ected area of a rhombic-based diamond indentor, with edge angles of *78 *,8
B4? and *B4 *,8.
2noo' +arness "est - micro hardness test in which an elongated pyramidical
diamond is pressed into the surface.
2n!rl - decorative gripping surface of straight-line or diagonal design made by
uniformly serrated rolls called 0nurls.
2n!rling - The process of finishing a part by scoring (pressing" patterns on the
surface of the wor0.
24$ $!sher - machine that pushes the I56 on the ground, off the table after
processing.
24$ Recirc!lating *ilter - filter that cleans the I56 pusher tan0 hydraulic oil by
constantly recirculating the oil from the tan0 through the filter and then bac0 to the
tan0.
29A - $tands for 0ilo-volt-amperes. 't is a measurement of electrical power. 't is
made up of reactive power (IM@" and real power (I3". 't can be derived by
multiplying the voltage by the current.
2ille Steel - $teel deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent, such as silicon or
aluminum, to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs
between carbon and oxygen during solidification.
2ille Steel - $teel deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent such as silicon or
aluminum in order to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction
occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.
2i' - load of *444 lbs.
.a - Chemical symbol for Aanthanum
.S - Aimited service 2 pipe not meeting specification, usually re<ected at the mill
." - Aoaded truc0s-used in price -uotation to indicate seller fee for handling
."C - Aong thread and coupling (5CT! casing connection"
.ace - rea where the strip is <oined together (with wire, bands, etc." after being
bro0en.
.ac;!er - coating composition which is based on synthetic thermoplastic film
forming material dissolved in organic solvent and which dries primarily by solvent
evaporation during stoving operations.
.ale - /etal receptacle fre-uently lined with refractories used for transporting and
pouring molten metal. Types include hand bull, crane, bottom-pour, holding, teapot,
shan0, lip-pour.
.ale Analysis - term applied to the chemical analysis representative of a heat of
steel as reported by the producer. 't is determined by analyzing a test ingot sample
obtained during the pouring of the steel from a ladle.
.ale Metall!rgy *!rnace #.M*& - n intermediate steel processing unit that
further refines the chemistry and temperature of molten steel while it is still in the
ladle. The ladle metallurgy step comes after the steel is melted and refined in the
electric arc or basic oxygen furnace, but before the steel is sent to the continuous
caster.
.ale) Bottom-$o!r - Aadle from which metal flows through a nozzle in the bottom.
.ale) B!ll - large ladle for caring molten metal. &re-uently used to designate a
transfer ladle.
.ale) .i'-$o!r - Aadle in which the metal is poured over a lip.
.ale) "ea'ot - ladle in which, by means of an external spout, metal is removed
from the bottom rather than the top of the ladle.
.ag - 5ne of two types of relationships between voltage and current that describes
what the power factor is doing. The other is lead. 'n a typical motor circuit that has
much inductance, the current will lag the voltage and power factor is said to be
lagging.
.agging - $lac0 in the strip.
.amellar "ear - system of crac0s or discontinuities aligned generally parallel to
the wor0ed surface of a plate. ;sually associated with a fusion weld in thic0 plate.
.aminations - 'mperfections resulting from the presence of foreign inclusions, laps,
or blisters typically aligned parallel to the wor0ed surface or rolling direction of the
metal.
.ance) 41ygen - device, consisting of steel pipe, tubing, oxygen source, and
controls which uses the heat of burning steel pipe for melting. &re-uently used to
open frozen tape or slag holes.
.an - The surface on the periphery of a rotary cutting tool such as a milling
sutter,drill tap or reamer which <oins the face of the flute or tooth to ma0e up the
basic cutting edge.
.anthanies - Commonly referred to as ?@are 9arth? metals. 9xamples 1eodymium,
Aanthanum and Jtrrium.
.a' - surface defect, appearing as a seam, caused by fording over hot metal,fins,
or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface, but not welding
them.
.ar oil - cutting oil made from animal fats usually mixed with mineral oils to
reduce its cost and improve its -uality.
.ateral Bow - $ee (%ow, Aateral)
.ateral E1'ansion - measured property used in Charpy 'mpact Testing. @efers to
the increase width of the specimen after fracture.
.attice - $pace lattice. Aattice lines and lattice planes are lines and planes chosen so
as to pass through collinear lattice points, and non-collinear lattice points,
respectively.
.a!ers .ines - 9longated surface mar0ings or depressions caused by localized
plastic deformation that results from discontinuous (in homogeneous" yielding. lso
0nown as lauders bands, hartmann lines, piobert lines or stretchers.
.ayo!t Sam'le - prototype forging or a (cast) used to determine conformance for
designed demensions
.-/ $rocess - n oxygen steel ma0ing 6rocess named after the towns in ustria,
Ainz and .onawitz, where it was first developed. 't is a modified %essemer process,
steel is produced in a solid bottom converter by in<ection of oxygen into the molten
iron bath from a water cooled lance inserted through the converter mouth. 6resent
day %5$ (basic oxygen steelma0ing" plants are developments of the A-. 6rocess.
.eaching - process in which metal is extracted from mined ore by means of
adding a soluble substance. Commonly used in gold mining.
.ea - Chemical symbol 6b. Mery soft, bluish-white metal; highly malleable and
ductile; poor conductor of electricity, but good noise-dampening material; resistant
to corrosion and radiation. 5btained from galena ore. /a<or end use is storage
batteries, which accounts for F4G of world lead consumption. lso used ammunition,
but has declining use in paints, plumbing e-uipment and cable coverings because of
its toxicity. /etal also used to dampen noise in containers for corrosive li-uids and as
radiation shields for x-ray and nuclear reactors.
.ea +ole - $ee 6ilot #ole
.ea Screw - The long precision screw located in front of the lathe bed geared to
the spindle and used for cutting threads. lso, the table screw on the universal
milling machine when geared to the indexing head for helical milling.
.ea-"ime - .elivery time for an item of inventory to be moved from a source
location to a destination via a specific route. .etail is specific to the level of the
location. lso the time to produce a customer?s order from order placement to
shipment.
.eae Steels - 3hen added to steel, lead does not go into solution but exists in a
very finely divided state along the grain boundries. 't greatly assists machinability as
it acts as a lubricant between the steel and the tool face. Aead is normally added in
amounts between 4.*D-4.BDG and when combined with similar amounts of sulphur,
optimum machinability is attained as in such steel as % :74 8B4/47 6b.
.ea% "hro!gh - ;nwanted steam or water flow through a closed valve.
.ea%o,, - 9xcess steam and condensate water that lea0s out through the pac0ing
gland.
.E*M #.inear Elastic *ract!re Mechanics& - method of fracture analysis that
can determine the stress re-uired to induce fracture instability in a structure with a
crac0 li0e flaw of 0now size and shape.
.egacy Costs - ny costs that are associated with prior operations. 9mployee
liabilities (pensions and health care benefits" and environmental cleanup costs
usually are included under this moni0er.
.evel (nicator - device (electronic or mechanical" that shows the volume of oil
in a tan0.
.evel "ransient Res'onse Control - Changes response time of drum level
controller.
.eveler Chatter - $ee (/ar0, Chatter (@oll or Aeveler")
.eveler Mar% - $ee (.ent, @epeating)
.eveler Strea% - $ee ($trea0, Aeveler)
.eveling - The process by which a leveling machine flattens metal strip, coil, or
sheets by bending it up and down over the interrupting arcs of upper and lowers sets
of long, slender wor0 rolls. /achines generally employ *7, *:, or 8* relatively small
diameter rolls whose deflection under load is controlled by additional bac0-up rollers
and a rigid frame.
.eveling .ine - process to flatten any shape deficiencies (wavy edges and
buc0les" in the sheet, prior to final shipment. /ost cold-rolled sheet initially has a
crowned cross-section that, if such a shape is undesirable to the customer, must be
flattened in the leveling line.
.eveling) Roller - Aeveling carried out by bending
.eveling Rolls - set of five ad<ustable rolls that flatten or level the front end strip
of steel when running through the W* and W8 feeders.
.eveling) Stretcher - Aeveling carried out by uniaxial tension
.eveling) "ension - Aeveling continuously carried out by uniaxial stretching usually
with the assistance of bending
.eveling) "hermal - Aeveling carried out at an elevated temperature under an
applied load normal to the surface to be flattened
.i - Chemical symbol for Aithium.
.i,e Cycle Costing - n accounting method of costing where expenses are allocated
over the life of the product. Aife cycle costs are often lower for stainless steel than
for alternatives despite a higher initial outlay, because stainless products generally
last longer and re-uire little maintenance.
.i,t - *" .evice that moves coils up and down from the reels. 8" 5ne move of the
crane; lifts removed refer to the number of crane pic0ups.
.ight Ga!ge - (.efect" 6roduct with a thic0ness below the customer?s minimum
gauge tolerance.
.ight Ga!ge Steel - Mery thin steel sheet that has been temper-rolled or passed
through a cold-reduction mill. Aight gauge steel normally is plated with tin or chrome
for use in food containers.
.ight Metal - 5ne of the low-density metals such as aluminum, magnesium,
titanium, beryllium, or their alloys.
.ight S'ecial "reatment - surface treatment of dried-in-place chromate for
3eirton $teel?s electrogalvanized product (3eirzin" which provides corrosion
resistance. lighter film weight is applied as compared to special treatment. ($ee
$pecial Treatment".
.ight-Ga!ge Steel - Mery thin steel sheet that has been temper-rolled or passed
through a cold-reduction mill. Aight gauge steel normally is plated with tin or chrome
for use in food containers.
.imiting Range o, Stress - The greatest range of stress that a metal can withstand
for an indefinite number of cycles without failure. 'f exceeded, the metal fractures
after a certain number of cycles, which decreases as the range of stress increases.
.imiting R!ling Section - The maximum diameter of cross section of a bar or
compnent in which certain specified mechanical properties are achieved after heat
treatment.
.imits - term used to determine a minimum and maximum. 'n a mechanism, it
should denote the minimum and maximum sizes for each part, between which the
parts will function properly in con<unction with each other an outside of which they
will not. The words (Aimits) and (tolerances) are often interchanged, (tolerance)
represents the difference between the minimum and maximum limits.
.imits o, $ro'ortionality - The stress "load divided by original area of cross
section of the test piece" at which the strain (elongation per unit of gauge Aegth"
ceases to be proportional to the corresponding stress. 't is usually determined from a
load-elongation line ceases to be straight.
.ine - ny hose, pipe or tubing used to carry oil, grease, air, water or gas.
.ine Mar%ing - Aines are used as the identifying mar0s on the heavy Tin coated side
of the strip to identify it to the customer.
.ine $i'e - 6ipe used in the surface transmission of oil, natural gas and other fluids.
.ine S'ee - $peed at which the coil is processed through the line; 6laters may run
*+44O feet per minute.
.ineal *ootage Co!nter - 9lectronic device used to count lineal footage of a coil.
.iner - The slab of coating metal that is placed on the core alloy and is subse-uently
rolled down to clad sheet as composite
.ine) *low - The line pattern which shows the direction of flow on the surface
.ine) .oo'er - Closely spaced symmetrical lines on the surface of metal which has
undergone non-uniform deformation, usually in a drawing operation
.ine) .!ers - 9longated surface mar0ings or depressions appearing in patterns
caused by localized plastic deformation that results from non-uniform yielding
.ine) Wel - $ee ($eam, 9xtrusion)
.ining - 'nside refractory layer of firebric0, clay, sand, or other material in a furnace
or ladle.
.ining) Monolithic - lining made without the customary layers and <oints of a
bric0 wall. ;sually made by tamping or casting refractory material into place, drying,
and then burning in place on the <ob.
.in% - pipe loop that connects one header to another.
.i' o, a /rill - The sharp cutting edge on the end of a twist drill.
.i;!i Carb!rising - widely used method of case-hardening steel that eliminates
scaling and the tendency to decarburisation and results in clean components. $odium
cyanide is the common media for this process, usually heated within the range of
:44-:B4oC. 't is advisable to pre-heat the components in neutral salts to avoid a
temperature drop resulting from immersing cold components into the cyanide. fter
carburising, either single -uench hardening or refining and hardening and tempering
is carried out.
.i;!i $enetrant "esting - nondestructive testing method suitable for evaluating
the surface integrity of non-magnetic and ferro-magnetic parts
.i;!iation - 'n commodities mar0et parlance, selling long positions to
counterbalance previous buying.
.oaing - condition caused by grinding the wrong material with a grinding wheel
or using too heavy a grinding action.
.oaing .ine 9alve - Malve which isolates or stops a loading line signal.
.oaing .ines - Aines that supply a pressure signal to a control device or measuring
instrument.
.oaing 9alve - type of single solenoid valve that when energized allows the
running C.M.C. and .!.C. pumps to build up pressure.
.ocation - coding system that defines the physical placement of materials, usually
to a high degree of specificity.
.ocation (/ - The building, floor, and >cluster> segments of the location string.
.oc% - condition in which the parting line of a forging is not all in one plane
.oc% 4!t A "ag 4!t - Terminology used to describe the process of securing an
energy source so that wor0 may be done. This is accomplished by loc0ing out all the
energy sources pertaining to the device, tagging out the resources, and trying out
the device to ma0e sure that it is de-energized and safe for wor0 to be done.
.oc%seam "est - test performed on a galvanized product to evaluate the
adherence of the zinc to the steel substrate.
.og - $ee (9xtrusion Aog)
.og Sheet - $heet on which operational data from the instruments and feed water
plant is recorded.
.ogistics - The science of identifying, maintaining, and transporting materials.
.ong - 'n commodities mar0et parlance, buying more futures contracts than you
sell.
.ong Belt - n ad<ustable belt, located on the seventh floor of the boiler house,
which carries coal to the desired coal bay.
.ong $ro!cts - Classification of steel products that includes bar, rod and structural
products, that are >long>, rather than >flat>.
.ong "ransverse /irection - &or plate, sheet and forgings, the direction
perpendicular to the longitudinal direction which is also at right angles to the
thic0ness of the product. $ee also (Aongitudinal .irection)
.ongit!inal Bow - $ee (%ow, Aongitudinal)
.ongit!inal Corr!gatio'n - longitudinal condition similar to transverse bow
except that the sense of the curvature changes sign at least once across the width
.oo' Cellar - rea under the line where the strip accumulates for ma0ing a weld
while the line is running (entry end loop cellar", or for ta0ing a coil off while the line
is running (delivery end loop cellar".
.oo' Section - rea where the strip accumulates in order for the line to run
continuously while other sections of the line are stopped to begin and complete the
processing of another coil.
.oo' "ower - *" rea at the entry end of WD Aine where the strip accumulates
enabling the line to continue running while ma0ing a weld. 8" Collecting unit used for
storing steel. This enables the 9ntry or .elivery 9nd of the line to stop without
stopping production.
.oo'er Cars - $trip accumulators that allow for continuous running of the line while
welds are made. 5n WD 6ic0ler, one looper car, which can accumulate about :44 ft.,
is located in the basement on 1o. * level (entry end". The second looper car, located
on 1o. 8 level halfway between the basement and the floor level, will also
accumulate about :44 ft. There is a total of four loop sections.
.oo'er line - $ee (Aine Aooper)
.oose Material - .uring forging operations, pieces of flash often brea0 loose
necessitating cleaning of the dies between forging blows; this is usually accomplished
by lubricating the die while air is blown on it. 'nsufficient cleaning results in pieces of
flash becoming imbedded in the surface of the forging. $uch forgings are often
salvaged by removing the loose pieces and hot re-forging to fill out the depressions.
.oose Moling - The molding process utilizing unmounted patterns. !ates and
runners are usually cut by hand.
.oose $iece - *" Core boxE part of the core box which remains embedded in the
core and is removed after lifting off the core box. 8" 6atternE laterally pro<ecting part
of a pattern so attached that it remains in the mold until the body of the pattern is
drawn. %ac0-draft is avoided by this means. B" 6ermanent moldE part which remains
on the casting and is removed after the casting is e<ected from the mold.
.oose Wra' - coil that is not wound tight. ;sing too little tension when winding
causes this condition.
.ost *oam $rocess - Casting process in which a foam pattern is removed from the
cavity by the molten metal being poured.
.ost *oam - casting process in which a foam pattern is replaced by molten in a
flas0 filled with loose sand to form a casting.
.ot) +eat "reat - /aterial of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section and size
traceable to one heat-treat furnace load (or extrusion charge or billet in the case of
press heat-treated extrusions" or, if heat treated in a continuous furnace, charge
consecutively during and +-hour period
.ot) (ns'ection - (*"&or non-heat treated tempers, an identifiable -uantity of
material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section and size submitted for
inspection at one time. (8" for heat treated tempers, an identifiable -uantity of
material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section and size traceable to a heat
treat lot or lots and submitted for inspection at one time. (&or sheet and plate, all
material of the same thic0ness is considered to be of the same size."
.ot 3!mber - 'dentifies groups of coils for a particular customer order to be
processed at a certain time; identifies a particular group of coils to load.
.o!vers - /echanical devices that control air inta0e of &...and '...fans.
.ow Brass - +4G cu. copper-Rinc alloy containing 84G zinc. 's a light golden
color, very ductile, suitable for cupping, drawing, forming, etc. %ecause of its good
strength and corrosion resistance it is used for flexible metal gose, metal bellows,
etc.
.ow Carbon Steels - Contain from 4.*4 to 4.B4G carbon and less than 4.F4G
manganese. (The product of %asic 5xygen, %essemer, 5pen #earth or 9lectric
6rocesses."
.ow Coating - condition that occurs when the coating thic0ness is less than
customer or ;A specifications
.ow $ress!re Steam - $team generated as exhaust from the turbo generators
and,or desuperheaters used to meet process and plant heating re-uirements. Aow
pressure steam is produced at 88D psi and DD4 degrees &ahrenheit.
.ow Stress Scratching Abrasion - brasion involving near zero impingement
angle for the stri0ing particle, also parallel flow erosion.
.ow-Carbon Steel - $teel with less than 4.44DG carbon is more ductile
(malleable"E 't is capable of being drawn out or rolled thin for use in automotive
body applications. Carbon is removed from the steel bath through vacuum
degassing.
.owboy - (or $tabilizer @oll" $ubmerged roll in the pot used to stabilize the strip as
it exits the pot before entering the dies.
.!be) +igh - Aubricant limit exceeds the maximum agreed upon limit measured in
weight per unit area
.!be) .ow - &ailure of the lubricant to meet the agreed upon minimum limit
measured in weight per unit area
.!bricate - $wabbing or spraying the dies with lubricant to assist in initial flow and
to facilitate e<ection of the forging.
.!ers .ines #Steel& - (Characteristic of 1o. D Jemper-1ot a defect in 1o. D dead
soft temper." Aong vein-li0e mar0s appearing on the surface of certain metals, in the
direction of the maximum shear stress, when the metal is sub<ected to deformation
beyond the field point.
.!ster - .escribed as refelective,frosted,shiny or dull
.amination - n abnormal structure resulting in a separation or wea0ness aligned
generally parallel to the wor0ed surface of the metal.
.aminations - defect appearing in sheets or strips as a segregation or in layers.
To become divided, caused by gas poc0ets in the ingot.
.aminations - /etal defects with separation or wea0ness generally aligned parallel
to the wor0ed surface of the metal. /ay be the result of pipe, blisters, seams,
inclusions, or segregation elongated and made directional by wor0ing. Aamination
defects may also occur in metal-powder compacts.
.a' - surface defect appearing as a seam, caused by folding over hot metal, fins
or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface, but not welding
them.
.a'-Wel - term applied to a weld formed by lapping two pieces of metal and
then pressing or hammering, and applied particularly to the longitudinal <oint
produced by a welding process for tubes or pipe, in which the edges of the s0elp are
beveled or scarfed so that when they are overlapped they can be welded together.
.ath Martensite - /artensite formed, partly in steel containing less than about
*.4G C and solely in steels containing less than about 4.DG C, as parallel arrays or
pac0ets of lath-shape units about 4.* to 4.B m thic0, and having a habit plane that is
close to Y***Z.
.eveling - &lattening rolled metal sheet or strip.
.ight Metals - /etal and alloys that have a low specific gravity, such as beryllium,
magnesium and aluminum.
.i;!ation - 6artial melting of an alloy.
.i;!i!s - 'n a constitutional diagram, the locus of points representing the
temperatures at which various components commence freezing on cooling or finish
melting on heating.
.ithogra'hic Sheet Al!min!m - $heet having a superior surface on one side with
respect to freedom from surface imperfections and supplied with a maximum degree
of flatness, for use as a plate in offset printing.
.ong "erne - term applying to steel sheets that have been terne coated (Aead and
Tin" by immersion in a bath of Terne /etal.
.ongit!inal /irection - The principal direction of flow in a wor0ed metal.
.ow-+yrogen Electroe - covered arc-welding electrode that provides an
atmosphere around the arc and molten weld metal which is low in hydrogen.
.!ers .ines or Bans - 9longated surface mar0ings or depressions caused by
localized plastic deformation that results form discontinuous (inhomogeneous"
yielding.
M B Grae - term applied to 5pen-#earth steel wire in the .=D,.7D carbon range
either hard drawn or oil tempered. 5il tempered wire of / % and 3 / % types are the
most widely used of all spring wires. 5il tempered wire is more suitable to precision
forming and casting operations than hard drawn wire, because of close control of
tensile strength and superior straightness. . 15T9 / %, # % and extra # % designate
%asic 5pen #earth steels, while 3 / %, 3 # % and extra 3 # % designate cid 5pen
#earth $teels. The chemical composition and the mechanical properties are the same
for both basic and acid steel.
M sections #Bantam Beams"M ) <!nior Beams"M& - Aight footweight beams
primarily used in the construction of pre-engineered housing. These beams are
produced in lighter footweights, usually six to *4 pounds per foot, than traditional
structural products.
Machinability (ne1 - relative measure of the machinability of an engineering
material under specified standard conditions.
Machine Allowance - $toc0 added to the part to permit machining of the part to
final dimensions.
Machine /rawing - n engineering drawing which depicts the final size and shape
of the part for its end use.
Machine .oc% *orming - $ee Aoc0seam.
Machine "ool - power-driven machine designed to bore,cut,drill or grind metal or
other materials
Machining) *inish - /achining a surface to give it the desired finish.
Machining) Ro!gh #Ro!gh *inishing& - @emoving excess stoc0 (material" with a
machine tool thus shaping it in preparation for finish maching.
Machinist - person who is s0illed in the operation of machine tools. #e must be
able to plan his own procedure and have 0nowledge of heat-treating principles.
Macroetch - testing procedure for conditions such as porosity, inclusions,
segregations, caburization, and flow lines from hot wor0ing. fter applying a suitable
etching solution to the polished metal surface, the structure revealed by the action of
the reagent can be observed visually.
Magnesi!m - Chemical symbol /g. silvery,moderately hard,strong and light
metal. ;sed in ductile iron production, steel desulfurization and chemical reduction.
!rowing use as substitute for aluminum and zinc in die casting, due to lightweight
and high strength.
Magnetic Coil - n electrical device mounted on the solenoid valves that supply the
energy needed to shift the valve.
Magnetic Crac% /etection - The baaaaaar or components to be tested is
magnetised by passing a heavy current through it or by ma0ing it the core of a coil
through which a heavy current is passed. Crac0s or inclusions cause the magnetic
flux to brea0 the surface forming free magnetic poles. 3hen the component is
sprayed with a suspension of finely divided magnetic particles they collect at the free
poles to visibly show the presence of defects.
Magnetic Ch!c% - flat, smooth surfaced wor0 holding device which operates by
magnetism to hold ferrous metal wor0pieces for grinding.
Magnetic $article "esting - non-destructive test method of inspecting areas on
or near the surface of ferromagnetic materials. The metal is magnetized, then iron
powder is applied. The powder adheres to lines of flux lea0age, revealing surface and
near surface discontinuities. /agnetic particle testing is used both raw material
acceptance testing and product inspection. Cuality levels are usually agreed on in
advance by the producer and purchaser.
Magnetism - Commonly expressed as permeability which is the ratio of the
magnetic induction to the magnetic intensity. The important factor to remember is
that the permeability increases as the material becomes more magnetic. The B44
series stainless is non-magnetic in the annealed condition.
Main /rives - Aarge gear transmissions that power the finishing mill?s pinion drives.
Main *ilter - &ilter used to clean the hydraulic oil supplied by the main pumps
before the oil goes to the system?s cylinders.
Main +eat - #eat cycle setting on the welder for the main part of the weld.
Main 4il $!m' - pump that pumps oil to the bearings and the controls of a blower
when the blower is up to speed.
Main $!m' - The pumps that produce the hydraulic pressure for the .!.C. and
C.M.C. reducing station.
Main Steam +eaer 9alve - valve located before the throttle valve on the main
steam line coming into the turbine.
Main "ri' 9alve - 9lectrically operated valve that stops or allows flow through a
line.
Ma%e-:' - 3ater that is added to accumulator drum to ensure proper water level.
Ma%e-:' "an% - component of the cooling system that allows additional coolant
to be added to the system as needed.
Malleability - The property that determines the ease of deforming a metal when the
metal is sub<ected to rolling or hammering. The more malleable metals can be
hammered or rolled into thin sheet more easily than others.
Malleable - Capable of being extended or shaped by hammering or rolling.
Malleable (ron - cast iron made by prolonged annealing of white iron in which
decarburization,graphitization or both ta0e place to eliminate some or all of the
cementite. The graphite is in the form of temper carbon. 'f decarburization is the
predominant reaction, the product will exhibit a light fracture surface; hence
whiteheart malleable. 5therwise, the fracture surface will be dar0;hence blac0heart
malleable. 5nly the blac0heart malleable is produced in the ;nited $tates. &erritic
malleable has a predominantly ferritic marix;pearlitic malleable may contain
peaaaarlite,spheroidite or tempered marensite, depending on heat treatment an
desired hardness.
Mallet - 3ooden hammer.
Man-+o!rs $er "on - This is a measure of labor efficiency .*the ratio of total hours
wor0ed by steel employees to the tons shipped for a given period of time. Changes in
the inventory level and wor0 that is contracted out will affect the reported
measurement.
Manrel *orging - The process of rolling and forging a hollow blan0 over a mandrel
in order to produce a weldness, seamless ring or tube.
Manganese - (Chemical symbol /n." 9lement 1o. 8D of the periodic system; atomic
weight D=.:B. Austrous, reddish-white metal of hard brittle and, therfore, non-
malleable character. The metal is used in large -uantities in the form of $piegel and
&erromanganese for steel manufacture as well as in manganese and many copper-
base alloys. 'ts principal function is as an alloy in steel ma0ingE (*" 't is ferrite-
strengthening and carbide forming element. 't increases hardenability inexpensively,
with a tendency toward embrittlement when too high carbon and too high
manganese accompany each other. (8" 't counteracts brittleness from sulfur.
Manganese Steel #A!stenitic& - $ee #adfield /anganese $teel
Man!al - .escribes the status of the operation when the operator has total control.
Maraging - precipitation-hardening treatment applied to a special group of high-
nic0el iron-base alloys (maraging steels" to precipitate one or more intermetallic
compounds in matrix of essentially carbon-free martensite.
Maraging Steel - high alloyed steel that is hardened by both martensite
transformation and by age hardening.
Mar%) Arbor - $urface damage in the vicinity of a coil '. caused by contact with a
roughened, damaged or noncircular arbor
Mar%) Bearing - depression in the extruded surface caused by a change in
bearing length in the extrusion die
Mar%) Bite - line which is generally perpendicular to the rolling direction
Mar%) Bristle - @aised surface about one inch long, crimped wire shaped and
oriented in any direction
Mar%) Carbon - !ray or blac0 surface /ar0ing caused by contact with carbon runout
bloc0s
Mar%) Chatter #Roll or .eveler& - 1umerous intermittent lines or grooves that are
usually full width and perpendicular to the rolling or extrusion direction
Mar%) Ege *ollower - &aint intermittent mar0s at the edge of a cold rolled product
which are usually perpendicular to the rolling direction. This mar0 is caused by action
of devices designed to rewind coils without weave.
Mar%) +anling - (*"&or rolled products, an area of bro0en surface that is
introduced after processing. The mar0 usually has no relationship to the rolling
direction. (8"&or extrusions, damage that can be imparted to the surface during
handling operations.
Mar%) +eat "reat Contact - %rownish, iridescent, irregularly shaped stain with a
slight abrasion located somewhere within the boundary of the stain. 't is a result of
metal-to-metal contact during the -uenching of solution heat-treated flat sheet or
plate
Mar%) (ncl!sion - ppearance of surface (which may also be creased"near a slit
edge, caused by sheet contacting the slitter 0nife
Mar%) Mi%e - 1arrow continuous line near the rolled edge caused by a contacting
micrometer
Mar%) Roll Br!ise - greatly 9nlarged roll mar0 whose leight or depth is very
shallow. $ee also (/ar0 @oll)
Mar%) Roll s%i - full width line perpendicular to the rolling direction and
repeating as a function of a wor0 roll diameter
Mar%) Roll - (*"&or rolled products, a small repeating raised or depressed area
caused by the opposite condition on a roll diameter. (8" &or extrusions, a longitudinal
groove or indentation caused by pressure from contour rolls as a profile (shape"
passes through them for dimensional correction
Mar%) R!b - large number of very fine scratches or abrasions. rub mar0 can
occur by metal-to-metal contact, movement in handling and movement in transit
Mar%) Sna' - band-li0e pattern around the full perimeter of an extruded section
and perpendicular to its length. stop mar0 occurs whenever there is an abrupt
change in the extrusion process. $ee also (mar0, $top)
Mar%) Sto' - band-li0e pattern around the full perimeter of an extruded section
and perpendicular to its length. stop mar0 occurs whenever the extrusion process
is suspended. $ee also, /ar0, $nap)
Mar%) Stretcher <aw - cross hatched appearance left by <aws at the end(s" of
metal that has been stretched. These mar0s are seen if insufficient metal has been
removed after the stretching operation
Mar%) "ra,,ic - brasion which results from relative movement between contracting
metal surfaces during handling and transit. dar0 color from the abrasively
produced aluminum oxide is usually observed. mirror image of a traffic mar0 is
observed on the ad<acent contacting surface
Mar%) Whi' - surface abrasion which is generally diagonal to the rolling direction.
't is caused by fluttering action of the metal as it enters the rolling mill
Mar% - .amage in the surface of the product whose name is often described by
source.
Mar%ing :' - 3riting information on coils and blac0board.
Martem'ering - Cuenching an austenitized ferrous alloy in a medium at a
temperature in the upper part of the martensite range, or slightly above that range,
and holding it in the medium until the temperature throughout the alloy is
substantially uniform. The alloy is then allowed to cool in air through the martensite
range.
Martem'ering #(nterr!'te -!enching& - hardening treatment of a steel
involving a slow cool through the martensitic transformation range to reduce stresses
associated with the -uenching of austenite. n important aspect of martempering is
that no transformation product other than martensite should form.
Martensite - distinctive neddle li0e structure existing in steel as a transition stage
in the transformation of austenite. 't is the hardest constituent of steel of eutectoid
composition. 't is produced by rapid cooling from -uenching temperature and is the
chief constituent of hardened carbon tool steels. /artensite is magnetic.
Martensite - > generic term used for microstructures formed by diffusionless phase
transformations. constituent found in hardened steel; has a needle li0e
microstructure. $ee also /f and /s. >
Martensitic - $mall category of stainless steel characterized by the use of heat
treatment for hardening and strengthening. /artensitic stainless steels are plain
chromium steels with no significant nic0el content. They are utilized in e-uipment for
the chemical and oil industries and in surgical instruments. The most popular
martensitic stainless steel is type =*4 (a grade appropriate for non-severe corrosion
environments re-uiring high strength".
Martensitic +arening - /artensitic stainless steels can be hardened by heating
above the transformation range to temperatures of *744 to *:D4 degrees &.,
followed by cooling in air or oil. This process provides the maximum toughness.
Martensitic Stainless Steels - corrosion-resistant ferrous alloy with a
predominant martensitic phase. /ass 9ffect . . . The effect that the mass of a
component has on the properties of the material from which the part is made. 'n
castings, such effects may arise due to the effect of mass on the solidification rate
and on the rate of temperature change during heat treatment.
Mass E,,ect - The effect that the mass of a component has on the properties of the
material from which the part is made. 'n castings such effects may arise due to the
effect of mass on the solidification and on the rate of temperature change heat
treatment.
Master $attern - The ob<ect from which a die can be made; generally a metal
model of the part to be cast with process shringage.
Matalloi - (a" 9lement intermediate in luster and conductivity between the true
metals and non-metals. rsenic, antimony, boron, tellurium, and selenium, etc., are
generally considered metalloids; fre-uently one allotropic modification of an element
will be non-metallic, another metalloid in character. 5bviously, no hard and fast line
can be drawn. (b" 'n steel metallurgy, metalloid has a specialized, even if erroneous,
meaning; it covers elements commonly present in simple steel; carbon, manganese,
phosphorus, silicon and sulfur.
Match'late - plate of metal or other materials on which patterns and gating
systems, split along the parting line, are mounted bac0 to bac0 to form an integral
piece.
Material Sa,ety /ata Sheets - (/$.$" $heets that document safety issues
associated with various materials used.
Matt or Matte *inish - ($teel" 1ot as smooth as normal mill finish. 6roduce by
etched or mechanically roughened finishing rolls.
Matte *inish - dull or grit surface appearance achieved by rolling on rolls which
have been roughened by mechanical, chemical, or electrical means to various
degrees of surface texture.
Matte S!r,ace - dull surface appearance on a tin plate product; non-reflowed
tinplate. $ee @e-flowed $urface.
Ma1 Coil - Aargest size coil a customer will ta0e; Tin /ill may have to split a coil to
achieve this weight.
Ma1im!m Stress - 'n testing of the strength of steel a sample is machined into a
standard test piece and is stretched 'n a tensile testing machine until it brea0s. The
results are expressed in 1,mm8 and is the value of the maximum load reached in
the test divided by the original cross sectional area of the specimen.
Mc2ay .eveler - series of four rolls (two top, two bottom" necessary to level or
remove coil set in order to feed coil ends through the shear.
Mc-!ai E+3 Grain Si0e "est - method of assessing grain size. 't consists of a
test piece at :87oC for + hours by slow cooling anmd subse-uent microscopical
examination. The grain size is measured at x*44 magnification and compared to
standard chars, the figures range from 1o.*-very coarse to 1o. +-very fine.
Meallogra'hic Str!ct!re - The nature, distribution, and amounts of the
metallographic constituents in a metal.
Mean /iameter - The average of two measurements of the diameter at right angles
to each other
Meas!ring "able - precise measuring device.
Mechanical .evel (nicator - .evice that uses a float to measure the level of oil in
a tan0.
Mechanical $ro'erties - 6roperties of a material that reveal its strength and elastic
behavior.
Mechanical $ro'erties - Those properties of a material that reveal the elastic and
inelastic reaction when force is applied, or that involve the relationship between
stress and strain; for example, the modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, and fatigue
limit. These properties have often been designated as >physical properties,> but the
term >mechanical properties> is much to be preferred.
Mechanical "!bing - $teel tubing products used in the manufacture of hydraulic
cylinders, in mechanical parts for autos and truc0s, construction and farm e-uipment
and in furniture,bicycles and many other applications.
Mechanical Wor%ing - 6lastic deformation or other physical change to which metal
is sub<ected, by rolling, hammering, drawing., etc. to change its shape, properties or
structure.
Mei!m-Carbon Steel - Contains from 4.B4G to 4.F4G carbon and less than
*.44G manganese. /ay be made by any of the standard processes. $ee Aow-Carbon
$teel and #igh-Carbon $teel
Meehanite - trade name applied to a certain type of cast iron.
Merchant Bar - group of commodity steel shapes that consist of rounds, s-uares,
flats, strips, angles, and channels, which fabricators, steel service centers and
manufacturers cut, bend and shape into products. /erchant products re-uire more
specialized processing than reinforcing bar.
Mesh - To engage, as the teeth between two gears.
Metal - n opa-ue, lustrous, elemental substance that is a good conductor of heat
and electricity and, when polished, a good reflector or light. /ost metals are
malleable and ductile and are, in general, denser than other substances.
Metal S'raying - process for applying a coating of metal to an ob<ect. The metal,
usually in the form of wire, is melted by an oxyhydrogen or oxyacetylene blast or by
an electric arc and is proficted at high speed by gas pressure against the ob<ect
being coated.
Metalloi - *" n element intermediate between metals and nonmetals possessing
both metallic and nonmetallic properties, as arsenic, 8" sometimes applied to
elements commonly bonded in small amounts in steel, as carbon, manganese, boron,
silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus.
Metallstatic $ress!re - compound phase referring to hydrostatic pressure,
substituting /etall since #ydro connotes water.
Metall!rgical Bon - The bond between two metals whose interface is free of voids,
oxide films, or discontinuities.
Metall!rgy - The science and technology of metals, a broad field that includes but is
not limited to the study of internal structures and properties of metals and the
effects on them of various processing methods.
Metaloc% - method of cold repair of castings and forgings.
Metals Com'arator - n instrument for testing or identifying metallic and
nonmetallic parts. 6arts are placed in an electromagnetic field and a standard parts
in a matched electromagnetic field. .istortions of the magnetic fields are compared
on an oscilloscope.
Metamic - metal ceramic high in Cr-l85B.
Metastable #:nstable& - state of pseudo-e-uilibrium.
Me1ico Bay San - sand similar to /ichigan City dune sand mined at $el0ir0
%each, near /exico 1J., on Aa0e 5ntario. 't has a silica content of :4G and over.
Meyer +arness "est - test to determine tendency of a metal to harden when
deformed plastically. series of indentations are made in the metal using a fixed-
diameter ball and progressively increasing loads.
M, - The temperature at which martensite formation finishes during cooling.
Mg - Chemical symbol for /agnesium
Mic> Mi%e - term used for micrometer or to messure with a micrometer.
Mica Schist - type of micaceous refractory roc0 used for lining cupolas and other
melting furnaces.
Mica Strainer - s0im core made of thin mineral silicates crystallizing in monoclinic
form.
Michigan San - Core sands of dune or la0e sand and ban0 sands found in
/ichigan.
Micrometer) e'th - micrometer in which the spindle pro<ects through a flat
accurately machined bar. ;sed to measure the depth of holes or recesses.
Micrometer) threa - micrometer in which the spindle is ground to a point having
a conical angel of F4 degrees. The anvil,instead of being flat, has a F4 degree v-
shaped groove which fits the thread.
Micro $i'es #Brit.& #Microshrin%age& - Tiny cavities, a fraction of a millimeter in
diameter, with irregular outlines, which occur in castings. 9tching shows they occur
at intersections of convergent dendritic directions.
Micro-"ester - low load hardness tester, suitable for both Mic0ers and Inoop
tests, wor0ing with loads of between *4 to B444 grams.
Microbans #e,ormation& - Thin sheet li0e volumes of constant thic0ness in
which cooperative slip occurs on a fone scale. They are an instability which carry
exclusively the deformation at medium strains when normal homogeneous slip is
precluded. The sheets are aligned at O,- DD(degrees" to the compression direction
and are confined to individual grains, which usually contain two sets of bands.
Compare shear bands.
Microcast $rocess - patented method of precision-casting alloys, as Mitallium,
/onel, 'nconel and the #aynes $telite alloys.
Microetching - 9tching of metal samples for examination under the microscope.
Micro,ormer - type of extensometer for measuring elongation of test piece in a
tensile test.
Microharness - The hardness of microconstituents of a material.
Microinch - 4.44444* (*,*,444,444th" of an inch. common unit of measurement
in surface measurement research and in standard roughness (surface" unit values of
performance of machinery.
Microl!g - test coupon used to give rapid indication of the effectiveness of
magnesium treatment of ductile iron.
Micrometer - device used to measure gauge.
Micron - unit of length e-ual to one millionth of metre (4.44*mm".
Micro'orosity - $ee /icroshrin0age
Microraiogra'hy - The process of passing x-rays through a thin section of an alloy
in contact with a photographic emulsion, and then magnifying the radiograph D4 to
*44 times to observe the distribution of alloying constituents and voids.
Microsco'ic - /inute ob<ect or structures which are invisible or not clearly
distinguished without the use of a microscope.
Microsection - metal specimen whose surface has been polished and etched to
reveal the microstructure.
Microshrin%age - Mery finely divided porosity resulting from interdendritic shrin0age
resolved only by use of the microscope; may be visible on radiographic films as
mottling. 9tching shows they occur at intersections of convergent dendritic
directions.
Micros'ectrosco'y - method of identifying metallic constituents using
spectrographic arc.
Microtone #Brit.& - n instrument for cutting thin sections of soft specimens.
Microvalve - control valve used to control the hydraulic pressure to the clutch
plates on the winch drive.
Mi-Wel - Two or more <oints welded to form a longer one
Migra (ron #Brit.& - special pig iron for high -uality castings.
Mi%e Mar% - 1arrow continuous line near the rolled edge caused by a contacting
micometer
Mi%ro-"ester - low load hardness tester, suitable for both Mic0ers and Inoop
tests, wor0ing with loads of between *4 to B444 grams.
M(. S"/ - ;nited $tates !overnment military standards, specifications, usually
re-uiring rugged, exacting testing e-ual to the exigencies of combat usage.
MnChemical symbol ,or Manganese. -
Mill - milling machine. lso, the act of performing an operation on the milling
machine.
Mill Ege - hot band processed through the 6ic0ler without being side trimmed.
This replaces the old term, band edge.
Mill *inish - surface finish produced on sheet and plate. Characteristic of the
ground finish used on the rolls in fabrication.
Mill Scale - 'ron oxide scale formed on steel during hot wor0ing processes, cooled in
air
Mill Stars - /ulti-pointed white iron or hard iron bodies used in a Tumbling %arrel to
assist in polishing and cleaning.
Milling - @emoving metal with a milling cutter.
Milling C!,,er - cutting tool, generallt cylindridcal in shape. ;sed on a milling
machine and operated essentially li0e a circular saw.
Milliroentgen #mr& - sub-multiple of the roentgen e-ual to one-thousandth
(*,*444th" of a roentgen.
Millisco'e #Brit.& - n instrument which gives an electrical warning when melt
reaches a predetermined temperature.
Mineral - 1atural inorganic substance which is either definite in chemical
composition and physical characteristics or any chemical element or compound
occurring naturally as a product of inorganic processes.
Mini-Mills - 1ormally defined as steel mills that melt scrap metal to produce
commodity products. lthough the mini-mills are sub<ect to the same steel
processing re-uirements after the caster as the integrated steel companies, they
differ greatly in regard to their minimum efficient size, labor relations, product
mar0ets, and management style.
