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Education Journal

2014; 3(1): 7-14


Published online December 10, 2013 (http://!sciencepublishin""roup!com/#/edu)
doi: 10!11$4%/#!edu!20140301!12


The levels of readiness of science teacher candidates
regarding the strengths of binary, organic and oxy acids,
and their gains over the course of their educational
periods
Dilek elikler
Prim&r' (duc&tion Dep&rtment, )ndo*u+ ,&'-s .ni/ersit', 0&msun, 1ur*e'
Email address:
dile*c2omu!edu!tr, dile*celi*ler2hotm&il!com
To cite this article:
Dile* 3eli*ler! 1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r', )r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd
their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods! Education Journal. <ol! 3, =o! 1, 2014, pp! 7-14!
doi: 10!11$4%/#!edu!20140301!12

Abstract: 1his stud' &s per5ormed ith 4> science te&cher c&ndid&tes in order to determine their le/els o5
re&diness re"&rdin" the stren"th o5 bin&r', or"&nic &nd o9' &cids, &nd to &ssess ho much pro"ress the' h&/e m&de &s
& result o5 their 5our-'e&r educ&tion!?n this stud', > open-ended @uestions ere initi&ll' &ddressed to the te&cher
c&ndid&tes &t the be"innin" o5 the 1
st
semester to determine their le/els o5 re&diness! 1hese @uestions ere l&ter &s*ed
once &"&in to the s&me te&cher c&ndid&tes &t the end o5 the %
th
semester to &ssess their le/el o5 *noled"e 5olloin"
their 5our-'e&r educ&tion!1he te&cher c&ndid&tes ere re@uested to &nser the @uestions ith dr&in"s &s ell &s in
ritin"! Ahen &n&l'+in" the @uestions, the le/el o5 *noled"e o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes ere "rouped &ccordin" to
their dr&in"s &nd ritten &nsers, b&sed on the le/els used b' 8&rtos+ec*, ,&ch&do &nd :m&nn-;&inotti (200%)
&nd .+un*&/&* (200>&, 200>b)! :ccordin" to the stud'Bs results, it &s determined th&t the te&cher c&ndid&tesB le/els
o5 re&diness ere lo, &nd th&t &lthou"h their le/el o5 per5orm&nce incre&sed &t end o5 their 5our-'e&r educ&tion, their
*noled"e on the m&tter &s still insu55icient!
Keywords: 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes, 8in&r' :cid, )r"&nic :cid, )9'&cid, 6e&diness, Dr&in"

1. Introduction
6e&diness is &n e9tremel' import&nt &spect o5 educ&tion
&nd le&rnin", &nd constitutes &n import&nt input in te&chin"
&nd le&rnin" s'stems (8loom, 1>>C)! 6e&diness is the
prep&redness o5 the ner/ous s'stem 5or le&rnin" &cti/ities
(8inb&D-oElu, 1>>C), the &c@uisition o5 the necess&r'
prere@uisite beh&/iors 5or per5ormin" cert&in le&rnin"
&cti/ities (Fl"en, 1>>7; G-lm&+ &nd 0HnbHl, 2003), the
indi/idu&lBs&bilit' to per5orm & cert&in de/elopment&l
&ssi"nment throu"h m&tur&tion &nd le&rnin" (8&D&r&n,
1>>%), the co"niti/e, &55ecti/e, soci&l &nd ps'chomotor
prep&redness 5or c&rr'in" out &n' &cti/it', &nd & me&sure
the le/el o5 prep&redness o5 the indi/idu&l 5or such
&cti/ities! 6e&diness represents the indi/idu&lBs be"innin"
le/el 5or & "i/en sub#ect, &nd encomp&sses the indi/idu&lBs
prelimin&r' *noled"e &nd &ttitude on the sub#ect
(Genilme+ &nd I&*m&c-, 200%)! Prelimin&r' *noled"e
m&' h&/e &n obstructi/e &nd sloin", or & supporti/e &nd