Minimill Steel $ro!cer - steel company, which manufactures solid, steel
products; starts with the steelma0ing operation, generally consisting of an electric
arc furnace, and converts the li-uid steel into solid products. $ee 'ntegrated $teel
6roducer.
Minimi0e S'angle - dull #ot-.ipped !alvanized surface appearance in which the
normal zinc formation has been suppressed; achieved by applying water droplets or
some other nucleating agent to the zinc surface after the bath but before the zinc
solidifies to suppress the growth of spangle.
Minim!m Resi!al Stress #MRS& - The term applied to products, usually flat
rolled, which have been processed to minimize internal stress of the 0ind that causes
distortion when material is disproportionately removed from on of the two surfaces
through mechanical or chemical means.
Minim!m "ri'le S'ot Average Coating - The average of three coating weights
test results obtained from a full width sample of a galvanized (or any other coated"
coil 8 inches from each end and dead center.
Minor /iameter - The smallest diameter of a screw thread. lso 0nown as the (@oot
diameter).
Mirror *inish - highly reflective finish obtained by polishing with successively finer
abrasive and buffing extensively free of grit lines. &inish is used most for
architectural applications. comparable finish produced by cold-rolling is ;lbrichHs
;lbra%right, which currently is not being produced.
Mischmetal - n alloy of rare earth metals containing about D4G lanthanum,
neodymium, and similar elements.
Miscibility - $olubility; ability of two or more li-uids to form a homogeneous
solution.
Mismatch - 9rror in register between two halves of a forging by opposing die halves
not being in perfect alignment
Misr!n - .enotes an irregularity of the casting surface caused by incomplete filling
of the mold due to low pouring temperature, gas bac0-pressure from inade-uate
venting of the mod, and inade-uate gating.
Misting - coating defect consisting of a condition encountered, primarily on . N '
high speed beverage can coating machines, which appears as many fine spots of
coating.
Mitis Casting - Casting of very mold steel.
Mi1e Gas - natural gas and air mixture which lowers the %T; value of the gas to
approximately 7D4 %T; per cubic feet.
MnChemical symbol ,or Manganese. - 1;AA
Mo - Chemical symbol for /olydenum
Moc%-:' - full-size model built accurately for study, testing or display.
Moel - proportional representation of an ob<ect in any scale.
Moell 3!mber - value giving a measure of wear resistance.
Moi,ication - process in which the eutectic temperature, structure, and
composition of aluminum-silicon alloys are apparently altered by the addition of
small amounts of a third element, such as sodium. similar phenomenon can be
effected by chill casting.
Mo!les o, Elasticity - The ratio of stress to corresponding strain throughout the
range where they are proportional. s there are three 0inds of stresses, so there are
three 0inds of moduli of elasticity for any material-modulus in tension, in
compression, and in shear.
Mo!l!s o, Elasticity - The number which represents the relative >springness> of a
given type of metal. ll steels have the same modulus of elasticity or >springiness>
regardless of the tensile or yield strengths. That is, until the yield point is reached
they all stretch the same amount for a given load. luminum, on the other hand, is
more elastic than steel and thus will stretch more than steel under the same loading.
Mo!l!s o, Elasticity #tension& - &orce which would be re-uired to stretch a
substance to double its normal length, on the assumption that it would remain
perfectly elastic, i.e., obey #oo0e?s Aaw throughout the twist. The ratio of stress to
strain within the perfectly elastic range.
Mo!l!s o, Resilience #!r& - The amount of strain energy per unit volume re-uired
to stress a material from zero to the yield stress limit. The modulus of resilience is
proportional to the area under the elastic portion of the stress-strain diagram. ;nits
are 6a or psi.
Mo!l!s o, Rigiity - >'n a torsion test the ratio of the unit shear stress to the
displacement caused by it per unit length in the elastic range. $ee $hear /odulus >
Mo!l!s o, R!'t!re - ;sed in both bending and torsion testing. 'n bending, the
modulus of rupture is the bending moment at fracture divided by the section
modulus. 'n torsion, modulus of rupture is the tor-ue at fracture divided by the polar
section modulus.
Mo!l!s o, "o!ghness #!t& - mount of wor0 per unit volume of a material
re-uired to carry that material to failure under static loading. 9-ual to the area under
the entire stress-strain curve. ;nits are 6a or psi.
Mog!lli0er - 9-uipment for sealing by vacuum impregnation of small pores in
castings.
Moh5s Scale - scratch hardness test for determining comparative harness using
ten standard minerals, from talc to diamond.
Moist!re Content - The amount of water contained in a substance that can be
driven off by heating at 884 - 8B4 %4& (*4=.= - **4 %4C".
Moist!re "eller - patented apparatus for the rapid determination of moisture
content of molding sand.
Molasses Water - solution of water and molasses sprayed on sand molds to
strengthen mold surface and yield a fine finish layer.
Mol Blower - /olding e-uipment for blowing sand mixture onto the pattern with
compressed air; allows for faster production than gravity rollover dump.
Mol Boar #*ollow Boar& - The board upon which the pattern is placed to ma0e
the mold.
Mol Cavity - The space in a mold which is filled with li-uid metal to form the
casting upon solidification. The channels through which li-uid metal enters the mold
cavity (sprue, runner, gates" and reservoirs for li-uid metal (risers" are not
considered part of the mold cavity proper.
Mol Clam' - .evices used to hold or loc0 cape and drag flas0 parts together.
Mol Coating #Mol *acing) /ressing& - *" Coating to prevent surface defects on
permanent mold castings and die castings, 8" coating on sand molds to prevent
metal penetration and improve metal finish.
Mol Cover +al, #Cover /ie& - *" The top half of the mold, the cope, 8" in die
casting, the front half of the die, which remains stationary as the die is opened.
Mol *acing - $ee /old Coating
Mol <ac%et - wooden or metal form slipped over a mold to support the side
during pouring.
Mol Shi,t - casting discontinuity resulting from misalignment of the cope and
drag halves.
Mol Wash - slurry of refractory material,such as graphite and silica flour,used in
coating the surface of the mold cabity to provide an improved casting surface.
Mol Weight - weight that is applied to the top of a mold to 0eep the mold from
separating.
Molability - bility of sand to flow into a flas0 and around a pattern; measured in
the amount of sand falling through an inclined screen or slot.
Molabilty Controller - patented device for controlling water additions to sand
mix to maintain a consistent moldability index.
Moling Gravel - The coarser and more permeable grades of molding sand
generally used in production casting of exceptional size and weight.
Moling Machine - machine for ma0ing molds.
Moling Material - material suitable for ma0ing molds into which molten metal
can be cast.
Moling San Mi1t!re - sand mixture suitable for ma0ing molds into which
molten metal can be cast.
Moling Sans - >$ands containing over DG natural clay, usually between + and
84G. $ee also 1aturally %onded /olding $and >
Moling) Bench - /a0ing sand molds by hand tamping loose or production patterns
at a bench without assistance of air or hydraulic action.
Moling) *loor - /a0ing sand molds from loose or production patterns of such size
that they cannot be satisfactorily handled on a bench or molding machine, the
e-uipment being located on the floor during the entire operation of ma0ing the mold.
Moling) $it - /olding method in which the drag is made in a pit or hole in the floor.
Molec!lar Weight - 3eight of the smallest -uantity of a substance processing all its
normal physical properties.
Molec!le - The smallest particle of a substance that can exist in the free state and
which has the same composition as any larger mass of the substance.
Molyben!m - (Chemical symbol /o" 9lement 1o. =8 of the peridic system; atomic
weight :D.:D. #ard, tough metal of grayish-white color, becoming very ductile and
malleable when properly treated at high temperatures; melting point =7=+ (degrees"
&.; boiling point about FF44 (degrees" &.; specific gravity *4.8 . 6ure molybdenum
can best be obtained as a blac0 powder, by reduction of molybdenum trioxide or
ammonium molybdate with hydrogen. &rom this powder, ductile sheet and wire are
made by powder metallurgy techni-ues; these are used in radio and related wor0.
'ts principal functions as an alloy in steel ma0ingE (*" @aises grain-coarsening
temperature of austenite. (8" .eepens hardening. (B" Counteracts tendency toward
temperbrittleness. (=" @aises hot and creep strength, red hardness. (D" 9nhances
corrosion resistance in stainless steel. (F" &orms abrasion-resisting particles.
Molyben!m #Mo& - n alloying element used as a raw material for some classes of
stainless steel. /olybdenum in the presence of chromium enhances the corrosion
resistance of stainless steel.
Molybic 41ie - The oxide of molybdenum; added to the furnace in bri-uetted
form as an important finishing constituent in nitriding steels.
Monel - high nic0el alloy, approximately F7G 1i, 8+G Cu, the balance &e, /n, $i
and other elements. /onel metal is resistant to corrosion and is widely used to resist
the action of acids.
Monitoring - *" 6eriodic or continuous determination of the does rate in an occupied
area (area monitoring" or the does received by a person (personnel monitoring", 8"
periodic or continuous determination of the amount of ionizing radiation or
radioactive contamination present in an occupied region, as a safety measure for
purposes of health protection, B" personnel - monitoring any part of any individual,
his breath, or excretions, or any part of his clothing.
Monitoring Area - @outine monitoring of the level of radiation or of radioactive
contamination of any particular area, building, room or e-uipment. ;sage in some
laboratories or operation distinguishes between routine monitoring and survey
activities.
Mon%ey Cooler #Brit.& - 'n a blast furnace, the smaller of a series of three water
coolers protecting the cinder notch. The largest is the cooler, while the in-between
cooler is the intermediate cooler.
Monocast $rocess - patented application of resin-bonded sand to line the flas0 in
the production of centrifugal cast pipe. The resin-bonded layer is thinner than the
conventional sand lining.
Monotectic - >n isothermal reversible reaction in a binary system, in which a li-uid
on cooling, decomposes into a solid and a second li-uid of different composition.
(Compare with 9utectic." >
Monotron - n instrument for measuring indentation hardness. 't is fitted with two
dials, one to measure depth of penetration, the other the load.
Months o, (nventory - @atio of the end-of-period inventory to average monthly
level of sales for the period.
Montmorillonite - very plastic clay, more siliceous than 0aolinite; the principal
constituent of bentonite.
Moore) R. R.) *atig!e Machine - constant load rotating bending type fatigue
testing machine.
Morgoil - 5il used to lubricate the finishing mill bac0-up roll bearings.
Morgoil Alarm - warning received when morgoil pressure is low or morgoil flow is
stopped.
Morgoil $!m's - 6umps that produce the morgoil pressure for the morgoil system.
Morgoil System - $ystem that encompasses all the parts needed to supply morgoil
to the bac0-up rolls.
Morse "a'er - self-holding standard taper largely used on small cutting tools such
as deills,end mills ,reamers and, on some machines, spindles in which these tools are
used.
Most!re) Wor%able - That range of moisture content within which sand fills, rams,
draws, and dries to a satisfactory mold, and within which the sand does not dry out
too fast to mold and patch.
Mother Metal - The molten alloy <ust before final solidification and freezing out of
the solid.
Motori0e 9ariac - n autotransformer for stepless voltage control in shell molding.
Mottle Cast (ron - 'ron which consists of a mixture of variable proportions of gray
iron and white cast iron; such a material has a mottled fracture.
Mottling - coating defect consisting of a non-uniform appearance of the cured
coating in which the coating has a random, discontinuous poor flow or partial
dewetted appearance.
Mottling) 'ress!re - 1on-uniform surface appearance resulting from uneven
pressure distribution between ad<acent layers of the product.
MoversA+a!lers - 9-uipment used to transport in process inventory at 3$K. These
include cranes, for0lift truc0s, flatbed truc0s, railroad cars, transfer cars, conveyor
systems, and slab haulers.
M$ - /elting point.
Ms - The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite starts
during cooling.
M! - > term fre-uently used to designate plastic lining materials. $ee also
.aubing >
M! /a!b - $ee .aubing
M! /r!m - The lower drum of a boiler. 't is used as a settling point for solids
contained in the feedwater and as a feedpoint for the lower wall headers and floor
tubes.
M!,,le *!rnace #2iln& - furnace in which the heating is indirect; the material to
be heated is contained in a refractory container heated from the outside.
M!,,lers - device that -uiets the steam exhausted from the boiler before it exits to
the atmosphere.
M!li!ctor $ower So!rce - device to convert standard B-phase, F4 cycle current
to single- phase, *+4-cycle current, so-called medium fre-uency; produces a strong,
controlled stirring action for induction melting.
M!llen "est - /easurment of bursting strength of foil in pounds per s-uare inch.
Testing machine applies increasing pressure to one s-uare inch of the sample until it
ruptures.
M!ller - type of foundry sand-mixing machine.
M!lling an "em'ering - The thorough mixing of sand with a binder, either natural
or added, with lubricant of other fluid, as water.
M!lt - >mult> is the term used to describe the slitting of a coil into multiple smaller
strips. 'f a coil is slit into strips less than :>, each strip is referred to as a >mult> and
does not receive an individual '6/ number. /ults are not removed from the line
individually, but as a whole coil unit. &or reasons pertaining to customer orders,
however, they may be separated and pac0aged with >mults> from other coils for
shipping.
M!lti stage '!m's - 1o. B and 1o. *4 pumps that are designed to put out different
amounts of water pressure by changing the speed of the pump by opening up
different ports on the turbine of the pump.
M!lti'le Mol - composite mold made up of stac0ed sections, each of which
produces a complete gate of castings, and poured from a central downgate.
M!lti'le-"hrea-Screw - screw made of two or more threads to provide an
increased lead with specified pitch.
M!nt0 Metal #A re,ractory Alloy& - lpha-beta brass, F4G copper and =4G zinc.
$tronger than alpha-brass and used for castings and hot-wor0ed (rolled, stamped, or
extruded" products. #igh strength brasses are developed from this by adding other
elements.
M!shet Steel - n air hardened steel containing about 8G c, 8G /n, and 7G 3,
developed by $cotsman @obert /us0et in *+74.
M!shy Stage - The state between sold and li-uid in alloys which freeze over a wide
range of temperatures.
M!sic Wire - polished high tensile strength cold drawn wire with higher tensile
strength and higher torsional strength than any other material available. These high
mechanical properties are obtained by a combination of the high carbon content, the
patenting treatment and by many continuous passes through drawing dies. The high
toughness characteristic of this material is obtained by the patenting. $uch wire is
purchased according to tensile strength, not hardness.
Machinability - The relative ease of machining a metal.
Machinability - The capacity of a material to be machined easily.
Macro-Etch - 9tching of a metal surface for accentuation of gross structural details
and defects for observation by the unaided eye or at magnifications not exceeding
ten diameters.
Macroetch "est - Consists of immersing a carefully prepared section of the steel in
hot acid and of examining the etched surface to evaluate the soundness and
homogeneity of the product being tested.
Macroetching - 9tching of a metal surface with the ab<ective of accentuating gross
structural details, for observation by the unaided eye or at magnifications not
exceeding ten diameters.
Macrogra'h - graphic reproduction of a prepared surface of a specimen at a
magnification not exceeding ten diameters. 3hen photographed, the reproduction is
0nown as a photomacrograph (not a macrophotograph".
Macrogra'h - photographic reproduction of any ob<ect that has not been
magnified more than ten times.
Macrosco'ic - Misible either with the na0ed eye or under low magnification (as
great as about ten diameters.
Macrostr!ct!re - The structure of a metal as revealed by examination of the etched
surface at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters.
Macrostr!ct!re - The structure of metal as revealed by macroscopic examination.
Macrostr!ct!re - The structure of metals as revealed by examination of the etched
surface of a polished specimen at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters.
Magnetic-$article (ns'ection - nondestructive method of inspection for
determining the existence and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials.
&inely divided magnetic particles, applied to the magnetized part, anre attracted to
and outline the pattern of any magnetic-lea0age fields created by discontinuities.
Magnetite - The oxide or iron of intermediate valence which has a composition close
to the stoichiometric composition &eB5=.
Malleabili0ing - process of annealing white cast iron in such a way that the
combined carbon is wholly or partly transformed to graphitic or free carbon or, in
someinstances, part of the carbon is removed completely.
Man!al Weling - 3elding where in the entire welding operation is performed and
controlled by hand.
Martem'ering - (*" hardening procedure in which an austenitized ferrous
material is -uenched into an appropriate medium at a temperature <ust above the /s
temperature of the material, held in the medium until the temperature is uniform
through-out -but not long enough for bainite to form - and then cooled in air. The
treatment is fre-uently followed by tempering. (8" 3hen the process is applied to
carburized material, the controlling /s temperature is that of the case. This variation
of the process is fre-uently called mar-uenching.
Martensite - 'n steel, a metalstable transition phase with a body-centered-
tetragonal crystal structure formed by diffusionless transformation of austenite
generally during cooling between the /s and /f temperatures.
Martensite - (*" 'n an alloy, a metastable transitional structure intermediate
between two allotropic modifications whose abilities to dissolve a given solute differ
considerably, the high-temperature phase transformed to martensite depends to a
large extent upon the temperature attained in cooling, there being a rather distinct
beginning temperature. (8" metastable phase of steel, formed by a transformation
of austenite below the /s (or r" temperature. 't is an interstitial supersaturated
solid solution of carbon in iron having a body-centered tetragonal lattice. 'ts
microstructure is characterized by an acicular, or needle-li0e, pattern.
Martensite Range - The interval between the /s and /f temperatures.
Matalloi - (a" 9lement intermediate in lustre and conductivity between the true
metals and non-metals. rsenic, antimony, boron, tellurium, and selenium, etc., are
generally considered metalloids; fre-uently one allotropic modification of an element
will be non-metallic, another metalloid in character. 5bviously, no hard and fast line
can be drawn. (b" 'n steel metallurgy, metalloid has a specialized, even if erroneous,
meaning; it covers elements commonly prosent in simple steel; carbon, manganese,
phosphorus, silicon and sulfur.
Matri1 - The principal phase or aggregate in which another constituent is embedded.
Matri1 - The principal phase in which another constituent is embedded.
Mechanical $olishing - method of producing a specularly reflecting surface by
use of abrasives.
Mechanical $ro'erties - The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and
inelastic behavior where force is applied, thereby indicating its suitability for
mechanical application; for example, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength,
elongation, hardness, and fatigue limit.
Mechanical $ro'erties - Those properties of a meterial that reveal the elastic and
inelastic reaction when force is applied, or that involve the relationship between
stress and strain; for example, the modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and fatigue
limit. These properties have often been designated as physical properties, but the
term mechanical properties is much to be preferred. The mechanical properties of
steel are dependent on its microstructure.
Mechanical S'ring - ny spring produced by cold forming from any material with or
without subse-uent heat treatment.
Mechanical "win - twin formed in a metal during plastic deformation by simple
shear of the structure.
Mei!m-Carbon Steel - Contains from 4.B4G to 4.F4G carbon and less than
*.44G manganese. /ay be made by any of the standard processes.
Melting $oint - The temperature at which a pure metal, compound or eutectic
changes form solid to li-uid; the temperature at which the li-uid and the solid are in
e-uilibrium.
Melting Range - The range of temperature in which an alloy melt; that is the range
between solidus and li-uidus temperatures.
Metallogra'hy - The science concerning the constituents and structure of metals
and alloys as revealed by the microscope.
Metalogra'h - n optical instrument designed for both visual observation and
photomicrography of prepared surfaces of opa-ue materials at magnifications
ranging from about 8D to about *D44 diameters.
Metastable - 6ossessing a state of pseudo-e-uilibrium that has a free energy higher
than that of the true e-uilibrium state but from which a system does not change
spontaneously.
M, "em'erat!re - The temperature at which martensitic transformation is
essentially complete during cooling after austenitization.
Microcrac% - crac0 of microscopic size.
Microgra'h - graphic reproduction of the prepared surface of a specimen at a
magnification greater than ten diameters. 3hen photographed, the reproduction is
0nown as a photomicrograph (not a microphotograph".
Microstr!ct!re - The structure of a prepared surface of a metal as revealed by a
microscope at a magnification greater than ten diameters.
Microstr!ct!re - The structure of polished and etched metal and alloy specimens as
revealed by the microscope.
Mil Steel - Carbon steel containing a maximum of about 4.8DG C.
Mill Ege - The edge of strip, sheet or plate in the as rolled state. ;nsheared.
Mo!l!s o, Elasticity - measure of the rigidity of metal. @atio of stress, within
proportional limit, to corresponding strain. $pecifically, the modulus obtained in
tension or compression is Joung?s modulus, stretch modulus or modulus of
extensibility; the modulus obtained in torsion or shear is modulus of rigidity, shear
modulus or modulus of torsion; the modulus covering the ratio of the mean normal
stress to the change in volume per unit volume is the bul0 modulus. The tangent
modulus and secant modulus are not restricted within the proportional limit; the
former is the slope of the stress-strain curve at a specified point; the latter is the
slope of a line from the origin to a specified point on the stress-strain curve. lso
called elastic modulus and coefficient of elasticity.
Mol - form of cavity into which molten metal is poured to produce a desired
shape.
Ms "em'erat!re - The temperature at which a martensitic transformation starts
during cooling after austenitization.
M!nt0 Metal #A re,ractory Alloy& - lpha-beta brass, F4G copper and =4G zinc.
$tronger than alpha-brass and used for castings and hot-wor0ed (rolled, stamped, or
extruded" products. #igh strength brasses are developed from this by adding other
elements.
3 - Chemical symbol for 1itrogen
3a - Chemical symbol for $odium
3b - Chemcial symbol for 1iobium
3ACE - 1ational ssociation of Corrosion 9ngineers
3arrow - 6roduct whose width is below the customer?s finished width tolerance.
3ational Machine "ool B!ilers Association - The ssociation for /anufacturing
Technology
3at!ral Aging - $ee ging
3at!ral San - ;nconsolidated sand, sand derived from a roc0 in which grains
separate along their natural boundaries. This includes soft sandstone where little
pressure is re-uired to separate the individual grains.
3at!rally Bone Moling San - sand containing sufficient bonding material as
mined to be suitable for molding purposes. $eldom used today in the metalcasing
industry.
3aval Brass#Amiralty Brass& - n alloy of copper,zinc and tin used widely in the
marine industry because of resistance to saltwater corrosion;actually itHs bronze.
3avy #:SA& "ear "est - method of evaluating the susceptibility of ship plate to
brittle or cleavage type fracture.
3BS - 1ational %ureau of $tandards
3//" - 1il ductility transition temperature, determined in the dropweight test.
@efers to the absence of the ductile fracture appearance and any reduction in area
due to the brittle behavior of the steel.
3ear-sie - The free-side of the line (closest to the operator?s pulpit".
3eat Bric% - %ric0 with faces arranged so one of the flat faces in inclined toward the
other, almost eliminating one end face.
3eat Cement - 6ortland Cement mixed with water only.
3ec% /own #2noc%-4,,) Wa,er Core) Washb!rn) Cameron Core& - > thin core
or tile used to restrict the riser nec0, ma0ing it easier to brea0 or cut off the riser
from the casting. $ee Core >
3ec%ing - $trip condition caused by the application of too much tension which
causes the strip to become narrower (or stretched".
3ec%ing /own - @eduction in area concentrated at the subse-uent location of
fracture when a ductile metal is stressed beyond it yield point in tension.
3ecle!s - The first structurally determinate particle of a new phase or structure that
may be about to form. pplicable in particular to solidification, recrystallization, and
transformations, in the solid state.
3eele C!tter Steel - ;sually supplied -uarter hard rolled, extra precision rolled
with sheared edges. Carbon content *.8D - Chromium .*D. ;sually supplied in a 8
width from .448 to .4BD. ;sed for cutting the eyes of needle and milling the latch in
a latch needle.
3eele 9alve - high pressure shut off valve used on the hydraulic oil stands and
manifolds. 't usually uses some type of tool to manipulate or turn the valve?s stem
(cloc0wise to close, countercloc0wise to open".
3eeles - 9longated acicular crystals, tapering at each end to a fine point, as
martensite.
3eeling Agents - $pecial agents such a boron which mar0edly increase the
hardness of steel.
3egative -!enching #3egative +arening& - ccelerated cooling in water or oil,
from a temperature below the critical range.
3egative "hermoie +eat E1change - 'n shell molding, improving the mass-
surface ratio by simulating profile geometry of pattern or core cavity on the
underside; will boost running temperature of high pro<ections by 8D percent.
3er, wheel - @ound foam wheel inserted into the core of a coil without an insert
before the coil is put on the entry reel to support the inner laps of the coil.
3esh #+ot Short& - %ritish term applied to metal that is wea0 and ruptures easily
under not wor0ing conditions.
3ic% Rolle 'ro!cts) see DScratchF. E1tr!sions) see DMar%) +anlingF. -
3e!tral Re,ractories - loose term designating refractories which presumably will
not react with so-call acid or basic refractories and slags.
3e!tron - 9lementary nuclear particle with a mass (*.44+:B mass units"
approximately the same as that of a hydrogen atom. 't is electrically neutral.
3ew <ersey San - large number of grades of foundry sands mined in southern
1ew Lersey.
3e1t Stanar 4'eration - 'ndicates the next process for which the coil is
normally scheduled. n example of a 1ext $tandard 5peration for a 6ic0ler would be
a Tandem /ill.
3**S - 1on-&errous &ounder?s $ociety
3i - Chemical symbol for 1ic0el
3ichrome - 5xidation-resistant alloy FDG 1i, 84G &e, and *DG Cr.
3ic% Rolle 'ro!cts) see DScratchF. E1tr!sions) see DMar%) +anlingF. -
1;AA
3ic%el - (1i" n alloying element used as a raw material for certain classes of
stainless steel. 1ic0el provides high degrees of ductility (ability to change shape
without fracture" as well as resistance to corrosion. pproximately FDG of all nic0el
is used in the ma0ing of stainless steel.
3ic%el-Base S!'eralloys - /ulti-alloy metals suited for high-performance, high-
temperature applications. These are nic0el-iron-chrome al;loys (which also contain
titanium,columbian and sluminum" and nic0el-chrome-iron alloys (which often also
contain molybdenum,tungsten,titanium,cobalt,aluminum and columbium".
3ic%el Steel - $teel containing nic0el as an alloying element. Marying amounts are
added to increase the strength in the normalized condition to enable hardening to be
performed in oil or air instead of water.
3ine-(nch E;!ivalent - $tandard unit of volume in refractories industries; :x=-
*,8,8-*,8 in bric0.
3iobi!m - (Chemical symbol 1b" 9lement 1o. =* of the periodic system. $ee
Columbium
3i''le - pipe coupling consisting of a short piece of threaded tubing.
3(SA - 1ational 'ndustrial $and ssociation
3ital - solution of nitric acid in alcohol use as an etching agent in ferrous
metallography.
3itraing - case hardening process in which ammonia or some other form of
nitrogen is introduced to the surface of certain alloys.
3itriing - 6rocess of surface hardening certain types of steel by heating in
ammonia gas at about :BD-*444 (degrees" &., the increase in hardness being the
result of surface nitride formation. Certain alloying constituents, principal among
them being aluminum, greatly facilitate the hardening reaction. 'n general, the depth
of the case is less than with carburizing.
3itriing Steel - $teel which is particularly suited for the nitriding process, that is, it
will form a very hard and adherent surface upon proper nitriding (heating in a
partially dissociated atmosphere of ammonia gas". Composition usually .84-.=4
carbon, .:4-*.D4 chromium, .*D-*.44 molybdenum, and .+D-*.84G aluminum.
3itrogen - 1itrogen is a gas that forms approximately 7:G by volume or 77G by
weight of the atmosphere. 't can combine with many metals to form nitrides and is
thus applied to the case-hardening of steel, the usual source for this purpose being
ammmonia.
3itrogen Bac% :' Air - bac0 up air supply for W F Turbo %lower.
3itrogen *l!sh - %ubbling nitrogen gas through a metal melt under vacuum (as
with valve bronze" to improve tensile properties and pressure tightness.
3o Screw $late - $teel that has not been rolled.
3o. 1 +eavy Melt - 5bsolete steel scrap grade, at least one--uarter inch in
thic0ness and in sections no larger than five feet by two feet. /uch of the metal
comes from demolished buildings, truc0 frames and heavy duty springs. /ini-mills
are primary consumers of 1o. * heavy scrap.
3oba%e Biner - synthetic li-uid resin sand binder that hardens completely at
room temperature, generally not re-uiring ba0ing, used in Cold-$etting process.
3oble Metals - /etallic elements with surfaces that do not readily oxidize in air;
e.g., gold, silver, platinum.
3o!lar *ireclay #B!rley) B!rley *lint& - @oc0 containing aluminous or
ferrogenous nodules, or both, bonded by fireclay.
3o!lar Gra'hite - !raphite or carbon in modular form, characteristically in
malleable and nodular iron.
3o!lar (ron - 'ron of a normally gray cast iron type that has been suitably treated
with a nodularizing agent so that all or the ma<or portion of its graphitic carbon has a
nodular or spherulitic form as cast. 5ften referred to as .uctile 'ron.
3oise Raiator - device creating noise.
3oise S'ectr!m - The various fre-uencies ma0ing a noise.
3omogram #Gra'h& - graph that enables one by the aid of a straight-edge to
read off the value of a dependent variable when the value of two or more
independent variables are given.
3on-Aging - Aittle to no change in mechanical and physical properties over time;
Jield point elongation is zero. $ee ging.
3on-*erro!s *o!ners5 Society - $ee 1on-&errous &ounder?s $ociety for address
information.
3on-+eat-"reatable Alloy - n alloy which can be strengthened only by cold wor0
3on-Re,ractory Alloy - term opposed to refractory alloy. non-refractory alloy
has malleability, that is, ease of flattening when sub<ected to rolling or hammering.
3on-Ret!rn - flapper chec0 valve at the boiler steam exit that is used to isolate a
down boiler and to prevent steam feedbac0 during outage emergencies.
3on-Ret!rn 9alve - Chec0 valve located at the boiler steam exit which is used to
isolate a down boiler and to prevent steam feedbac0 during emergencies.
3on-"em'er $asse Bans - #ot bands.
3onestr!ctive "esting #(ns'ection& - Testing or inspection that does not
destroy the ob<ect being tested or inspected.
3on,ill - &ailure of metal to fill a forging die impression.
3on Magnetic Steels - ustenitic steels such as the *=G manganese steels and the
B4B type *+,+G chromium-nic0el stainless steels.
3onre,low $late - (/TT9" .oes not get reflowed to melt the Tin coating.
3ormal Segregation - Concentration of alloying constituents that have low melting
points in those portions of a casting that solidify last.
3ormal Steel - $teel in which the pearlite is completely laminated.
3ormali0ing - #eating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above the
transformation temperature cB, followed by cooling at a suitable rate, usually in still
air to a temperature substantially below the transformation range.
3otch Bar - $mall size ingot with notches to facilitate brea0age for remelting.
3otch Brittleness - measure of the susceptibility of a material to brittle fracture
at locations of stress concentration. &or example, in a notch tensile test a material is
said to be notch brittle if its notch strength is less than its tensile strength;
otherwise, it is said to be notch ductile.
3otch) o!ble Shear - n abrupt deviation from straight on a sheared edge. This
offset may occur if the flat sheet or plate product is longer that the blade for the final
shearing operation.
3otch Sensitivity - measure of the reduction in strength of a metal caused by the
presence of stress concentration. Malues can be obtained from static, impact or
fatigue tests.
3otche Bar - test specimen which is notched. ;sed in impact or fatigue tests.
3otche Bar "est - test to determine the resistance of a material to a suddenly
applied stress, i.e. shoc0. notched test piece is employed in an 'zod or Charpy
machine and the results are recorded in ft, lbs or Loules.
3ovala% - two-step basic fla0e resin with no thermosetting properties, applied to
sand in shell molding process as a mold or solution.
3o00le - 6ouring spout of the bottom-pour ladle.
3o00le Bric% - thic0-walled tubular refractory shape set in bottom of a ladle
through which steel is teemed.
3o00le $oc%et Bric% - refractory shape set in bottom of a ladle containing a
recess in which nozzle is set.
3"$ - 1ormal temperature and pressure reference point; zero centigrade 7F4mm
mercury pressure.
3:E - 1on-upset end 2 5CT! tubing description (not as common as 9;9"
3!cleation - *" (homogeneous" the initiation of solid crystals from the li-uid stage,
or initiation of solid crystals from the li-uid stage, or a new phase within a solid
without outside interference - rarely occurs, 8" heterogeneous" foreign particles
altering the li-uid-solid interface energy during phase changes.
3!cle!s - (*" The first structurally stable particle capable of initiating
recrystallization of a phase or the growth of a new phase, and separated form the
matrix by an interface. (8" The heavy central core of an atom, in which most of the
mass and the total positive electrical charge are concentrated.
3!mber as $ertaining to +arness - 'n copper base alloys inductry; temper is
referred to as so many numbers hard, i.e. Jellow %rass #alf #ard is termed 8
numbers hard. This term is derived from terminology used on the mill gloor where by
temper or hardness is imparted by cold wor0ing and classified as to hardness by the
number of %rown N $harpe gages away from the soft or as-annealed state.
3at!ral Aging - $pontaneous aging of a supersaturated solid solution at room
temperature.
3ec%ing - Aocal reduction of the cross-sectional area of metal by stretching.
3etwor% Str!ct!re - structure in which the crystals of one constituent are
surrounded by envelopes of another constituent which gives a networ0 appearance
to an etched test specimen.
3e!mann Ban - mechanical (deformation" twin in ferrite.
3ic%el - (Chemical symbol 1i" 9lement 1o. 8+ of the periodic system; atomic weight
D+.F:. $ilvery white, slightly magnetic metal, of medium hardness and high degree
of ductility and malleability and resistance to chemical and atmospheric corrosion;
melting point 8FD* (degrees" &.; boiling point about D8D4 (degrees" &., specific
gravity +.:4. ;sed for electroplating. ;sed as an alloying agent, it is of great
importance in iron-base alloys in stainless steels and in copper-base alloys such as
Cupro-1ic0el, as well as in nic0el-base alloys such as /onel /etal. 'ts principal
functions as an alloy in steel ma0ingE (*" $trengthens un-uenched or annealed
steels. (8" Toughens pearlitic-ferritic steels (especially at low temperature". (B"
@enders high-chromium iron alloys austenitic.
3ic%el Silver - Copper base alloys that contain *4-=DG Rn. and D-B4G 1i.
3itriing - 'ntroducing nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding at a suitable
temperature (below c* for ferritic steels" in contact with a nitrogenous material,
usually ammonia of molten cyanide of appropriate composition. Cuenching is not
re-uired to produce a hard case.
3o!lar $earlite - 6earlite that has grown as a colony with an approximately
spherical morphology.
3on-*erro!s Metals - /etals or alloys that are free of iron or comparatively so.
3on-Metallic (ncl!sions - 'mpurities (commonly oxides", sulphides, silicates or
similar substances held in metals mechanically during solidification or formed by
reactions in the solid state.
3on-Scallo'ing -!ality Stri' Steel - $trip steel ordered or sold on the basis of
absence of unevenness, or ears, on the edges of the steel, when sub<ected to deep
drawing.
3ormali0ing - #eating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above B or cm
and then cooling in still air to a temperature substantially below *. The cooling rate
usually is in the range :44 to*+44 &,h (D44 to *444C,h".
3ormali0ing - #eating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above the
transformation range and then cooling in air to a temperature substantially below the
transformation range.
3ormali0ing - heat treatment applied to steel, 'nvolves heating above the critical
range followed by cooling in still air. 's performed to refine the crystal structure and
eliminate internal stress.
3!cleation - 'nitiation of a phase transformation at discrete sites, the new phase
growing from nuclei.
3!mber as $ertaining to +arness - 'n copper base alloys inductry; temper is
referred to as so many numbers hard, i.e. Jellow %rass #alf #ard is termed 8
numbers hard. This term is derived from terminology used on the mill gloor where by
temper or hardness is imparted by cold wor0ing and classified as to hardness by the
number of %rown Namp; $harpe gages away from the soft or as-annealed state.
4 - Chemical symbol for 5xygen
4ccl!sion - term applied in the case of metals to the absorption or entrapment of
gases.
4-Ring - flexible ?5? shaped seal.
4C"G - includes casing, drill pipe and oil well tubing, which, depending on their use,
may be formed through welded or seamless processes.
4/ - 5utside diameter
4sies - $emi-permanent molds of plaster of paris, graphite, or dry sand, tarred
and dried and used for repetitive wor0 in the foundry.
4,, Center - 1ot centered; offset,eccentric or inaccurate.
4,, Ga!ge - defect referring to a variation of offset of the thic0ness of the plate
from the designated aim gauge thic0ness and tolerance.
4,, Ga!ge Reel - @eel onto which all the off-gauge and defective material is wound.
4,, (ron - 6ig iron not of the desired composition.
4,, .ine - Term that means a boiler or system is >not in use>
4,,-/imension - casting defect caused by any incorrect dimension resulting from
improper setting of cores, using wrong core, shifts, swells, etc.
4,,-Gage #4,,-Si0e& - Core defect caused by improper gagging of dimensions.
4,,-Grae Metal - /etal whose composition does not correspond to the designated
or applicable specification.
4,,-Si0e - @olled steel too light or too heavy to meet re-uirements.
4,,set - 3hen a coil sidewall is winding up straight and suddenly moves in or out to
another position and then continuing to wind up straight.
4,,set /ial - .evice used on W= $ide Trimmer as0ania. /ovement of this dial
changes the trac0ing of the line.
4,,setting - coating defect consisting of a transference of smearing of in0 or
coating or other substance from the surface of one sheet of coated substrate to the
bac0 of the next sheet in a stac0.
4il an Whiting "est - method of detecting fine crac0s by applying a penetrating
oil and painting the tested metal surface with a mixture of whiting and a thinner. 5il
in the crac0s emerges to stain the whiting.
4il Cooler - 3ater cooled heat exchanger used to maintain the oil temperature on
the feedwater pumps.
4il Core or Mol - core or mold in which the sand is bonded by an oil binder.
4il Co!ntry "!b!lar Goos #4C"G& - Aabel applied to the pipe products used by
petroleum exploration customers.
4il *ilm Weight - /easure of the amount of oil applied to a flat rolled steel product;
for Tin /ill 6roducts, the measure is grams,base box; for $heet 6roducts, the
measure is oz.,s-.ft. (or gm.,s-.m.".
4il +arening Steel - ;sed to describe tool or alloy steels where oil is used as the
-uenching medium in the hardening process.
4il -!enching - >Cuenching in oil. $ee Cuenching >
4il Sam'le - small amount (at least D4 ml" of oil ta0en from a system in order to
be tested.
4il Sans - $and bonded with such oils as linseed and the synthetics.
4il Shot - 'n die casting, a sponge li0e whirl on the surface of casting resulting from
an excess of oil applied to the sprue hole before the shot was made.
4il Stain Al!min!m - $tain produced by the incomplete burning of the lubricants
on the surface of the sheet. @olling subse-uent to staining will change color from
dar0er browns to lighter browns down to white.
4il Stones - /olded abrasives in various shapes used to hand-sharpen cutting tools.
4il "est - Test performed by the /et. Aab to chec0 the amount of oil applied to strip.
4il-41ygen Biner #Col-Setting) Air-Setting Biners& - synthetic auto-
oxidizing li-uid, oil-based binder that partially hardens at room temperature, using
an oxygen releasing agent. %a0ing is needed to complete the hardening
4ile - product to which oil has been applied to retard rusting.
4iling - The application of a surface layer of lubricant intended to retard rusting on
sheet products and lubrication on Tin /ill products.
4(" - (5perator 'nterface Terminal" Terminal which displays the line-up, coils
running on both reels, and the location of the weld.
4l Blowing Room - ;sed when the river water gets too cold.
4leoresino!s - resin containing both oils and resins which cures by the oxidation
process.
4live - (/g8,&e8$i5=" naturally occurring mineral composed of fosterite and
fayalite, crushed and used as a molding sand. ;sually the sand of choice in
manganese steel casting due to its basicity.
4lsen #/!ctility& "est - method of measuring the ductility and drawing
properties of strip or sheet metal which involves determination of the width and
depth of impression. The test simulating a deep drawing operation is made by a
standard steel ball under pressure, continuing until the cup formed from the metal
sample fractures. @eadings are in thousandths of an inch. This test is sometimes
used to detect stretcher straining and indicates the surface finish after drawing,
similar to the 9richsen ductility test.
4n Cast - 3hen the furnace is tapping out iron and maintaining full wind.
4n Chec% - term used when the furnace has pulled wind after casting to plug the
hole.
4n .ine "erm - Term which means a boiler or system is >in use>.
4ne-$iece $attern - $olid pattern, not necessarily made from one piece of
material. /ay have one or more loose pieces.
4ne-Screen - distribution of a clean sand or a sand with two maximum screens
separated by a minimum screen. These high-expansion problem sands are also
referred to as camel bac0 distributions.
4ne-Sie Bright Mill *inish - $heet material having a moderate degree of
brightness on one side. The reverse side is uncontrolled and may have a dull, non-
uniform appearance.
4$EB E1'ense - 5ther 6ostretirement 9mployment %enefits. ;sually refers to
health care obligations to a mill?s retired wor0ers, although its meaning also can
include layoff benefits (see &$ *4F".
4'en *ace Mol - $ee 5pen $and Casting
4'en *lame *!rnace - s opposed to the crucible furnace; in the open-flame
furnace the metal charge is confined in the refractory lining, with the flame and
products of combustion coming in direct contact with the metal.
4'en Grain Str!ct!re - defect wherein a casting, when machined or fractured,
appears to be coarse grained and porous; usually due to a shrin0 area.
4'en +earth *!rnace - broad, shallow hearth to refine pig iron and scrap into
steel. #eat is supplied from a large, luminous flame over the surface, and the
refining ta0es seven to nine hours. 5pen #earths, at one time the most abundant
steelma0ing furnaces among integrated companies, have been replaced by the basic
oxygen furnace.
4'en +earth .ine - n alternate water supply line from the 5ld %lowing @oom
6ump @oom to the 5ld %lowing @oom used when the river water gets too cold.
4'en .ine - ;sually a steel-ma0ing defect, an open line refers to a line down the
length of the strip caused by un0nown conditions.
4'en Riser - $ee @iser, 5pen
4'en San Casting - casting produced in an open mold; poured in the drag, with
no cope or other top covering.
4'en-+earth $rocess - 6rocess of ma0ing steel by heating the metal in the hearth
of a regenerative furnace. 'n the basic open-hearth steel process, the lining of the
hearth is basic, usually magnesite; whereas in the acid open-hearth steel process, an
acid material, silica, is used as the furnace lining and pig iron, extremely low in
phosphorous (less than 4.4=G", is the raw material charged in.
4'enhearth *!rnace - furnace for melting metal, in which the bath is heated by
the combustion of hot gases over the surface of the metal and by radiation from the
roof.
4'erating Rates - The ratio of raw steel production to the mill?s stated capacity.
9ach .ecember, steel companies report to the '$' their estimated capacity (if they
could sell all steel they produced" for the following year, ad<usted for any facility
downtime.
4'erator Sie - The side of the strip that is nearest to the operator pulpit.
4'tical $yrometer - temperature measuring device through which the observer
sights the heated ob<ect and compares its incandescence with that of an electrically
heated filament whose brightness can be regulated; or the intensity of the light
admitted from the ob<ect may be varied through filters and compared with a
constant light source.
4'tim!m Moist!re - That moisture content which results in developing the
maximum of any property of a sand mixture.
4'tions - choice to buy or sell metal at an agreed-upon price for a specific date.
Jou must pay a premium ($ee 6ut and Call".
4range $eel #e,,ect& - surface roughening (defect" encountered in forming
products from metal stoc0 that has a coarse grain size. 't is due to uneven flow or to
the appearance of the overly large grains usually the result of annealing at too high a
temperature. lso referred to as pebbles and alligator s0in.
4range $eel B!c%et - bottom-drop buc0et used for charging cupolas; the drop-
bottom is divided into a number of sections that appear to peel bac0 as the buc0et
opens.
4rer Matte - 'ndividual description of the orders to be processed (issued by
6roduction 6lanning". lso called ?mat? or ?mill order paper?.
4rer Rate - The ratio of new orders recorded to the mill?s capacity to produce the
steel to fill the orders. /any analysts view trends in the order rate asharbingers of
future production levels.
4re - n iron bearing material used primarily in the blast furnace.
4rganosol - 5rganosols contain poly-vinyl chloride (6MC" dispersed in solvents. t
temperatures of B8D-BD4 %4 & (*FD-*7D %4 Centegrade" the vinyl particles coalesce
and dissolve in the plasticizers to form homogeneous films with good hardness,
toughness and adhesion.
4rientation #crystal& - rrangement of certain crystal axes or crystal planes in a
crystalline aggregate with respect to a given direction or plane. 'f there is any
tendency for one arrangement to predominate, it is 0nown as the preferred
orientation; in the absence of any such preference, random orientation exists.
4ri,,ice - n opening of controlled size used to measure or control the flow of gases.
4ri,,ice $late - 'n a cupola a device used to measure the volume of air delivered to
the windbox.
4s - Chemical symbol for osmium.
4scillate Wo!n or Scroll Wo!n - method of even winding metal strip or wire
on to a reel or mandrel wherein the strands are uniformly over-lapped. $ometimes
termed stagger wound or vibrated wound. The opposite of ribbon wound.
4scillate Wo!nARibbon Wo!n - 5scillate winding is a techni-ue that ws
develooped to aid in winding and shipping customer orders for multiples. (/ultiples
are created by slitting or shearing a coil into any width or set of widths" The slits are
wound bac0 and forth on a mandrel in the same manner that a fishing line is ta0en
up on a reel; that is left to right, right to left, left to right. This allows for multiples to
be wrapped on one wide coil that is easily handled in shipping.
4scillating - method of winding narrow strip steel over a much wider roll.
Customers want to have as much steel on a coil as will fit in their machines, so they
can spend less time moving the material and more time using it. %y coiling the strip
li0e fishing line (or thread" over a spool, a much longer strip can fit onto a coil of
proper diameter. 5scillate-wound coils allow the customer to en<oy longer processing
runs.
4scillating "ro!gh Cooler - steel trough conveyor within a plenum where
reclaimed sand is cooled prior to reuse.
4smi!m - Chemical symbol 5s. bluish-white metal that is so hard it is difficult to
fabricate.
4smonite - n obsolete term once used to designate a ferrous microstructure not
so well defined as Troosite.
4ttowa San - sand originating near 5ttawa 'll., also 0now as $t. 6eter
sandstone.
4!t o, Register - n embossed pattern distortion due to misalignment of the male
and female embossing rolls
4!tboar Bearing - 6ump bearing that is furthest from the driver.
4!tlet - 5utlet valve from auto valve or tan0.
4vality - .eviation from a circular periphery, usually expressed as the total
difference found at any one cross section between the individual maximum and
minimum diameters, which usually occur at or about :4 degrees
4val - hot-rolled carbon steel bar product which is oval in cross section.
4ven) /rying - furnace or oven for drying molds or cores.
4vens - $ee Continuous nnealing &urnace
4veraging - ging a precipitation-hardening alloy under conditions of time and
temperature greater than those re-uired to obtain maximum strength or hardness.
4verarm - The support for the end of a milling cutter which is on the opposite side
of the cutter from the spindle and column.
4ver,ill - defect in a rolled bar or other section which is an over-fullness on some
part of the surface. mong the causes are worn rolls and extrusion into the clearance
of the rolls.
4ver,iring - #eating refractories to a temperature sufficient to cause pronounced
vitrification, deformation, or bloating.
4ver,lows #4ver,low Wells& - $eparated cavities cut into the face of die casting
dies ad<acent to the main cavity and connected to it by a channel, ensuring filling of
cavity.
4verhan - 9xtension of the end surface of the cope half of a core print beyond that
of the drag to provide clearance for closing of the mold.
4verhea Se'arators - ;sed when producing mults on a slitting unit; dis0s which
ma0e an alley for each strip to go through while being coiled.
4verheate - term applied when, after exposure to an excessively high
temperature, a metal develops an undesirable coarse grain structure, but is not
necessarily damaged permanently. ;nli0e burned structure, the structure produced
by overheating can be corrected by suitable heat treatment, by mechanical wor0, or
by a combination of the two.
4verheating - Can occur in preheat furnaces prior to forging or in the heat-treating
operation. The condition results when metal temperature exceeds the critical
temperature of the alloy involved and a change in phase occurs; this is also 0nown
as the transformation temperature. 9xternally, overheated material will often form
blisters or a web of fine crac0s; internally, overheating causes precipitation of melted
constituents around grain boundries and the formation or rounded pools of melted
constituents often called (rosettes).
4ver'ic%le - @e<ect caused by the strip laying in acid for a period of time.
4vers'ee "ri' - (5n steam pumps" device that trips the turbine on a steam
pump if the prime is lost and the pump overspeeds.
4vers'ee "ri' Switch - $pring loaded stop valve which is connected to a turbine
governor by a lin0age rod that will stop the flow of steam to a turbine.
4verstressing - 6ermanently deforming a metal by sub<ecting it to stresses that
exceed the elastic limit.
4verwith - 6roduct whose width is above the customer?s finished width tolerance.
4verwin - $teel strip that comes off of the top of the coil on the entry reel into the
side trimmer.
4verwra' - The direction which a coil is wrapped or unwrapped. 'f coil is being
overwrapped a reel is turning and steel is being fed from T56.
4wen <et /!st Co!nter - n instrument similar to the Ionimeter, using the
humidification factor.
41iation - The addition of oxygen to a compound. 9xposure to atmosphere
sometimes results in oxidation of the exposed surface, hence a staining or
discoloration. This effect is increased with temperature increase.
41iation .osses - @eduction in amount of metal or alloy through oxidation. $uch
losses usually are the largest factor in melting loss.
41ie - compound of oxygen with another element.
41ie /iscoloration - $ee ($tain, #eat Treat).
41ii0ing Atmos'here - n atmosphere resulting from the combustion of fuels in
an atmosphere where excess oxygen is present, and with no unburned fuel lost in
the products of combustion.
41y-Acetylene Weling - process for <oining two pieces of metal in which the
re-uired high temperature is obtained by the combustion of acetylene gas and
oxygen. The gases are thoroughly mixed in the nozzle or tip of the welding torch to
ensure perfect combustion. The weld may be formed directly between two ad<oining
surfaces, but usually metal from a welding rod is fused in between the surfaces of
the <oint.
41ygen - 5xygen is one of the chief constituents of the atmosphere of which it
forms approximately on fifth. 't is odorless and invisible. lthough oxygen itself does
not burn, it is extremely efficient in supporting combustion, nearly all other chemical
elements
41ygen Blow - (58 blow" $teel ma0ing period when oxygen is introduced into the
furnace vessel of scrap metal and blast furnace hot metal.
41ygen Bomb Calorimeter - n instrument to measure the heats of combustion of
solid and li-uid fuels.
41ygen (m'ingement $rocess - 6ure oxygen is blown down on the bath to refine
pig iron.
4il +arening - process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition by
heating within or above the transformation range and -uenching in oil.
4il-+arening Steel - $teel adaptable to hardening by heat treatment and
-uenching in oil.
4'en S!r,ace - @ough surface on blac0 plate, sheet or strip, resulting from
imperfection in the original steel bars from which the plate was rolled.
4'en-+earth *!rnace - reverberatory melting furnace with a shallow hearth and
a low roof. The flame passes over the charge in the hearth, causing the charge to be
heated both by direct flame and radiation from the roof and sidewalls of the furnace.
'n ferrous industry, the furnace is regenerative.
4range $eel - pebble-grain surface which develops in forming of metals having
coarse grains.
4re - mineral from which metal is (or may be" extracted.
4rientation #crystal& - .irections in space of the axes of the lattice of a crystal
with respect to a chosen reference or coordinate system.
4veraging - ging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those
re-uired to obtain maximum change in a certain property, so that the property is
altered in the direction of the initial value.
4veraging - ging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those
re-uired to obtain maximum change in a certain property.
4veraging - ging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those
re-uired to obtain maximum strength.
4verheating - #eating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its
properties are impaired. 3hen the original properties cannot be restored by further
heat treating, by mechanical wor0ing, or by combination of wor0ing and heat
treating, the overheating is 0nown as burning.
4verheating - #eating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its
properties are impaired. 3hen the original properties cannot be restored by further
heat treating, by mechanical wor0ing or by a combination of wor0ing and heat
treating, the overheating is 0nown as burning.
41iation - (*" reaction in which there is an increase in valence resulting from a
loss of electrons. (8" Chemical combination with oxygen to form an oxide.
41ie - Compound of oxygen with another element.
41ii0e S!r,ace - surface having a thin, tightly adhering oxidized s0in.
41ygen .ance - length of pipe used to convey oxygen onto a bath of molten
metal.
41ygen-*ree Co''er - 9lectrolytic copper free from cuprous oxide, produced
without the use of residual metallic or metalloidal deoxidizers.
$EB $lain en bevele -
$ - Chemical symbol for phosphorus
$AC - n abbreviation for the pre-coat section of the line.
$1 - 'n production, the acceptable -uality level.
$G - 'n production, lot tolerance.
$EB $lain en bevele - 1;AA
$ac% +arening #$ar% Carb!ri0ing& - $ee Case #arding
$ac%ing - /aterial that prevents water from coming out through the pac0ing gland
on a pump.
$ac%ing Grease - type of grease used to 0eep a seal and prime on a pump.
$ac%ing or $ac%ing Material - $and, gravel, mill scale or similar materials used to
support castings pac0ed in annealing pots, to prevent possible warpage under high
temperatures.
$aing - The process of adding metal to a cross section of a casting wall, usually
extending from a riser, to ensure ade-uate feed to a localized area where a shrin0
would occur if the added metal were not present.
$allai!m - Chemical symbol 6d. ma<or component in the production of
petrochemcial catalysts.
$anca%e *orging - rough forged shape which may be obtained -uic0ly with a
minimum of tooling. 't usually re-uires considerable machining to attain the finish
size.
$anel S'alling "est - test using a panel of the refractory being tested to provide
a reference to spalling behavior.
$anic B!tton - small control button used in situations that re-uire stopping the
line without losing power to the line.
$anoramic Analy0er - n instrument for analyzing sounds and displaying the
results either on an oscilloscope or a graph.
$ans - The area beneath the conveyor belts in the coal buc0et area.
$a'er /r!m - 6aper insert placed on the reel around which the coil is wound. The
drum is used to eliminate damage in the center of the coil. Certain customers may
re-uire that coils are to be shipped with this paper drum.
$a'er (nterleave - To prevent damage to the surface during shipment,handling or
storage. The material is fre-uently coiled with a large roll of paper paid off at the
same time so that between each wrap of metal there is a -rap of paper. This paper
between the steel wraps prevents the surface of the metal from rubbing against each
other to spoil the surface.
$a''ing $late - metal plate attached to a pattern to prevent in<ury to the pattern
and assist in loosening it from the sand.
$arallel - ($etting on 3elder" Temperature setting on transformer used to weld
heavy ([.4=4" gauge steel.
$arent Coil - coil that has been processed to final temper as a single unit. The
parent coil may subse-uently be cut into two or more smaller coils or into individual
sheets or plates to provide the re-uired width and length.
$arent $late - plate that has been processed to final temper as a single unit. The
parent plate may subse-uently be cut into two or more smaller plates to provide the
re-uired width and length.
$ar%eri0ing - proprietary method of producing a protective phosphate coating on
ferrous metals. 6ar0er treatment involves immersing in a bath of acid manganese
phosphate. The 6ar0er . is a modification using acid zinc phosphate with a nitrate
iron as accelerator.
$arlanti Casting $rocess - proprietary permanent mold process using dies of
aluminum with a controlled rate of heat transfer.
$arsons /!ncan $rocess - method of casting steel ingots wherein the top layer
of the mold is heated and the last to solidify.
$arte $attern - pattern made in two or more parts.
$artial - '/'$ action indicating that part of the final produced coil weight is credited
to one turn and the balance of the weight is credited to the next turn.
$artially Gra'hiti0e Cast (ron - blac0heart malleable casting only partly
graphitized in annealing, giving a mixture of blac0 and white. $ometimes termed salt
and pepper fracture.
$article Co!nter - testing device used to measure the amount and size of solid
contamination in the hydraulic oil.
$article Co!nter Com'!ter - The part of the particle counter that tabulates and
supplies a printout of the oil test results.
$article Co!nter Sam'ler - The part of the particle counter which contains the
sensor and related parts that the hydraulic oil passes through while being tested.
$artic!late Matter - 'n air pollution control, solid or li-uid particles, except water,
visible with or without a microscope, that ma0e up the obvious portion smo0e.
$arting - The operation of cutting off a piece from a part held in the chuc0 of a lathe
$arting Agent - $ee @elease gent
$arting .ine - line on a pattern or casting corresponding to the separation
between the cope and drag portions of a sand mold. condition uni-ue to stepped
extrusions where more than on e cross section exists in the same extruded shape.
stepped shape uses a split die for the minor or small cross section and after its
removal, another die behind it for the ma<or configuration. $lightly raised fins can
appear on that portion of the shape where the two dies meet . $ee also (6rofile,
$tepped 9xtruded).
$ass - (*" single transfer of metal through a stand of rolls. (8" The open space
between two grooved rolls through which metal is processed. (B" The weld metal
deposited in one run along the axis of a weld. (=" term indicating the process of
passing metal through a rolling mill
$ass .ine - *" /easurement used to level all rolls. 8" The travel direction through
which a strip is processed. 3hen out of alignment, it re-uires ad<usting so that the
coil can be properly processed.
$assivate "in $late - Tin plate that has been chemically treated to control tin
oxide formation and growth.
$assivation - The changing of the chemically active surface of a metal to a much
less reactive state. Contrast with activation.
$assivator - n inhibitor which changes the potential of a metal to a more cathodic
value.
$assivity - The property of some metals to become abnormally inactive towards
certain reagents.
$atching - @epair of a furnace lining; repair of a mold core.
$attern - form of wood, plastic, metal, or other material around which molding
material is placed to ma0e a mold.
$attern /ra,t - The taper on vertical elements in a pattern which allows easy
separation of pattern from compacted sand mixture.
$attern .ayo!t - &ull-sized drawing of a pattern showing its arrangement and
structure features.
$attern Weling - process in which strips or other small sections of iron or steel
are twisted together and then forge welded. #omogeneity and toughness are thereby
improved. regular decorative pattern can be developed in the final product.
C5mmonly used for ma0ing swords as early as the Brd century ...
$atternma%er - craftsman engaged in production of foundry patterns from wood,
plastic, or metals, such as aluminum, brass, etc.
$atternma%erEs Shrin%age - Contraction allowance made on patterns to
compensate for the decrease in dimensions as the solidified casting cools in the mold
from freezing temperature of the metal to room temperature. 6attern is made larger
by the amount of contraction that is characteristic of the particular metal to be used.
$awl - pivoted lever or sliding bolt that secures as an automatic directional table
control on a grinder.
$ay 4,, - 9ntry end unwrapping of coil and the beginning of the production process.
$ayo,, En - The entry end of the line.
$ayo,, Reel - @eel on which the coil to be processed is loaded. This reel is
sometimes referred to as the entry end reel.
$CE - 6yrometric Cone 9-uivalent
$ - Chemical symbol for palladium
$ea% /eman - mount of power purchased for the B4-minute periods during what
are 0nown as pea0 hours. 6ea0 hours are 7 44 am to *4 44 pm, /onday through
$aturday. ll other hours are off-pea0.
$ea% Earnings - The ultimate earnings level of a company at the top of the
business cycle. This is the expected profit during the time of the highest commodity
demand and the strongest product pricing.
$ea% "ime - The time during which the sheets of metal are held at the
recommended temperature for full cure is 0nown as the >6ea0 Time>.
$earlite - lamella aggregate of ferrite and carbide, the structure of pearlite can
appear fine or coarse depending on processing.
$earlite - Aamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. compound of iron and
carbon occurring in steel as a result of the transformation of austenite into
aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide.
$eel - The process by which several outside laps of a coil are ta0en off to bring it
down to gauge.
$eeler "able - The B8> extension connected to the threading table to assist in
threading hot-rolled coils.
$eeling - $eparation of the zinc coating from the steel strip.
$een - 6eening action obtained by impact of metal shot, often used to improve
fatigue properties by putting the surface in compression.
$eeners - utomatic chisels on welder wheels that remove metal slag.
$ellets - 'ron ore or limestone particles are rolled into little balls in a balling drum
and <ardened by heat. ($ee gglomerating 6rocesses"
$encil Core - core pro<ecting to the center of a blind riser allowing atmospheric
pressure to force out feed metal.
$enetrameter - strip of metal with stepped thic0ness variation and with holes at
varying depths; used in radiography to indicate the sensitivity of the radiograph.
$enetrant (ns'ection - method of non-destructive testing for determining the
existence and extent of discontinuities that are open to the surface in the part being
inspected. The indications ore made visible through the use of a dye or fluorescent
chemical in the li-uid employed as the inspection medium.
$enetration) Metal - Condition where molten metal has penetrated into the sand,
resulting in a mixture of metal and sand adhering to the casting.
$ercent Re!ction - 9xpression of reduction in gauge during any rolling process.
6ercent reduction e-uals starting gauge minus finish gauge after rolling divided by
starting gauge times *44.
$ericlase - 1atural magnesia in nodular form, formed by heating.
$eri'heral +oses - #oses that carry recycled water from the peripheral pre-uench
spray header to the area of the scrubber 0nown as the >wet elbow>.
$eritectic Grae - Crac0 sensitive grade of steel with .4+ to .*FG Carbon.
$erlite - highly siliceous volcanic roc0 which can be expended by heating into a
porous mass of particles. 6erlite can be used as an insulation in foundry sand
mixtures. 1ot to be confused with 6earlite.
$ermanent Mol - metal mold of two or more parts; not an ingot mold. 't is used
repeatedly for the production of many casting of the same form.
$h - Chemical cymbol for lead.
'+ - symbol denoting the negative logarithm of the concentration of the hydrogen
ion in gram-atoms per liter, used in expressing both acidity and al0alinity; p# B.log
*,# per liter. n important factor in foundry sand control, p#7 is neutral; values less
than 7 acid, and higher than 7, basic.
$hase - Term used to describe one of the three branches of electricity in most high
voltage circuits. The three phases all carry power simultaneously.
$hase /iagram - graphic representation of the e-uilibrium temperature and
composition limits of phase fields reactions in an alloy system. 'n a binary system,
temperature is usually the ordinate and composition the abscissa. Ternary and more
complex systems re-uire several two-dimensional diagrams to show the temperature
- composition variables completely. 'n alloy systems, pressure is usually considered
constant, although it may be treated as an additional variable.
$henolic - type of resin made from a condensation reaction of phenols and
aldehydes. @esultant films have a high degree of chemical resistance with limited
flexibility properties.
$henolic Resin #4ne-Ste'& - > resin made by the polymerization of a phenol with
an aldehyde; used a binder for cores and sand molds. $ee ;rea-&orm-aldehyde
@esin >
$hos'hati0e - $ee %onderized Coating.
$hos'hor Bron0e - Copper base alloys, with B.D to *4G of tin, to which has been
added in the molten state phosphorus in varying amounts of less than *G for
deoxidizing and strengthening purposes. %ecause of excellent toughness, strength,
fine grain, resistance to fatigue and wear, and chemical resistance, these alloys find
general use as springs and in ma0ing fittings. 't has corrosion resisting properties
comparable to copper.
$hos'hor Bron0e Stri' - copper-base alloy containing up to *4G tin, which has
been deoxidized with phosphorus in varying amounts of less than *G. Temper is
imparted by cold rolling, resulting in greater tensile strength and hardness than in
most copper-base alloys or either of its alloying elements copper or tin. The various
tempers from 5ne 1umber #ard to Ten 1umbers #ard are classified in hardness by
the number of %N$ !ages reduction in dimension from the previous soft or as-
annealed state. 6hosphor %ronze is not heat treatable for purposes of hardness
development. 't does not withstand elevated temperatures very well and should not
be used in service above 88D (degrees" &. even after stress relieving treatment at
B8D (degrees" to BD4 (degrees" &. 't has excellent electrical properties, corrosion
resistant comparable to copper; great toughness and resistance to fatigue. @ated
good for soft soldering, silver alloy brazing, oxyacetylene, carbon arc and resistance
welding.
$hos'hor!s - (Chemical symbol 6" 9lement 1o. *D of the periodic system; atomic
weight B4.:+. 1on-metallic element occurring in at least three allotropic forms;
melting point *** (degrees" &.; boiling point DBF (degrees" &.; specific gravity *.+8.
'n steels it is usually undesirable with limits set in most specifications. #owever, it is
specified as an alloy in steel to prevent the stic0ing of light-gage sheets; to a degree
it strengthens low carbon steel; increases resistance to corrosion, and improves
machinability in free-cutting steels. 'n the manufacture of 6hosphor %ronze it is used
as a deoxidizing agent.
$hos'hor-Bron0e - Copper-based alloys with B.DG to *4G tin, to which up to *G
phosphorous has been added in the molten state for deoxidizing and strengthening
purposes. %ecause of excellent toughness, strength fine grain,resistance to fati-ue
and wear and chemical resistance, these alloys find genera0 use as springs and in
ma0ing steel fittings. 't has corrosion-resistant properties comparable to copper.
$hotoetch -!ality - 6roduct description for ;$$/ flatroll coils which re-uires
excellent finish and critical flatness.
$hotomicrogra'h - photograph of the grain structure of a metal as observed
when optically magnified more than *4 diameters. The term micrograph may be
used.
$hotomicrogra'h - photographic reproduction of any ob<ect magnified more than
ten diameters. The term micrograph may be used.
$hysical Metall!rgy - The science concerned with the physical and mechanical
characteristics of metals and alloys.
$hysical $ro'erties - &or definitions of specific physical properties refer $ee
$hysical $ro'erties - Those properties familiarly discussed in physics, exclusive of
those described under mechanical properties; for example, density, electrical
conductivity, co-efficient of thermal expansion. This term often has been used to
describe mechanical properties, but this usage is not recommended.
$ic%-4,, - The transfer of portions of the coating from one surface of the sheet to an
ad<acent surface due to poor adhesion of the coating
$ic%le Brittleness - The brittleness induced in steel when pic0led in dilute acid for
the purpose of removing the scale. The brittleness is commonly attributed to the
absorption of hydrogen by the steel.
$ic%le-4nly - coil which is to be cleaned but not coated.
$ic%le - $teel that has gone through the 6ic0ler operating unit to remove mill scale
or oxide.
$ic%le Slit With - 3idth of the coil after it has been sidetrimmed at the 6ic0ler.
$ic%ler - *" n operating unit that removes iron oxide from a hot rolled product by
immersion into a hydrochloric (WB,WD 6ic0lers" or sulfuric acid solution. 8" The
pic0ler tan0 contains D-FG concentrations of sulfuric acid. This solution is 0ept at a
temperature of *+4-*:4 degrees. The purpose of the pic0ler is to complete the
preparation of the steel for plating, by removing any oxides from the surface.
$ic%ling .i;!or - The waste resulting from the pic0ling process. The li-uor consists
of acid and water.
$ic%!') Re'eating - $ee (.ent, @epeating).
$ic%!') Roll - $mall particles of aluminum and aluminum oxide generated in the roll
bite which subse-uently transfer to the rolled product. 't may be distributed
uniformly and,or in strea0s. $ee also ($trea0, Coating).
$icral - n etchant for ferrous alloys; =G picric acid in alcohol.
$ierce - 'n ring rolling, the process of providing a through hole in the center of an
upset forging as applied to ring blan0 preparation.
$ig - 'nitial post-smelting casting of lead or iron. 1amed long ago when molten
metal was poured through a trench in the ground to flow into shallow earthen holes,
the arrangement loo0ed li0e newborn pigs suc0iling. The central channel became
0nown as the (sowE and the molds (pigs).
$ig (ron - The name for the melted iron produced in a blast furnace, containing a
large -uantity of carbon (above *.DG". 1amed long ago when molten iron was
poured through a trench in the ground to flow into shallow earthen holes, the
arrangement loo0ed li0e newborn pigs suc0ling. The central channel became 0nown
as the >sow,> and the molds were >pigs.>
$ig (ron) Basic - grade of iron made from the basic open-hearth process of
steelma0ing; 6, 4.=4G max. for 1orthern iron, 4.74 to 4.:4G for $outhern iron; $
4.4DG max. and $i, *.D4G.
$ig (ron) Chatea!gay - 6ig iron from Chateaugay (1ew Jor0 $tate" ores very low
in phosphorus; copper-free and containing appreciable amounts of titanium.
$iling - process in which several bars are stac0ed and hot rolled together with the
ob<ective of improving the homogeneity of the final product. ;sed in primitive iron
ma0ing.
$iling #Sheet $iling& - structural steel product with edges designed to interloc0;
used in the construction of cofferdams or riverban0 reinforcement.
$ilot Casting - Casting produced prior to the production run to verify correctness of
procedures, materials, and process to be used in production.
$ilot +ole - starting hole for large drills to serve as a guide, reduce the resistance
and aid in maintaining the accuracy of the larger hole. lso called a lead hole.
$ilot 4'erate Chec% 9alve - Chec0 valve that can allow flow in the opposite
direction of the chec0 by application of a pilot pressure that overcomes the chec0
spring tension.
$ilot $ress!re - pressure used to operate different functions of a pilot operated
valve.
$ilot 9alve - #ydraulic solenoid valve that uses pilot hydraulic pressure to control
the movement of another (slave" valve.
$ilots - 1atural gas fired device used to provide positive ignition of the boiler fuels.
$in - 9xternal (male"threaded end
$in +oles - /icroscopic imperfection of the coatings,that is, microscopic bare spots,
also microscopic holed penetrating through a layer or thic0ness of light.
$in +ole /etector - .evice that identifies and tabulates the number of pin holes in
a coil.
$inch Mar% - $ee (Crease).
$inch Roll - *" @oll used to <og the strip forward and bac0ward, and to hold the strip
stationary. 5ne is before the welder and the other is between welder and looping pit.
8" /otor-driven rolls used to assist in threading coils, cutting scrap, and ma0ing
loops for welds.
$inch $ass - term applied when, after annealing, sheet or strip is lightly rolled
with the ob<ect of preventing stretcher lines or 0in0s on subse-uent cold wor0ing.
$inholes - coating defect consisting of the randomly spaced small round holes (as
a straight pin would ma0e in the cured film, which -uite often occur in large
numbers. The open area (pinhole" usually exposes bare substrate. Contaminated
substrate or improperly dispersed lubricant or additive may cause pinholes. 6inholes
are typically caused by laminations, inclusions, scratches or gouges.
$inion /rives - The large gear transmissions that power the finishing mill wor0
rolls.
$inning - term used to describe the condition of a file clogged with metal filings
causint it to scratch the wor0.
$i'e - cavity formed by shrin0age of the metal during solidification, usually
occurring in a riser having feeder metal for the casting.
$i'e - Tube in standardized combinations of outside diameter and wall thic0ness,
commonly designated by (1ominal 6ipe sizes) and (1$' $chedule 1umbers).
$i'e - defect that arises during the slidification of steel in the ingot mold. s steel
contracts on solidification a central cavity forms in the upper portion of the ingot, if
this is not completely removed before rolling into bars a central defect 0nown as
(pipe) results. The rise of piping is considerably reduced on continuously cast steel
due to molten steel being available to fill any shrin0age cavity.
$i'e) /rawn - 6ipe brought to the final dimensions by drawing through a die.
$i'e) E1tr!e - 6ipe formed by hot extruding
$i'e) Seamless - 9xtruded or drawn pipe which does not contain any line <unctures
resulting fron method of manufacture
$i'e) Str!ct!ral - 6ipe commonly used for structural purposes.
$it #e,ect& - sharp depression in the surface of the metal.
$itCoc% 9alve - $mall lever controlled valve.
$itch - The distance from any point on a thread to the corresponding point on the
ad<acent thread, measured to the axis. lso applied to spur gears.
$itch circle - The line (circle" of contact between two meshing gears.
$itch iameter - The diameter of a thread at an imaginary point where the width of
the groove and the width of the thread are e-ual.
$itch .ine - n imaginary line which passes through threads at such points that the
length of the part of the line between ad<acent threads is e-ual to the length of the
line within a thread.
$itting - $harp depressions in the surface of the metal generally attributed to
localized chemical attac0 by a corrosive media. 'n stainless steels, molybdenum
additions (i.e. types B*F, B*7, =B=" help improve pitting resistance.
$ittsb!rgh .oc%seam "ester - (6A$" device used to show the loc0- forming
-uality of the steel and to detect peeling or fla0ing.
$lain C!tter - milling cutter with cutting teeth on the periphery (circumference"
only.
$lane) *orging - The plane that includes the principal die face and that is
perpendicular to the direction of the ram stro0e; when the paaarting is flat, the
forging plane coincides with the parting line. $ee also &orging 6lane.
$lane Strain - stress condition in linear elastic fracture mechanics ($ee A9&/" in
which there is zero strain in a direction normal to both the axis of applied tensile
stress and the direction of crac0 growth. ;nder plane strain conditions, the plane of
fracture instability is normal to the axis of the principal tensile stress.
$lanish Rolling - 6rocess which involves light reduction in a single pass on a cold-
roling mill.
$lant .oa - The amount of power the entire mill is using. 't is the total of what we
are generating plus what we are purchasing.
$lantA(nstr!ment Air - Compressed air produced to operate pneumatic controls
and valves.
$lasma Re,ining - 6rocess used to reduce sulfur and oxygen to very low levels.
$laster o, $aris - semi-hydrated form of calcium sulfate made by sintering
gypsum to *84 - *B4 C (8=+ - 8FF&".
$lastic /e,ormation - 6ermanent deformation occurring in forming of metal which
occurs after elastic limits have been exceeded.
$late Circle Circle c!t ,rom $late. -
$late - Carbon steel plates comprise that group of flat-rolled finished steel products
within the following size limitaionE 4.*+4in or thic0er, over =+in wide; 4.8B4in or
thic0er, over Fin wide; 7.DBlb,s- ft or heavier, over =+in wide; :.F8lb,s- ft or
heavier, over Fin wide.
$late Circle Circle c!t ,rom $late. - 1;AA
$late) Alcla - Composite plate comprised of an aluminum alloy core having on both
surfaces (if on one side only, lclad 5ne $ide 6late" a metallurgically bonded
aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically
protectin the core against corrosion.
$late Martensite - /artensite formed, partly in steels containing more than about
4.DG C and solely in steels containing more than about *.4G C, as lenticular-shape
plates on irrational habit planes that are near or Y8D:Z in very-high-carbon steels
$later - n operating unit which electrolytically applies zinc, chrome or tin to blac0
plate.
$later /istrib!tion "an% - The tan0 that holds the plater solution.
$later Roll - steel roll used in the plater. The roll has electricity running through
it.
$lates) Core /rying - &lat plates of metal on which cores are placed for ba0ing.
$latin!m - Chemical symbol 6t. The 0ey material in the manufacture of automaotive
catalysts
$latin!m Gro!' Metals - Called the (noble metals) because they are among the
scariest of the metallic elements; more important, they are totally imperious to
oxidation or corrosion. The family is six metalsE 6latinum, a white infusible metal
with high electrical resistance; 6alladium, also white, noted for its strength and high
ductility; 'ridium, a yellowish mineral with the most corrosion resistance of any metal
0nown; @hodium, a silver-white metal also found with nic0el; @uthenium, a white
metal noted for its hardness; and osmium, a bluish-white metal that is so hard it is
difficult to fabricate.
$lattcos - .ouble-gated valves that allow particulate to drop out of the vacuum gas
stream with minimal air loss.
$lay - The looseness of fit (slac0" between two pieces press fit.
$l!gge /ie - !alvanize metal obstructions in the which bloc0 the air wipe and
affect coating.
$MMA - 6olymethymethacralate - &oam used in the lost foam process, does release
as much carbon as polystyrene.
$ohlan Metho - techni-ue for the ultrasonic testing of steel in which a visible
image of the defects present in the steel can be shown on a screen.
$oissonEs Ratio - 'f a s-uare bar is stressed in a testing machine in the direction of
its length increases, there is a contraction in each opposite direction, which produces
a decrease in the thic0ness of the bar. The ratio between the contraction at right
angles to a stress and the direct extension is called the 6oissonHs ratio. 'ts value in
steel is in the order of 4.8+.
$olishing *ilter - oil from the hydraulic system tan0 through the filters and then
bac0 to the tan0.
$olymor'hism - The ability of a material to exist in more than one crystallographic
structure. 1umerous metals change in crystallographic structure at transformation
temperatures during heating or cooling. 'f the change is reversible, it is allotropy.
The allotropy of iron, particularly the changes between the alpha body-centered and
the gamma face centered form, is of fundamental importance in the hardening of
steel.
$olystyrene - polymer of styrene used in ma0ing molding products. 'n particular,
used in the lost foam process.
$oor 4iling - 1ot enough oil on the strip per customer specification.
$oor Slitting - The -uality of the slit edge due to bad shape, dull 0nives, etc.
$o') Solvent - %lister and,or void in the coating resulting from trapped solvents
released during curing process
$orosity - #oles in the produced casting due toE !asses trapped in the mold, the
reaction of molten metal with mosisture in the molten sand, or the imperfect fusion
of chaplets with molten metal.
$ost-$aint - To paint a manufactured part after at it has been formed.
$ostheating - process used immediately after welding whereby heat is applied to
the weld zone either for tempering or for providing a controlled rate of cooling, in
order to avoid a hard or brittle structure.
$ot - vessel for holding molten metal. lso used to refer to the electrolytic
reduction cell employed in winning certain metals, such as aluminum, from a fused
electrolyte.
$ot -!enching - Cuenchinhg carburised parts directly fron the carburising pot or
box.
$otable Water - Treated water used for human consumption.
$o!ring - Transfer of molten metal from furnace to ladle, ladle to ladle, or ladle into
molds.
$o!ring C!' - The flared section of the top of the downsprue. 't can be shaped by
hand in the cope, or be a shaped part of the pattern used to form the downsprue; or
may be ba0ed core cup placed on the top of the cope over the downsprue.
$ower C!tting - 'ntroducing iron powder in an oxygen stream to hasten oxygen
torch cutting by the combination of fluxing and oxidation. !enerally used for cutting
stainless steel.
$ower Metals - &abrication technology in which fine metallic powder is compacted
under high pressure and then heated at a temperature slightly below the melting
point to solidify the material. 6rimary users of powder metal parts are auto,
electronics and aerospace industries.
$owere Coal Mill - (6ulverizer" 9lectrically or steam driven device that crushes
coal to a fine powder form and exhausts it into the boiler as fuel.
$owering - problem encountered in the field where the iron-zinc coating (from
!alvanneal products" comes off the base metal and collects in the die.
$ower-/riven +ammer - forging hammer with steam or air cylinder for raising
the ram and augmenting its downward blow.
$ower *actor - *" 'nductor flow in the pot. high number may indicate an
obstruction in circulation. 8" Term that describes the relationship between real power
(I3" and apparent power (IM" in a circuit. 't is the cosine of the angle between I3
and IM on a phasor drawing of a circuit. ('n a phasor drawing, this angle is the
same angle formed by the voltage and current relationship." 't is almost always
better to run the generators with a lagging power factor (meter pointing to left of
zero".
$re-$aint - To paint a product in coil form and then manufacture it into a final part.
$recio!s Metals - @elatively scarce, highly corrosion resistant, valuable metals
found in periods D and F (groups M''' and 'b" of the periodic table. They include
ruthenium,rhodium,palladium,silver,asmium,iridium,platinum and gold.
$reci'itation +arening - (6#" small group of stainless steels with high
chromium and nic0el content, with the most common types having characteristics
close to those of martensitic (plain chromium stainless class with exceptional
strength" steels. #eat treatment provides this class with its very high strength and
hardness. pplications for 6# stainless steels include shafts for pumps and valves as
well as aircraft parts.
$reci'ition +eat "reatment - ny of the various aging treatments conducted at
elevated temperatures to improve certain mechanical properties through
precipitation from solid solution.
$recision - %ecomes a prefix to sheet or strip when the thic0ness of the product
falls between 4.44D) and 4.4*D).
$recision *orging - forging produced to closer tolerances than normally
considered standard by the industry.
$re,ilter - filter system containing *F filter elements that clean the hydraulic oil as
it passes from one storage tan0 to another.
$re,orm - The forging operation in which stoc0 is preformed or shaped to a
predetermined size and contour prior to subse-uent die forging operations; the
operation may involve drawing,bending,flattening, edging, fullering, rolling or
upsetting. The preform operation is not considered to be scheduled operation unless
a separate heat is re-uired; usually, when a preform operation is re-uired, it will
precede a forging operation and will be performed in con<unction with the forging
operation and in the same heat. 'n ring rolling, a term generally applied to ring
blan0s of a specific shape to be used for profile (contour" ring rolling.
$reheatersAAir +eaters - %an0 of boiler tubes located in the exhaust gas ductwor0
which preheats the incoming combustion air by transferring heat from the exhaust
gases passing through them to the incoming air passing around them. 6reheating the
air reduces boiler fuel re-uirements. $ome preheated air is used on the powdered
coal mills to control powdered coal temperatures.
$reheating - high-temperature soa0ing treatment used to change the
metallurgical structure in preparation for a subse-uent operation, usually applied to
the ingot.
$reheating - (*" general term used to describe heating applied as a preliminary
to some further thermal or mechanical treatment. (8" term applied specifically to
tool steel to describe a process in which the steel is heated slowly and uniformly to a
temperature below the hardening temperature and is then transferred to a furnace in
which the temperature is substantially above the preheating temperature. (B"
1onfer. met.-#eating a metal to a relatively high temperature for a relatively long
time in order to change the structure before wor0ing. 'ngots are homogenized by
preheating.
$remi!m - Cost of an option and,or an amount added to a base price for a
material,i.e. added cost beyond the base Comex, A/9 and,or producer and
manufacturer prices.
$re'ierce - 'n ring rolling, a vertically mounted piercing (punching" tool used for
preparation of ring blan0s on the ring blan0 press. tapered tool of various
diameters and lengths.
$ress *orging - The shaping of metal between dies by mechanical or hydraulic
pressure. ;sually this is accomplished with a single wor0 stro0e of the press for each
die station
$ress *orming - $ee %ra0e 6ress %ending.
$ress!re - *" @e-uired force necessary on the welder wheels (hydraulic". 8" The
force of the fluid in a hydraulic system.
$ress!re Chamber - (Cylinder" 6art of the particle counter sampler where the oil
sample is placed to be drawn for testing.
$ress!re /ie Casting - > %ritish term. $ee .ie Casting >
$ress!re Ga!ges on the $!m's - gauge on the discharge line that displays the
output pressure of the pump.
$ress!re .ine - ny hose, pipe or tubing that supplies pressure (hydraulic force" to
a system or component of a system.
$ress!re Mottling - $ee (/ottling, 6ressure)
$ress!re-"ight - term describing a casting free from porosity of the type that
would permit lea0ing.
$retreate - $teel to which a chemical treatment has been applied to prepare it for
future surface treatments such as painting. ($ee %onderized, Aight $pecial
Treatment, $pecial Treatment, 3eirbrite Clear".
$rimary Cho%e #Cho%e& - That part of the gating system which most restricts or
regulates the flow of metal into the mold cavity.
$rimary Metal - /etal extracted from minerals and free of reclaimed metal scrap.
Compare with native metal.
$rime - Coil type indicating that the produced coil or lift meets all the re-uirements
of the order.
$rime Bo1 #H1& - ccumulates prime '6/?s produced directly off the cutting line at
customer plants.
$rime Coil Any - -uality reasons.
$rime Weight - The weight of a coil removed from the prime reel of the side
trimmer.
$rocess Ca'ability - The amount of variation in the output of a controlled
manufacturing process, the range defined by plus or minus three standard
deviations.
$rocess Control - &low to pressure for steam flow for oil pressure for 48 blow.
uto,manual that transfers steam supply from flow to pressure or pressure to flow.
$rocess $arameter - n './.'.$.screen used to find customer specifications.
$ro!ce ($M 3!mber - The '6/ number assigned to a produced coil by the
delivery end of the unit. ny units from the caster get an '6/W when processed.
$ro!ct Analysis - 'n castings, the analysis of the actual part as opposed to the
analysis of the steel from which the casting was poured.
$ro!ction Weling - ny welding carried out during manufacturing before final
delivery to the purchaser. This includes <oint welding of casting and finishing welding.
$roe!tectoi - The constituent that separates out of a solid solution before the
formation of eutectoid.