&cceler&tin" e55ect 5orne in5orm&tion to be le&rned
((rs&nl- &nd .+m&n, 2007)!
Ahen &ssessin" the le/els o5 re&diness, students o5
di55erent le/els o5 re&diness m&' be encountered! Jor this
re&son, it necess&r' 5or educ&tion&l &cti/ities to be
or"&ni+ed e55ecti/el'! Jor students ith lo le/els o5
re&diness, simple &cti/ities th&t ill complement their l&c*
o5 *noled"e, consistin" o5 5e concrete steps &nd simil&r
to their pre/ious e9periences should be or"&ni+ed! Jor
students ith hi"h le/els o5 re&diness, on the other h&nd,
&cti/ities in hich the' ere pre/iousl' success5ul could be
s*ipped, &nd more comple9, &bstr&ct &nd multi5&ceted
&cti/ities could be or"&ni+ed (Genilme+ &nd I&*m&c-,
200%)!
Determinin" the studentsB le/els o5 re&diness is o5
consider&ble import&nce 5or ensurin" the e55icienc' o5 the
educ&tion process!Jor this re&son, b' determinin" the le/els
% Dile* 3eli*ler: 1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r',
)r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods
o5 re&diness, the &im is to identi5' be5oreh&nd h&t the
students *no prior to be"innin" & cert&in sub#ect, to
determine the st&nd&rds the' h&/e on &n indi/idu&l b&sis,
&nd to &scert&in hether the in5orm&tion needs to be t&u"ht
&"&in or hether pro"ress h&s been m&de (GH*sel
,&r&n"o+ &nd 7&n&r&n, 2004)! Dr&in"s c&n be used
e55ecti/el' 5or the purposes o5 me&surin" &nd &ssessin" the
studentsK le/els o5 re&diness &nd *noled"e!
1he use o5 dr&in"s is &n e55ecti/e &ppro&ch, since it
t&*es less time th&n methods th&t determine
processes ith ritin" &nd beh&/ior-b&sed sc&les, &nd c&n
present & /&riet' o5 in5orm&tion &t the s&me time!1he
*noled"e &nd misconceptions o5 students c&n be
determined ith the &id o5 dr&in"s (Ahite &nd
1>>2)! Dr&in"s &llo students to e9press their *noled"e
&nd belie5s ithout bein" constr&ined b' ords (:'&s,
200$)!
:cid &re one o5 the sub#ects o5 b&sic chemistr'!1he'h&/e
& ide &rr&' o5 uses!?n &ddition to &ctin" &s c&t&l'sts in
m&n' chemic&l re&ctions, the' &lso pl&' &n import&nt
in the re&ctions ithin the hum&n bod'!
stom&ch &cid, L7l pl&'s &n import&nt role in the di"estion
o5 5ood! ?n &ddition, &cids h&/e & ide r&n"e o5 uses in
cle&nin" products &nd /&rious industries, &nd &re inte"r&l in
the structure o5 cert&in 5oods! Due to import&nce o5 &cids in
d&il' li5e, bein" &ble to pro/ide me&nin"5ul &nd l&stin"
le&rnin" on &cids durin" science educ&tion is &lso import&nt!
1o this end, this stud' &s per5ormed in order to determine
the le/els o5 re&diness o5 science te&cher c&ndid&tes
re"&rdin" the stren"th o5 bin&r', or"&nic &nd o9' &cids, &nd
the pro"ress the' &chie/ed &s & result o5 their 5our
educ&tion!
2. Methods
2.1. Participants
1his stud' &s conducted ith 4> te&cher c&ndid&tes
recei/in" their educ&tion in the Dep&rtment o5 0cience
(duc&tion o5 & public uni/ersit' in the 8l&c* 0e& re"ion o5
1ur*e'!
2.2. Data Collection Tool
?n this stud', d&t& ere collected b' usin" > open
@uestions on the stren"th o5 bin&r', or"&nic &nd o9'
&cids!1he @uestions ere 5irst &s*ed durin" the ;ener&l
7hemistr' course &t the be"innin" o5 the 1
&ssess the le/els o5 re&diness o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes! 1he
@uestions ere then &s*ed once &"&in &t the end o5 the %
semester to determine, 5or the s&me stu
the le/els o5 re&diness on the le/els o5 *noled"e &t the
end o5 the 5our-'e&r educ&tion period!
c&ndid&tes ere &s*ed to &nser the @uestions ith
dr&in"s &s ell &s in ritin"!?n &ddition, the n&mes o5 the
te&cher c&ndid&tes ere *ept con5identi&l &nd encoded ith
letters! (9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the te&cher
c&ndid&tes &re included in this m&nuscript!
1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r',
)r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods
is to identi5' be5oreh&nd h&t the
students *no prior to be"innin" & cert&in sub#ect, to
determine the st&nd&rds the' h&/e on &n indi/idu&l b&sis,
&nd to &scert&in hether the in5orm&tion needs to be t&u"ht
&"&in or hether pro"ress h&s been m&de (GH*sel,
Dr&in"s c&n be used
e55ecti/el' 5or the purposes o5 me&surin" &nd &ssessin" the
studentsK le/els o5 re&diness &nd *noled"e!
1he use o5 dr&in"s is &n e55ecti/e &ppro&ch, since it
t&*es less time th&n methods th&t determine thou"ht
b&sed sc&les, &nd c&n
present & /&riet' o5 in5orm&tion &t the s&me time!1he
*noled"e &nd misconceptions o5 students c&n be
determined ith the &id o5 dr&in"s (Ahite &nd ;unstone,
to e9press their *noled"e
&nd belie5s ithout bein" constr&ined b' ords (:'&s,
:cid &re one o5 the sub#ects o5 b&sic chemistr'!1he'h&/e
?n &ddition to &ctin" &s c&t&l'sts in
m&n' chemic&l re&ctions, the' &lso pl&' &n import&nt role
in the re&ctions ithin the hum&n bod'! Jor e9&mple, &s &
stom&ch &cid, L7l pl&'s &n import&nt role in the di"estion
?n &ddition, &cids h&/e & ide r&n"e o5 uses in
cle&nin" products &nd /&rious industries, &nd &re inte"r&l in
Due to import&nce o5 &cids in
bein" &ble to pro/ide me&nin"5ul &nd l&stin"
le&rnin" on &cids durin" science educ&tion is &lso import&nt!
1o this end, this stud' &s per5ormed in order to determine
ience te&cher c&ndid&tes
re"&rdin" the stren"th o5 bin&r', or"&nic &nd o9' &cids, &nd
the pro"ress the' &chie/ed &s & result o5 their 5our-'e&r
1his stud' &s conducted ith 4> te&cher c&ndid&tes
&tion in the Dep&rtment o5 0cience
(duc&tion o5 & public uni/ersit' in the 8l&c* 0e& re"ion o5
?n this stud', d&t& ere collected b' usin" > open-ended
@uestions on the stren"th o5 bin&r', or"&nic &nd o9'
ns ere 5irst &s*ed durin" the ;ener&l
7hemistr' course &t the be"innin" o5 the 1
st
0emester to
&ssess the le/els o5 re&diness o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes! 1he
@uestions ere then &s*ed once &"&in &t the end o5 the %
th