$ro,ile) class 1 +ollow E1tr!e - hollow extruded profile, the void of which is
round and * inch or more in diameter and whose weight is e-ually distributed on
opposite sides of two or more e-ually spaced axes
$ro,ile) Class G +ollow E1tr!e - ny hollow extruded profile other than class *,
which does not exceed a D-inch diameter circumscribing circle and has a single void
of not less than 4.B7D-inch diameter or 4.**4-s-uare inch area
$ro,ile) Class 3 +ollow E1tr!e - ny hollow extruded profile other than Class *
or Class 8
$ro,ile) Col-*inishe E1tr!e - profile produced by cold-finishing a rolled
profile
$ro,ile) Col-*inishe Rolle - profile produced by cold-finishing a rolled profile
$ro,ile) col-*inishe - profile brought to final dimensions by cold-wor0ing to
obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerance
$ro,ile) /rawn - profile brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die
$ro,ile) E1tr!e - profile produced by hot extruding
$ro,ile) *l!te +ollow - hollow profile having plain inside surfaces and whose
outside surfaces comprise regular, longitudinal, concave corrugations with sharp
cusps between corrugations.
$ro,ile) +elical E1tr!e - n extruded profile twisted along its length
$ro,ile) +ollow - profile any part of whose cross section completely encloses a
void.
$ro,ile) li' +ollow - hollow profile of generally circular cross section and
nominally uniform wall thic0ness with one hollow or solid protuberance or lip parallel
to the longitudinal axis; used principally for heat-exchange purpose.
$ro,ile) $inion +ollow - hollow profile with regularly spaced, longitudinal
serrations outside and round inside, used primarily for ma0ing small gears.
$ro,ile) rolle - profile produced by hot rolling.
$ro,ile) Semihollow - profile any part of whose cross section is a partially
enclosed void the area of which is substantially greater than the s-uare of the width
of the gap. The ratio of the area of the void to the s-uare of the gap is dependent on
the class of semihollow profile, the alloy and the gap width.
$ro,ile) Soli - profile other than hollow or semihollow
$ro,ile) Ste''e E1tr!e - n extruded profile whose cross section changes
abruptly in area at intervals along its length.
$ro,ile) Streamline +ollow - hollow profile with a cross section of tear-drop
shape.
$ro,ile) Str!ct!ral - profile in certain standard alloys, tempers, sizes, and
sections, such as angles, channels, #-sections, '-beams, there are two standards,
naemllly luminum ssociation $tandard and merican $tandard.
$ro,ile) "a'ere E1tr!e - n extruded profile whose cross section changes
continuously in area along its length or specified portion thereof.
$ro,ile - wrought product that is long in relation to its cross-sectional dimensions
which is of a form other than of sheet plate, rod, bar, tube, wire or roll.
$ro,ile "olerances - system of locating and tolerancing developed to control the
orientation of rough parts in machine fixtures. &rom locating points on the casting a >
perfect profile > is established for all surfaces and features. tolerance envelope
surrounding that profile defines the limitations of an acceptable part.
$ro,iling - process that charts the gauge of steel across the width and,or length.
$ro,ilometer - n instrument used to measure the heights and depths of surface
features.
$rogressive Aging - n aging process in which the temperature of the alloy is
continuously increased during the aging cycle. The temperature may be increased in
steps or by any other progressive method. Compare with interrupted aging.
$ro?ection Weling - welding process that uses small pro<ections on one or both
components of the weld to localize the heat and pressure, the pro<ections collapse
when the weld is made.
$roo, Stress - (*" The stress that will cause a specified small permanent set in a
material. (8" specified stress to be applied to a member or structure to indicate its
ability to withstand service loads.
$ro'ortional 9alve "ester - device used to determine if a proportional valve is
operating properly.
$ro'ortional 9alve. - n electronically measured valve capable of a high flow rate
and low pressure drop. $uitable for position, speed or force control in hydraulically
controlled valves.
$rotection "!be - metal, graphite, or ceramic tube which shrouds and protects
the wires of a thermoelectric pyrometer.
$rotector - 6lastic, steel or composite cap tp protect threasds from damage
'si - 6ounds per s-uare inch.
$S( .ow $ress!re Steam - This low-pressure steam is then used to supplement
the low-pressure steam system throughout the plant.
$!ling $rocess - process for ma0ing wrought iron in which cast orn is melted
in a hearth furnace and rabbled with slag and oxide until a pasty mass is obtained.
This process was developed by #enry Cort about *7+= and remained in use until
*:D7, although on a very small scale during the present century.
$!g Mill - mixing device used to mix materials coming off of W8* conveyor belt.
$!gnill - mill for mixing foundry sands and sand mixtures consisting essential of a
shaft fitted with plows or paddle wheel which revolve in a tub or vat.
$!lveri0e Coal (n?ection System #$C(& - blast furnace enhancement to reduce
an integrated mill?s reliance on co0e (because of environmental problems with its
production". ;p to B4G of the co0e charged into the blast furnace can be replaced
by this talcum-li0e coal powder, which is in<ected through nozzles at the bottom of
the furnace.
$!m' - device that moves oil or grease into a system (in gallons per minute".
$!m' Ca'acity - The gallons per minute that a pump puts out.
$!m' Room Master - Controller which monitors the difference in feed water header
and steam header pressures at all times and ma0es changes in pump output to
maintain the feed water pressure at *D4 psi greater than the steam pressure at all
times.
$!m' Select B!tton - 6ush buttons on the hydraulic systems and the morgoil
system control panels that must be pressed to determine if a pump is in off, on or
stand-by mode.
$!nch - shearing operation to remove a section of metal as outlined by the inner
parting line in a bloc0ed or finished forgingE the operation is generally performed on
a trim press using a punch die. tool used in punching holes in metal. The moveable
die in a press or forging machine.
$!nch Mar% - n indentation on the strip caused by dirt, grease, or other foreign
matter on a roll.
$!nch) $ric% - solid punch with a sharp point, used to mar0 centers or other
locations on metal.
$!ncho!t Machines - machine used to force the entire sand and casting contents
from the molding box in one motion, without the use of vibration.
$!' Coil - small coil weighing on the average from *D44 to F444 pounds. These
coils usually contain defects that are unacceptable to the average customer.
$!rging - 9limination of air and other undesirable gases from furnaces or heating
boxes.
$!rging Steam - Aow-pressure steam used to purge a line or manifold.
$!ri,ier "an% - vessel containing a baffle or separator through which steam,
produced by the boiler continuous blow down flash process, is fed. The purifier
separates unwanted carryover, such as dirt or excess moisture, from the steam
before it is returned to the system.
$!t - n option, but not an obligation to sell. 1onferrous metal producers often buy
puts to loc0 in a price for their metal. 't is a0in to a price insurance policy. &or
example, if a producer uses put options to loc0 in a price of :4 cents per pound and
the price falls to +D cents per pound, he would continue to ma0e :4 cents per pound
($ee 5ptions and Call".
$!t /own $roce!re - The concept of material ownership by an operation from the
moment it is scheduled for production on that unit, until the delivery of the
processed inventory at a strategically predetermined >put-down> location; typically
the staging area of the next scheduled operation.
$!t on the "an% - term used when the 5iler opens the condensate line from a
turbine and allows it to flow into the condensate tan0.
$yrometall!rgy - Chemical metallurgical process dependent upon heat.
$yrometric Cone - slender trihedral pyramid made of a mixture of minerals
similar in composition to that of a clay or other refractory being tested. 9ach cone is
assigned a number indicating its fusion temperature.
$yrometric Cone E;!ivalent #$CE& - n index of refractoriness obtained by
heating on a time-temperature schedule a cone of the sample material and a series
of standardized pyrometric cones of increasing refractoriness.
$yrometry - method of measuring temperature with any type of temperature
indicating instruments.
$ac% Rolling - @olling two or more pieces of thin sheet at the same time, a method
usually practiced in rolling sheet into thin foil.
$ac% Rolling - #ot rolling a pac0 of two or more sheets of metal; scale prevents the
sheets from being welded together.
$ac% Rolling - #ot rolling a pac0 of two or more sheets of metal; scale prevents
their being welded together.
$anca%e Grain Str!ct!re - structure in which the lengths and widths of
individual grains are large compared to their thic0nesses.
$ass - term indicating the process of passing metal through a rolling mill.
$ass - (*" single transfer of metal through a stand of rolls. (8" The open space
between two grooved rolls through which metal is processed. (B" The weld metal
deposited in one run along the axis of a weld.
$atenting - heat treatment applied to medium and high-carbon steel prior to cold
drawing to wire. The treatment involves austenitization followed by isothermal
transformation at a temperature that produces a microstructure of very fine pearlite.
$atenting - Treatment of steel, usually in wire form, in which the metal is gradually
heated to about *+B4 (degrees" &., with subse-uent colling, usually in air, in a bath
of molten lead, or in a fused salt mixture held between +44 (degrees" &. and *4D4
(degrees" &.
$atterne or Embosse Sheet - sheet product on which a raised or indented
pattern has been impressed on either on or both surfaces by the use of rolls.
$earlite - eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and cementite that ideally
has a lamellar structure but that is always degenerate to some extent.
$earlite - Aamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. compound of iron and
carbon occurring in steel as a result of the transformation of austenite into
aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide.
$earlite - lamellar aggregate of ferrite and cementite, oftern occurring in steel and
case iron.
$eening - /echanical wor0ing of metal by hammer blows or shot impingement.
$eritectic - n isothermal reversible reaction in which a li-uid phase reacts with a
solid phase to produce another solid phase.
$ermalloy - 1ic0el alloys containing about 84 to F4G &e, used for their high
magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity.
$ermanent Set - 1on-elastic or plastic, deformation of metal under stress, after
passing the elastic limit.
$hase - physically homogeneous and distincy portion of a material system.
$hase /iagram - $ynonymous with constitutional diagram.
$hos'hor Bron0e Stri' - copper-base alloy containing up to *4G tin, which has
been deoxidized with phosphorus in varying amounts of less than *G. Temper is
imparted by cold rolling, resulting in greater tensile strength and hardness than in
most copper-base alloys or either of its alloying elements copper or tin. The various
tempers from 5ne 1umber #ard to Ten 1umbers #ard are classified in hardness by
the number of %Namp;$ !ages reduction in dimension from the previous soft or as-
annealed state. 6hosphor %ronze is not heat treatable for purposes of hardness
development. 't does not withstand elevated temperatures very well and should not
be used in service above 88D (degrees" &. even after stress relieving treatment at
B8D (degrees" to BD4 (degrees" &. 't has excellent electrical properties, corrosion
resistant comparable to copper; great toughness and resistance to fatigue. @ated
good for soft soldering, silver alloy brazing, oxyacetylene, carbon arc and resistance
welding.
$hotomicrogra'h - photographic reproduction of any ob<ect magnified more than
ten diameters. The term micrograph may be used.
$hysical $ro'erties - 6roperties other than mechanical properties, that pertain to
the physical nature of a material; e.g., density, electrical conductivity, thermal
expansion, reflectivity, magnetic susceptibility, etc.
$hysical $ro'erties - The properties, other than mechanical properties, that
pertain to the physics of a material; for example, density, electrical conductivity,
heat conductivity, thermal expansion.
$hysical $ro'erties - Those properties familiarly discussed in physics, exclusive of
those described under mechanical properties; for example, density, electrical
conductivity, co-efficient of thermal expansion. This term often has been used to
describe mechanical properties, but this usage is not recommended.
$ic%ling - @emoving surface oxides from metals by chemical or electrochemical
reaction.
$ic%ling - The process of chemically removing oxides and scale from the surface of a
metal by the action of water solutions of inorganic acids.
$ic%ling $atch - defect in tin plate, galvanized or terne plated steel due to faulty
pic0ling, leaving areas from which the oxide has not been completely removed.
$ig (ron - 'ron produced by reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace. 6ig iron contains
approximately :8G iron and about B.DG carbon. %alance largely silicone and
manganese with small percentages of phosphorus, sulphur, and other impurities.
$ig (ron - (*" #igh-carbon iron made by reduction of iron ore in the blast furnace.
(8" Cast 'ron in the form of pigs.
$in E1'ansion "est - test for determining the ability of tubes to be expanded or
for revealing the presence of crac0s or other longitudinal wea0nesses, made by
forcing a tapered pin into the open end of a tube.
$inchers - Aong fern li0e creases usually diagonal to the direction of rolling.
$inholes - /icroscopic imperfection of the coatings, that is, microscopic bare spots,
also microscopic holes penetrating through a layer or thic0ness of light gage metal.
$i'e - (*" The central cavity formed by contraction in metal, especially ingots,
during solidification. (8" The defect in wrought or cast products resulting from such a
cavity. (B" n extrusion defect due to the oxidized surface of the billet flowing toward
the center of the rod at the bac0 end. (=" tubular metal product, cast or wrought.
$i'e #e,ect& - Contraction cavity, essentially cone-li0e in shape, which occurs in
the approximate center, at the top and reaching down into a casting; caused by the
shrin0age of cast metal.
$it #e,ect& - sharp depresssion in the surface of the metal.
$itting - &orming small sharp cavities in a metal surface by nonuniform electro-
deposition or by corrosion.
$lanimetric Metho - method of measuring grain size, in which the grains within
a definite area are counted.
$lanishing - 6roducing a smooth surface finish on metal by rapid succession of
blows delivered by highly polished dies or by a hammer designed for the purpose, or
by rolling in a planishing mill.
$lastic /e,ormation - .eformation that remains, or will remain, permanent after
release of the stress that caused it.
$lastic /e,ormation - 6ermanent distortion of a material under the action of
applied stresses.
$lasticity - The ability of a metal to be deformed extensively without rupture.
$lasticity - The capacity of a metal to deform non-elastically without rupturing.
$late - flat-rolled metal product of some minimum thic0ness and width argitrarily
dependent on the type of metal.
$late Martensite - /artensite formed, partly in steels containing more than about
4.DG C and solely in steels containing more than about *.4G C, as lenticular-shape
plates on irrational habit planes that are near (88D", or Y8D:Z in very-high-carbon
steels
$lating - thin coating of metal laid on another metal.
$olishe S!r,ace - The finish obtained by buffing with rouge or similar fine
abrasive, resulting in a high gloss or polish.
$olishing - 6roducing a specularly reflecting surface.
$olycrystalline - Comprising an aggregate of more than one crystal, and usually a
large number of crystals.
$olymor'hism - The property whereby certain substances may exist in more than
one crystalline form, the particular form depending on the conditions of
crystallization - e.g., temperature and pressure. mong elements, this phenomenon
is also called allotropy.
$ostheating - #eating weldments immediately after welding, for tempering, for
stress relieving, or for providing a controlled rate of cooling to prevent formation of a
hard or brittle structure.
$ot Annealing - 's the same as box annealing.
$o!ring - The transfer of molten metal from the ladle into ingot molds or other
types of molds; for example, in castings.
$ower Metall!rgy - The art of producing metal powders and of utilizing metal
powders for the production of massive materials and shaped ob<ects.
$reci'itation +arening - #ardening caused by the precipitation of a constituent
form a supersaturated solid solution.
$reci'itation +arening - process of hardening an alloy in which a constituent
precipitates from a supersaturated solid solution.
$reci'itation +eat "reatment - 1onfer met. ny of the various aging treatments
conducted at elevated temperatures to improve certain of the mechanical properties
through precipitation from solid solution.
$re,erre 4rientation - condition of a polycrystalline aggregate in which the
crystal orientations are not random.
$reheating - #eating before some further thermal or mechanical treatment. &or tool
steel, heating to an intermediate temperature immediately before austenitizing. &or
some nonferrous alloys, heating to a high temperature for a long time, in order to
homogenize the structure before wor0ing.
$reheating - (*" general term used to describe heating applied as a preliminary
to some further thermal or mechanical treatment. (8" term applied specifically to
tool steel to describe a process in which the steel is heated slowly and uniformly to a
temperature below the hardening temperature and is then transferred to a furnace in
which the temperature is substantially above the preheating temperature. (B"
1onfer. met.-#eating a metal to a relatively high temperature for a relatively long
time in order to change the structure before wor0ing. 'ngots are homogenized by
preheating.
$ress *orging - &orging metal, usually hot, between dies in a press.
$rimary Crystal - The first type of crystal that separates from a melt during
solidifacation.
$rimes - /etal products, principally sheet and plate, of the highest -uality and free
from visible defects.
$rimes - /etal products, such as sheet and plate, of the highest -uality and free
from visible surface defects.
$rocess Annealing - 'n the sheet and wire industries, heating a ferrous alloy to a
temperature close to, but below, the lower limit of the transformation range and then
cooling, in order to soften the alloy for futher cold wor0ing.
$rocess Annealing - 'n the sheet and wire industries, a process by whcih a ferrous
alloy is heated to a temperature close to, but below, the lower limit of the
transformation range and is subse-uently cooled. This process is applied in order to
soften the alloy for further cold wor0ing.
$roe!tectoi #'hase& - 6articles of a phase that precipitate during cooling after
austenitizing but before the eutectoid transformation ta0es place.
$ro'ertional .imit - The greatest stress that the material is capable of sustaining
without a deviation from the law of proportionally of stress to strain (#oo0e?s Aaw".
$ro'ertional .imit - The maximum stress at which strain remains directly
propertional to stress.
$!lse-Echo Metho - nondestructive test in which pulses of energy are directed
onto a part, and the time for the echo to return from one or more reflecting surfaces
is measured.
$!nch - The movable part that forces the metal into the die in e-uipment for sheet
drawing, blan0ing, coining, embossing and the li0e.
$!nching - $hearing holes in sheet metal with punch and die.
$yrometer - n instrument of any of various types used for measuring
temperatures.
--B4$ - /odified %asic 5xygen &urnace in which the oxygen and other gases are
blown in from the bottom, rather than from the top. 3hile the C-%56 stirs the metal
bath more vigorously, allowing for faster processing, the design produces essentially
the same steel grades as the top-blowing basic oxygen furnace. Today?s state-of-
the-art furnace design combines the previous technologiesE F4G of the oxygen is
blown from above, with the rest blown through the bottom of the vessel.
-!enching - @apid cooling of hardening; normally achieved by immersion of the
ob<ect to be hardened in water, oil, or solutions of salt or organic compounds in
water.
-!ali,ication "rials - The testing re-uired for a new process adopted to ma0e
certain grades of steel with exacting end uses. 'n order for the process to become
-ualified, the steel made by the process must be tested.
-!ality - @efers to the suitability and integrity of the steel for the purpose or
purposes for which it is intended
-!arter B!c%le - $ee (%uc0le, Cuarter.)
-!arter +ar #3o. 3 "em'er& - (" 'n low carbon cold-rolled strip steel, a medium
soft temper produced by a limited amount of cold rolling after annealing. (%" 'n brass
mill terminology. Cuarter hard is one % and $ number hard or *4.:DG reduction. (C"
'n stainless steel terminology tempers are based on minimum tensile, or yield
strength. &or Chromium-1ic0el grades Cuarter #ard Temper is *8D,444 T. $., 7D,444
J.$. min.
-!arter +ar "em'er - Cold @olled steel produced to a @oc0well hardness range of
F4 to 7D on the % scale. 6roduct of this temper is intended for limited bending and
cold forming and can be bent :4 degrees in the rolling direction and *+4 degrees
across the rolling direction over its own thic0ness.
-!art0 - > form of silica occurring in hexagonal crystals which are commonly
colorless and transparent, but sometimes also yellow, brown, purple, green, etc. 't is
the most common of all solid minerals. $ee also $ilica >
-!art0ite - compact granular roc0 composed of -uartz. 't is a metamorphosed
sandstone, and siliceous cement is often so blended with the -uartz grains as to give
the roc0 a nearly homogeneous texture. 6rimary materiel in silica bric0.
-!ench Crac% - crac0 resulting from thermal stress induced during rapid cooling
or -uenching, or from stresses induced by delayed transformations some time after
the article has been fully -uenched.
-!ench +arening - process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition
by heating within or above the transformation range and cooling at a rate sufficient
to increase the hardness substantially. The process usually involves the formation of
martensite.
-!ench Severity - The -uench severity is characterized by the # value and relates
to the rate of temperature change during -uenching.
-!ench "an% - *" Tan0 of water used to -uic0ly cool the strip before it reaches the
delivery end of the line. 8" The water bath which is used to cool the steel strip after
it has been annealed on C line or reflowed on the Tin plater.
-!encher Water - 3ater that 0eeps boiler duct wor0 cool.
-!enching - (*" 'n the heat treating of metals, the step of cooling metals rapidly in
order to obtain desired properties; most commonly accomplished by immersing the
metal in oil or water. 'n the case of most copper base alloys, -uenching has no effect
other than to hasten cooling. (8" @apid cooling
-!ic% Ret!rn - mechanism on some machine tools that provide rapid movement
of the ram or table on the return or onointing stro0e of the machine.
-!ench Aging - ging that occurs after -uenching following solution heat
treatment.
-!ench +arening - #ardening by austenitizing and then cooling at a rate such
that a substantial amount of austenite is transformed to martensite.
-!ench +arening - #ardening a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling
rapidly enough so that some or all of the austenite transforms to martensite. The
austenitizing temperature for hypoeutectoid steels is usually above cB and for
hypereutectoid steels usually between c* and c (cm".
-!ench +arening #Steel& - process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable
composition by heating within or above the transformation range and cooling at a
rate sufficient to increase the hardness substantially. The process usually involves
the formation of martensite.
-!enching - @apid cooling.
-!enching - 'n the heat treating of metals, the step of cooling metals rapidly in
order to obtain desired properties; most commonly accomplished by immersing the
metal in oil or water. 'n the case of most copper base alloys, -uenching has no effect
other than to hasten cooling.
Ra - Chemical symbol for @adium
R Enamel - n unpigmented enamel used to increase resistance to corrosion, or
decrease bleaching effect of tinplate on food can interiors.
R1-9alves - .ouble-gated valves that allow particulate to drop out of the vacuum
gas stream with minimal air loss.
Rac% - n array of gears spaced on a straight bar.
Raial - 'n a direction directly outward from the center of a circle or sphere or from
the axis of a cylinder. The spo0es of a wheel, for example, are radial.
Raial Ring Rolling Mill #RW& - type of ring forging e-uipment for producing
seamless rolled rings by controlling only the outside and inside diameters.
Raial Roll - (main roll, 0ing roll"
Raial Rolling *orce - The action produced by the horizontal pressing force of the
rolling mandrel acting against the ring and the main roll. ;sually expressed in metric
tons.
Raiant +eat - #eat communicated by radiation and transmitted by electromagnetic
waves.
Raiant "!be Annealing Bo1 - box which is heated, inside, by means of tubes in
which gas is burned; the hot tubes radiate their heat to the covered pile of metal,
standing on the base of the box. ;sually a protective atmosphere is maintained in
the box to protect the metal from oxidation.
Raiation Area - ny part of an installation accessible to employees in which there
exists a radiation level of 7.D millirem in any one hour over *D4 millirem in any
seven consecutive days.
Raiation +a0ar - ny situation where persons might be exposed to radiation in
excess of the maximum permissible dose.
Raiation) /irect - ll radiation coming from within an x-ray tube and tube housing
except the useful beam.
Raioactive (soto'es - Marieties of an element possessing the same chemical
characteristics but emitting detectable radiation?s by means of which they can be
identified and traced.
Raioactive Material - ny compound or element which may emit any or all of the
followingE alpha and beta particles, electrons, photons neutrons and gamma and all
other emissions which produce ionization directly or indirectly.
Raiogra'hy - nondestructive method of internal examination in which metal
ob<ects are exposed to a beam of K-ray or gamma radiation. .ifferences in
thic0ness, density or absorption, caused by internal defects or inclusions, are
apparent in the shadow image either on a fluorescent screen or on photographic film
placed behind the ob<ect.
Rai!m - radioactive element which the chemical symbol @a; radium and its salts
are used in gamma-ray radiography because of their radioactivity. /elting point is
744 %4C (*8:8 %4&".
Rai!s - The distance from the center of a circle to its circimference (outside".
Reactive $ower #See 9ARS below& "he 'art o, the electricity !se by a
motor or trans,ormer #or similar evice& that is !se to magneti0e the iron.
#@o! have to magneti0e the iron to create the magnetic ,iel that ma%es the
evice wor%.& -
Ra%e - That surface of a cutting tool against which the chips bear while beign
severed. 'f this surface is less than :4) from the surface being cut, the ra0e is
positive. 'f more, the ra0e is negative.
Ram - The moving or falling part of a drop hammer or press to which one of the dies
is attached; sometimes applied to the upper flat die of a steam hammer.
Ramming - 6ac0ing sand in a mold by raising and dropping the sand, pattern, flas0
on a table. Lolt s-ueezers, <arring machines, and <olt rammers are machines using
this principle.
Range - The difference between the highest and lowest values of a measurable
attribute of the output of a process.
Ra'i "raverse - lever-controlled, power-operated feature of some machines that
permits the rapid movement of the wor0table from one position to another.
Ra''ing - Inoc0ing or <arring the pattern to loosen it from the sand in the mold
before withdrawing the pattern.
Rare Earth #RE& - ny of a group of *D similar metals with atomic numbers D7 to
7*. lso rare earth element, rare earth metal, lanthanide series, uncommon metals,
/ischmetal.
Rare Gases - #elium, argon, neon, 0rypton, xenon and radon.
Rat "ail - n expansion discontinuity in a sand casting, featured as a long, narrow,
linear depression, resulting from sand expansion and minor buc0ling of the mold
surface during filling of the mold.
Raw Water - ;ntreated river water.
Rb - Chemical symbol for @ubidium
RCS - bbreviation for @igid Container $heet
Re-'ic%le - Coil that will be reprocessed. lso @eclean, @eroll, and @eanneal.
Re - Chemical symbol for @henium
Reactive $ower #See 9ARS below& "he 'art o, the electricity !se by a
motor or trans,ormer #or similar evice& that is !se to magneti0e the iron.
#@o! have to magneti0e the iron to create the magnetic ,iel that ma%es the
evice wor%.& - 1;AA
Reactor - large inductor. 'nductors have the characteristics of limiting electrical
power surges that would occur when a large amount of current attempts to flow very
-uic0ly. 'n the 3$K system, we use reactors to limit these surges between the
power house W8, WB, and W= buses.
Reaings - @eadings ta0en from instruments and written on log sheet.
Reaming) line - The process of reaming two or more holes to bring them into very
accurate alignment.
Rear En Conition - $ee (%ac0 9nd Condition.)
Recalescence - n increase of temperature that occurs while cooling metal through
a range of temperatures in which changes in metal occur.
Recarb!ri0ing - (*" 'ncreasing the carbon content of molten cast iron or steel by
adding carbonaceous material, high-carbon pig iron or a high-carbon alloy. (8"
Carburizing a metal part to return surface carbon lost in processing.
Receiving .ale - ladle placed in front of the cupola into which all metal is
tapped. 't acts as a mixer and reservoir and to smooth out metal flow to the pouring
area.
Recess - n internal groove.
Recirc!lating .ine - Aine that relieves the pressure between the feedwater pump
and the dearator tan0.
Recirc!lating Water - Ieeps water from dead heading in feed water pumps.
Recovery $!m' - pump that carries water from the gland evacuation pump to the
condensate tan0 for W: !enerator.
Re Brass - +DG Copper -- copper-zinc alloy containing approximately *DG zinc,
used for plumbing pipe, hardware, condenser tubes. %ecause of its color, is used or
vanity cases, coins, pla-ues, badges, etc. 't is somewhat stronger than commercial
bronze and is hardened more rapidly by cold wor0ing.
Re +arness - term sometimes associated with high speed steel because it has
the property of retaining sufficient hardness for cutting metals even when heared to
atemperature high enough to cause a dull redness. The tungsten content has a
significant influence on this property.
Re R!st - reddish brittle coating of iron oxide which develops on an uncoated or
coated steel surface when oxygen in the atmosphere mixes with iron.
Reraw Ro - This term is not recommended. The term (.rawing $toc0) is
preferred.
Re!cing Agent - 9ither natural gas or coal can be used to remove the oxygen
from iron ore in order to produce a scrap substitute. 'n gas-based processes, the iron
ore is heated in a vessel as reformed natural gas passes through. 'n coal-based
processes, iron ore is combined with gasified or ground coal and heated. The oxygen
in the ore combines with carbon and hydrogen in the gas or coal, producing reduced,
or metallic, iron.
Re!cing Station - /anifolds on both the .!.C. system and the C.M.C. system
that brea0 down the pressure coming from the main pumps into the pressures that
the system re-uires. 'n the .!.C. system the reducing station splits the pump
pressure into 6*, 68 and 6B pressures. 'n the C.M.C. system, the reducing station
splits the pump pressure into 6*, 68, 6B and6= pressures.
Re!ction - The removal of oxygen or addition of hydrogen.
Re!ction o, Area #contraction o,area& - The difference in a tension specimen,
between the size of the original sectional area and that of the area at the point of
rupture. 't is generally stated as the percentage of decrease of cross sectional area
of a tension specimen after rupture.
Reel Brea%s - &ractured base metal normally caused by poor leveling. 't is indicated
by light 0in0s across the width of the winding coil.
Reel /igs - 9specially on high carbon steel, mar0s made by the #ot /ill reels. These
occur because the reels run faster than steel is coming off the line, it actually puts
>digs> in itself.
Reel 2in%s - .amage on the strip in the core of a coil.
Re,ine Al!min!m - luminum of very high purity (::.:D4 percent or higher"
obtained by special metallurgical treatments.
Re,ining - (a" the removal of impurities and metallic oxides from the molten bath by
the reaction of the slag and other additions. (b" heat treatment process with the
ob<ect of refining or ma0ing the grain size of the steel uniform.
Re,lector Sheet - n alclad product containing on one side a surface layer of high-
purity aluminum superimposed on a core or base alloy of commercial-purity
aluminum or an aluminum-manganese alloy. The high-purity coating imparts good
polishing characteristics and the core gives ade-uate strength and formability.
Re,lectosco'e - n instrument for the ultrasonic testing of metals.
Re,low - n area on the plating line where tin on the strip surface is melted and
resolidified to get a brite, shiny appearance.
Re,low $late #Brite& - 6rocess on Tin 6laters; section of Tin plater that heats coil
and melts the Tin coating.
Re,lowe S!r,ace - shiny tin plate product surface which is achieved by heating
the tin coating up to its melting point (thereby melting the tin" and cooling it bac0 to
room temperature.
Re,ractory - ceramic material that can resist great heat and is therefore suitable
for lining furnaces. &ireclay, dolomite, magnesite and silica are examples. This is not
to be confused with refractory metals, such as columbium and tantalum.
Re,ractory Bric% - #eat-resistant bric0. %ecause its melting point is well above the
operating temperatures of the process, refractory bric0s line most steelma0ing
vessels that come in contact with molten metal, li0e the walls of the blast furnace,
sides of the ladles, and inside of the %5&.
Re,ractory Clay - clay which fuses at pce 8D (*D:4C, 8+:=&" or higher.
Re,ractory Metal - metal having an extremely high melting point. 'n the broad
sense, it refers to metals having melting points above the range of iron, cobalt, and
nic0el.
Regenerator - (@egeneration $ystem" device used to increase the volume of
hydraulic oil going to the wor0 roll change extractor.
Regression Analysis - statistical method of determining, or predicting, the value
of a dependent variable, based on levels of one or more 0now independent variables.
Reheating - #eating metal again to hot-wor0ing temperature. 'n general no
structural changes are intended.
Rein,orcing Bar #Rebar& - commodity-grade steel used to strengthen concrete in
highway and building construction.
Re?ects Bo1 - lso 0nown as a #5A9$ box, where scrap sheets accumulate during
production.
Release Agent #$arting Agent& - material, e.g. silicone, stearate, oil, or wax for
lubricating a die pattern or core box to facilitate easy removal of a casting, mold or
core.
Relie, - term for clearance or clearance angle.
Relie, 9alve - valve that is set at a predetermined pressure and will open if a
system or component of a system exceeds that set pressure.
Reline - The process of replacing the refractory lining of a li-uid steel vessel. 5nce it
wears out, the bric0 lining of a furnace must be cooled, stripped and replaced. This
maintenance can be significant because a blast furnace reline may re-uire up to
three months to complete.
Remanence - The remaining flux density after the magnetizing force has been
removed.
Remote - station near a pump consisting of both an ?5n? and an ?5ff? button.
pump can be started or stopped by its corresponding remote.
Removable Sections - $ide panel section of tubes that ma0e up the vessel cover.
The removable sections are located on the north and south sides of both boilers.
Reoil - 5il put on the sheet after cleaning and before coiling for shipment to prevent
water stain.
Re'air Weling - ny welding carried out after delivery to the end user, i.e., after
the casting has been in service.
Re'hos'hori0ing #Steel& - Aadle-chemical treatment consisting of the addition of
phosphorus as a wor0 hardening agent when temper rolling blac0 plate or sheet steel
resulting in greater hardness and stiffness and with a corresponding loss in
ductility. . 15T9E %lac0 6late in tempers TD and TF (@,% range F+,+=" are temper
rolled from @ephosphorized steel.
Re'late - To reprocess a coil on the plater that has been plated previously.
Re'licast $rocess #CS& - ceramic shell process similar to the investment casting
process. ;ses a pattern made from expanded polystyrene (96$" and is surrounded
by a thin ceramic shell.
Reroll Stoc% - semi-finished rolled product of rectangular cross section in coiled
form suitable for further rolling. 9xamplesE (&oil $toc0) and ($heet $toc0).
Reset - control button used to energize the side trimmer and welder.
Resi!al - ny element remaining in any alloy following melting and casting which
was not added to meet an analytical specification limit.
Resi!al Stress - $ee $tress, @esidual
Resi!al Stress - /acroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result
of non-uniform plastic deformation. This deformation may be caused by cold wor0ing
or by drastic gradients of temperature from -uenching or welding.
Resi!als - The impurities in mini-mill steel as the result of the mix of metals
entering the process dissolved in obsolete scrap. @esiduals are 0ey concerns
regarding the mini-mills? recent entry into the flat-rolled mar0et, where high
residuals can leave sheet steel too brittle for customer use.
Resistance Weling - type of welding process in which the wor0 pieces are
heated by the passage of an electric current through the contact. $uch processes
include spot welding, seam or line welding and percussion welding. &lash and butt
welding are sometimes considered as resistance welding processes.
Resolve Shear Stress - $tress operating on a crystallographic slip system.
Res'irator - filtering device which covers the nose and mouth and prevents
inhalation of dust or fumes; should have the ;.$. %ureau of /ines certificate or
approval for the specific contaminant being filtered out. #and0erchiefs and gauze
mas0s give little or no protection.
Res!l,!ri0e Steel - $teel to which sulfur has been added in controlled amounts
after refining. The sulfur is added to improve machinability.
Ret!rn *ilter - filter that cleans the hydraulic oil of an operating hydraulic system
before it returns to the system?s storage tan0.
Re!sable *ilter - Type of filter element that can be cleaned in solvent and used
again.
Reversing Bloc% - 6art of a grease system that changes the flow of grease from
one direction to the other after a predetermined pressure has been met.
Reversing Mill - ny rolling mill in which the direction of rotation of the rolls can be
reversed at will. #eavy primary mills for bloom and slab rolling are the most
common, but others, including some cold-rolling mills, are also made to reverse.
Revert - @ecycled sprues, gates, risers, defective castings and machine chips.
Rewin - coil that needs to be reprocessed on a side trimmer.
Rewor% - Coil that will be reprocessed. lso @eclean, @eroll, and @eanneal.
Reynols 3!mbers - ;sed in hydraulics and in casting gating theory.
dimensionless value (dynamic viscosity , density" describing the fairly sudden shift of
flow from laminar to turbulent. @e [ 8444 represents turbulent flow. Aaminar flow is
seldom experienced in runner and gating systems.
R* Bac%bone - #ardware and $oftware which enables real time trac0ing of
inventory by receiving the signal from the scanners and transmitting it to the .9C
computer. 't includes the scanners, relay base stations, lin0s to the computer and all
re-uired software to operate the system.
Rh - Chemical symbol for @hodium
Rhoi!m - Chemical symbol @h. silver-white metal found in nic0el deposits.
Rib - n elongated pro<ection on a shape, forging or casting to provide stiffening.
Ribbing A coating - coating defect consisting of a flow mar0 defect with an
appearance similar to corduroy fabric. @ibbing usually occurs when the flow mar0s
(ribs", from application on the coater, do not flow out and level the surface of the
coating.
Rige - hump across the width of the surface of the coil.
Rigging - !ates, risers, loose pieces, etc., needed on the pattern to produce a
sound casting.
Rigiity - The degree of flexibility of steel.
Rimme Steel - Aow-carbon steel in which incomplete deoxidation permits the
metal to remain li-uid at the top of the ingot, resulting in the formation of a bottom
and side rim of considerable thic0ness. The rim is of somewhat purer composition
than the original metal poured. 'f the rimming action is stopped shortly after pouring
of the ingot is completed, the metal is 0nown as capped steel. /ost steels below
4.*DG carbon are rimmed steels. &or the same carbon and manganese content
rimmed steel is softer than 0illed steel.
Ring Rolling - The process of shaping weldless rings from pierced dis0s or thic0
walled, ring-shaped blan0s between rolls that control wall thic0ness, ring diameter,
height, and contour.
Ri' - .efect indicating the edge of the strip has been torn and yet is still attached to
the strip.
Riser - @eservoir of molten metal from which casting feeds as it shrin0s during
solidification.
Riser /istance - The length of the riser nec0. The term is applied to side risers
only.
Riser +eight - The distance from the top of the riser when li-uid to the top of the
riser nec0. @iser height when sold is usually several inches less than when li-uid
because of contraction and loss of feed metal to the casting.
Riser 3ec% - The connecting passage between the riser and casting. ;sually only
the height and width or diameter of the riser nec0 are reported, although the shape
can be e-ually important.
Riser $a #Riser Contact& - n enlargement of the riser nec0 where it <oins the
casting. The purpose of the pad is to prevent the riser from brea0ing into the casting
when it is struc0 or cut from the casting.
Riser) Blin - riser that does not brea0 through the top of the cope and is entirely
surrounded by sand; opened to the atmosphere by means of a firecrac0er core.
Riser) 4'en - Conventional form of riser usually located at the heaviest section of
the casting and extending through the entire height of the cope.
Riser) Sie #Sie +ea& - riser attached to the side of a casting.
Riser) "o' #"o' +ea& - riser attached to the top surface of a casting.
Riser-Gating - 6ractice of running metal for the casting through the riser to help
directional solidification.
Roc% Cany *ract!re - fracture that exhibits separated-grain facets, most often
used to describe intergranular fractures in large grained metals.
Roc%well - (#ardness Tester" device used to determine the hardness of the steel
strip. >@oc0well> machines are used to measure hardness of all 3$C?s products.
Roc%well +arness - /easure of resistance to penetration when material is
exposed to a pointed load. The hardness numbers obtained by a @oc0well machine
are related to the depth of the impression measured after the load is applied. $ee
hardness
Roc%well +arness #"est& - standard method for measuring the hardness of
metels. The hardness is expressed as a number related to the depth of residual
penetration of a steel ball or diamond cone (brale" after a minor load of *4 0ilograms
has been applied to hold the penetrator in position. This residual penetration is
automatically registered on a dial when the ma<or load is removed from the
penetrator. Marious dial readings combined with different ma<or loads, five scales
designated by letters varying from to #; the % and C scales are most commonly in
use.
Roc%well +arness "esting - method of determining the relative hardness value
of material by measuring the depth of residual penetration by a steel ball or diamond
point under controlled loading
Ro) Alcla - @od having on its surface a metallurgically bonded or aluminum alloy
caoting that is anodic to the core alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically
protecting the core alloy against corrosion.
Ro) Col-*inishe E1tr!e - @od produced by cold wor0ing extruded rod.
Ro) Col-*inishe Rolle - @od produced by cold wor0ing rolled rod.
Ro) Col-*inishe - @od brought to final dimensions by cold wor0ing to obtain
improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances
Ro) Col-+eaing - @od of -uality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold-
headed products such as rivets and bolts
Ro) E1tr!e - @od produced by hot extruding.
Ro) Rivet - $ee (@od, Cold #eading).
Ro) Rolle - @od produced by hot rolling
Ro - @ound, thin semi-finished steel length that is rolled from a billet and coiled for
further processing. @od is commonly drawn into wire products or used to ma0e bolts
and nails. @od trains (rolling facilities" can run as fast as 84,444 feet per minute
.*more than 844 miles an hour.
Ro Mill - (*" mill for fine grinding, somewhat similar to the ball mill, but
employing long steel rods instead of balls as the grinding medium. (8" mill for
rolling metal rod.
Ro Sie $ress!re - 6ressure applied to the bac0 side of the head of a cylinder ram
or shaft that supplies less force than the blan0 side pressure.
Roing - @einforcing the sand in a core with metal rods or shapes to strengthen
parts of the core.
Roll-(n Metal - n extraneous chip or particle of metal rolled into the surface of the
product.
Roll *orming - n operation used in forming sheet
Roll Grin - The uniform ground finish on the wor0 rolls which is imparted to the
sheet or plate.
Roll *orce Systems - >/ill stands place considerable pressure on slabs, blooms and
coils to further process the material. There are two general ways of applying the
force to the steel .*screw and hydraulic systems. $C@93 ('1CA'19 6A19" This
older method used the basic principle of the screw to ad<ust the space between the
mill rolls. %ecause metal touches metal, these configurations will wear down over
time and can cause -uality problems. #J.@;A'C (61CI9 CJA'1.9@" This
modern system uses fluid pressure to rapidly ad<ust the roll spacing several times
per second. These minute, instantaneous ad<ustments allow for superior gauge
trac0ing and higher--uality products. >
Roll *orming - n operation used in forming sheet. $trips of sheet are passed
between rolls of definite settings that bend the sheet progressively into structural
members of various contours, sometimes called molded sections.
Roll *orming - *" n operation used in forming sheet. $trips of sheet are passed
between rolls of definite settings that bend the sheet progressively into structural
members of various contours, sometimes called >molded sections.> 8" process of
coiling sheet into open cylinders.
Roll Scale - 5xide of iron which forms on the surface of steel while it is being heated
and rolled. /uch of the scale is crac0ed and loosened during the rolling operation and
may fall off the piece naturally or be blown off by high-pressure water sprays or
other means.
Rolle Eges - &inished edges, the final contours of which are produced by side or
edging rolls. The edge contours most commonly used are s-uare corners, rounded
corners and rounded edges.
Rolle Ring - $ee (&orging, @olled ring).
Rolle Eges - &inished edges, the final contours of which are produced by side or
edging rolls. The edge contours most commonly used are s-uare corners, rounded
corners and rounded edge.
Roller *lattening - The process in which a series of staggered rolls of small
diameter is used to remove bow and waves
Roller .evel - appreciable reduction in gauge.
Roller .eveling - 6assing sheet or strip metal through a series of staggered small
rolls so as to flatten the metal. This method is relatively ineffective in removing
defects such as buc0les, wavy edges, corrugations, twists, etc., or from steel in the
higher hardness ranges.
Rolling (ngot - cast form suitable for rolling. $ee (&abricating 'ngot).
Rolling la' - fault arising from the overfilling or mis-alignment of rolls, the result
is a bulge on the baaaar which is rolled into the metal and is lapped over. 't remains
throughout subse-uent wor0ing and appears as a longitudinal crac0.
Rolling Manrel - 'n ring rolling, a vertical roll of sufficient diameter to accept
various sizes of ring blan0s and to exert rolling force on an axis parallel to the main
roll.
Rolling 4ver - The operation of reversing the position of a flas0. 'f the drag part of
the pattern has been rammed with the parting surface downward, it is rolled over
*+4 degrees to allow core setting and placement of cope.
Rolling Slab - rectangular semi-finished product, produced by hot rolling
fabricating ingot and suitable for further rolling.
Rolling "ic%et - The order matte, order paper, and mill order paper; tells how coil
should be rolled or processed.
Rollover Boar - wood or metal plate on which the pattern is laid top face
downward for ramming the drag half mold, the plate and half mold being turned over
together before the <oint is made.
Rollover Machine - molding machine with which the flas0 is rolled over before the
pattern is drawn from the mold.
Roo,ing Sheet - Coiled or flat sheet in specific tempers, widths and thic0ness
suitable for the manufacture of corrugated or v-crimp roofing.
Root /iameter - $ee minor diameter.
Ro'ing - rope-li0e appearance in the rolling direction after the metal has
undergone severe deformation
Rosin $ower - 6owder used on reels to ensure a tight start and prevent slippage.
Rotary Shear #Slitting Machine& - cutting machine with sharpened circular
blades or disc-li0e cutters used for trimming edges and slitting sheet and foil. 15T9E
cutter discs are also employed in producing dircles from flat sheets but with
differently designed machines.
Rotary Strainer - second stage in-line water filter for water delivered from the
1ew %lowing @oom 6ump to the %last &urnace. The strainer contains an electric-
driven rotary sieve that catches particulates and prevents them from entering the
water system.
Rotoweigh - n electronic scale mounted to the lifting bloc0 of a crane used to
weigh scrap and coils. weight readout is displayed on the side of the crane cab.
Ro!ghting - The fast removal of stoc0 to reduce a wor0place to approximate
dimensions, leaving only enough material to finish the part to specifications.
Ro!ghing Stan - The first rolling stand through which metal passes during hot
rolling. 5nce reduced by the roughing stands, the metal continues on to the finishing
stands where smoother rolls with a smaller gap are used to complete the hot roll
process.
Ro!nness - This term is not recommended. The term )5vality) is prferred.
Ro!te - The system of transport for moving any piece of inventory from a source
location to any destination includes the physical path as well as the mover,hauler
chosen to transport.
R! - Chemical symbol for @uthenium
R!b Mar% - $ee (/ar0 @ub).
R!b) "ool - surface area showing a scratch or abrasion resulting from contact of
the hot extrusion with the press e-uipment
R!bber (5s - 'nserts used to change the center diameter (84>-8=> '.".
R!bber Roll - roll in the line mainly used as a wringer roll or bac0-up roll.
R!le) +oo% - rule with a hoo0 on the end for measuring through pulley holes and
in similar places.
R!ling Section - /ore accurately termed limiting ruling section. 5ne of the most
important factors associated with the choice of steel for a given purpose is to ensure
that the desired mechanical properties are abtained throughout the section when the
material has been heat treated. The limiting ruling section determines the maximum
diameter or cross-section of a bar or component in which the specified properties can
be achieved by a given heat treatment. The analysis of the steel also has an
important bearing on this.
R!nner - channel through which molten metal or slag is passed from one
receptacle to another; in a mold, the portion of the gate assembly that connects the
downgate or sprue with the casting ingate or riser. The term also applies to similar
portions of master patterns, pattern dies, patterns, investment molds and finished
castings.
R!nner E1tension - 'n a mold, that part of a runner which extends beyond the
farthest ingate as a blind end. 't acts as a dirt trap since the first rush of metal along
the runner will pic0 up any loose particles of sand or dirt and carry them into the
extension and not into the mold cavity.
R!nner Riser - conventional runner, usually in the horizontal plane, which permits
flow of molten metal to the ingate and is large enough to act as a reservoir to feed
the casting.
R!nning $!m' - pump in a hydraulic system that is being used to create
pressure.
R!no!t - casting defect caused by incomplete filling of the mold due to molten
metal draining or lea0ing out of some part of the mold cavity during pouring; escape
of molten metal from a furnace, mold or melting crucible.
R!st - visible corrosion product consisting of hydrated oxides of iron. pplied only
to ferrous alloys.
R!theni!m - Chemical symbol @u. white metal noted for its harness; the most
expensive of the platinum group
Ragge Eges - 9dges of $heet or $trip which are torn, split, crac0ed, ragged or
burred or otherwise disfigured.
Reci'rocal .attice #,or a crystal& - group of points arranged about a center in
such a way that the line <oining each point of the center is perpendicular to a family
of planes in the crystal, and the length of this line is inversely proportional to their
interplanar distance.
Recovery - @eduction or removal of wor0-hardening effects, without motion of
large-angle grain boundaries.
Recovery - (*" The removal of residual stresses by localized plastic flow as the
result of low-temperature annealing operations; performed on cold wor0ed metals
without altering the grain structure or strength properties substantially.
Recrystalli0ation - process whereby a distorted grain structure of cold wor0ed
metals is replaced by a new, stress-free grain structure as a result of annealing
above a specific minimum temperature for a specific time.
Recrystalli0ation - (*" The change from one crystal structure to another, as occurs
on heating or cooling through a critical temperature. (8" The formation of a new,
strain-free grain structure from that existing in cold wor0ed metal, usually
accomplished by heating.
Recrystalli0ation - (*" change from one crystal structure to another, such as that
occurring on heating or cooling through a critical temperature. (8" &ormation of a
new, strain-free grain, structure from the structure existing in cold wor0ed metal.
Recrystalli0ation "em'erat!re - The approximate minimum temperature at which
complete recrystallization of a cold wor0ed metal occurs within a specified time.
Recystalli0ation Annealing - nnealing cold wor0ed metal to produce a new grain
structure without a phase change.
Re Shorness - %rittleness in steel when it is red hot.
Re!ction o, Area - (*" Commonly, the difference, expressed as a percentage of
original area, between the original cross-sectional area of a tensile test specimen and
the minimum cross-sectional area measured after complete separation. (8" The
difference, expressed as a percentage of original area, between original cross-
sectional area and that after straining the specimen.
Re,ining "em'erat!re - temperature, usually <ust higher than the transformation
range, employed in the heat treatment of steel to refine the structure -- in particular,
the grain size.
Re,ractory - heat-resistant material, usually nonmetallic, which is used for
furnace linings and such.
Re,ractory Alloy - term applied to those alloys which due to hardness or
abrasiveness present relative difficulty in maintaining close dimensional tolerances.
Resi!al Elements - $mall -uantities of elements unintentionally present in an
alloy.
Resi!al Stress - /acroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result
of non-uniform plastic deformation. This deformation may be caused by cold wor0ing
or by drastic gradients of temperature from -uenching or welding.
Resi!al Stress - $tress present in a body that is free of external forces or thermal
gradients.
Resi!als - ?'ncidental? or ?tramp? elements not named in a specification. These
inclusions are usually due to contaminated scrap.
Resilience - The tendency of a material to return to its original shape after the
removal of a stress that has produced elastic strain.
Resistance Weling - 3elding with electrical resistance heating and pressure, the
wor0 being part of an electrical circuit.
Resol!tion - The capacity of an optical or radiation system to separate closely
spaced forms or entities; also, the degree to which such forms or entities can be
discriminated.
Ribbon Wo!n - term applied to a common method of winding strip steel layer
upon layer around an arbor or mandrel.
Ri,,les - 3aviness at the edge of sheet or strip.
Rimme Steel - Aow-carbon steel containing sufficient iron oxide to produce
continuous evolution of carbon monoxide during ingot solidification, resulting in a
case or rim of metal virtually free of voids.
Rimme Steel - low-carbon steel containing sufficient iron oxide to give a
continuous evolution of carbon monoxide while the ingot is solidifying, resulting in a
case or rim of metal virtually free of voids. $heet and strip products made from the
ingot have very good surface -uality.
Ri''le #e,ect& - slight transverse wave or shadow mar0 appearing at intervals
along the piece.
Roll *orming - n operation used in forming sheet. $trips of sheet are passed
between rolls of definite settings that bend the sheet progressively into structural
members of various contours, sometimes called molded sections.
Rolle Eges - &inished edges, the final contours of which are produced by side or
edging rolls. The edge contours most commonly used are s-uare corners, rounded
corners and rounded edge.
Rolle (n Scale - surface defect consisting of scale partially rolled into the surface
of the sheet.
Roller .eveling - Aeveling by passing flat stoc0 through a machine having a series
of small-diameter staggered rolls.
Rolling - @educing the cross-sectional area of metal stoc0, or otherwise shaping
metal products, through the use of rotating rolls.
Rolling - term applied to the operation of shaping and reducing metal in thic0ness
by passing it between rolls which compress, shape and lengthen it following the roll
pattern.
Rolling /irection #in rolle metal& - The direction, in the plane of the sheet,
perpendicular to the axes of the rolls during rolling.
Rolling Mills - 9-uipment used for rolling down metal to a smaller size or to a given
shape employing sets of rolls the contours of which determine or fashion the product
into numerous intermediate and final shapes, e.g., blooms, slabs, rails, bars, rods,
sections, plates, sheets and strip.
Ro!gh Machining - /achining without regard to finish, usually to be followed by a
subse-uent operation.
R!le /ie Steel - hardened and tempered medium high carbon spring steel strip
sufficiently low in hardness to ta0e moderately sharp bends without fracture,
intended for manufacture into rule dies for the purpose of cutting or stamping
fabrics, paper, cardboard, plastics, and metal foil into desired shape.
S-Relay - device used to direct the oil flow to the main piston which in turn causes
it to move allowing the opening and closing of the steam controlling valves on a low
pressure generator.
SA" - $ide trimmer.
Sacri,icial Barrier - coating, such as zinc, which >sacrifices> itself to the corrosive
elements of the atmosphere to protect the steel from corrosion.
SAE - $ociety of utomotive 9ngineers; develops $9 &errous /aterials $tandards
/anual.
SAE S'eci,ications - set of materials specification issued by the $ociety of
utomotive 9ngineers, 'nc.
SAW - $ubmerged arc weld 2 a method of producing very large pipe
Sa,eties - Malves that open to relieve excessive pressure.
Sale - Aine e-uipment used to transfer coils up, down, on, or off the reels. The
saddle is sometimes referred to as a >>traverse car>>.>
Sa,ety C!' 1. A evice - *" device that prevents the oil reservoir from draining if
the water seal on the separator is lost. 8" #eavy steel mug-shaped device placed on
the welder shear cylinder when the welder carriage is in the out position. The cup
0eeps the welder shear frame from operating, enabling the safe removal of scrap
from the welder tray.
Sa,ety +orn - horn used to alert the crew that the line or parts of the line is about
to be <ogged.
Sag - decrease in metal section in casting due to sagging of the cope or core.
Salamaner - *" heating device, usually of drum shape, in which fuel is burned in
the open air by natural draft, 8" iron which has collected in the bottom of a blast
furnace during a blow.
Salt Bath - method of heating steel using a bath of molten salts. $alt baths give
uniform heating and prevent oxidation, they are used for hardening, tempering or
-uenching. The type of salt used depends on the temperature rang re-uired. &or
hardening,sodium cyanide,sodium carbonate and sodium chloride are in common
use.
Salt S'ray "est - test to determine the life of coated steel when exposed to
corrosive saltwater solution (generally DG 1aCl".
Salvage - $maller coils sold at above the scrap price.
Salvage Coil - coil with a weight less than D444 lbs. that does not meet customer
specifications. These coils do not get an '6/ number.
Sam'le - part , portion or piece ta0en for purposes of inspection or test as
representative of the whole
San - 'n metalcasting, a loose, granular material high in $i58, resulting from the
disintegration of roc0. The name sand refers to the size of grain and not to mineral
composition. .iameter of the individual grains can vary from approximately F to 874
mesh. /ost foundry sands are mad up principally of the mineral -uartz (silica".
@eason for this is that sand is plentiful, refractory, and cheap; miscellaneous sands
include zircon, olivine, chromite, CaC5B, blac0 sand (lava grains", titanium minerals
and others.
San Blasting - The process of cleaning forgings by propelling sand against them at
high velocity. $ee also %last Cleaning.
San Casting - /etal castings produced in sand molds.
San Control - 6rocedure whereby various properties of foundry sand, such as
fineness, permeability, green strength, moisture content, etc., are ad<usted to obtain
castings free from blows, scabs, veins, and similar defects.
San M!lling - method of evenly distributing the bond around the sand grain by a
rubbing action.
San $low - bladed device used to divert sand from a belt conveyor into a sand
hopper.
San $orosity - Molume of the pore spaces or folds in a sand. (1ot synonymous
with permeability".
San Reclamation - 6rocessing of used foundry sand grains by thermal, attraction
or hydraulic methods so that it may be used in place of new sand without
substantially changing current foundry sand practice.
San "em'ering - .ampening and cutting over or otherwise mixing sand to
produce uniform distribution of moisture, and allowing time for migration of water
molecules.
San Wall - Temporary independent wall separated from a slag poc0et wall;
facilitates slag removal and protects permanent wall.
Saning Stic% - wooden stic0 that has sandpaper on one end that is used to
prevent defects on the rolls from being transferred onto the strip.
Saning Stone - 9-uipment used to remove grit from rolls, tin or zinc build-up from
0nives, and to clean the burr mashers.
Saw-$late Bar - $ee (%ar, $aw-6late).
Sb - Chemical symbol for ntimony
Scab - n imperfection consisting of a thin, flat piece of metal attached to the
surface of a sand casting or ingot. scab usually is separared from the casting
proper by a thin layer of sand or refractory and is attached to the casting along one
edge. n erosion scab is similar in appearance to a cut or wash.
Scale - The oxidised surface of steel produced during hot wor0ing, as in rolling, and
exposure to air or steam at elevated tenmperature.
Scale .ine - furrow in the rolling direction of the strip.
Scale $its - 6its used in hot roll mills; scale loosened from hot slabs drops into the
pits and settles on the bottom.
Scale Resistance - @esistance to corrosion by air at elevated temperatures. 'n
stainless steels, chromium is the most important element for increasing the scaling
resistance particulary at temperatures above *444S&
Scaling #Scale& - $urface oxidation, partially adherent layers of corrosion products,
left on metals by heating or casting in air or in other oxidizing atmospheres.
Scanner - *" n electronic eye that is sensitive to certain areas of the light spectrum
used to detect flame in the boiler. 8" @efers to hardware used to scan the bar coded
labels containing the '6/ no. of the coil and the location for inventory identification.
'nterfaces directly to the .9C computer through the @adiofre-uency (@&" %ac0bone.
Scanner *an - &an which provides ambient air for the purpose of 0eeping the flame
scanners cool.
Scanning Electron Microsco'e #SEM& - n instrument used for obtaining
microstructure images using an electron beam. The micrographs obtained give depth
perception of the metal being observed.
Scar,ing - Cutting surface areas of metal ob<ects, ordinarily by using a gas torch.
The operation permits surface defects to be cut from ingots, billets, or the edges of
plate that is to be beveled for butt welding.
Scavenging Rate - 9stablishes the purity of the hydrogen gas in the generator.
SCBA - $ee $elf-Contained %reathing pparatus.
Sche!le - list of product to be processed on a unit.
Sche!le Boo% - group of schedules or order mattes that contain customer
specifications for processing.
Sclerosco'e +arness #"est& - method for measuring the hardness of metals; a
diamond-pointed hammer drops from a fixed distance through a tube onto the
smoothed metal surface and the rebound measured. The scleroscope hardness value
is empirically ta0en from the rebound distance, with a specified high-carbon steel as
*44.
Scotch Brite - /echanical finish produced by applying scotch brite (registered
trademar0 of B/ co." to the surface of the metal to give a fine scratch pattern
appearance. 't is also useful ' reducing tool wear (i.e. removal of abrasive surface
osides
Scra' #*erro!s& - >&errous (iron-containing" material that generally is remelted and
recast into new steel. 'ntegrated steel mills use scrap for up to 8DG of their basic
oxygen furnace charge; *44G of the mini-mills? raw material for their electric
furnaces generally is scrap. #5/9 $C@6 3aste steel that is generated from within
the steel mill, through edge trimming and re<ects. 't normally is sent directly bac0 to
the furnace. 6@5/6T ('1.;$T@'A" $C@6 9xcess steel that is trimmed by the auto
and appliance stampers and auctioned to scrap buyers as factory bundles. This is a
high--uality scrap as the result of its low-residual content and consistent chemistry.
5%$5A9T9 $C@6 'ron-bearing trash. utomobile hul0s, worn-out refrigerators and
useless storage tan0s, for example, can be recovered from the <un0yard and
remelted. The residual impurity of such scrap normally relegates obsolete scrap to
the mini-mills (see 1o. * #eavy /elt". >
Scra' #Metal& - /etal to be remelted; includes scrapped machinery fabricated items
such as rail or structural steel and re<ected castings.
Scra' Baller - .evice on the .elivery 9nd of a slitter which collects the sidetrimmed
edges of the coils and winds them into a ball.
Scra' /e,lector - device used to direct the edge of the strip that was cut away by
the slitter 0nives. This waste is now considered to be scrap and is directed to the
scrap baller by the deflector.
Scra' Sheet - The portions of the coil that are discarded because they are out of
spec.
Scra' S!bstit!te - @aw material that can be charged in place of scrap in electric arc
furnaces and basic oxygen furnaces. $crap substitutes include, among others, .@',
#%', iron carbide, and pig iron.
Scratch) /rawn-(n - scratch occurring during the fabricating process and
subse-uently drawn over ma0ing it relatively smooth to the touch.
Scratch) *riction - scratch caused by relative motion between two contacting
surfaces.
Scratch) +anling - more severe form of rub mar0. $ee (/ar0, @ub).
Scratch) Machine - n indentation which is straight, is in the rolling direction an is
caused by contact with a sharp pro<ection on e-uipment.
Scratch) 4scillation - /inor indentations at an angle to the rolling direction that
result from coil oscillation during unwinding or rewinding.
Scratch) 4ven - scratch which is caused by moving contact of coating against a
non-moving ob<ect in an oven.
Scratch) Rolle-(n - scratch which is subse-uently rolled. 't will then appear as a
grayish white ladder (distinct transverse lines within the longitudinal indentation".
Scratch) "ension - short longitudinal indentation parallel to the rolling direction.
Scratch - (*" &or rolled products, a sharp indentation in the surface usually caused
by a machine or during handling. (8" &or extrusions, a synonym for handling mar0.
$ee (/ar0, #andling).
Scratch or Go!ge - This type of defect can be recognized, in most cases, as to its
source. 'f the scratch or gouge occurs in the hot strip mill there will be an oxide
which has formed at the base of it. $cratches or gouges occurring at the finishing
end can be recognized by the bright appearance at the base of the defect which is
indicative of oxide removal after the steel has cooled.
Scratches - *" defect on a strip where small portions of tin coating have been
removed. 8" .efect that manifests itself in many forms generally due to scoring of
the strip surface by an outside source.
Screen #San& - sieve or riddle with openings of definite size used to separate
one gain size from another or to remove lumps from sand.
Screen Analysis #Sieve Analysis& - .istribution of particle size sand expressed in
terms of the percentage of weight retained on each of a series of standard screens
decreasing in mesh size and the percentage passed by the screen of finest mesh.
Screen Bo1 - n in-line water filter for water delivered from the river to the
powerhouse. The screen box contains a screen filter that catches particulates and
prevents them from entering the water system.
Screen Bo1 Chart - chart in the old pump room that gives the 6ump Tender the
pressure on the screen box and whether it is dirty or not.
Screen /ec%s - system that provides a method to screen the fines from the sinter
product. The screen dec0s are slotted or blan0ed.
Screen "!bes - Tubes that run from the front drum to a header on the east wall at
the third floor level. 3hile no steam is generated, water circulates rapidly through
these tubes and their purpose is to bloc0 or screen the boiler fly ash and prevent its
carryover into the superheater elements and generators. This area receives heavy
slagging during boiler operation and must be washed daily.
Screwown /rives - .rives atop each finishing mill that provide the initial
downward force on the top bac0-up roll, through the .!.C. cylinder. 9ach mill has
two drives (operator side and drive side".
Scr!bbers - $ee 3et $crubbers
Scr!bbers - The scrubber combines the use of wringers and sprays to wash off any
remaining foreign matter and cleaning compound adhering to the strip. Cold water is
mainly used in the scrubbers.
Se - Chemical symbol for $elenium.
Sea - $pecial end area 2 inspection to chec0 for defects at eithre of a steel tube
which is also being inspected electronic (9/' misses the ends."
Seal 4il - 6ressurized oil that flows along the shaft through the clearance space
between the gland rings and the shaft. s long as the oil pressure exceeds the gas
pressure in the machine, the oil flow will prevent hydrogen gas from escaping. $eal
oil systems are on W+ and W: !enerators.
Seal "an% - tan0 that allows a free flow of effluent water the scrubber to the
recycle,effluent tan0 and maintains a water seal on the scrubber to prevent the
sulfur gases from escaping into the surrounding atmosphere.
Seal Water - 3ater that is used to -uench excess steam that escapes from the seal
areas.
Seale So!rce - ny radioactive material that is encased in and is to be used in a
container in a manner intended to prevent lea0age of the radioactive material.
Seam #A e,ect.& - 5n the surface of metal a crac0 that has been closed but not
welded; usually produced by some defect either in casting or in wor0ing, such as
blowholes that have become oxidized or folds and laps that have been formed during
wor0ing. $imilar to cold shut and laminations.
Seamless - hollow product which does not contain any line <unctures resulting
from method of manufacture.
Seamless $i'e - 6ipe made from a solid billet, which is heated, then rotated under
extreme pressure. This rotational pressure creates an opening in the center of the
billet, which is then shaped by a mandrel to form pipe.
Seam) E1tr!sion - The <unction line of metal that has passed through a bridge or
porthole hollow die, separated and re<oined at the weld point. $eams are present in
all such extruded hollows in many cases are not readily visible. $ee ($eamless) and
(3eld, 'ncomplete).
Seconary Coils - Coils not sold as prime.
Seconary Metal - /etal recovered from scrap by remelting and refining.
Seconary Steel - $teel that does not meet the original customer?s specifications
because of a defect in its chemistry, gauge or surface -uality. /ills must search to
find another customer (that can accept the lower -uality" to ta0e the off-spec steel
at a discount. 3hile secondary will not affect the reported yield, margins will suffer.
Secons - The designation given to sheet or strip that has imperfections in
moderate degree or extent, which may be classified in two general groups --
imperfections in the base material, or other manufacturing defects. This term not
used in connection with non-ferrous alloys.
Section 3!mber - The number assigned to an extruded or drawn profile (shape" for
indentation and cataloging purposes, usually the same number assigned for the
same purpose to the die from which the profile (shape" is made.
Seeiness - Coating defects consisting of the randomly spaced undissolved
particles, usually resin particles, which are immersed in the coating. They are raised
up in the coating and appear somewhat li0e fine sand sprin0led throughout the film
Segment - part of the mandrel that moves in and out to expand to hold a coil or
collapse to release a coil.
Segment Steel - ;sed for laminated piston rings. Carbon content about .F4G.
#ardened and blue tempered with round edges. #ardness usually @oc0wells B4 1 F+
to 7*, widths vary from .4D+ to .*FB and thic0nesses are .484, .48= and .4B4.
Seieni!m - metalloid melting 884 %4C (=8+ %4&" added to stainless steel to
improve machinability.
Selector 9alve - Malves on some filter assemblies that allow switching from one
filter to the other.
Seleni!m - n element that closely resembles sulphur in its properities. The main
use in steel is as a freecutting additive but due to high cost its is limited to stainless
steel. 5ne of the benefits being the ability to obtain a very good surface finish on
machined components.
Semi-,inishe Steel - >$teel shapes-for example, blooms, billets or slabs-that later
are rolled into finished products such as beams, bars or sheet. $endzimir /ill (R-mill"
3#T Compact mill used for rolling cold coils of stainless steel in order to ma0e the
steel thinner, smoother, and stronger. 3#J To control the thic0ness of steel better at
lower capital cost, and to roll thinner sheets and strips. #53 $tainless steel sheet or
strip passes between a matching pair of small wor0 rolls with extremely smooth
surfaces, heavily reinforced by clusters of bac0-up rolls. The rolls reduce the steel to
the desired thic0ness. $ervice Center catchall name for an operation that buys
steel, often processes it in some way and then sells it in a slightly different form.
service center is distinguished from an end-user by the fact that, unli0e an end-user,
a service center sells steel, not a fabricated product. $ervice centers are
manufacturers to the extent that they add labor to steel by providing a service. >
Se'arate - term used to describe the process of stopping the entry end of the
line, while the delivery end continues to run.
Se'arator - 5il filtering e-uipment that separates the water and dirt from the oil.
Se'arator R!bs - /echanical scratches caused by separator arms
Servo - n electronically monitored hydraulic flow control valve used to drive loads.
Set!' - Aine preparation to slit new width size for customer specification. The
distance between the slitter heads must be changed and the 0nives must be
physically moved on the slitter shaft.
S*SA - $teel &ounders? $ociety
SG (ron - n abbreviation for $pheroidal !raphite Cast 'ron. s the name implies,
graphite is present in spheroidal form instead of fla0es and compared with !rey Cast
'ron it has higher mechanical strength, ductility and increased shoc0 resistance.
Sha%eo!t - *" The operation of removing castings from the mold 8" a mechanical
unit for separating the molding materials from the solidified metal casting.
Sha%er - device employed at the coal hopper to vibrate the rail cars and ma0e the
coal drop from the hoppers.
Shan% - The handle attached to a ladle.
Sha'e - This term is no longer recommended. The term (6rofile) is preferred. $ee
(6rofile).
Sha'e Control - bility to produce material to a given geometric flatness standard.
($ee &latness"
Sha'e Correcting - @olling, heating and -uenching steel sheets often affect the
dimensions of the steel. Aevelers, temper mills and edge trimmers rewor0 the
processed steel to match customer specifications.
Sha'e /e,ect - !eometric non-uniformity of a strip, such as bent strip, coil set,
center buc0le, wavy edge, etc.
Shaw #4sborn-Shaw& $rocess - precision casting techni-ue in ceramic molds
which do not re-uire wax or plastic investment.
Shear Bans #e,ormation& - %ands in which deformation has been concentrated
inhomogeneously in sheets that extend across regional groups of grains. ;sually only
one system is present in each regional group of grains, different systems being
present in adhoining groups. The bands are noncrystallographic and form on planes
of maximum shear stress (DD(degrees" to the compression direction". They carry
most of the deformation at large strains. Compare microbands.
Shear B!rr - condition caused by a worn or out-of-ad<ustment shear 0nife. 't is
indicated by a small raised area at the end of the strip.
Shear Carriage - %ottom section of the shear that raises when a cut is made and
catches the pieces of scrap. Aocated at the welder.
Shear Mo!l!s #G& - 'n a torsion test, the ratio of the unit shear stress to the
displacement caused by it per unit length in the elastic range. ;nits are 6a or psi.
Shear Strain - 9lastic displacement produced by pure shear loading.
Shear Stress - Aoad per unit area parallel to the plane of contact.
Shearing - process of mechanically cutting metal bars to the proper stoc0 length
necessary for forging and trimming dies.
Shearing "est - The test applied to metal to determine the stress re-uired to
fracture it across its section.
Sheet - 3ide, flat-rolled steel. 't is generally accepted that steel less than B mm
thic0 is sheet and more than B mm (*,+ inch" thic0 is plate ($ee 6late".
Sheet Mill - The facility which produces hot dipped galvanized products, including
galvanized, galvannealed and !alfan.
Sheet Mill $ro!ct - product produced at the $heet /ill.
Sheet $ro!cts - *" #ot @oll (4*" ;ncoated, heavy gauge, fully processed in $trip
$teel, never cold reduced at Tandem /ill. 8" Cold @oll (48" ;ncoated, heavy gauge,
primarily processed in $trip $teel, although some goes to the Tin /ill, always cold
reduced at Tandem /ill. B" !alvanized (4D,4F" >%ath> coated with zinc, heavy gauge,
primarily processed thru $trip $teel N $heet /ill, ma<ority is cold reduced at Tandem
/ill. =" 3eirzin (47" electrogalvanized Rinc coated, normally lighter gauge than
galvanized, processed through $trip $teel N Tin /ill, mostly single reduced.
(Tandem"
Sheet Steel - Thin, flat-rolled steel. Coiled sheet steel accounts for nearly one-half
of all steel shipped domestically and is created in a hot-strip mill by rolling a cast
slab flat while maintaining the side dimensions. The malleable steel lengthens to
several hundred feet as it is s-ueezed by the rolling mill. The most common
differences among steel bars, strip, plate, and sheet are merely their physical
dimensions of width and gauge (thic0ness".
Sheet) Alcla - Composite sheet comprised of an aluminum alloy core having on
both surfaces (if one side only, lclad 5ne $ide $heet" a metallurgically bonded
aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic or the core, thus electrolytically
protecting the core against corrosion.
Sheet) Anoi0ing - $heet with metallurgical characteristics and surface -uality
suitable for the development of protective and decorative films by anodic oxidation
processes.
Sheet) Cla - Composite sheet having on both surfaces (if on one side only, Clad
5ne $ide $heet" a metallurgically bonded metal coating, the composition of which
may or may not be the same as that of the core.
Sheet) Coile C!t to .ength - $heet cut to specified length from coils and which
has a lesser degree of flatness than flat sheet
Sheet) Coile - $heet in coils with slit edges.
Sheet) *lat Circles - Circles cut from flat sheet
Sheet) *lat - $heet with sheared, slit or sawed edges, which has been flattened or
leveled.
Sheet) Mill ,inish #M*& - $heet having a non-uniform finish that may vary from
sheet to sheet and within a sheet, and may not be entirely free from stains or oil.
Sheet) 4ne Sie Bright Mill *inish #1SBM*& - $heet having a moderate degree of
brightness on one side and a mill finish on the other
Sheet) $ainte - $heet, one or both sides of which has a factory-applied paint
coating of controlled thic0ness.
Sheet) Stanar 4ne Sie Bright *inish #S1SB*& - $heet having a uniform bright
finish on one side and a mill finish on the other
Sheet - rolled product that is rectangular in cross section with thic0ness less than
4.8D4 inch but not less than 4.44F inch and with slit, sheared or sawed edges.
Shell Moling - process for forming a mold from resin-bonded sand mixtures
brought in contact with pre-heated (B44-D44 %4&" metal patterns, resulting in a firm
shell with a cavity corresponding to the outline of the pattern.
Shelving - coating defect consisting of an intercoat adhesion failure where a
topcoat does not adhere to the coating below.
Sherari0ing - process developed in %ritainin *:4= by sherard Cowper-coles. 't is
a method of producing a protective zinc coating on iron and steel products.
Shewe "olerances - Tolerances which are non-symmetrically distributed about
the design parameter.
Shi,t - casting defect caused by mismatch of cope and drag or of cores and mold.
Shim - thin flat hard metal strip produced to close tolerances; used primarily for
tool, die and machine alignment purposes. 'n steel there are four general typesE (*"
Aow Carbon @oc0well % +4,*44; (8" #ard @olled #igh Carbon @oc0well C 8+,BB. (B"
#ardened and Tempered $pring $teel @oc0well C ==,D*; (=" ustenitic $tainless
$teel @oc0well C BD,=D. %rass shim of commercial -uality is also used and most
generally specified is 8 1os. #ard but may be = 1os. #ard.
Shi'o!t - coil which has been fully processed to customer specifications.
Shoe - holder used as a support for the stationary portions of forging and
trimming.
Shore Sclerosco'e - n instrument that measures the hardness of a sample in
arbitrary terms of elasticity. diamond tipped hammer is allowed to fall freely down
a graduated glass tube on to the sampel under test. The hardness is measured by
the height of the rebound. 'n another for the rebounding hammer actuates the
pointer of a scale so that the height of the rebound is recorded.
Short Belt - The belt that delivers coal from the seventh floor hopper to the long
belt.
Short "erne - term applying to terne coated (Aead and Tin" sheets with reference
to %ase %ox sizes (*= x 84" @efer to terne plate.
Short "ransverse /irection - &or plate, sheet and forging, the direction through
the thic0ness perpendicular to both longitudinal and long transverse directions.
Shortness - form of brittleness in metal. 't is designed as cold, hot, and red, to
indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs.
Shortness #+ot& - %rittleness in a metal at an elevated temperature.
Shot Blast - $hot blasting consists of attac0ing the surface of a material with one of
many types of shots. 1ormally this is done to remove something on the surface such
as scale, but it is also done sometimes to impart a particular surface to the ob<ect
being shot blasted, such as the rolls used to ma0e a 8. finish. The shot can be sand,
small steel balls of various diameters, granules of silicon carbide,etc. The device that
throws the shot is ietheeer a large air gun or spinning paddles which hurl the shot off
their blades.
Shot Blast Roll *inish - The surface finish (with a grit microfinish" on the rolls in
the last stand of tandem mill or temper mill; determines the surface finish of the
product where a grit finish produced to a specified micro-inch reading is desired.
Shot Blasting - process of cleaning forgings by propelling metal shot at high
velocity by air pressure or centrifugal force at the surface of the forgings. $ee also
%last Cleaning.
Shotbalsting #Shot $eening& - Casting cleaning process employing a metal
abrasive (grit or shot" propelled by centrifugal or air force.
Shree Scra' - &ist-sized, homogenous pieces of old automobile hul0s. fter cars
are sent through a shredder, the recyclable steel is separated by magnets. /ini-mills
consume shredded scrap in their electric arc furnace operations.
Shrin% - The difference in volume between li-uid metal and solid metal or the void
(shrin0 hole" left in a casting because of it.
Shrin%age - *" Ai-uid, contraction in volume as metal cools to solidification, 8"
solidification, contraction in volume when the metal passes from the li-uid to the sold
at the freezing point (may expend over a range", B" solid, the contraction on cooling
from freezing point to normal temperature, =" the decrease in dimension in clays
occurring when drying at *44 %4C (8*8 %4&" and even more so on firing, D"
reduction in dimension of refractory material during heating.
Shrin%age - The contraction of metal during cooing after forging. .ie impressions
are made oversize according to precise shringage scales to allow forgings to shrin0 to
design dimensions and tolerances.
Shrin%age Crac%s - Crac0s that form in metal as result of the pulling apart of grains
by contraction before complete solidification.
Shrin%age) $atternma%ers - linear scale or ruler, typically in inches or
millimeters which has been lengthened by the percentage of linear shrin0age by
which li-uid metal contracts during solidification and cooling.
Shrin% +ole - hole or cavity in a casting resulting from shrin0age and insufficient
feed metal, and formed during solidification.
Sh!t-o,, 9alve - ny valve used to isolate pressure in a system.
Sh!town - 3hen production is stopped for repairs, or scheduled down turns.
Sie Set - difference in thic0ness between the two edges of plate, sheet or foil.
Sie "rim - process whereby a Tin /ill 6roduct edge is trimmed to produce a
relatively smooth finished edge.
Sie-arm *ilter - $ee 6olishing &ilters.
Siewall - The sides of a coil.
Sight Bloc% - 8> x 8> steel bloc0 located on the inside of the W* feeder housing
used for lining up the front end of a coil with the pulling rolls before loading it into
the feeder.
Sight Glass - measuring device where flow, oil level, or water can be monitored
visually.
Silica - $ilicon dioxide, the prime ingredient of sand and acid refractories.
Silica Bric% - @efractory material of ganister, bonded with hydrated lime, and fired
at high temperature.
Silica Gel - colloidal form of silica used as a drying agent.
Silica San - $and with a minimum silica content of :DG used for forming casting
molds.
Silicon - Chemical symbol $i. 9lement 1o. *= of the periodic system; atomic weight
8+.4F. 9xtremely common element, the ma<or component of all rod0s and sands; its
chemical reactions, however, are those of a metalloid. ;sed in metallurgy as a
deoxidizing scavenger. $ilicon is present, to some extent, in all steels, and is
deliberately added to the extent of approximately =G for electric sheets, extensively
used in alternating current magnetic circuits. $ilicon cannot be electrodeposited.
Silicon Electrical Steel - > type of specialty steel created by introducing silicon
during the steelma0ing process. 9lectrical steel exhibits certain magnetic properties,
which ma0e it optimum for use in transformers, power generators and electric
motors. !@'1-5@'91T9. The metal?s grain runs parallel within the steel, permitting
easy magnetization along the length of the steel. lthough grain-oriented steel may
be twice as expensive to produce, its magnetic directional characteristics enable
power transformers, made from this metal, to absorb less energy during operation.
151-!@'1-5@'91T9. %ecause there is no preferential direction for magnetization,
non-grain-oriented steel is best used in rotating apparatus such as electric motors. >
Silicon Steel - $teel usually made in the basic open-hearth or electric furnace, with
about 4.D4-D.G silicon, other elements being usually dept as low as possible.
%ecause of high electrical resistance and low hysterisis loss, silicon sheet and strip
are standard in electric magnet manufacture.
Sim!ltaneo!s Engineering - @efers to the process where user,designer and
producer interact to reduce lead time and improve the efficiency of a part. This
process is faster and more efficient than the traditional se-uential process of design
and manufacture.
Single Re!ce - @efers to temper rolling in the tin mill. 1o gauge reduction occurs
here. $teel sheet that is rolled in multiple-strand reduction mills while cold, then
annealed and temper rolled to produce thin gauges for can ma0ing. %esides reducing
gauge and permitting fabrication of lighter weight cans, cold rolling also improves the
steel?s surface and metallurgical properties.
Single S'ot "est - test of galvanized (or any other metallic" coating weights
administered by sampling the coated steel across the width at two inches from each
edge and dead center. $ee Triple $pot Test.
Sin%er Steel - ;sed for ma0ing sin0ers in hosiery ma0ing machinery. $upplied both
hardened and tempered and cold rolled and annealed. ;sually extra precision rolled
and extra flat. Carbon content about *.8D.
Sin%hea or +ot "o' - reservoir insulated to retain heat and to hod excess
molten metal on top of an ingot mold, in order to feed the shrin0age of the ingot.
lso called shrin0 head or feeder head.
Sinter - %a0ed particles that stic0 together in roughly one-inch chun0s, normally
used for iron ore dust collected from the blast furnaces.
Sintering - process that combines iron-bearing particles, once recovered from
environmental control filters, into small pellets. 6reviously, these materials were too
fine to withstand the air currents of the smelting process and were thrown away. The
iron is now conserved because the chun0s can be charged into the blast furnace (see
gglomerating 6rocesses".
Sintering $oint - That temperature at which the molding material begins to adhere
to the casting, or in a test when the sand coheres to a platinum ribbon under
controlled conditions. lso, the temperature at which sand grains begin to adhere to
one another.
Si'hon .ine - line that directs steam flow past an orifice to create a suction on the
inta0e line of a pump to get a prime.
Si0eASi0es - slang term used when obtaining the order of coils to be processed.
The >size> contains index, customer name, coil width, baseweight, and number of
coils in the order.
Si0ing - process employed to control precisely a diameter of rings or tubular
components.
S%el' - $teel that is the entry material to a pipe mill. 't resembles hot-rolled strip,
but its properties allow for the severe forming and welding operations re-uired for
pipe production.
S%i Mar%s - Misibly colder >stripes> on slabs caused by contact with water-cooled
s0ids in a pusher-type reheat furnace.
S%im Core #S%immer& - > flat core or tile placed in a mold to s0im a flowing
stream of metal. Commonly used in pouring basins, it hold bac0 slag and dirt while
clean metal passes underneath to the downsprue. $ee Core $trainer>
S%im Gate - gating arrangement which changes the direction of flow of molten
metal and prevents the passage of slag and other undesirable materials into the
mold cavity.
S%imming - @emoving or hold bac0 dirt or slag from the surface of the molten metal
before or during pouring.
S%in $asse - $teel which has been processed through the $0in /ill (Temper /ill".
S%in Roll - 6roduct to be sent to the $0in /ill for its next operation.
S%in-/rying - .rying the surface of the mold by direct application of heat.
S%i' - n area of uncoated sheet which is fre-uently caused by e-uipment
malfunciton.
S.A - $tereolithography pparatus
Slab - The most common type of semi-finished steel. Traditional slabs measure *4
inches thic0 and B4-+D inches wide (and average about 84 feet long", while the
output of the recently developed >thin slab> casters is approximately two inches
thic0. $ubse-uent to casting, slabs are sent to the hot-strip mill to be rolled into
coiled sheet and plate products.
Slab Caster - continuous caster used to form slabs.
Slab Core - &lat, plain core.
Slab +a!lers - #uge hydraulic lift truc0s that carry up to six slabs at a time. They
move slabs between the caster, open heath area, and the hot strip mill.
Slac% - 9xcess strip in the line, without tension, used to allow movement of the
strip.
Slag - The impurities in a molten pool of iron. &lux such as limestone may be added
to foster the congregation of undesired elements into a slag. %ecause slag is lighter
than iron, it will float on top of the pool, where it can be s0immed.
Slag (ncl!sion - 1onmetallic solids entrapped in solid metal.
Slag "ra' - n enlargement, dam, or extrusion in the gating or runners system in a
mold for the purpose of preventing molten slag particles from entering the mold
cavity.
Slave 9alve - spool type hydraulic valve that uses pressure from a pilot valve to
move the position of its spool.
Slic%ing #Slee%ing& - $moothing the surface of molds.
Slie Gate - valve which employs a plate that slides in and out of the valve body
as a means of stopping flow.
Slinging - coating defect consisting of random spots of coating deposited on
coated sheets or ad<acent machinery that appear raised above the surrounding
substrate. $linging and misting are synonymous, with misting being fine droplets.
Sli' Casting - 'n ceramics, a pouring slip, a water suspension of finely ground clay,
into a plaster of paris mold. fter it hardens it is dried and fired.
Sli''age Scratch - $ee ($cratch, Tension).
Slit - To slit steel is simply to cut it. The most common slitter available is a pair of
scissors. The slitters used in the mill have circular blades that resemble washers.
These rotate as the steel passed through them. The slitters hace a payoff reel and a
ta0e-up reel which pass the steel through the slitter 0nives. %etween these two reel
are two shafts,one above the steel and one below the steel. The round slitter 0nives
are placed on the shafts and ad<usted so that they cut off the edges of the steel to
produce a good edge and,or cut the steel into narrow strips of the width the
customer wants.
Slit Ege - The relatively smooth edge produced from side trimming or slitting. $ee
/ill 9dge.
Slitter - *" rea on the 6ic0ler where the strip is sidetrimmed (slit" to its proper
width. 8" $idetrims the edges of the strip to certain width in the customer?s
specifications, or the vertical cutting of coil material to form narrow strip product.
Slitter +air - $ee (#air, $litter).
Slitter +eas - /echanical housings that hold internal and external parts of the
slitter 0nives.
Slitting - Cutting a sheet of steel into narrower strips to match customer needs.
%ecause steel mills have limited flexibility as to the widths of the sheet that they
produce, service centers normally will cut the sheet for the customer.
Slitting Stoc% - $litting stoc0 is produced with the 0nowledge that the product will
be further processed by mill customer. /ill produces the final gauge but not the final
width. The customer will do additional slitting,shearing.
Slivers - $livers are due to defective teeming of the molten metal and to a tearing of
corners of the steel in blooming, roughing, or finishing. Tearing is attributed to many
things, such as overoxidation in the open hearth, or burning during reheating or
soa0ing.
Sl!ge - /aterial that develops during the plating process. 't accumulates in the
plater cells and is removed every eight wee0s.
Sl!g - metal blan0 for forging or impacting
Sl!ice Water - @aw water that is boosted in pressure to approximately *+4 psi. This
water is used by the Menturies for soot blowing and tap-out, as ditch water (sluice
water" for tapping the boilers and dumping the ash boxes, and as fill for boiler raw
water hydrostatic tests.
Sl!rry - term loosely applied to any clay-li0e dispersion. 't may be use to wash
ladles or other refractory linings to impart a smooth surface; as a bonding addition to
molding sand; as a thin loam over specially made molds or as a mixture to fine <oints
or crac0s of a core, etc.
Small Sie - ;sed to describe the side of the weld with the narrower width.
Small Winch - The tool used to position the big winch?s cable and hoo0. 't is located
at the Coal %uc0et 5perator?s door leading to the unloading trac0s.
Smelt - To melt ores,seperating the metallic constituents.
Smelter - &acility is used to extract metal concentrates found inside mined ore. The
ore will often contain more than one 0ind of metal concentrate and this facility also
separates them.
Smelting - metallurgical thermal process in which a metal is separated in fused
form from nonmetallic materials or other undesired metals with which it is
associated.
Smith +ammer - ny power hammer where impression dies are not used for
reproduction of commercially exact forging.
SM.S - $eamless pipe with no weld in the circumference.
Smothering Ring - @ing that has *F steam <ets and sits on M.C. #ood that helps to
0eep dirt and flames in boiler while on 48 blow.
Sm!ge - smear on the plate that can be caused by sanding a roll (mainly in the
hot rinse".
Sna%e - ny croo0ed surface defect in a plate, resembling a sna0e.
Sna%ing - series of reversing lateral bows in coil products. This condition is caused
by a weaving action during an unwinding or rewinding operation.
Sn!bber - #ydraulic roll used to prevent the outside wrap from unwinding while
threading the strip into the pinch roll and leveler.
Sn!bber Roll - small roll used with a bridle roll. The purpose of the snubber roll is
to hold the strip against the bridle roll.
Soa%ing - 6rolonged heating of a metal, furnace or ladle at a selected temperature.
Soi!m Silicate - $ee 3ater !lass
So,t S%in Rolle "em'er #3o. I "em'er& - 'n low carbon-rolled strip steel, soft
and ductile. 6roduced by sub<ecting annealed strip to a pinch pass or s0in rolling (a
very light rolling".
So,tening - process used to soften metals through annealing or tempering.
Sol - That material which has a tendency to resist any attempt to change its size or
shape.
Solering - Loining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting points
-- most commonly, lead-base or tin-base alloys, which are the soft solders. #ard
solders are alloys that have silver, copper, or nic0el bases and use of these alloys
with melting points higher than +44 (degrees" &. is generally termed brazing.
Solenoi - 9lectrically activated switch which allows a pneumatic signal to be
applied or removed from a valve or other device to control its function.
Solenoi 9alve - spool type, magnetic coil controlled hydraulic directional valve.
There are single solenoid (one coil", and double solenoid (two coil" type valves.
Solii,ication - The physical process of change from a li-uid to a solid state.
Sol!tion Annealing - $olution annealing is a process performed on steels. 'n our
case, these aare primarily the B44 series stainless. The process consists of heating
the material up to a temperature above *:D4S& and holding it long enough for the
carbon to go into solution. fter this, the material is -uic0ly cooled to prevent the
carbon from coming out of solution. $olutio-annealed material is in its most
corrosion-resistant and ductile (farmable" condition.
Solvent - cleaning solution used to dissolve grease and oil.
Solvent 'o' - %listering caused by entrapped solvent during ba0ing, possibly caused
by short flashoff or improper solvent balance.
Soot Blower - $ame as a deslagger. rotating retractable steam lance used to
remove slag from the boiler tubes and walls.
Soot $it - #oppers located in the exhaust side of the boiler that serve the purpose of
collecting the heavier particles of soot and debris that are carried in the exhaust gas
stream. The soot pits are drained every turn by a Menturi type suction system.
Sorbite - $tructure of steel, resulting from the tempering of martensite. 'n a truly
sorbitic structure, the cementite is completely dispersed in the matrix. The trend is
to call this structure tempered martensite.
Sorbite #obsolete& - fine mixture of ferrite and cementite produced either by
regulating the rate of cooling of steel or tempering steel after hardening. The first
type is very fine pearlite difficult to resolve under the microscope; the second type is
tempered martensite.
Sorry Wel - 3eld which computer passes by; the computer is told not to cut this
weld - 1o. : Tandem.
S'acers - $teel plates used to separate coils stac0ed on top of each other in batch
annealing.
S'alling - The crac0ing and fla0ing of metal particles from a surface.
S'angle - &inish achieved when zinc is allowed to >freeze> naturally on the sheet -
galvanize. chieved by adding antimony to the hot dip bath.
S'angle *ree - galvanized product in which the spangle formation has been
suppressed; accomplished by eliminating ntimony and Aead in the molten zinc bath
during the production of #ot .ipped !alvanized. !alvannealed is always spangle
free.
S'anner Wrench - $pecial wrench used in tightening arbor nuts.
S'ar% "esting - This is an inspection method for -uic0ly determining the
approxiamte analyst of steel. 't is intended primarily for the separation of mixed
steel and when properly conducted,is a fast, accurate and economical method of
separation. 't consists in holding the sample against a high speed grinding wheel and
noting the character and color of the spar0 which is compared with samples of 0nown
analysis.
S'ary -!enching - fter solution heat treating, a mode of -uenching in which a
spray of water is directed upon material <ust removed from the furnace.
S$EC - specification
S'ecial Bar -!ality #SB-& - $%C represents a wide variety of higher--uality
carbon and alloy bars that are used in the forging, machining and cold-drawing
industries for the production of automotive parts, hand tools, electric motor shafts
and valves. $%C generally contains more alloys than merchant -uality and
commodity grades of steel bars, and is produced with more precise dimensions and
chemistry.
S'ecial 2ille - *." Aow carbon aluminum 0illed steels used mainly for extra deep
drawing varieties of sheet and strip. 8" $teel deoxidized by silicon or aluminum or in
combination to reduce the oxygen content to a minimum so that no reaction occurs
during solidification of the metal.
S'ecial Metals - .esignates all alloys and metals produced at ;$$/ other than
stainless steels and precipitation hardenable stainless steels. Categories of special
metals would include nic0el,nic0el base alloys,cobalt base alloys,titanium and
titanium base alloys,glass sealing alloys (iron-nic0le",etc.
S'ecial "reatment - treatment applied to electrogalvanized to enhance corrosion
resistance.
S'ecialty Steel - $teels such as electrical, alloy or stainless steels. These generally
are produced in smaller volumes to meet the specific needs of customers.
S'ecialty "!be - @efers to a wide variety of high--uality custom-made tubular
products re-uiring critical tolerances, precise dimensional control and special
metallurgical properties. $pecialty tubing is used in the manufacture of automotive,
construction and agricultural e-uipment, and in industrial applications such as
hydraulic cylinders, machine parts and printing rollers. %ecause of the range of
industrial applications, the mar0et typically follows general economic conditions.
S'eci,ic Gravity - > numerical value representing the weight of a given substance
as compared with the weight of an e-ual volume of water at B: %4& (B.: %4C", for
which the specific gravity is ta0en as *,444 0g,mB. $ee also .ensity >
S'eci,ic +eat - 9-uivalent to thermal capacity, or the -uantity of heat re-uired to
produce a unit change in the temperature of a unit mass.
S'eci,ic 9ol!me - Molume of one gram of a substance at a specific temperature,
usually F+ %4& (84 %4C".
S'eci,ications - The chemical composition and dimensions of products made by the
plant. The specifications include all processes re-uired to achieve the finished
product.
S'ecimen - That portion of a sample ta0en for evaluation of some specific
characteristic or property
S'heroii0ing - form of annealing consisting of prolonged heating of iron base
alloys at a temperature in the neighborhood of, but generally slightly below the
critical range, usually followed by a relatively slow cooling. $pheroidizing causes the
graphite to assume a spheroidal shape, hence the name.
S'heroii0ing Annealing - subcritical annealing treatment intended to produce
spheroidization of cementite or other carbide phases.
S'heroiite - cementite aggregate of globular carbide and ferrite.
S'heroii0e Cementite #/ivorce $earlite& - The globular condition of iron
carbide after a spheroidizing treatment.
S'iegeleisen #S'iegel& - lloy of iron and manganese used in basic and acid open
hearth steelma0ing practice. high manganese pig iron, usually containing *DG or
84 /n and =.D-F.DG C.
S'inle - 6art of the slitter head shaft that holds the spacers, 0nives, fibers, and
nuts.
S'iral "est - method of interpreting the fluidity of an alloy by pouring molten
metal into a mold with a long narrow channel. The length of such casting, under
standardized conditions, is ta0en as the fluidity index of that alloy.
S'lash Core - core of tile placed in a mold to prevent erosion of the mold at
places where metal impinges with more than normal force. $plash cores are
commonly used at the bottom of large rammed pouring basins, at the bottom of long
downsprues, or at the ingates of large molds.
S'lice - The end <oint uniting two webs.
S'lit - *" '/'$ action for a smaller produced coil that has been split from a larger
consumed coil. 8" ($tripped" The process of unloading any or all coils from
stools,bases in the %atch nneal.
S'lit Co!nt - &ield incremented by one each time a consumed '6/ is split into
smaller coils which are then assigned individual '6/?s.
S'lit Win - Tying all of the blowers into one main header to feed wind to more
than one furnace.
S'ongy Casting - casting in which the metal is porous and dendritic.
S'oole Coil - coil having edges that are turned up (li0e a spool of thread".
S'ot - (or Coupon" round dis0 of steel cut from the strip used in determining
@oc0well hardness and coating weight. The dis0 has a diameter of 8.D8 inches, and
an area of D s-uare inches.
S'ot Chec% - coil processed on the plater and sent to the $ide Trimmer to chec0
for defects.
S'ot) .!be - non-uniform extraneous deposit of lube on the coated sheet.
S'ot material - /etal or finished products available for prompt delivery.
S'ot Weling - n electric-resistance welding process in which the fusion is limited
to a small area. The pieces being welded are pressed together between a pair of
water-cooled electrodes through which an electical current is passed during a very
short interval so that fusion occurs over a small area at the interface between the
pieces.
S'o!t - trough through which the metal flows from the furnace to the ladle.
S'reaer +oo%s - Aifting device used by crane to move coils. Consists of a heavy
top bar and two manually ad<ustable arms.
S'ring-Bac% - n indicator of elastic stresses, fre-uently measured as the increase
in diameter of a curved strip after removing it from the mandrel about which it was
held. The measurement is employed as an indicator of the extent of recovery or
relief of residual stresses that has been achieved by the transformation of elastic
strain to plastic strain during heating or stress relieving.
S'r!e Base - n enlargement or rounded section at the bottom of the downsprue,
used to help streamline the flow of metal into the runner, lowering the velocity.
S'r!e Bottom - print attached to the top or s-ueeze board of a mold to ma0e an
impression in the cope indicating where the sprue should be cut.
S'r!e C!tter - metal tool used in cutting the pouring aperture, the sprue hole.
S'r!e +ole - The opening through which the metal is poured into the cope to run
into the casting cavity.
S;!areness - Characteristic of having ad<acent sides or planes meeting at :4
degrees
S;!ee0e Boar - board used on the cope half of the mold to permit s-ueezing of
the mold.
S;!ee0e +ea - 'n certain type of molding machines, a stationary or movable plate
against which a filled mold is compressed, in order to complete the compacting of
the sand.
S;!ee0er Machine - power-operated, usually pneumatic, device used to pac0
sand into a flas0.
SR - $ee $ingle @educed.
SR $late - $ingle @educed 6late. This product comes from the Temper /ills and goes
to the Tin /ill for processing but does not get any further cold reduction.
SR( - $ee $teel @ecycling 'nstitute.
SR. - $ingle random length- line pipe with *7.DH minimum average length
Stabili0ation - term applied to a number of processesE a" type of heat treatment
to relieve internal stresses. b"The retarding or prevention of a particular reaction by
the addition of stabilising element. c"a thermal and,or mechanical treatment given to
magnetic material in order to increase the permanency of its magnetic properties or
condition.
Stabili0ing - low temperature thermal treatment designed to prevent age-
softening in certain strains hardened alloys containing magnesium
Stabili0ing Anneal - treatment applied to austentic stainless steels that contain
titanium or columbium. This treatment consists of heating to a temperature below
that of a full anneal in order to precipitate the maximum amount of carbon at
titanium carbide or columbium carbide. This eliminates precipitation at lower
temperatures, which might reduce the resistance of the steel to corrosion.
Stac% - *" component of a hydraulic system that runs an individual function of that
system. 8" The boiler exhaust pipe. 9ach stac0 is e-uipped with a stac0 cap for
isolating the boiler from atmosphere and two butterflies for directing the gases to
either N % and C N . scrubbers.
Stac% "est - full width sample of chem-treat steel saved for metallurgical testing.
Stagger Win - ;neven winding of coil on delivery end; used for shearplate.
Stagger Wra' - 5ffsetting the laps and wrap of a coil by turning the as0ania handle
so that the coil does not wrap straight.
Staging Area - small (B-84 coil" area of floor space, usually at the delivery end or
the entry end of an operating unit. These are areas where inventory is being loaded
on or removed from an operating unit.
Stain - defect on the plate causing a discoloration of the plate.
Stain) +eat "reatJ - discoloraation due to non-uniform oxidation of the metal
surface during heat treatment.
Stain) 4il - $uface discoloration which may vary from dar0 brown to white and is
produced during thermal treatment by imcomplete evaporation and,or oxidation of
lubricants on the surface
Stain) Saw .!bricant - yellow to brown area of the surface discoloration at the
ends of the extruded length. 't is the residue of certain types of saw lubricants if
they are not removed from the metal prior to the thermal treatment
Stainless Steel - Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety, but always containing a
high percentage of chromium generally *4G more. These are highly resistant to
corrosion attac0 by organic acids, wea0 mineral acids, atmospheric oxidation, etc.
Stall - Term used to indicate that the line has tension on it, but is not moving.
Stan - *" component of a hydraulic system, which is made up of a number of
stac0s. 8" $ets of rolls; %oth Temper /ills consist of two stands. $ome are four rolls;
two bac0up rolls and two wor0 rolls. $ome are wor0 rolls only.
Stan #Batch Anneal& - (%atch nneal" $ame as >stool.>
Stan-by $!m' - pump in a hydraulic or morgoil system that will 0ic0 on
automatically if the running pump should shut down because of electrical problems.
Stanar Cost Coe - *." ccounting field connected to unit standards for doing
specific prodcuts; will vary by unit. 8" Code entered into '/'$ to identify the
incoming product and to identify the process applied to the product by the side
trimmer.
Stanar /eviation - statistical -uantity used to describe the variation of a
measurable attribute about some average value.
Stanar Gol - legally adopted alloy for coinage of gold. 'n the ;nited $tates the
alloy contains *4G Cu.
Stanar $attern - pattern of high-grade material and wor0manship in daily use
or at fre-uent intervals. pattern used as a master to ma0e or chec0 production
patterns.
Stanar Sam'les - sample of 0now composition used to calibrate an instrument
or method of analysis.
Stanar Sha'es - @efractory units stoc0ed by manufacturers or made from stoc0
molds.
Stanari0e - ct of recalibrating the x-ray gauge e-uipment.
Start-:$ - The first turn after the line has been down.
Starting +eat - #eat cycle setting on the welder for the start of the weld.
Station "ie - 1ame of the transformer in the power house that ties the 8BIM bus in
the power house with the F.: IM bus that is called the ?$ynchronizing %us?.
Starvation - 1on-uniform coating application which results in absence of coating in
certain areas.
Stave Constr!ction - ttaching staves to polygonshaped heads in the building of
cylindrical bodies; also, standard method used in ma0ing semicircular core boxes.
S"C - $hort thread and coupling (5CT! casing connection"
S"/ - $tandard reference to wall thic0ness of pipe ( sch *,+-*4)"
Steam Blowing $rocess - process that puts water droplets on steel leaving the
galvanizing pot to suppress spangle formation. $ee /inimized $pangle and $pangle
&ree.
Steam Chest - The inside of the turbine housing.
Steam /eman - The necessary amount of steam generation re-uired at any point
in time to satisfy the power house, turbo blowers, and any additional needs of the
steel-ma0ing process.
Steam /r!m - The upper drum,drums of the boiler. This is where the feed water is
introduced, continuous blow down ta0es place, the water level is controlled, and the
steam is released at the surface of the water and exits to the superheater elements.
Steam *low - The measured amount of steam generated by the boiler at any given
time, expressed in thousands of pounds per hour.
Steam +ammer - type of drop hammer where the ram is raised for each stro0e
by a double-action steam cylinder and the energy delivered to the wor0piece is
supplied by the velocity and weight of the ram and attached upper die driven
downward by steam pressure. 9nergy delivered during each stro0e may be varied.
Steam +eaer .ine - #igh pressure line which connects the boiler to the power
house manifold and through which the steam is delivered.
Steam +eaer 9alve - 9lectrically or manually operated stop valve located in line
on the steam header line used to isolate a boiler off the system when needed.
Steam $ress!re - The amount of pressure that the steam has. 't is either high
pressure \+44 lbs. or low pressure \ 8*4 lbs.
Steam Seal - type of seal that is applied to the shaft on a turbine by putting
steam around the shaft to stop the flow of air into a turbine.
Steam "em'erat!re - The temperature of the steam as it enters the turbine.
Steam "rays - 'tems that let water pass through steam lines without losing steam
pressure.
Stec%el Mill - reversing steel sheet reduction mill with heated coil boxes at each
end. $teel sheet or plate is sent through the rolls of the reversing mill and coiled at
the end of the mill, reheated in the coil box, and sent bac0 through the $tec0el
stands and recoiled. %y reheating the steel prior to each pass, the rolls can s-ueeze
the steel thinner per pass and impart a better surface finish.
Steel - n iron-base alloy usually containing carbon and other alloying elements. 'n
carbon steel and low-alloy steel, the maximum carbon content is about 8.4G; in
high-alloy steel, about 8.DG. The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy
steels is generally regarded as the DG level of total metallic alloying elements. $teel
is differentiated from two general classes of iron - namely, cast irons, which have
high carbon concentrations, and relatively pure irons, which have low carbon
concentrations.
Steel /r!m - Center insert that 0eeps a coil from collapsing. ;sed on .@ material.
Steel (nsert - $mall corrugated insert used to 0eep coils from collapsing before
rewinding.
Steel (ntensity - The amount of steel used per unit of gross domestic product.
'ntensity reflects the secular demand for steel, as opposed to cyclical demand. The
amount of steel used in vehicles and the popularity of alternative materials affect the
intensity, or how much steel is needed per unit produced. The state of the economy,
however, determines the number of units.
Steel Service Center (nventories - 9nd-of-period material stoc0s reported by the
$teel $ervice Center 'nstitute ($$C'".
Steel S'ec - 5rdered steel grade based on chemistry.
Steel Stra''ing - %anding and pac0aging material that is used to close and
reinforce shipping units, such as bales, boxes, cartons, coils, crates, and s0ids.
Steel S!bstrate - %ase metal which may be coated or plated.
Steel-(ntensive $ro!cts - Consumer products such as automobiles and
appliances that, because so much of their weight is from steel, exhibit a high
demand correlation with steel.
Steels) SAE - Common designation for the standard grades of steel approved by the
$ociety of utomotive 9ngineers.
Stee'e Constr!ction - 'n patternma0ing, the courses of material that when
fastened together resemble steps.
Steering Roll - device or set of rolls used to position the passline of the strip.
Stellite - 6roprietary name of a group of complex alloys retaining their hardness
strength and resistance to oxidation at high temperatures; contains 3, Co, Cr and C.
Stencil - 'dentification painted on pipe. $pecification, size, wall test pressure,
methoc of maufacture and mill are usually indicated.
Stereolithogra'hy A''arat!s #S.A& - 9-uipment used for computerized building
of three-dimensional models and patterns. 9nables the data representation of a C.
solid model to be directly converted into a plastic model of a casting.
Stic%er - $teel sheets or strip adhering. ;sually by fusion spots caused by
overheating during box annealing.
Stic%ing - dherence of foil surfaces sufficient to interfere with the normal ease if
unwinding
Stoc% Allowance - /aterial added to a part to allow for surface preparation or
precise dimensioning by machining.
Stoc% Core - Core of standard diameter usually made on a core machine and 0ept
on hand, sawed to re-uired length.
Stool - The platform on which coils are stac0ed on a base. lso 0nown as >stand.>
Stool $late - 6late on a mold machine on which stools are mounted.
Stooling - $upporting green sand cores in machine molding while pattern is being
withdrawn.
Sto'-Coc% 9alve - $ee 6itCoc0 Malve.
Sto''er +ea - refractory shape at the end of a stopper rod, usually clay and
graphite, seated in a ladle?s nozzle.
Sto''er Ro - device in a bottom-pour ladle for controlling the flow of metal
through the nozzle into the casting. The stopper rod consists of a steel rod,
protecting sleeves, and a graphite stopper head. 't may also be a single piece
manufactured from graphite.
Sto''ing-4,, - &illing in a portion of a mold cavity which is not to be cast.
Storage Bins - ;sed for storage of raw materials to ensure a necessary -uantity
re-uired for sinter production.
Straight-Chrome - n iron alloy. term indicating a group of stainless steels the
principal alloying element of which is chromium in varying amounts from =.44 to
87.44G.
Straightness - The absence of divergence from a right (straight" line in the
direction of measurement
Strain - The amount of elongation or compression that occurs in a metal at a given
stress or load. !enerally in terms of inches elongation per inch of material.
Straine Casting - phrase used to describe the result when molten metal is
poured into the mold at too fast a rate or under too great metallstatic pressure,
causing the cope to rise slightly from the drag and resulting in an oversize casting.
Strainer - filtering device which is used to remove large particles of contamination
from drive oil or morgoil.
Strainer Bas%et - metal filtering bas0et which is part of a strainer assembly.
Strainer Core - $ee Core $trainer
Strea% #Stri'e& - superficial band or elongated mar0 which produces a non-
uniform surface appearance. strea0 is often described by source.
Strea%) Bearing - longitudinal discoloration that can occur where there are large
changes in wall thic0ness as a result of uneven cooling. These strea0s usually appear
lighter than the surrounding metal.
Strea%) Bright - bright superficial band or elongated mar0 which produces a non-
uni+form surface appearance.
Strea%) B!,, - dull continuous strea0 caused by smudge buildup on a buff used at
shearing or other operation.
Strea%) B!rnish - bright region on the sheet caused by excessive roll surface
wear.
Strea%) Coating - banded condition caused by non-uniform adherence of roll
coating to a wor0 roll. 't can be created during hot and,or cold rolling. 'f generated
in the hot rolling process, it is also called (#ot /ill 6ic0up).
Strea%) Col - $ee ($trea0, #eat).
Strea%) /i,,!sion - $urface discoloration which may vary from gray to brown and
found only on lclad products.
Strea%) /irt - $urface discoloration which may vary from gray to blac0, is parallel to
the direction of rolling, and contains rolled foreign debris. 't is usually extraneous
material from an overhead location that drops onto the rolling surface and is shallow
enough to be removed by etching or buffing
Strea%) Grease - narrow discontinuous strea0 caused by rolling over an area
containing grossly excessive lubricant drippage.
Strea%) Grining - strea0 with a helical pattern appearance transferred to a rolled
product from wor0 roll.
Strea%) +eat - /il0y colored band(s" parallel to the rolling direction which vary in
both width and exact location along the length.
Strea%) +erringbone - 9longated alternately bright and dull chevron mar0ings.
Strea%) .eveler - strea0 on the sheet surface in the rolling direction caused by
transfer from the leveler rolls.
Strea%) Roll - non-uniform surface appearance parallel to the rolling direction.
Strea%) Str!ct!ral - non-uniform appearance on an etched or anodized surface
caused by heterogeneities (variabilities" remaining in the metal from the casting,
thermal processes or hot wor0ing stages of fabrication.
Streamline *low - $teady flow of li-uid without turbulence. !enerally, not
experienced in metalcasting.
Strength) Retaine - Compressive, shear, tensile, or transverse strength attained
by a sand mixture after being sub<ected to a cycle or cycles of heating and cooling
which approximate foundry practice.
Strength - 6roperties related to the ability of steel to oppose applied forces. &orms
of strength include withstanding imposed loads without a permanent change in shape
or structure and resistance to stretching.
Strength) Ba%e - Compressive, shear, tensile, or transverse strength of a molded
sand mixture when ba0ed at a temperature above 8B4 %4& (**4 %4C" and then
cooled to room temperature.
Stress - &orce per unit area, often thought of as force acting through a small area
within a plane. 't can be divided into components, normal and parallel to the plane,
called normal stress and shear stress, receptively. True stress denotes the stress
where force and area are measured at the same time. Conventional stress, as
applied to tension and compression tests, is force decided by the original gauge
length. $hearing strain (or shear strain" is the change in angle (expressed in radians"
between two lines originally at right angles. 3hen the term strain is used alone it
usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress.
Stress Corrosion Crac%ing #SCC& - $low growth of crac0s in stainless steel caused
by the combined effect of mechanical stress and exposure to a corrosive
environment.
Stress Corrosion *ail!re - phenomenon which occurs when metal under stress in
a corrosive atmosphere fails mechanically.
Stress) Relieving - process of reducing residual stresses in a metal ob<ect to a
suitable temperature and holding for a sufficient time. This treatment may be applied
to relieve stresses induced by -uenching, normalizing, machining, cold wor0ing, or
welding.
Stress) Resi!al - Those stresses setup up in a metal as a result of nonuniform
plastic deformation or the une-ual cooling of a casting.
Stress-Corrosion Crac%ing - $pontaneous failure of metals by crac0ing under
combined conditions of corrosion and stress, either residual or applied.
Stress-corrosion Crac%ing - &ailure by crac0ing under the combined action of
corrosion and stress, either external (applied" or internal (residual". Crac0ing may be
either intergranular or transgranular, depending on the metal and the corrosive
medium.
Stress-R!'t!re "est - tension test performed at constant temperature, the load
being held at such a level as to cause rupture. lso 0nown as creep-rupture test.
Stretch *orming - process of forming panels and cowls of large curvature by
stretching sheet over a form of the desired shape. This method is more rapid than
hammering and beating.
Stretcher .eveling - Aeveling where a piece of metal is gripped at each end and
sub<ected to a stress higher than its yield strength to remove warp and distortion.
$ometimes called patent leveling.
Stretcher Straightening - process for straightening rod, tubing, and shapes by
the application of tension at the ends of the stoc0. The products are elongated a
definite amount to remove warpage.
Stretcher Strains - Aong vein-li0e mar0s appearing on the surface of certain
metals, in the direction of the maximum shear stress, when the metal is sub<ected to
deformation beyond the yield point. lso termed Auders Aines. (1ot a defect in 1o. D
dead soft temper."
Stretcher Strains - 'rregular lines that develop on steel during the drawing or
stretching process. $ee fluting.
Striation - coating defect consisting of a series of near parallel lines or channels in
the cured coating. $triation is a type of flow mar0, which is caused by some
contaminant, such a silicone flowout. $triation is similar to ribbing, but striation is
usually smaller in size and not always parallel.
Stri%e-4,, - 5peration of removing excess sand from top or core box or flas0.
Stringer - *" defect caused by the coating dies allowing excess coating to
accumulate on the edge of the strip. 8" The last coil threaded through the line before
a shutdown. The stringer coil remains in the line until start up.
Stri' - Thin, flat steel that resembles hot-rolled sheet, but it is normally narrower
(up to *8 inches wide" and produced to more closely controlled thic0nesses. $trip
also may be cut from steel sheet by a slitting machine (see $heet $teel".
Stri' Cooler - $et of ad<ustable air nozzles that blow compressed air on the strip to
help achieve zinc drying.
Stri' Steel Chart - chart that shows how much water pressure is going to the
strip.
Stri''er $ins - 5n certain molding machines, a series of pins (usually four in
number" which support the rammed flas0-half at the parting surface so that the
mounted pattern may be drawn by lowering.
Stri''ing - @emoving the pattern from the mold or core box from core.
Stri''ing "ime - 'n oil-oxygen and noba0e mixture, the moment when the core box
may be satisfactorily drawn from the core, or pattern from the sand.
Strobe .ight - light that is used throughout the line to help ?see? defects. The
strobe light is mainly used at the reflow areas.
Str!ct!ral -!ality - /aterial applicable to the various classes of structures,
indicated by the standard specifications, which is suitable for the different mechanical
operations employed for the fabrication of such structures. $tructural -uality (the
characteristics of which are defined in the standard specifications of the merican
$ociety for Testing /aterials" represents the -uality of steel produced under regular
or normal manufacturing conditions.
Str!ct!ral Strea% - $ee ($trea0, $tructural).
Str!ct!rals - $teel product group that includes '-beams, #-beams, wide-flange
beams and sheet piling. These products are used in the construction of multi-story
buildings, industrial buildings, bridge trusses, vertical highway supports, and
riverban0 reinforcement.
Str!ct!re #Cast Str!ct!re& - The size and disposition of the constituents of a metal
as cast.
Styro,orm $attern - 9xpendable pattern of foamed plastic, especially polystyrene,
use in manufacturing casting by the &ull]/old process.
S!b - short coupling with different types and,or sizes of ends.
S!bc!taneo!s Blowhole - %lowholes at or near the surface of solidified metal,
covered with a thin layer of metal. /ay also be called pinhole porosity.
S!bgrain - portion of a crystal or grain slightly different in orientation from
neighboring portions of the same crystal. !enerally, neighboring subgrains are
separated by low-angle boundaries.
S!bstation - 1ame given to an area that is an electrical power distribution center.
substation may contain several feeders of different voltages, transformers, and the
associated circuit brea0ers and instrumentation for protection.
S!b0ero "reatment - @efrigeration of steel to promote transformation of retained
austenite.
S!c%-(n - .efect caused when one face of a forging is suc0ed in to fill a pro<ection
on the opposite side.
S!r,ace "ear - /inute surface crac0s on rolled products which can be caused by
insufficient ingot scalping,
S!ction *ilter - filter that cleans the hydraulic oil as it leaves the system?s storage
tan0 before it enters the pump.
S!l,ie Staining - coating defect consisting of a dar0 grey-blac0 colored residue
on tinplate which occurs when a brea0 in the coating permits a high sulfur food to
contact the tinplate.
S!l,!r - nonmetallic element, melting point === %4C (+B*.8 %4&" occurring as an
undesirable tramp (trace" element in most ferrous alloys.
S!l,!r $rints - macrographic method of examining for the distribution of sulfide
impurities, in which a sheet of wet acidified bromide paper is placed on the polished
surface to be examined.
S!'eralloy - n alloy developed for very high temperature use where relatively high
stresses are encountered and where oxidation resistance is needed.
S!'ercooling - Aowering the temperature of a molten metal below its li-uidus
during cooling.
S!'er!ty *ireclay Bric% - #aving pce above BB with less than *.4 percent linear
shrin0 in the *D:: %4C (8:*4 %4&" reheat test, and less than =.4 percent loss in
panel spalling test preheated at *F=: %4C (B444 %4&".
S!'er,icial Roc%well +arness "est - &orm of @oc0well hardness test using
relatively light loads which produce minimum penetration. ;sed for determining
surface hardness or hardness of thin sections or small parts, or where large hardness
impression might be harmful.
S!'erheat - ny increment of temperature above the melting point of a metal;
sometimes construed to be any increment of temperature above normal casting
temperatures introduced for the purpose of refining, alloying or improving fluidity.
S!'erheate Steam - $team that has passed through the superheater elements
and has become saturated with heat to a temperature of approximately +D4 degrees.
#igher steam temperature allows for greater expansion of the steam in it?s end use
and thus more wor0 can be performed by a given amount of steam.
S!'erheater Elements - %an0 of boiler tubes whose purpose is to increase the
steam temperature under the same pressure before it exits the boiler. 5nly steam
passes through the superheater elements. This ban0 of tubes is in the hottest fire in
the boiler.
S!'erheating - (*" #eating a phase to a temperature above that of a phase
transformation without the transformation ta0ing place. (8" #eating molten metal to
a temperature to obtain more complete refining or greater fluidity.
S!'ersat!rate - /etastable solution in which the dissolved material exceeds the
amount the solvent can hold in normal e-uilibrium at the temperature and under the
other conditions that prevail.
S!'ersonic Re,lectosco'e - n instrument for sending, receiving, and measuring
sound waves over 84,444 cycles per second.
S!'ers!c%er - truc0 that is used to remove sludge from the plater cells and plater
distribution tan0.
S!''ort $in - Aarge steel pin used to hold the burr mashers in place.
S!'ramor - n electromagnetic flaw detection in0 for the rapid detection of
subcutaneous and surface flaws in ferrous metals.
S!r,ace Contamination - defect referring to a particle or substance foreign to the
typical surface generated during normal steel production. $uch a foreign substance
may be in the form of a film, oxide growth, imbedded material, etc., and may cause
discoloration, poor lac-uer adhesion, container forming problems, corrosion, etc.
S!r,ace Critical - n order specification which indicates the end use re-uirement
and dictates special processing to ensure a uniform, >defect free> surface.
S!r,ace *inish - (Tin /ill 6roducts" The ground roll finishes are 7%, a smooth finish,
normally for melted coatings intended for special applications; 7C, the standard mill
finish, for either melted or unmelted coatings is the finish used for most applications.
The blasted roll finishes are D%, a shot blast finish ($%&" with a melted tin coating;
DC, a shot blast finish with an unmelted tin coating, principally for crowns and
closures; D., a shot blast finish with and unmelted tin coating primarily for .N' cans.
S!r,ace +arening - generic term covering several processes applicable to a
suitable ferrous alloy that produce, by -uench hardening only, a surface layer that is
harder or more wear resistant than the core. There is no significant alteration of the
chemical composition of the surface layer. The processes commonly used are
induction hardening, flame hardening and shell hardening. ;se of the applicable
specific process name is preferred.
S!r,ace (m'er,ections - superficial defect that mars the surface of steel and is
detrimental to the end use; examples include blisters and roll mar0 defects.
S!r,ace (ncl!sion - n inclusion or non-metallic particles that shows through at the
surface of the steel. ($ee also 'nclusion"
S!r,ace 4il 4il which - 5il which is applied for corrosion protection or other special
purposes.
S!r,ace $rotection Air .i;!ie #S$A.& - The use of li-uid argon, li-uid nitrogen,
or carbon dioxide snow to minimize the reaction of air and molten metal that
normally occurs in an induction furnace. The li-uid or snow is fed onto the surface of
the molten metal where it vaporizes, displacing the air thus reducing slag and
oxygen levels.
S!r,ace Ro!ghness - The texture or >pattern> of a steel surface determined by the
grit on the roll or the grind on a brite roll.
S!r,ace "e1t!re - The roughness, waviness, lay or other characteristics of the
surface of a part.
S!r,acing - .epositing a filer metal on a metal surface by any method to obtain
certain desired properties or dimensions.
S!rge 9alve - valve that is used to release pressure and wind on a blower and to
vent it to atmosphere.
S!rvival $ower - The amount of power a mill must generate to 0eep power on
critical areas (e.g. blast furnace, %56, etc." in the event that we should lose feeders
84F and 84+ from /on 6ower.
Swage - 5peration of reducing or changing the cross-sectional area by revolving the
stoc0 under fast impact of blows. &inishing tool with concave wor0ing surface; useful
for rounding out wor0 after its preliminary drawing to size.
Swell - casting defect consisting of an increase in metal section due to the
displacement of sand by metal pressure.
Swing *rame Griner - device for grinding large castings where the wor0
remains stationary. This grinder, too large to be hand lifted, is usually suspended
from a hoist.
Switch - The process of returning empty cars to the yard and getting cars loaded
with coal.
Switchgear - 9nclosures that house circuit brea0ers, metering and protective
relaying e-uipment and also distributes electrical power.
Switching - n action by the Aoad .ispatcher of opening or closing various circuit
brea0ers in the plant for various reasons such as wor0 by line gang, wor0 by brea0er
gang, restoring lost power.
Synchroni0e - The act of bringing one electrical system (or generator" into perfect
electrical alignment with a separate electrical system. &or example, the phase of
system * would be reaching its pea0 at the exact same time as the phase of
system 8. 't is only when you have this synchronization that you can close a circuit
brea0er and tie the two systems together.
Synthetic Moling San - ny sand compounded from selected individual materials
which, when mixed together, produce a mixture of the proper physical and
mechanical properties from which to ma0e foundry molds.
System San - >&oundry sand used in ma0ing molds and which eventually becomes
the bul0 of the sand used in the mechanical system or mechanized unit. $ee also
$and >
System Start - %utton on the oil system?s control panels which is pushed after the
pump selections have been made in order to start the system.
System Sto' - %utton on the oil systems? control panel that is pushed to shut down
the system.
SAE - bbreviation for $ociety of utomotive 9ngineers. This organization has
specified common and alloy steels and copper base alloys in accordance with a
numerical index system allowing approximation of the composition of the metal. The
last two digits always indicate the carbon content, usually within 4.4DG.
Salt S'ray "est - n accelerated corrosion test in which the metal specimens are
exposed to a fine mist of salt water solution either continuously or intermittently.
Scab - defect consisting of a flat volume of metal <oined to a casting through a
small area. 't is usually set in a depression, a flat side being separated from the
metal of the casting proper by a thin layer of sand.
Scab #scabby& - blemish caused on a casting by eruption of gas from the mold
face, or by uneven mold surfaces; or occurring where the s0in from a blowhole has
partly burned away and is not welded.
Scale - layer of oxidation products formed on a metal at high temperature.
Scaling - (*" 5xidation of metal due to heat, resulting in relatively heavy surface
layers of oxide. (8" @emoval of scale from metal.
Scaling - &orming a thic0 layer of oxidation products on metals at high
temperatures.
Scal'e E1tr!sion (ngot - cast, solid, or hollow extrusion ingot which has been
machined on the outside surface.
Scal'ing - /achining the surface layers from ingots, billets and slabs before
fabrication.
Scar, <oint - butt <oint in which the plane of the <oint is inclined with respect to
the main axes of the members.
Sclerosco'e "est - hardness test where the loss in 0inetic energy of a falling
metal tup, absorbed by indentation upon impact of the tup on the metal being
tested, is indicated by the height of rebound.
Scra' - /aterial unsuitable for direct use but usable for reprocessing by re-melting.
Scratch Br!she *inish - &inish obtained by mechanically brushing the surface
with wire bristle brushes, by buffing with greaseless compound or by cold rolling with
wire bristled rolls on scratch etched finish.
Seam - 5n the surface of metal, an unwelded ford or lap which appears as a crac0,
usually resulting from a defect obtained in casting or in wor0ing.
Seam Weling - n electric-resistance type of welding process, in which the lapped
sheet is passed between electrodes of the roller type while a series of overlapping
spot welds is made by the intermittent application of electric current.
Seconary +arening - Tempering certain alloy steels at certain temperatures so
that the resulting hardness is greater than that obtained by tempering the same
steel at some lower temperature for the same time.
Segregation - 1onuniform distribution of alloying elements, impurities or phases.
Segregation - 1onumiform distribution of alloying elements, impurities or
microphases.
Segregation - 'n an alloy, concentration of alloying elements at specific regions,
usually as a result of the primary crystallization of one phase with the subse-uent
concentration of other elements in the remaining li-uid.
Segregation Baning - 'n homogeneous distribution of alloying elements aligned
on filaments or plates parallel to the direction of wor0ing.
Sel, /i,,!sion - The spontaneous movement of an atom to a new site in a crystal of
its own species.
Sel,-+arening Steel - steel containing sufficient carbon or alloying element, or
both, fo form martensite either through air hardening or, as in welding and induction
hardening, through rapid removal of heat from a locally heated portion by conduction
into the surrounding cold metal.
Semi-Steel - Cast iron (not steel" of high -uality, obtained by using a large
percentage of steel scrap with the pig iron.
Semi,inishe Steel - $teel in the form of billets, blooms, itc., re-uiring further
wor0ing before completion into finished steel ready for mar0eting.
Semi%ille Steel - $teel that is incompletely deoxidized and contains sufficient
dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide and thus offset
solidification shrin0age.
Semi%ille Steel - $teel that is completely deoxided and contains sufficient
dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide to offset
solidifacation shrin0age.
Semi%ille Steel - $teel incompletely deoxidized, to permit evolution of sufficient
carbon monoxide to offset solidification shrin0age.
Sen0imir Mill - mill having two wor0 rolls of * to 8 *,8-in diam. each, bac0ed up
by two rolls twice that diameter and each of these bac0ed up by bearings on a shaft
mounted eccentrically so that rotating it increases the pressure between bearings
and bac0up rolls.
Shear - type of cutting operation in which the metal ob<ect is cut by means of a
moving blade and fixed edge or by a pair of moving blades that may be either flat or
curved.
Shear - That type of force that causes or tends to cause two contiguous parts of the
same body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of
contact.
Shear Crac% - diagonal, transgranular crac0 caused by shear stresses.
Shear Steel - $teel produced by forge welding together several bars of blister steel,
providing a more homogeneous product.
Shear Strength - The stress re-uired to produce fracture in the plane of cross
section, the conditions of loading being such that the directions of force and of
resistance are parallel and opposite although their paths are offset a specified
minimum amount.
Sheet - flat-rolled metal product of some maximum thic0ness and minimum width
arbitrarily dependent on the type of metal. $heet is thinner than plate.
Shell Moling - &orming a mold from thermosetting resin-bonded sand mixtures
brought in contact with pregeated (B44 to D44 (degrees" &" metal patterns, resulting
in a firm shell with a cavity corresponding to the outline of the pattern. lso called
Croning process.
Shiele-Arc Weling - rc welding in which the arc and the weld metal are
protected by a gaseous atmosphere, the products of decomposition of the electrode
covering, or a blan0et of fusible flux.
Shore +arness "est - $ame as scleroscope test.
Short - %rittle.
Shortness - form of brittleness in metal. 't is designated as cold, hot, and red, to
indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs.
Shot Blasting - Cleaning surface of metal by air blast, using metal as a result of
solidification shrin0age and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center.
Shrin%age Cavity - void left in cast metals as a result of solidification shrin0age
and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center.
Siliconi0ing - .iffusing silicon into solid metal, usually steel, at an elevated
temperature.
Sil%y *ract!re - steel fracture that has a very smooth fine grain or sil0y
appearance.
Silver Solers - lloys of silver, copper, sinc and other metals, melting between
FD4 and +7D (degrees" C. used for ma0ing strong yet moderately ductile <oints that
resist corrosion.
Single-Action $ress - forming press that operates with a single function, such as
moving a punch into a die with no simultaneous action for holding down the bland or
e<ecting the formed wor0.
Sintere Carbie - Composite, containing carbides of extremely refractory metals,
such as tungsten, tantalum, titanium, etc., cemented together by a relatively low-
melting metal, such as cobalt acing as a matrix.
Sintering - %onding of ad<acent surfaces of particles in a mass of metal powders, or
in a compact, by heating
Sintering - Converting powder into a continuous mass by heating to a temperature
considerably below fusion, usually after preliminary compacting by pressure.
S%el' - piece or strip of metal produced to a suitable thic0ness, width, and edge
configuration, from which pipe or tubing is made.
S%el' - plate of steel or wrought iron from which pipe or tubing is made by rolling
the s0elp into shape longitudinally and welding or riveting the edges together.
S%in - thin surface layer that is different from the main mass of a metal ob<ect, in
composition, structure or other characteristics.
S%!ll - layer of solidified metal or dross on the wall of a pouring vessel often when
metal has been poured.
Slab - piece of metal, intermediate between ingot and plate, at least twice as wide
as it is thic0.
Slac% -!enching - The process of hardening steel by -uenching from the
austenitizing temperature at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate for the
particular steel, resulting in incomplete hardening and the formation of one or more
transformation products in addition to or instead of martensite.
Slag - product resulting from the action of a flux on the nonmetallic constituents of
a processed ore, or on the oxidized metallic constituents that are undesirable.
;sually slags consist of combinations of acid oxides with basic oxides, and neutral
oxides are added to aid fusibility.
Slag - nonmetallic product resulting form mutual dissolution of flux and
nonmetallic impurities in smelting and refining operations.
Sli' - 6lastic deformation by irreversible shear displacement of one part of a crystal
relative to another in a definite crystallographic direction and on a definite
crystallographic plane.
Sli' /irection - The crystallographic direction in which translation of slip ta0es
place.
Sli' .ine - Trace of a slip plane on a viewing surface.
Sli' $lane - The crystallographic plane on which slip occurs in a crystal.
Slit Eges - The edges of sheet or strip metal resulting from cutting to width by
rotary slitters.
Slitting - Cutting sheet or strip metal to width by rotary slitters.
Sliver #e,ect& - Aoose metal piece rolled down onto the surface of the metal during
the rolling operations.
Soa%ing - 6rolonged heating of a metal at selected temperature.
Soler Embrittlement - @eduction in ductility of a metal or alloy, associated with
local penetration by molten solder along grain boundaries.
Soli Sol!tion - single solid homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or
more chemical species.
Soli Sol!tion - solid crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species in
concentrations that may vary between limits imposed by phase e-uilibrium.
Soli!s - 'n a constitutional diagram, the locus of points representing the
temperatures at which various components finish freezing on cooling or begin to melt
on heating.
Sol!te - The component of either a li-uid or solid solution that is present to the
lesser or minor extent; the component that is dissolved in the solvent.
Sol!tion +eat "reatment - heat treatment in which an alloy is heated to a
suitable temperature, held at that temperature long enough to cause one or more
constituents to enter into solid solution, and then cooled rapidly enough to hold these
constituents in solution.
Sol!tion +eat "reatment - #eating an alloy to a suitable temperature, holding at
that temperature long enough to allow one or more constituents to enter into solid
solution, and then cooling rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution. The
alloy is left in a supersaturated, unstable state, and may subse-uently exhibit
-uench aging.
Sol!tion +eat "reatment - process in which an alloy is heated to a suitable
temperature long enough to allow a certain constituent to enter into solid solution
and is then cooled rapidly to hold the constituent in solution. The metal is left in a
supersaturated, unstable state and may subse-uently exhibit age hardening.
Solvent - The component of either a li-uid or solid solution that is present to the
greater or ma<or extent; the component that dissolves the solute.
Solv!s - 'n a phase or e-uilibrium diagram, the locus of points representing the
temperature at which solid phases with various compositions coexist with other solid
phases; that is, the limits of solid solubility.
Sorbitic $earlite - $tructure of steel resulting, on cooling under the proper
conditions, from the decomposition of austenite; has a fine, lamellar appearance.
S'ace .attice #crystal& - system of e-uivalent points formed by the intersections
of three sets of planes parallel to pairs of principal axes; the space lattice may be
thought of as formed by the corners of the unit cells.
S'ace-Centere #concerning s'ace lattices& - %ody-centered.
S'alling - The crac0ing and fla0ing of particles out of a surface.
S'eci,ic Gravity - numerical value representing the weight of a given substance
as compared with the weight of an e-ual volume of water, for which the specific
gravity is ta0en as *.4444.
S'ectogra'h - n optical instrument for determining the presence or concentration
of minor metallic constituents in a material by indicating the presence and intensity
of specific wave lengths of radiation when the material is thermally or electrically
excited.
S'ectogra'h #B-rays& - n instrument using an extended surface -- a
photographic plate or film, or a fluorescent screen -- for receiving the K-ray
diffraction pattern.
S'elter #$rime Western S'elter& - low-grade of Mirgin Rinc containing
approximately :+G Rinc used in !alvanizing processes.
S'eroii0ing - #eating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of
carbide in steel. $pheroidizing methods fre-uently used areE *. 6rolonged holding at
a temperature <ust below e*. 8. #eating and cooling alternately between
temperatures that are <ust below e*. . B. #eating to temperature above e* or eB
and then cooling very slowly in the furnace or holding at a temperature <ust below
e*. =. Cooling at a suitable rate from the minimum temperature at which all carbide
is dissolved, to prevent the reformation of a carbide networ0, and then re-heating in
accordance with methods * or 8 above. (pplicable to hypereutectoid steel
containing a carbide networ0.
S'eroii0ing Annealing - subcritical annealing treatment intended to produce
spheroidization of cementite or other carbide phases.
S'heroii0e Str!ct!re - microstructure consisting of a matrix containing
spheroidal particles of another constituent.
S'heroii0ing - ny process of prolonged heating and slow cooling of steel which
will convey the carbide content into rounded or spheroid form.
S'heroii0ing - #eating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of
carbide in steel.
S'iegel - #igh-manganese pig iron, containing *D-B4G manganese, approximately
DG carbon, and less than *G silicon used in the manufacture of steel by the
%essemer, or basic open-hearth process.
S'inning - The procedure of ma0ing sheet metal discs into hollow shapes by
pressing the metal against a rotating form (spinning chuc0" by a tool.
S'ot Weling - 3elding of lapped parts in which fusion is confined to a relatively
small circular area. 't is generally resistance welding, but may also be gas-shielded
tungsten-arc, gas-shielded metal-arc, or submerged-arc welding.
S'ring Steel Stri' - ny of a number of strip steels produced for use in the
manufacture of steel springs or where high tensile properties are re-uired mar0eted
in the annealed state, hard rolled or as hardened and tempered strip.
S'ring "em'er - 'n brass mill terminology, $pring Temper is eight numbers hard or
F4.D4G reduction.
Stabili0ing "reatment - thermal treatment designed to precipitate material from
solid solution, in order to improve the wor0ability, to decrease the tendency of
certain alloys to age harden at room temperature, or to obtain dimensional stability
under service at slightly elevated temperatures.
Stabli0ing "reatment - ny treatment intended to stabilize the structure of an alloy
of the dimensions of a part. (*" #eating austenitic stainless steels that contain
titanium, columbium, or tantalum to a suitable temperature below that of a full
anneal in order to inactivate the maximum amount of carbon by precipitation as a
carbide of titanium, columbium, or tantalum. (8" Transforming retained austenite in
parts made from tool steel. (B" 6recipitating a constituent from a nonferrous solid
solution to improve the wor0ability, to decrease the tendency of certain alloys to age
harden at room temperature, or to obtain dimensional stability.
Stainless Steel - Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety, but always containing a
high percentage of chromium. These are highly resistant to corrosion attac0 by
organic acids, wea0 mineral acids, atmospheric oxidation, etc.
Stam'ing - term used to refer to various press forming operations in coining,
embossing, blan0ing, and pressing.
Steel - n iron-base alloy, malleable in some temperature range as initially cast,
containing maganease, usually carbon, and often other alloying elements. 'n carbon
steel and low-alloy steel, the maximum carbon is about 8.4G; in high-alloy steel,
about 8.DG. The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy steels is generally
regarded as being at about DG metallic alloying elements. $teel is to be
differentiated from two general classes of ironsE the cast irons, on the high-carbon
side, and the relatively pure irons such as ingot iron, carbonyl iron, and electrolytic
iron, on the low-carbon side. 'n some steels containing extremely low carbon, the
maganese content is the principal differentiating factor, steel usually containing at
least 4.8DG; ingot iron contains considerably less.
Steel - 'ron, malleable in at least one range of temperature below its melting point
without special heat treatment, substantially free from slag, and containing carbon
bore than about 4.4DG and less than about 8.44G. 5ther alloying elements may be
present in significant -uantities, but all steels contain at least small amounts of
manganese and silicon, and usually as undesirable constituents.
Sterling Silver - silver alloy containing at least :D.8G g, the remainder being
unspecified but usually copper.
Strain - measure of the relative change in the size of a body. Ainear strain is the
change per unit length of a linear dimension. True (or natural" strain is the natural
logarithm of the ratio of the length at the moment of observation to the original
gauge length. $hearing strain is the change in angle (expressed in radians" between
two reference lines originally at right angles. 3hen the term is used alone, it usually
refers to linear strain in the direction of the applied stress.
Strain - measure of the change in the size or shape of a body, referred to its
original size or shape. Ainear strain is the change per unit length of a linear
dimension. True strain (or natural strain" is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the
length at the moment of observation to the original gauge length. Conventional
strain is the linear strain referred to the original gauge length. $hearing strain (or
shear strain" is the change in angle (expressed in radians" between two lines
originally at right angles. 3hen the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the
linear strain in the direction of the applied stress.
Strain - .eformation produced on a body by an outside force.
Strain Aging - ging induced by cold wor0.
Strain Aging - ging induced by cold wor0ing.
Strain +arening - n increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic
deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range.
Strain +arening - n increase in hardness and strength caused by p;astic
deformation at temperatures below the recrystallization range.
Stress - &orce per unit area. True stress denotes stress determined by measuring
force and area at the same time. Conventional stress, as applied to tension and
compression tests, is force divided by original area. 1ominal stress is stress
computed by simple elasticity formula.
Stress - .eforming force to which a body is sub<ected, or, the resistance which the
body offers to deformation by the force.
Stress Relie, - Aow temperature annealing for removing internal stresses, such as
those resulting on a metal from wor0 hardening or -uenching.
Stress Relieving - #eating to a suitable temperature, holding long enough to
reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the
development of new residual stresses.
Stress-corrosion Crac%ing - &ailure by crac0ing under the combined action of
corrosion and stress, either external (applied" or internal (residual". Crac0ing may be
either intergranular or transgranular, depending on the metal and the corrosive
medium.
Stress-Corrosion Crac%ing - &ailure by crac0ing under combined action or
corrosion and stress, either external (applied" or internal (residual". Crac0ing may be
either intergranular or transgranular, depends on metal and corrosive medium.
Stretcher .eveling - method of ma0ing metal sheet or strip dead flat by
stretching.
Stretcher Strains - 9longated mar0ings that appear on the surface of some
materials when deformed <ust past the yield point. These mar0ings lie approximately
parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized
yielding $ame as Auders lines.
Stretcher Strains - 9longated mar0ings that appear on the surfaces of some
materials when they are deformed <ust past the yield point. These mar0ings lie
approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of
localized yielding.
Stri' - sheet of metal whose length is many times its width.
Stri' Steel #col rolle& - flat cold rolled steel product (5ther than &lat 3ire" 8B
*D,*F and narrower; under .8D4 in thic0ness, which has been cold reduced to
desired decimal thic0ness and temper on single stand, single stand reversing, or
tandem cold mills in coil form from coiled hot rolled pic0led strip steel.
Str!ct!re - The arangement of parts; in crystals, expecially, the shape and
dimension of the until cell, and the number, 0inds and positions of the atoms within
it.
S!b-bo!nary Str!ct!re #s!bgrain str!ct!re& - networ0 of low-angle
boundaries (usually with misorientations or less than one degree" within the main
grains of a microstructure.
S!bcritical Annealing - n annealing treatment in which a steel is heated to a
temperature below the * temperature and then cooled slowly to room temperature.
S!bstit!tional Soli Sol!tion - solid solution in which the solvent and solute
atoms are located randomly at the atom sites in the crystal structure of the solution.
S!bstrate - The layer of metal underlying a coating, regardless of whether the layer
is base metal.
S!l,ie S'heroii0ation - stage of overheating in which sulfide inclusions are
partly or completely spheroidized.
S!l,!r - Chemical symbol $" 9lement 1o. *F of the periodic system; atomic weight
B8.4F. 1on-metal occurring in a number of allotropic modifications, the most
common being a pale-yellow brittle solid. 'n steel most commonly encountered as an
undesired contaminant. #owever, it is fre-uently deliberately added to cutting stoc0,
to increase machinability.
S!l,!r $rint - macrographic method of examining distribution of sulfide inclusions.
S!'eralloy - n alloy developed for very high temperature service where relatively
high stresses (tensile, thermal, vibratory, and shoc0" are encountered and where
oxidation resistance is fre-uently re-uired.
S!'ercooling - Cooling to a temperature below that of an e-uilibrium phase
transformation without the transformation ta0ing place.
"=C - Threaded and coupled. /ale (pin" threads are cut into and cut into pieces and
a coupling provides female threads for both lengths <oined.
"a - Chemical symbol for Tantalum
"able Mill - 'n ring rolling, a type of ring forging e-uipment employing multiple
mandrels with a common main roll. ;sually used in high volume production of small-
diameter rolled rings.
"able "est - -uality test ta0en to visually inspect the plate.
"ach Roll - @oll used for measuring line speed.
"achometer - n instrument used to measure the revolutions per minute (rpm" of a
rotating shaft of a turbine.
"ac%iness - coating defect consisting of a stic0iness of a cured coating. %loc0ing is
caused by tac0iness.
"aconite - 1atural mineral containing less than B4G iron. 't is the primary ore used
in blast furnaces. .omestic supplies of iron-rich ores (greater than D4G iron" were
largely depleted in the *:=4s, so integrated steel companies now process the lower-
grade taconite to ma0e it useful.
"ail - $lag that has cooled to a solid phase at the spout.
"ail En - *" The balance of the coil removed from the entry end. 8" The portion of
the coil that ma0es up the inner diameter on the entry reels and the outer diameter
on the delivery reels.
"ail Mar% - $ee (/ar0, @oll %ruise).
"ailing +eat - #eat cycle setting on the welder for the end of the weld.
"ailings - The end-product or waste of ore mining, usually piled up in close
proximity of a mining area. $ome will often contain some metal that can be
extracted.
"ailore Blan%s - section of sheet or strip that is cut-to-length and trimmed to
match specifications for the manufacturer?s stamping design for a particular part.
%ecause excess steel is cut away (to save shipping costs", all that remains for the
stamper is to impart the three-dimensional shape with a die press (see %lan0ing".
"a%e-!' - $teel bloc0 where material is wound when rolling or slitting.
"anem Mill - cluster of rolling mills where mill stands are in tandem. t 3$C,
this terminology generally refers to 3$C?s cold reducing mills.
"angential S'rays - $prays that cool down exhaust heat before it enters the
scrubber duct wor0.
"an% - storage receptacle for hydraulic oil, morgoil, drive oil or grease.
"an% .ine - ny hose, pipe or tube used to carry a fluid from a system to the
system?s storage tan0.
"antal!m - rare metal of silver white color having excellent corrosion resistance
and a high melting point. 't is widely used for chemical process e-uipment and
specialised aero-space and nuclear applications.
"a' - o drain molten steel from a steelma0ing furnace.
"a' 4!t System - $ystem which includes the tap-out box, Menturi (dough-nut",
sluice ditch, and ash collection box. #ere the hot slag is tapped off of the bottom of
the boiler and collected in the ash box for further processing
"a'e - ;sed for holding the end of flap down on steel coil.
"a'e Meas!re - Tool used to measure the width of the coil.
"a'er Section - section made at an acute angle to a surface of interest, thereby
achieving a geometrical magnification of depth. sectioning angle D(degrees" =B
achieves a depth magnification of *4E *.
"a''ing 4!t - The process of removing molten slag from the bottom of a boiler.
"e - Chemical symbol for Tellurium.
"ear) S'ee - series of surface crac0s perpendicular to the extruding direction.
$peed tearing normally occurs in corner radii or extremities of a section and is
caused by localized high temperature
"elesco'e - Term given when the winding of a coil gradually becomes concave or
convex.
"elesco'ing Coil - coil that has not wound properly whose sidewall protrudes out.
Tension problems or a bad start on the exit reel causes this condition.
"ell!ri!m - 'ts main use in the steel industry is as an additive in leadbearing
freecutting steels to further improve their machinability. 'ts presence in the steel is
either within the manganese sulphide paarticle where it is parially soluble, or as
particles combined with lead or manganese. &or certain applications it offers
significant improvements in machinability but the added cost is a factor that should
be ta0en into account.
"em'er - condition produced in a metal or alloy by mechanical or thermal
treatment and having characteristics structure and mechanical properties. given
alloy may be in the fully softened or annealed temper, or it may be cold wor0ed to
the hard temper, or further to spring temper. 'ntermediate tempers produced by
cold wor0ing (rolling or drawing" are called >-uarter hard>, >half-hard> and >three
-uarters hard>, and are determined by the amount of cold reduction and the
resulting tensile properties. 'n addition to the annealed temper, conditions produced
by thermal treatment are the solution heat-treated temper and the heat-treated and
artificially aged temper. 5ther tempers involve a combination of mechanical and
thermal treatments and include that temper produced by cold wor0ing after heat
treating, and that produced by artificial aging of alloys that are as-cast, as-extruded,
as-forged and heat treated, and wor0ed.
"em'er #Met.& - The state of or condition of a metal as to its hardness or
toughness produced by either thermal treatment or heat treatment and -uench or
cold wor0ing or a combination of same in order to bring the metal to its specified
consistency. 9ach branch of the metal producing industry has developed its own
system of temper designations. 'n flat-rolled products including sheet and strip steel,
tin mill products, stainless strip, aluminum sheet and copper base alloy strip they are
shown as follows
"em'er Brittleness - %rittleness that results when certain steels are held within or
cooled slowly through a certain range of temperature below the transformation
range. The brittleness is revealed by notched-bar impact tests at room temperature
or lower temperatures.
"em'er Coe - 'ndustry-standard code that indicates the hardness of the steel.
"em'er Colors - %efore the use of instruments such as pyrometers, colors were
used to <udge temperature when hardening and tempering. &or example, on carbon
tool steel where the tempering range may typically be from 844oC to BD4oC, the
color change with the rise in temperature giving light straw at around 8*4oC, 6urple
87DoC, and !rey at BB4oC, The practice wtill continues in wor0shops where
controlled heat treatment facilities are not available.
"em'er Mill - relatively light cold rolling operation that may be used on hot rolled,
cold rolled and some coated steel such as galvanized. Temper rolling hot rolled sheet
helps to improve flatness, minimize coil brea0s and fluting and alter mechanical
properties. Temper rolling cold reduced and coated sheet steel improves surface
finish, alters mechanical properties and reduces the tendency of the steel to flute
during fabrication.
"em'er Rolle - product that has been processed at the Temper /ill.
"em'er Rolling - $ub<ecting metal sheet or strip to a slight amount of cold rolling
following annealing (usually *,8 to * *,8G" to forestall stretcher strains. lso termed
6inch 6ass or $0in @olled.
"em'er Rolling - cold-rolling process that develops the proper stiffness temper in
steel, improves flatness, and imparts a desired surface finish.
"em'er Stressing - Cuenching in water from the tempering temperature to
improve fatigue strength.
"em'er 9ariation - Considered a defect when variation of the hardness or forming
properties of single reduced plate as generally compared to the temper designation
of the plate.
"em'erat!re - .egree of warmth or coldness in relation to an arbitrary zero
measured on one or more of accepted scales, as Centigrade, &ahrenheit, etc.
"em'erat!re) +oling - *" Temperature above the critical phase transformation
range at which castings are held as a part of the heat treatment cycle, 8" The
temperature maintained when metal is held in a furnace, usually prior to pouring.
"em'erat!re) $o!ring - The temperature of the metal as it is poured into the
mold.
"em'ere an $olishe S'ring Steel Stri' - :4,*.4B carbon range (lso 0nown
as cloc0 spring steel." This product, while similar to general description under
heading of Tempered $pring $teel $trip, is manufactured and processed with great
and extreme care exercised in each step of its production. /anufactured from carbon
range of .:4,*.4B with @oc0well range C =+,D*. Cloc0 spring -uality has been ground
and polished with edges dressed. 't is usually supplied hard blue in color and has a
wide range of uses, such as coiled and flat mechanical springs, ignition vibrator
springs, springs for timing devices, springs for the electric and electonic fields, steel
tapes, rules, etc.
"em'ere Martensite - /artensite that has been heated to produce to %CC iron
and a fine dispersion of iron carbide.
"em'ere S'ring Steel Stri' - ny medium or high carbon (excluding cloc0
spring" strip steel of spring -uality which has been hardened and tempered to meet
specifications. 3here specification calls for blue or straw color, same is accomplished
by passing through heat prepared at proper temperature depending on color
re-uired. %lue is developed at approximately F44 (degrees" &.
"em'ering - lso 0nown as drawing, the process by which steel or iron is softened
by reheating it at a considerably lower temperature than that at which its previous
hardening was done.
"em'ering #Also terme 5rawing.5& - process of re-heating -uench-hardened
or normalized steel to a temperature below the transformation range and then
cooling at any rate desired. The primary purpose of tempering is to impart a degree
of plasticity or toughness to the steel to alleviate the brittleness of its martensite.
"ensile Strength - The maximum stress in uniaxial tension testing which a material
will withstand prior to fracture. The ultimate tensile strength is calculated from the
maximum load applied during the test divided by the original cross-sectional area.
"ensile "est - (Tension Test" destructive mechanical test whereby strength and
ductility properties are measured.
"ension .evel - $tamco Aeveler in WD !alvinized line - levels the steel.
"ension .eveling - mechanical operation where coil metal is stretched beyond itHs
yield point.
"ension Scratch - $ee ($cratch,Tension).
"erne $late - $heet steel, coated with a lead-tin alloy. The percentage of tin is
usually 0ept as low as possible because of its high cost; however, about *DG is
normally necessary in order to obtain proper coating of the steel, since pure lead
does not alloy with iron and some surface alloying is necessary for proper adhesion.
"est *lat - means of testing >by coils,> for customers who buy >by coil>. The coil is
put on the cutting line, about *44 sheets cut to chec0 flatness, bac0 the coil off, and,
determine whether coil will be acceptable to the customer.
"est Ga!ge - measuring device used to chec0 hydraulic pressure in different
components of a hydraulic system.
"est .!g - n ear li0e pro<ection cast as part of the casting and later removed for
testing purposes.
"est Sam'le - piece of the strip used by various departments to test or evaluate
the -uality of the steel. The size and place of the sample ta0en will vary.
"est Water - boiler water sample ta0en for a chemical test.
"e1t!re - 'n a polycrystalline aggregate, the state of distribution of crystal
orientations. 'n the usual sense, it is synonymous with preferred orientation, in
which the distribution is not random.
"hermal Con!ctivity - The property of matter by which heat energy is transmitted
through particles in contact. &or engineering purposes, the amount of heat conducted
through refractories is usually given in %tu per hour for one s-uare foot of area, for a
temperature difference of one degree &ahrenheit, and for a thic0ness of one inch,
%tu,hr %7ft %7&,in.
"hermal Contraction - The decrease in a linear dimension and volume of a material
accompanying a change of temperature.
"hermal E1'ansion - The increase in a linear dimension and volume of a material
accompanying a change of temperature.
"hermal *atig!e - &ailure resulting from rapid cycles of alternate heating and
cooling.
"hermal *lattening - $imilar to stress relieving in that the metal is passed through
a continuous furnace, but tension is also applied elongating the metal to improve
over-all flatness.
"hermal Shoc% - $tress developed by rapid and uneven heating of a material.
"hermal S'alling - %rea0ing up of refractory from stresses which arise during
repeated heating and cooling.
"hermal Stability - @esistance of a material to drastic changes in temperature.
"hermal Stresses - $tresses in metal, resulting from non-uniform distribution of
temperature.
"hermogra'hy - *" The techni-ue of obtaining a photographic record of heat
distribution in a solid or fluid.
"hic%ness Gage or *eeler Stoc% - hardened and tempered, edged, ground, and
polished thin section, high carbon strip steel. ;sually *,8 in width and in thic0nesses
from .44* to .4D4 manufactured to extremely close tolerances. 't is used primarily
for determining measurement of openings by tool and die ma0ers, machinists, and
automobile technicians. 't is prepared in handy poc0et size 0nife-li0e holders
containing an assembly of various thic0nesses. lso prepared in standard *8 lengths
with rounded ends and in *4 ? and 8D? coils. ;niversally used in the metal industry.
"homas $rocess - The continental name for the basic %essemer steel ma0ing
process, now superseded by modern day %5$ plants
"hreaer Coil - *" narrow width coil of T; plate with a base weight between 7DW
to *44W. This coil is used anytime the line is to be shut down or on a line start-up. 8"
The last coil threaded through the line. The threader coil remains in the line until
start up. B" coil fed into the line only to ma0e a connection between sizes.
"hreaing "able - 9xtension plate to assist in threading the coil end into the /cIay
leveler.
"hree-$iece Can - Three-piece cans consist of a body and two ends. The body side
seam can be accomplished by soldering, cementing or welding. The two ends are
attached using a double-rolled seam. The curl on the end, containing the seal
compound and its flange on the can body are indexed and rolled flat. The sealing
compound between fold gives an hermetic seal.
"hree--!arter +ar "em'er - (" 'n stainless steel strip tempers are based on a
minimum tensile or yield strength. &or Chromium-1ic0el grades three--uarter hard
temper is *7D,444 T.$., *BD,444 J.$. min. (%" 'n %rass mill terminology, this temper
is three %N$ numbers hard or 8:.=G thic0ness reduction.
"hrottle 9alve - manual valve used to regulate the amount of steam entering the
turbine.
"i - Chemical symbol for Titanium
"ie Bar) Ro - %ar or rod-shaped part of the casting added to prevent distortion
caused by uneven contraction between separated members.
"ight *las% - type of flas0 which remains on mold during pouring. Augs are
normally provided for clamping cope and drag together for pouring.
"ime /elay - The amount of time between the booster pumps starting and the main
pumps starting. This is the time it ta0es the computer to examine the .!.C. or
C.M.C. hydraulic system for start-up.
"ime "em'erat!re - n isothermal transforamtion diagram showing the
relationship between temperature and the time ta0en.
"in - Chemical symbol $n. 9lement 1o. D4 of the periodic system; atomic weight
**+.74. $oft silvery white metal of high malleability and ductility, but low tensile
strength; melting point ==: (degrees" &., boiling point =B+= (degrees" &., yielding
the longest molten-state range for any common metal; specific gravity 7.8+.
6rincipal use as a coating on steel in tin plate; also as a constituent in alloys.
"in *ree Steel - *" $ingle or double reduced blac0 plate having a thin coating of
chromium and chromium oxide applied electrolytically. 3eirton?s trade name is
3eirchrome and the coating weight is D mg,s-. ft. or 4.44444B inches thic0. 8"
Carbon steel that is coated with chromium rather than tin. 3eirton?s trade name is
3eirchrome and the coating weight is D mg,s-. ft. or 4.44444B inches thic0.
"in Mill - Continuous tin-plating facility to produce tin mill steel sheet to be used in
food and beverage cans and other containers.
"in Mill $ro!ct - Tin 6late, Tin &ree $teel, or %lac0 6late.
"in $late - Tinplate is low carbon mild steel coated on both top and bottom surfaces
with an electrolytic deposition of tin. The deposited tin exists as alloyed and free tim
and has a passivated surface as well as a coating of oil.
"in-*ree Steel - Chromium-coated steel. %ecause it is used in food cans <ust li0e tin
plate, it ironically is classified as a tin mill product. Tin-free steel is easier to recycle
because tin will contaminate scrap steel in even small concentrations.
"inAChrome $lating - plating process whereby the molecules from the positively
charged tin or chromium anode attach to the negatively charged sheet steel. The
thic0ness of the coating is readily controlled through regulation of the voltage and
speed of the sheet through the plating area.
"in'late - Thin steel sheet with a very thin coating of metallic tin. ;sed primarily in
can-ma0ing.
"itani!m - Chemical symbol Ti. 9lement 1o. 88 of the periodic system; atomic
weight =7.:4; melting point about B874 (degrees" &.; boiling point over D=B4
(degrees" &.; specific gravity =.D. %right white metal, very malleable and ductile
when exceedingly pure. 'ts principal functions as an alloy in the ma0ing of steel. (*"
&ixes carbon in inert particles (a" reduces martensitic hardness and hardnability in
medium chromium steels. (b" prevents formation of austenite in high-chromium
steels. (c" prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steel during long
heating. 1ow finding application in its own right because of its high strength and
good corrosion resistance.
"olerances - customer?s specifications can refer to dimensions or to the chemical
properties of steel ordered. The tolerance measures the allowable difference in
product specifications between what a customer orders and what the steel company
delivers. There is no standard tolerance because each customer maintains its own
variance ob<ective. Tolerances are given as the specification, plus or minus an error
factor; the smaller the range, the higher the cost.
"oll $rocessing - The act of processing steel for a fee (>toll>". 5wners of the steel
sheet may not possess the facilities to perform needed operations on the material (or
may not have the open capacity". Therefore, another steel mill or service center will
slit, roll, coat, anneal, or plate the metal for a fee.
"on - >;nit of measure for steel scrap and iron ore. !@5$$ T51 8,8=4 pounds.
A51! (19T" T51 8,8=4 pounds. $#5@T (19T" T51 8,444 pounds. 1ormal unit of
statistical raw material input and steel output in the ;nited $tates. /9T@'C T51
*,444 0ilograms. 8,84=.F pounds or *.*48 short tons.>
"onghol - The portion of the stoc0 by which the operator grips the stoc0 with
tongs. small portion of metal pro<ecting from the forging used to manipulate the
piece during the forging operation, usually trimmed off.
"ongs - /etal holder used to handle metal pieces.
"ool - term usually referring to the dies, mandrels, etc., used in the production of
extruded or drawn shapes or tube
"ool Steel - ny high-carbon or alloy steel used to ma0e a cutting tool for
machining metals and for metal-casting dies.
"ool Wear - gradual deterioration of tools and dies. 'n the case of fabrication of
stainless steels, the surface oxides of the stainless gradually either abrade or build
up on the tooling. 5ther factors (high hardness,non-metallic inclusions" can also
accelerate tool wear.
"ooling $late - cast or rolled product of rectangular cross section of thic0ness
4.8D4 inch or greater and with edges either as-cast, sheared or sawed with internal
stress levels controlled to achieve maximum stability for machining purposes to tool
and <ig applications.
"ooling $oints - The fixed positions on the casting surfaces used for references
during layout and machining.
"o' /ross - $0immings for the continuous galvanize pot. Composition consists of
approximately +7G zinc. DG aluminum, and FG to +G iron.
"orn S!r,ace - deep longitudinal rub mar0 resulting from abrasion by extrusion or
drawing tools.
"or'eo Car - The hot metal car used to carry molten iron from the blast furnace to
steelma0ing units.
"orsional Strength - The resistance of a bar to twisting. Closely related to its shear
strength.
"o!ghness - The ability of the metal to absorb energy and to deform plastically
during fracture. Toughness values obtained in testing depend upon the test
temperature, the rate of loading, the size of the test specimen, as well as the
presence of a notch and its acuity.
"ower - *" Consist of sets of mounted rolls. The top rolls are in a fixed position but
the bottom rolls are mounted on a moveable carriage. The carriage is controlled by
cables that can move the carriage up or down in the tower. 3hen the carriage is
lowered extra strip is stored in the tower. This strip is used when a weld is being
made. 8" Tower for loops of steel (WD !alvanize"; allows entry end to shut down
without stopping production; also a tower at which allows the coating to freeze on
the steel.
"ower 4ven - Mertical, continuous core oven with suspended shelves attached to
sproc0et-driven chains.
"racer Steam - Companion line to help maintain proper oil temperature.
"rac%ing - $ide-to-side movement of the strip through any operating unit.
"ra,,ic Mar% - brasion which results from relative movement between contacting
metal surfaces during handling and transit. dar0 color from the abrasively
produced aluminum oxide is usually observed. mirror image of a traffic mar0 is
observed on the ad<acent contacting surface.
"railerloa - -uantities of commodities, including primary and secondary metals,
that amount to as much as ==,444 pounds each, which is the standard weight limit
on ;.$. highways.
"ram' - Combustion air.
"ram' Element #"race& - Contaminant in the components of a furnace charge, or
in the molten metal or casting, whose presence is felt to be either unimportant or
undesirable to the -uality of the casting.
"rans!cer - device used to change a pressure (force" that acts upon it into an
electrical signal.
"rans,er - Transferring strip from W* to W8 reel on a continuous unit.
"rans,er Cars - 9lectric rail cars which move coils in the Tin /ill from the C.. lines
to the Temper /ill stoc0 floor, or from the .@ /ills to the 6later stoc0 floor. (a.0.a.
the #oopey railroad."
"rans,er .ale - ladle that may be supported on a monorail or carried in a shan0
and used to transfer metal from the melting furnace to the holding furnace or from
furnace to pouring ladles.
"rans,er $!m' - pump used to move hydraulic oil from one storage tan0 to
another.
"rans,erring Boilers - Term used for the process of changing from primary
operating boiler to the standby boiler.
"rans,ormation #"em'erat!re& Range - The critical temperature at which a
change in phase occurs. To distinguish between the critical points in heating and
cooling those in heating are referred to as the c points (c for Chauffage or heating"
and those in cooling, r. (r for @efroidissement"
"rans,ormation Ranges #trans,ormation tem'erat!re ranges& - Those ranges
of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms during
cooling. The two ranges are distinct, sometimes overlapping but never coinciding.
The limiting temperatures of these ranges depend on the composition of the alloy
and on the rate of change of temperature, particularly during cooling.
"rans,ormer - n electrical device that uses a magnetic field to change a given
voltage or current to a higher or lower voltage or current.
"ransit R!st - This rust defect occurs when strip or plate becomes wet from rain or
snow during transit; or from damaged containers exposing plate in transit. $trip or
plate will generally exhibit a pattern of rust on the edge going inwards due to
capillary action.
"ransition "em'erat!re - (*" n arbitrarily defined temperature within the
temperature range in which metal fracture characteristics determined usually by
notched tests are changing rapidly such as from primarily fibrous (shear" to
promarily crystalline (cleavage" fracture. Commonly used definitions are transition
temperature for D4G cleavage fracture, *4-ft-lb transition temperature, and
transition temperature for half maximum energy. (8" $ometimes also used to denote
the arbitrarily defined temperature in a range in which the ductility changes rapidly
with temperature.
"ransmitter - 3here signal comes from for gauges on the boiler.
"ransverse Bow - $ee (%ow,Transverse).
"ransverse /irection - direction perpendicular to the direction of wor0ing
"ransverse Strength - measurement of strength when the load is applied acrosss
the longitudinal flow of the frain of a metal. Certain impurities such as sulphur have a
detrimental effect on the transverse strength. This can be minimised by the inclusion
modification process.
"ransverse "est - test ta0en at right angles to the principal direction of rolling or
forging.
"raverse - Transfer car used to move coils on and off, or toward and away, from the
reel.
"raverse Car - ;sed to place a coil on the reel or remove coil from the reel. The
traverse cars have movement in and out or up and down.
"rea $late - $heet or plate having a raise figured pattern on one surface to
provide improved traction.
"rees - series of vertical spray nozzles arranged in fourteen groups of three
nozzles on each tree. The spray from the trees is directed at the rebound panels to
maximize particulate removal from the exhaust gases.
"rim (ncl!sion - 9dge trimming accidentally wound into a roll of foil
"ri' - To instantly put a boiler or piece of machinery out of service. To disturb the
logic of boiler.
"ri' 4!t - 5ne or more circuit brea0ers opening up and stopping the flow of power.
"ri'le S'ot "est - $ee /inimum Triple $pot verage Coating.
"ro?an +orse - barrel shaped vessel containing a seal oil reservoir and a vacuum
tan0. 5il travels from the defoaming tan0s into the seal oil reservoir. 't then flows
into the vacuum tan0 compartment where gases and vapor are liberated from the oil.
The oil is then drawn from the bottom of the vacuum tan0 through a differential
pressure regulator to maintain the oil seals.
"roosite #obsolete& - previously unresolvable rapidly etching fine aggregate of
carbide and ferrite produced either by tempering martensite at low temperature or
by -uenching a steel at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate. 6referred
terminology for the first product is tempered martensite; for the latter, fine pearlite.
"rowel Steel - #ardened and tempered spring steel. .:4 to *.4D carbon content.
5rdinary tolerances, but rolled extra flat -- @oc0well C D4. ;sed in the manufacture
of plastering trowels.
"r!c%loa - -uantities of commodities, including primary and secondary metals,
that amount to as much as ==,444 pounds each, which is the standard weight limit
on ;.$. highways.
"r!ss S'ring Steel - $upplied cold rolled and bright annealed. Carbon content
about .74 -- /anganese .7=. /ust be formed very severely and must be as free as
possible from decarburization.
""" C!rve - n abbreviation ot Time Temperature Transformation Curve.
"!be Bloom - This term is not recommended. The term (Tube $toc0) is preferred.
"!be Stoc% - semifinished tube suitable for the production of drawn tube.
"!be) Alcla - Composite tube composed of an aluminum alloy core habing on
either the inside or outside surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum
alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core
against corrosion.
"!be)Arc-Wele - Tube made from sheet or plate but welded by either gas-
tungsten or gas-metal arc-welding method with or without the use of filler metal.
"!be) Bra0e - tube produced by forming and seambrazing sheet.
"!be) B!tt-Wele - welded tube, the seam of which is formed by positioning on
edge of the sheet against the other for welding.
"!be) /rawn - tube brought to final dimensions by cold drawing through a die.
(1oteE this product may be produced from either seamless or non-seamless extruded
stoc0 or from welded stoc0".
"!be) Embosse - tube the outside surface of which has been roll-embossed with
a design in relief regularly repeated in a longitudinal direction.
"!be) E1tr!e - tube formed by not extruding. (1oteE This product may be
either seamless or non-seamless."
"!be) *inne - Tube which has integral fins or pro<ections protruding from its
outside surface.
"!be) *l!te - tube or nominally uniform wall thic0ness having regular,
longitudinal,concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations.
"!be) +eat-E1change - tube for use in apparatus in which fluid inside the tube
will be heated or cooled by fluid outside the tube. The term usually is not applied to
coiled tube or to tubes for use in refrigerators. (1oteE this product is typically
seamless drawn tube."
"!be) +elical-Wele - welded tube produced by winding the sheet to form a
closed helix and <oining the edges of the seam by welding
"!be) .a'-Wele - welded tube the seam of which is formed by longitudinally
lapping the edges of the sheet for welding
"!be) .oc%-Seam - tube produced by forming and mechanically loc0-seaming
sheet.
"!be) 4'en-Seam - shape normally produced from sheet of nominally uniform
wall thic0ness and approximately fubular form but having a longitudinal un<ointed
seam or gap of width not greater than 8D percent of the outside diameter or greatest
over-all dimension. lso referred to as (%utt-$eam Tube.)
"!be) Reraw - This term is not recommended. The term (Tube $toc0) is preferred.
"!be) Seamless - tube that does not contain any line <unctures (metallurgical
welds" resulting from the method of maufacture. (1oteE This product may be
produced by die and mandrel or by hot piecer processes. Tube produced by porthole
die extrusion, bridge die extrusion or welding processes aare generally considered
(1on-$eamless.)"
"!be) Si0e - tube that, after extrusion, has been cold drawn a slight amount to
minimize ovality.
"!be) Ste''e /rawn - drawn tube whose cross section changes abruptly in area
at intervals slong its length.
"!be) Str!ct!ral - Tube c ommonly used for structural purposes
"!be) Wele - tube produced by forming and seam-welding sheet longitudinally
"!be - hollow wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is
symetrical and is round, a regular hexagon or octagon, elliptical, or s-uare or
rectangular with sharp or round corners, and that has uniform wall thic0ness except
as affected by corner radii.
"!bing-Electrical Metallic - tube having certain standardized length and
combinations of outside diameter and wall thic0ness thinner than that of (@igid
conduit,) commonly designated by nominal electrical trade sizes, for use with
compression-type fittings as a protection for the electric wiring
"!bing - 3hen referring to 5CT!, tubing is a separate pipe used within the casing
to conduct the oil or gas to the surface. .epending on conditions and well life, tubing
may have to be replaced during the operational life of a well.
"!b!lar Con!ctor - tubular product suitable for use as an electric conductor.
"!,,riing - form of surface hardening, the process involves nitrogen but does not
achieve the hardness of conventional nitriding. Tu0on #ardness Test method for
determining microhardness by using a Inoop diamond indenter or Mic0ers s-uare-
base pyramid indenter.
"!mbling - The process for removing scale from forgings in a rotating container by
means of impact with each other and abrasive particles and small bits of metal.
process for removing scale and roughness from forgings by impact with each other,
together with abrasive material in a rotating container.
"!nish - The reservoir at the top of the continuous caster into which molten steel
is poured.
"!ngsten - Chemical symbol 3. 9lement 1o. 7= of the periodic system; atomic
weight *+B.:8. !ray metal of high tensile strength, ductile and malleable when
specially handled. 't is immune to atmospheric influences and most acids, but not to
strong al0alis. The metal is used as filament and in thin sheet form in incandescent
bulbs and radio tubes. (*" &orms hard abrasion -- resistant particles in tool steels.
(8" 6romotes hardness and strength at elevated temperatures.
"!nnel *!rnace - Type of furnace whereby stoc0 to be heated is placed upon cars
which are then pushed or pulled slowly through the furnace.
"!rbine - $team driven mechanical device used to drive a piece of machinery.
"!rning - method for removing the surface from a cicular piece by bringing the
cutting edge of a tool against it while the piece is rotated.
"!rning Gear - motor used to rotate the shaft when the generator is down. The
turning gear prevents the shaft from warping.
"!rntable - The base on which a centrifugal casting mold rests.
"win - Two portions of a crystal having a definite orientation relationship; one may
be regarded as the parent, the other as the twin. The orientation of the twin is either
a mirror image of the orientation of the parent across a twinning plane or an
orientation that can be derived by rotating the twin portion about a twinning axis.
"win) /e,ormation - twinned region produced by a shear li0e distortion of the
parent crystal structure during deformation. 'n ferrite, deformation twins form on
Y8**Z planes.
"wist - condition wherin a transverse axis held in the plane of the strip would
rotate about the longitundianl axis when moved along the strip.
"wo-+igh Mill - stand having only two rolls. $ome two-high mi<lls are reversing
with screw-downs to ad<ust the rolls; others are one way only and may or may not
have srew-downs for roll ad<ustment and may or may not be a part of continuous
mill.
"wo-tone - sharp color demarcation in the appearance of the metal due to a
difference in the wor0 roll coating.
"y'e / - %ase-metal steel, aluminum 0illed; sometimes re-uired to minimize severe
fluting and stretcher strain hazards for severe drawing applications.
"ac% Wels - $mall scattered welds made to hold parts of a weld in proper
alignment while the final welds are being made.
"anem Mill - rrangement of rolling mills, in direct line, allowing the metal to pass
from one set of rolls into the next.
"a''ing - Transferring molten metal from melting furnace to ladle.
"arnish - $urface discoloration on a metal, usually from a thin film of oxide or
sulfide.
"eeming - 6ouring metal into ingot molds.
"eeming - 6ouring molten metal from a ladle into ingot molds. The term applies
particularly to the specific operation of pouring either iron or steel into ingot molds.
"elesco'ing - Transverse slipping of successive layers of a coil so that the edge of
the coil is conical rather than flat.
"em'er - (*" 'n heat treatment, re-heating hardened steel or hardened steel or
hardened cast iron to some temperature below the eutectoid temperature for the
purpose of decreasing the hardness and increasing the toughness. The process also
is sometimes applied to normalized steel. (8" 'n tool steels, temper is sometimes
used, but inadvisedly, to denote the carbon content. (B" 'n nonferrous alloys and in
some ferrous alloys (steels that cannot be hardened by heat treatment", the
hardness and strength produced by mechanical or thermal treatment, or both, and
characterized by a certain structure, mechanical properties, or reduction in area
during cold wor0ing.
"em'er Brittleness - reversible increase in the ductile-brittle transition
temperature in steels heated in, or slowly cooled through, the temperature range
from about 744 to **44 & (B7D to D7D C".
"em'er Brittleness - %rittleness that results when certain steels are held within, or
are cooled slowly through, a certain range of temperature below the transformation
range. The brittleness is revealed by notched-bar impact tests at or below room
temperature.
"em'er Rolling - Aight cold rolling of sheet steel. The operation is performed to
improve flatness, to minimize the formation of stretcher strains, and to obtain a
specified hardness or temper.
"em'ering - @e-heating a -uench-hardened or normalized ferrous alloy to a
temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired.
"em'ering - 'n heat treatment, re-heating hardened steel to some temperature
below the * temperature for the purpose of decreasing hardness and,or increasing
toughness. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel.
"ensile Strength - 'n tensile testing, the ratio of the maximum force sustained to
the original cross-sectional area.
"ensile Strength - 'n tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross-
sectional area. lso called ultimate strength.
"ensile Strength #Also calle !ltimate strength& - %rea0ing strength of a
material when sub<ected to a tensile (stretching" force. ;sually measured by placing
a standard test piece in the <aws of a tensile machine, gradually separating the <aws,
and measuring the stretching force necessary to brea0 the test piece. Tensile
strength is commonly expressed as pounds (or tons" per s-uare inch of original cross
section.
"ernary Alloy - n alloy that contains three principal elements.
"hermal Analysis - method of studying transformations in metal by measuring
the temperatures at which thermal arrests occur.
"hermoco!'le - device for measuring temperatures by the use of two dissimilar
metals in contact; the <unction of these metals gives rise to a measurable electrical
potential with changes in temperature.
"hree--!arter +ar "em'er - (" 'n stainless steel strip tempers are based on a
minimum tensile or yield strength. &or Chromium-1ic0el grades three--uarter hard
temper is *7D,444 T.$., *BD,444 J.$. min. (%" 'n %rass mill terminology, this temper
is three %Namp;$ numbers hard or 8:.=G thic0ness reduction.
"in $late Base Bo1 - Tin 6late %ase %ox is measured in terms of pounds per %ase
%ox (**8 sheets *= x 84" a unit peculiar to the tin industry. This corresponds to it?s
area of sheet totaling to B*.BF4 s-uare inches of any gage and is applied to tin plate
weighing from DD to 87D pounds per base box. To convert to decimal thic0ness
multiply weight per base box by .444**.
"in $lating - 9lectroplating metal ob<ects with tin; the ob<ect to be coated is made
cathode (negative electrode" in an electrolytic bath containing a decomposable tin
salt.
"inning - Coating with tin, commonly either by immersion into molten tin or by
electro-deposition; also by spraying.
"olerance .imit - The permissible deviation from the desired value.
"ong +ol - The portion of a forging billet, usually on one end, that is gripped by
the operator?s tongs. 't is removed from the part at the end of the forging operation.
Common to drop-hammer and press-type forging.
"ool Steel - ny high carbon or alloy steel capable of being suitably tempered for
use in the manufacture of tools.
"orsion - twisting action resulting in shear stresses and strains.
"o!ghness - 6roperty of resisting fracture or distortion. ;sually measured by impact
test, high impact values indicating high toughness.
"o!ghness - Capacity of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before
fracturing.
"o!ghness - bility of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before
fracturing. 't is usually measured by the energy absorbed in a notch impact test, but
the area under the stress-strain curve in tensile testing is also a measure of
toughness.
"race - 9xtremely small -uantity of an element, usually too small to determine
-uantitatively.
"rans,ormation - constitutional change in a solid metal, e.g., the change from
gamma to alpha iron, or the formation of pearlite from austenite.
"rans,ormation Range - Temperature range over which a chemical or metallurgical
change ta0es place.
"rans,ormation Ranges #"rans,ormation "em'erat!re Ranges& - Those
ranges of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms
during cooling. The two ranges are distinct, sometimes overlapping but never
coinciding. The limiting temperatures of the ranges depend on the composition of the
alloy and on the rate of change of temperature, particularly during cooling.
"rans,ormation "em'erat!re - The temperature at which a change in phase
occurs. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a
transformation range. The following symbols are used for iron and steelsE c(cm" 'n
hypereutectoid steel, the temperature at which the solution of cementite in
austentite is completed during heating. c* The temperature at which austenite
begins to form during heating. cB The temperature at which transformation of
ferrite to austenite is completed during heating. . c= The temperature at which
austenite transforms to delta ferrite during heating. . e(cm" e* eB e= The
temperatures of phase changes at e-uilibrium. . r(cm" 'n hypereutectoid steel, the
temperature at which precipitation of cementite starts during cooling. . r* The
temperature at which transformation of austenite to ferrite or to ferrite plus
cementite is completed during cooling. . rB The temperature at which austenite
begins to transform to ferrite during cooling. . r= The temperature at which delta
ferrite transforms to austentie during cooling. . /(s" (or r" The temperature at
which transformation of austenite to martensite starts during cooling. . /(f" The
temperature at which martensite formation finishes during cooling. .15T9E ll these
changes except the formation of martensite occur at lower temperatures during
cooling than during heating, and depend on the rate of change of temperature.
"rans,ormation "em'erat!re - The temperature at which a change in phase
occurs. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a
transformation range. The following symbols are usedE -*-The temperature of the
eutectoid transformation. -B- The temperature at which pro-eutectiod ferrite begins
to separate from austenite under conditions of slow cooling. . -cm- The temperature
at which pro-eutectoid cementite begins to separate from austenite under conditions
of slow cooling. /(f"- The temperature at which transformation of austenite to
martensite finishes during cooling. . /(s"-The temperature at which transformation
of austenite to martensite starts during cooling.
"rans,ormation "em'erat!re - The temperature at which transformation occurs.
The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation
range.
"ransition "em'erat!re #!ctile-brittle transition tem'erat!re - n arbitrarily
defined temperature that lies within the temperature range in which metal fracture
characteristics (as usually determined by tests of notched specimens" change
rapidly, such as from primarily fibrous (shear" to primarily cleavage.
"ransverse - Aiterally, ?across?, usually signifying a direction or plane perpendicular
to the direction of wor0ing.
"re'anning - type of boring where an annular cut is made into a solid material
with the coincidental formation of a plug or solid cylinder.
"ri'le $oint - The intersection of the boundaries of three ad<oining grains, as
observed in a section.
"roosite - Tempered martensite that etches rapidly, usually appears dar0, and is not
resolved by the microscope.
"!%on +arness "est - method for determining microhardness by using a Inoop
diamond indenter or Mic0ers s-uare-base pyramid indenter.
"!mbling - Cleaning articles by rotating them in a cylinder with cleaning materials.
"!ngsten Carbie - Compound of tungsten and carbon, of composition varying
between 3C and 3(8"C; imbedded in a matrix of soft metal, such as cobalt,
extensively used for $intered Carbide Tools.
"win) Annealing - twin produced as the result of heat treatment.
"win) Crystal - portion of a crystal in which the lattice is a mirror image of the
lattice of the remainder of the crystal.
"wist - winding departure from flatness.
: - Chemical symbol for ;ranium.
:.S.S. Ga!ge - gauge system used for carbon steels but not appropriate for
stainless steels where thic0ness is specified in decimals. #owever, salesperson
should always -uestion customer when unsure as to whether ;.$.$. or decimal is
being specified. &or example, *F gauge for ;.$.$. is .4D+) not .4*F). ;.$.$. does not
stand for ;lbrich $tainless $teel.
:ltimate Analysis - 'n chemistry, this is a -uantitive analysis in which percentages
of all elements in the substance are determined.
:ltimate "ensile Strength - The highest load applied in brea0ing a tensile test
piece devided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece.
:ltimate Strength - --The maximum conventional stress, tensile, compressive, or
shear, that a material can withstand.
:ltrasonic Cleaning - 'mmersion cleaning aided by ultrasonic waves which cause
microagitation.
:ltrasonic (ns'ection - means of locating defects in steel. 3hen acoustic energy
in the ultrasonic range is passed through steel, the sound waves tend to travel in
straight lines, rather than diffusing in all directions as they do in the audible range. 'f
there is a defect in the path of the beam it will cause a reflection of some of the
energy, depleting the energy transmitted. This casts an acoustic shadow which can
be monitered by a detector placed opposite the transducer or energy source. 'f the
acoustic energy is introduced as a very short burst, then the reflected energy coming
bac0 to the originating transducer can also be used to show the size and depth of the
defect. ;ltrsonic techni-ues can be used to detect deeply located defects or those
contained in the surface layer. $0ill and experience are re-uired in interpreting the
results portrayed on the cathode ray tube.
:ltrasonic "esting - nondestructive test applied to sound-conductive materials
having elastic properties for the purpose of locating inhomogeneities or structural
discontinuities within a material by means of an ultrasonic beam.
:ltrasonic Waves - 3aves of ultrasonic fre-uency. They include longitudinal,
transverse, surface, and standing waves.
:ncover "em'erat!re - The temperature of the coil after processing at the batch
anneal - approx. *+4 degrees.
:nercooling - $ee $upercooling
:nerc!re - (%loc0ing" 'f the initial cure is carried out below that necessary for full
polymerization undercure may result in subse-uent >bloc0ing> or stic0ing of coated
sheets.
:nerwin - $teel strip that comes off of the bottom of the coil on the entry reel
into the side trimmer.
:nerwra' - The direction which coils are being wrapped or unwrapped. 'f coil is
underwrapping the reel is turning and the steel is fed from the bottom.
:n%ille Steel - wild steel insufficiently deoxidized so that it evolves gas and
blowholes during solidification.
:3S - .efines the chemical analysis (;nified 1umbering $ystem" as a <oint
responsibility of the $9 and $T/.
:'graing - 'n castings, the removal and repair of discontinuities to raise the
-uality level of the casting beyond that which can be economically achieved by good
foundry practice.
:'en *orging - forging in which the metal is so placed in the die that the
direction of the fiber structure is at aright angles to the faces of the die.
:''er @iel $oint #also @iel $oint& - .enoted in yield point phenomenon as a
distinct brea0 from the elastic region accompanied by a drop in load, yet prior to
plastic deformation in the stress-strain curve in a low-carbon steel.
:'set - 3or0ing metal in such a manner that the cross-sectional area of a portion or
all of the stoc0 is increased and length is decreased.
:'set *orging - forging obtained by upset of a suitable length of bar, billet or
bloom; formed by heading or gathering the material by pressure upon hot or cold
metal between dies operated in a horizontal plane.
:'setter #*orging Machine& - machine, with horizontal action, used for ma0ing
upset forgings.
:'setting - (*" metal wor0ing operation similar to forging. (8" The process of
axial flow under axial compression of metal, as in forming heads on rivets by
flattening the end of wire.
:rani!m - white malleable metal which is softer than steel. 'ts specific gravity is
*+.7, it melts at a temperature of 8=44oC.
:rea *ormalehye Resin - thermosetting product of condensation from urea or
thio-urea and formaldehyde, soluble in water and used as a sand binder in core and
mold compounds.
:se Beverage Cans - (;%Cs" scrap aluminum beverage cans, although sometimes
applied to steel cans as well (steel has a microscopic share of the beverage can
mar0et in merica but a much larger share in 9urope and elsewhere".
:ltimate Strength - The maximum conventional stress, tensile, compressive, or
shear, that a material can withstand.
:ltrasonic *re;!ency - fre-uency, associated with elastic waves, that is greater
than the highest audible fre-uency, generally regarded as being higher than *D 0c
per sec.
:niversal Mill - rolling mill in which rolls with a vertical axis roll the edges of the
metal stoc0 between some of the passes through the horizontal rolls.
:'set - (*" The localized increase in cross-sectional area resulting from the
application of pressure during mechanical fabrication or welding. (8" That portion of
welding cycle during which the cross-sectional area is increased by the application of
pressure.
:tility Sheet Al!min!m - /ill finish coiled or flat sheet of unspecified composition
and properties produced in specific standard sizes and suitable for general building
trade usage.
9ac!!m Arc Remelting A 'rocess !se ,or 'ro!cing avance steels to the
most emaning an critical s'eci,ications) 'aartic!larly in s!ch areas as
aeros'ace a''lications. "he steel is ,irst 'ro!ce to a very close analysis
an the res!lting ingot is sl -
9ac!!m - negative pressure that pulls the exhaust steam out of a turbine.
9ac!!m Annealing - Macuum is best characterized as a lac0 of atmosphere (i.e.
air,oxygen or other gases". #ence when metals or alloys are heated to high
temperatures in a vacuum furnace, there is essentially no oxygen present to oxidize
and discolor the surface of the material. ;nfortunately, vacuum annealing is not
condusive to strand annealing (i.e. uncoiling, heating and recoiling". Titanium rolled
;lbrich is annealed in coil form in vacuum furnaces by outside heat treaters.
9ac!!m Arc Remelting A 'rocess !se ,or 'ro!cing avance steels to the
most emaning an critical s'eci,ications) 'aartic!larly in s!ch areas as
aeros'ace a''lications. "he steel is ,irst 'ro!ce to a very close analysis
an the res!lting ingot is sl - 1;AA
9ac!!m Brea%er - valve used to brea0 the vacuum on the exhaust of a turbine.
9ac!!m Casting - casting in which metal is melted and poured under very low
atmospheric pressure; a form of permanent mold casting where the mold is inserted
into li-uid metal, vacuum is applied, and metal drawn up into the cavity.
9ac!!m /egassing - n advanced steel refining facility that removes oxygen,
hydrogen and nitrogen under low pressures (in a vacuum" to produce ultra-low-
carbon steel for demanding electrical and automotive applications. 1ormally
performed in the ladle, the removal of dissolved gases results in cleaner, higher-
-uality, more pure steel
9ac!!m 41ygen /ecarb!ri0ation #94/& - >3#T 6rocess for further refinement
of stainless steel through reduction of carbon content. 3#J The amount of carbon in
stainless steel must be lower than that in carbon steel or lower alloy steel (i.e., steel
with alloying element content below DG". 3hile electric arc furnaces (9&" are the
conventional means of melting and refining stainless steel, M5. is an economical
supplement, as operating time is reduced and temperatures are lower than in 9&
steelma0ing. dditionally, using M5. for refining stainless steel increases the
availability of the 9& for melting purposes. #53 /olten, unrefined steel is
transferred from the 9& into a separate vessel, where it is heated and stirred by an
electrical current while oxygen enters from the top of the vessel. $ubstantial
-uantities of undesirable gases escape from the steel and are drawn off by a vacuum
pump. lloys and other additives are then mixed in to refine the molten steel further.
>
9ac!!m Re,ining - /elting in a vacuum, usually by electrical induction, to remove
gaseous contaminants from the metal.
9anai!m - Chemical symbol M. 9lement 1o. 8B of the periodic system; atomic
weight D4.:D. !ray-white, hard metal, unaffected by atmospheric influences or
al0alis but soluble in most strong acids; melting point B**: (degrees" &.; boiling
point about F*D4 (degrees" &.; specific gravity D.+7. 't cannot be electrodeposited.
'ts principal functions as an alloy in the ma0ing of tool steels. (*" 9levates
coarsening temperature of austenite (promotes fine grain". (8" 'ncreases
hardenability (when dissolved" (B" @esists tempering and causes mar0ed secondary
hardening.
9arnish - colorless, transparent finish applied over a decorative system to protect
the substrate and in0s and improve gloss.
9ARS - (or IM@" ;nit used to measure the part of the electrical power that is used
to magnetize the iron in an electrical motor or transformer so that the motor or
transformer will wor0. Jou get no wor0 output from M@$, but they are always in the
circuit.
9egetable 4ils - 5ils extracted from plants, used as drying oils in oil core
manufacture. Ainseed oil is an example.
9eins - discontinuity on the surface of a casting appearing as a raised, narrow,
linear ridge that forms upon crac0ing of the sand mold or core due to expansion of
the sand during filling of the mold with molten metal.
9ent Mar% - small protrusion on a forging resulting from the entrance of metal
into a die vent hole.
9enting - 6erforation with a vent wire of the sand over and around a mold cavity to
assist in the escape of the gases.
9ent!ri "hroat /am'ers - 1orth and $outh. Common to both boilers.
9ent!ri 9alve - Malve that contains nozzled openings arranged in a BF4 %4 pattern,
which is often referred to as a doughnut due to its shape. 3ater is fed through the
Menturi at a high-pressure level and the water flow develops suction on the line that
can be used for various purposes.
9ent!ris - 6erform the primary scrubbing of waste gases, by introducing water to
waste heat gases.
9ertical A1is Casting Machine - centrifugal casting machine in which the axis of
rotation of the mold is vertical.
9essel Cover - (also called ?#ood?" $ection of the boiler tubes that are located
directly over the steel ma0ing vessel. The tubes are in the entry area of the heat and
waste gases during steel ma0ing.
9ibrator Ree Steel - #ardened, tempered and white polished wxtra precision
rolled. Carbon content about *.44. $teel must withstand great fatigue stresses.
9icers /iamon $yrami +arness "ester - 6atented indentation hardness
machine. $ee #ardness
9ic%ers +arness #"est& - $tandard method for measuring the hardness of metals,
particularly those with extremely hard surfaces; the surface is sub<ected to a
standard pressure for a standard length of time by means of a pyramid shaped
diamond. The diagonal of the resulting indention is measured under a microscope
and the Mic0ers #ardness value read from a conversion table.
9inyl - Minyl resins are copolymers with vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate as the ma<or
film formers. They offer toughness, flexibility, and adhesion and are considered
flavor-free.
9inyl Al%y - type of resin consisting of a physical mixture of vinyl with al0yd to
improve performance characteristics such as flexibility.
9irbrator - device, operated by compressed air of electricity, for loosening and
withdrawing patterns from a mold, or for vibrating a hopper or chute to promote the
flow of material from the hopper or chute.
9iscosity - The resistance of fluid substance to flowing, -uantitatively characteristic
for an individual substance at a given temperature and under other definite external
conditions.
9oi - shrin0age cavity produced in casting during solidification.
9olt - ;nit of measurement that describes the difference in potential between two
points in a circuit. The greater the difference in potential, the more push the
electrons that are flowing in the circuit have.
9ol!ntary Restraint Agreements #9RAs& - compromise reached between the
;.$. government and foreign steel-exporting nations. 'nstead of the ;nited $tates
imposing punitive duties on subsidized steel imports, the foreigners would
>voluntarily> limit their steel exports to the ;nited $tates.
9oss - Aeveler on all three galvanizing lines; series of rolls that flatten the strip.
9oss .eveler - set of rolls that flattens and stretches the strip into a flat shape.
9acancy - type of structural imperfection in which an individual atom site is
temporarily unoccupied.
9ac!!m Melting - /elting in a vacuum to prevent contamination from air, as well
as to remove gases already dissolved in the metal; the solidification may also be
carried out in a vacuum or at low pressure.
9eining - type of sub-boundary structure that can be delineated because of the
presence of a greater-than-average concentration of precipitate or solute atoms.
9irgin Metal - /etal obtained directly from ore and not used before.
W - Chemical symbol for Tungsten, from wolfram.
Wal%ing Beam - means of conveying steel bars, billets, slabs, etc., across a
cooling bed or through a furnace. The material to be conveyed rests on a metal grid
and a second grid is arranged to lift up and move forward between the stationary
grid, thus lifting the material and >wal0ing> it forward, before returning to ma0e
another stro0e.
Wal%ing Beam *!rnace - type of continuous reheat furnace in which the billet or
slab moves through distinct heating zones within the furnaceE %y controlling the
speed through the zones, steelma0ers can achieve precise rolling temperatures and
consume less fuel during operation.
Waloon $rocess - n early two-hearth process for ma0ing wrought iron by refining
cast iron. The conversion proper was carried out in a hearth furnace 0nown as a
finery; re-heating for forging was carried out in a second hearth furnace 0nown as a
chafery.
War'age - .eformation other than contraction that develops in a casting between
solidification and room temperature; also, distortion occurring during annealing,
stress relieving, and high-temperature service.
Wash - casting defect resulting from erosion of sand by metal flowing over the
mold or corded surfaces. They appear as rough spots and excess metal on the
casting surface. lso call cuts.
Washb!rn Core - thin core which constricts the riser at the point of attachment to
the casting. The thin core heats -uic0ly and promotes feeding of the casting. @iser
removal cost is minimized.
Waste +eat - The heat produced by the steel-ma0ing process, which is used to heat
the boilers and produce steam.
Waster Coil - coil with a weight greater than D444 lbs. that does not meet
customer specifications and cannot be sold as a prime coil. These coils get an index
number of +444**.
Wasters - $heets that have prohibitive defects, for example, seams and buc0led
plates. !enerally fit for re-melting purposes only.
Watch Main S'ring Steel - ;sually supplied cold rolled and annealed in large
widths and cut and hardened by the spring manufacturers. Carbon content about
*.*D and Tungsten .*7, extra precision rolled.
Water Base - (-ueous" coating in which the film forming ingredients are
dissolved in or suspended in a volatile system containing water as the ma<or solvent.
Water Col!mn - .evice to which the water glass is mounted. The water column is
connected to the top and bottom of the steam drum through piping and the water
see0s the same level in the column as it is in the boiler. This coupled with the water
glass and level controller allows the water level in the boiler to be controlled and
measured.
Water Glass - The water glass is mounted to the water column and has a series of
vertical buttons which change color from green to red to indicate the level of water in
the column. !reen represents water and red indicates steam. This allows for visual
observation of the water level in the boiler at all times.
Water .ance - pipe connected by a hose to a water supply. The lance is used to
wash slag from the boiler tubes.
Water "est - To sub<ect a casting to water pressure in such a manner that any
porous areas will show lea0age.
Watt #or 2W& - 't is the part of the electrical power that actually does the wor0 or
gets consumed in a circuit. To find watts, multiply the current times the voltage
times the power factor.
Wave - 5ut-of-flat condition generally introduced during cold-rolling of metal or alloy
coils. 9dge waves are more common and generally can be minimized by allowing for
(dropping a cut) during edge slitting. 't is also possible to produce wavy edges
during slitting.
Wavy - 1ot flat. slight wave following the direction of rolling and beyond the
standard limitation for flatness.
Wavy Eges - term used to describe a -uality defect in which the edge of the
strip is wavy.
Wa1 $attern - *" precise duplicate, allowing for shrin0age, of the casting and
re-uired gates, usually formed by pouring or in<ecting molten wax into a die or mold,
8" wax molded around the parts to be welded by a termite welding process.
Wear - The undesired deterioration of a component by the removal of material from
its surface.
Web - (*" single thic0ness of foil as it leaves the rolling mill. (8" connecting
element between ribs, flanges, or bosses on profile and forgings.
Wege - 'n any given coil the variance in width from one edge to the opposite edge.
%ecause ;$$/ buys narrow width (*8) to *=)" coils slit from wider coils, the wedge
effect presents an on-going problem in shape and gauge control.
Wege Roll - roll used to stabilize the plate as it enters the slitter 0nife area.
Weigh-Stri'-Weigh - coating weight test.
Weirbrite Clear - dried-in-place chromate treatment applied to 3eirzin to provide
a bright finish and excellent corrosion protection for non-painted applications.
Weirchrome - (or tin free steel" lso 9lectrolytic Chromium Coated $heets (9CC$"
or T&$. Aight-gauge, low-carbon, cold reduced steel on which chromium and oxides
of chromium have been electrodeposited; primarily used for drawn applications, can
ends and closures.
Weirchrome - 3eirton $teel trade name for 9lectrolytically Chrome Coated $heet
(9CC$"; $ee 9lectrolytic Chrome Coated $heets.
Weirite - $ingle reduced product.
Weirlite Mill - cold reduction rolling mill which further reduces (84 to =DG" the
gauge of steel that has already been reduced at the tandem mill and has been
annealed. This mill is used to produce double reduced (.@" tin mill products at 3$C.
Weir0in - 9lectrolytic zinc coated steel. Coating weights range from 4.48D oz.,s-. ft
to 4.84 oz., s-, ft. This can be given a variety of post treatments to enhance
corrosion resistance and paintability.
Wel) (ncom'lete - The <unction line of metal that has passed through a die
forming a hollow profile (shape", seperated and not completely refoined. &lare
testing is a method of evaluating weld integrity
Wel Bea - The built-up portion of a fusion weld, formed either from the filler
metal or the melting of the parent metal.
Wel .ine - $ee ($eam,9xtrusion.)
Wel "ic%et - red or green tic0et used to identify location of a weld in a coil.
These tic0ets are placed in the sidewall of a coil while the coil is being produced.
Welability - The feasibility of welding a particular metal or alloy. number of
factors affect weldability including chemistry,surface finish,heat-treating tendencies,
etc.
Weler Boar - >;> shaped wooden trough used to guide hand welder
Weler Bo1 - $pecial electrical outlet receptacle to accommodate plug from hand
welder. Aocated at several places throughout the line.
Weler Clam's - .evices used to hold the strip securely in place while a weld is
being made.
Weler $inch Roll - roll located on the B-high tower used to run the strip into and
out of the welder.
Weler Stic% - tool used to lift and hold the edge of the strip to be welded. This
purpose is to chec0 the alignment of the edges.
Weling Electroe - metal or alloy in rod or wire forms used in electric arc
welding to maintain the arc and at the same time supply molten metal or alloy at the
point where the weld is to be accomplished.
Weling *lash - $0in exposed too long to the ultraviolet rays of welding or melting
arcs will burn as in a sunburn. Though temporary blindness can result, it is not
permanent, as is popularly believed.
Weling Ro - rolled, extruded or cast round filler metal for use in <oining by
welding.
Weling Shiele-Arc - 9lectric-arc welding in which the molten weld metal is
protected from the atmosphere. n inert gaseous atmosphere or fluxcoated electrode
may be employed.
Weling Stress - That stress resulting from localized heating and cooling of metal
during welding.
Weling) Arc - 3elding accomplished by using an electric arc that can be formed
between a metal or carbon electrode and the metal being welded; between two
separate electrodes, as in atomic hydrogen welding or between the two separate
pieces being welded, as in flash welding.
Weling) A!togeno!s - /ethod of uniting two pieces of metal by melting their
edges together without solder or any added welding metal, as by the thermite
process that employs a medium of finely divided aluminum powder and oxide or iron
by which a temperature of some 8:+8.8 %4C (D=44 %4&" is obtained.
Well level - The amount of water that is in the pump hole. 't is measured in feet.
Wet *ilm "hic%ness - 3et film thic0ness can be measured using the 6&und !auge.
spherical section of glass is pressed into the wet coating. The diameter of the spot
is measured in mm and wet film thic0ness correlated to dry film thic0ness.
Wet Scr!bber #Gas Washer& - 'n air pollution control, a li-uid (usually water"
spray device for collecting pollutants in escaping foundry gases.
Wettability "est - The degree to which a metal that has passed through a die
forming a hollow profile (shape", separated and not completely re<oined. &lare
testing is a method of evaluating weld integrity.
Wetting - phenomenon involving a solid and a li-uid in such intimate contact that
the adhesive force between the two phases is greater than the cohesive force within
the li-uid. Thus a solid that is wetted, on being removed from the li-uid bath, will
have a thin continuous layer of li-uid adherring to it. &oreign substances such as
grease may prevent wetting. ddition agents, such as detergents, may induce
wetting by lowering the surface tension of the li-uid.
Whis%ers - Thin hair-li0e growths on metal that are barely visible to the na0ed eye,
they are stronger than the metals from which they are formed,probably because
they are free from defects.
White Annealing - heat treatment process carried out on pic0led steel with the
ob<ective of eliminating the hydrogen that has entered the steel during the pic0ling
operation thus removing any tendency to hydrogen embrittlement.
White (ron - cast that is essentially free of graphite and most of the carbon
content is present as separate grains of hard &eBC. white iron exhibits a
white,crystalline fracture surface because fracture occurs along the iron carbide
platelets.
White R!st - coating metal oxide, such as zinc oxide, which develops when the
oxygen in the atmosphere mixes with the coating material (such as galvanized
coating". $ee $acrificial %arrier.
White "ic%et - Tic0et used to identify coil. The white tic0et contains the coil '6/
number, and is placed in the sidewall of the coil.
Wie-*lange Beam - structural steel section on which the flanges are not
tapered, but have e-ual thic0ness from the tip to the web and are at right angles to
the web. 3ide-flange beams are differentiated by the width of the web, which can
range from B inches to more than =4 inches, and by the weight of the beam,
measured in pounds per foot.
Wimanstatten Str!ct!re - structure characterized by a geometric pattern
resulting from the formation of a new phase on certain crystallographic planes in the
parent phase. The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related
cystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase.
With 9ariation - 6roduct whose width fluctuates above and below the customer?s
finished width tolerance.
Withs - The lateral dimension of rolled steel, as opposed to the length or the gauge
(thic0ness". 'f width of the steel strip is not controlled during rolling, the edges must
be trimmed.
Wil Steel - $teel which has not been completely deoxidized and reacts violently
after casting due to liberation of gases of cooling.
Winch /rive - (Clutch" hydraulic piston that applies pressure to clutch plates to
obtain the re-uired motor amperage, controlling loop tension on the winch drive.
Win Bo1 - The box-type structure of the boiler, located on the burner dec0 that
contains the fuel supply manifolds, burners and air registers. Combustion air is
delivered to the windbox where it is distributed by means of the air registers to all
four burners.
Wire) Alcla - composite wire product comprised of an aluminum-alloy wire
having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum-alloy coating
that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the
core alloy against corrosion
Wire)Col-+eating - 3ire -uality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold-
headed products such as ribets and bolts.
Wire) /rawn - 3ire brought to final dimensions by the drawing through a die.
Wire) E1tr!e - 3ire produced by hot extruding.
Wire)*lattene an Slit - &lattened wire that has been slit to obtain s-uare edges.
Wire)*lattene - 3ire having two parallel flat surfaces and round edges produced
by roll-flattening round wire
Wire - solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is
s-uare or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners or edges or is round, hexagonal
or octagonal and whose diameter or greatest perpendicular distance between parallel
faces is less than 4.B7D inch.
Wi0ar Control - Control used to set auto valves at specific points.
WMB) W+B an E1tra W+B Graes - $pring steel wires produced from aced open-
hearth steels.
Wol,ram - The alternative name for tungsten
Wooy *ract!re - fracture that is fibrous or woody in appearance due to the
elongation of the individual grains. This may be accentuated by the presence of slag
or by a banded structure. 't is grey and dull and is characteristic of ductile but non-
homogeneous material such as wrought iron
Woot0 - carbon steel containing * to *.FG C produced by melting a bloomery iron
or an inhomogeneous steel with charcoal in a crucible. The process originated in
'ndia as early as the Brd century ...
Wor% +arening - 'ncrease in resistance to deformation (i.e. in hardness" produced
by cold wor0ing. $ame as strain hardening
Wor% Roll Balance - Cylinders that supply the force used to hold the wor0 rolls up
in place.
Wor% Rolls - Two, smaller, rolls of a four-high stand of the 3eirlite /ills, Tandem
/ills, and the Temper /ills. These rolls, through the use of hydraulic pressure, are
responsible (along with the bac0up rolls" for the shape of the steel.
Wra') .oose - condition in a coil due to insufficient tension which creates a small
void between ad<acent wraps.
Wringer Rolls - set of rubber rolls that removes water or solution from the plate.
Wrin%ling - coating defect consisting of the formation of small ridges or folds in
the coating which resemble the surface of a prune, but are usually smaller in size.
Wro!ght (ron - n iron produced by direct reduction of ore or by refining molten
cast iron under conditions where a pasty mass of solid iron with included slag is
produced. The iron has a low carbon content.
Wro!ght Metals - n easily welded or forged metal containing approximately 4.8
percent carbon and total impurities less than 4.D percent.
Wro!ght $roc!t - product that has been sub<ected to mechanical wor0ing by
such process as rolling,extruding,forging,etc.
W!stite - The oxide of iron of lowest valence which exist over a wide range of
compositions they do not -uite include the stoichiometric composition &e5.
WC3 - 3eir zinc product from the W* 6later.
Water +arening - 6rocess of hardening high carbon steels by -uenching in water
or brine, after heating.
Wege - hardwood stic0 used as a forming tool in spinning.
Wel - union made by welding.
Wel Bea - deposit of filler metal from a single welding pass.
Welability - $uitability of a metal for welding under specific conditions.
Weling - process used to <oin metals by the application of heat. &usion welding,
which includes gas, arc, and resistance welding, re-uires that the parent metals be
melted. This distinguishes fusion welding from brazing. 'n pressure welding <oining is
accomplished by the use of heat and pressure without melting. The parts that are
being welded are pressed together and heated simultaneously, so that
recrystallization occurs across the interface.
Weling - Loining two or more pieces of material by applying heat or pressure, or
both, with or without filler metal, to produce a loxalized union through fusion or
recrystallization across the interface.
Wetting Agent - surface-active agent that produces wetting by decreasing the
cohesion within the li-uid.
Wimanstatten Str!ct!re - structure characterized by a geometrical pattern
resulting from the formation of a new phase along certain crystallographic planes of
the parent solid solution. The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related
crystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase. The structure
was originally observed in meteorites but is readily produced in many other alloys
with certain heat treatment.
WMB) W+B an E1tra W+B Graes - $pring steel wires produced from aced open-
hearth steels.
Wor% +arening - 'ncrease in resistance to deformation (i.e. in hardness" produced
by cold wor0ing.
Wor% +arening - $ame as strain hardening.
Wor%ability - The characteristic or group of characteristics that determines the ease
of forming a metal into desired shapes.
Wro!ght (ron - 'ron containing only a very small amount of other elements, but
containing *-BG by weight of slag in the form of particles elongated in one direction,
giving the iron a characteristic grain. 's more rust-resistant than steel and welds
more easily.
Wro!ght (ron - commercial iron consisting of slag (iron silicate" fibers entrained
in a ferrite matrix.
W!stite - The oxide of iron of lowest valence which exist over a wide range of
compositions the do not -uite include the stoichiometric composition &e5.
B-Ray - &orm of radiant energy with wavelength shorter than that of visible light and
with the ability to penetrate materials that absorb or reflect ordinary light. K-rays are
usually produced by bombarding a metallic target with electrons in a high vacuum.
'n nuclear reactions it is customary to refer to photons originating in the nucleus as
gamma rays and to those originating in the extranuclear part of the atom as x-rays.
B-Ray Crystallogra'hy - K-ray photographs of metals are a means of providing
information which in many cases cannot be obtained by microscopic methods. The
line produced by each element or phase are characteristic and their general pattern
enables the crystalline structure to be identified. The scale of the pattern can be used
to determine accurately the size of the unit cell and therefore the distance apart of
the individual atoms. &rom the relative intensity of the lines it is possible to deduce
the distribution throughout the unit cell, the various types of atoms in an alloy or the
degree of preferred orientation in the material.
B-Ray Ga!ge Recorer - 9-uipment used to produce a gauge chart that records
thic0ness measurements.
B-Ray Ga!ge :nit - 9-uipment used to measure thic0ness of steel. The unit is
positioned across the width of the strip on the entry end of the line.
B-Rays - Aight rays, excited usually by the impact of cathode rays on matter, which
have wave lengths between about *4-F cm, and *4-: cm; also written K-rays, same
as @oentgen rays.
@arways - measuring instrument used to monitor the water level of drums.
@ellow Brass - FDG copper and BDG zinc. lso 0nown as #igh %rass. copper-zinc
alloy, named for its yellow hue. &ormerly a very popular alloy, but now largely
replaced by Cartridge %rass.
@ellowing - coating defect consisting of a physical change of a coating in which
the color of the cured coating gets yellower as it ages, or after reba0ing.
@iel - >The ratio of the -uantity of finished shipments to the total raw steel
produced, ad<usted for changes in inventory and any slabs that are purchased from
outside. Jield has significantly improved during the past decade, primarily as the
result of the industry?s conversion to continually cast steel, whose yield is superior to
that of traditional ingot teeming. Tons of finished steel products, divided by total tons
of charged steel, as a percentage>
@iel o, a coil - &or non-standard grades of steel, price is affected by the weight
ordered. Jield of coil is the expected ship weight of a single coil of a particular type
of steel and is used in the calculation of price.
@iel $oint - The first stress in a material less than the maximum obtainable stess
at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. lso 0nown as
upper yield stress.
@iel $oint Elongation - Corresponds to a region of non-homogeneous deformation
when a sample is sub<ected to tensile testing.
@iel Ratio - The ratio of yield strength to ultimate tensile strength.
@iel Strength - The stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting
deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain. The deviation is expressed in
terms of strain. lso 0nown as proof stress.
@o!ng5s Mo!l!s - The coefficient of elasticity of stretching. &or a stretched wire,
Joung?s /odulus is the ratio of the stretching force per unit cross-sectional area to
the elongation per unit length. The values of Joung?s /odulus for metals are of the
order *4(*8" dynes per s-uare cm. $ee /odulus of 9lasticity
@iel $oint - The first stress in a material, usually less than the maximum attainable
stress, at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. 5nly
certain metals exhibit a yield point. 'f there is a decrease in stress after yielding, a
distinction may be made between upper and lower yield points.
@iel $oint - The load per unit of original cross section at which, in soft steel, a
mar0ed increase in deformation occurs without increase in load.
@iel Strength - The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from
propertionality of stress and strain. n offset of 4.8G is used for many metals.
@o!ng5s Mo!l!s - The coefficient of elasticity of stretching. &or a stretched wire,
Joung?s /odulus is the ratio of the stretching force per unit cross-sectional area to
the elongation per unit length. The values of Joung?s /odulus for metals are of the
order *4(*8" dynes per s-uare cm.
Cinc - Chemical $ymbol Rn. 9lement 1o. B4 of the periodic system; atomic weight
FD.B+. %lue-white metal; when pure, malleable and ductile even at ordinary
temperatures; melting point 7+7 (degrees" &.; boiling point *FFD (degrees" &.,
specific gravity 7.*=. Can be electrodeposited; it is extensively used as a coating for
steel and sheet zinc finds many outlets, such as dry batteries, etc. Rinc-base alloys
are of great importance in die casting. 'ts most important alloy is brass.
Circon - The mineral zircon silicate, Rr$i5=, a very high melting point acid refractory
material used as a molding material in steel foundries.
Circonia - Rr58 an acid refractory up to 8D44 %4C (=DB8 %4&" having good thermal
shoc0 resistance and low electrical resistively.
Circoni!m - $ilvery-white, metallic element, mp *+F4 %4C (BB+4 %4&", a powerful
deoxidizer when added to molten steel.
C-Mill - The full name for z-mill is $endzimir mill. R-mill operates with a very small
diameter wor0 roll, normally about 8 inches, bac0ed up by a number of rolls in a
pyramid-shaped stac0. This roll set up allows you to exert extremely high forces
through the wor0 roll and yet 0eep the wor0 roll from extreme flexing. The ta0e-up
roll on the R-/ill also exerts a tension on the coil as it comes through the mill. The
combination of high pressure and tension ma0es the mill capable of rolling material
thin and flat.
Cn - Chemical symbol for Rinc
Cr - Chemical symbol for Rirconium
CygloK. - method for nondestructive surface inspection of primarily non-magnetic
materials using fluorescent penetrants. Trade name of /agnaflux Corp.