semester to determine, 5or the s&me students, the e55ect o5
the le/els o5 re&diness on the le/els o5 *noled"e &t the
'e&r educ&tion period! 1he te&cher
c&ndid&tes ere &s*ed to &nser the @uestions ith
dr&in"s &s ell &s in ritin"!?n &ddition, the n&mes o5 the
&tes ere *ept con5identi&l &nd encoded ith
letters! (9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the te&cher
c&ndid&tes &re included in this m&nuscript!
2.3. Data Analysis
Ahen &n&l'+in" the @uestions, the le/el o5 *noled"e o5
the te&cher c&ndid&tes ere "rouped
dr&in"s &nd ritin"s the' pro/ided 5or the @uestions,
b&sed on the le/els pre/iousl' used b' 8&rtos+ec*,
,&ch&do &nd :m&nn-;&inotti (200%)
(200>&, 200>b)!
1he le/el "roups th&t ere de5ined in order to &ssess the
science te&cher c&ndid&tesB *noled"e b&sed on their
dr&in"s &re pro/ided in 1&ble 1
Table 1. Level groups defined in order to assess the level of knowledge
with drawings
e!els Descri"tion
e!el 1 =o *noled"e / dr&in" pro/ided
e!el 2 (rroneous *noled"e / dr&in"
e!el # P&rti&ll' correct *noled"e / dr&in"
e!el $ ?ncomplete *noled"e / dr&in"
e!el % (ntirel' correct &nd complete *noled"e / dr&in"
#. &esults
1he percent&"e distributiono5 the &nsers"i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion M
concept of acidN in the 1
st
&nd %
ith respect to the le/el "roups in ;r&ph 1! (9&mples o5
the &nsers pro/ided b' the science te&chers in both
semesters &re shon in Ji"ure 1 &nd Ji"
Graph 1. The percentage distribution of the answers to question 1
?t &s noted th&t $7!C O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) 5or the
concept o5 &cid inthe1
st
semester, hile none o5 the te&cher
c&ndid&tes pro/ided &n entirel' correct e9pl&n&tion (le/el
C)! ?n the %
th
semester, on the other h&nd, it &s determined
th&t $7!CO o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided p&rti&ll'
correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) to the s&me @uestion, hile
%!2 O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&te
e9pl&n&tions!

Substances that provide H
acids. Their pH value is less than 7.
Figure 1. Science teacher candidate !s answer to question 1 in the 1
se"ester
1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r',
)r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods
Ahen &n&l'+in" the @uestions, the le/el o5 *noled"e o5
the te&cher c&ndid&tes ere "rouped &ccordin" to the
dr&in"s &nd ritin"s the' pro/ided 5or the @uestions,
b&sed on the le/els pre/iousl' used b' 8&rtos+ec*,
;&inotti (200%) &nd .+un*&/&*
1he le/el "roups th&t ere de5ined in order to &ssess the
&cher c&ndid&tesB *noled"e b&sed on their
dr&in"s &re pro/ided in 1&ble 1!
Level groups defined in order to assess the level of knowledge
e!els Descri"tion
=o *noled"e / dr&in" pro/ided
(rroneous *noled"e / dr&in"
P&rti&ll' correct *noled"e / dr&in"
?ncomplete *noled"e / dr&in"
(ntirel' correct &nd complete *noled"e / dr&in"
1he percent&"e distributiono5 the &nsers"i/en b' the
te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion ME#plain the
&nd %
th
semesters &re pro/ided
ith respect to the le/el "roups in ;r&ph 1! (9&mples o5
the &nsers pro/ided b' the science te&chers in both
semesters &re shon in Ji"ure 1 &nd Ji"ure 2!

The percentage distribution of the answers to question 1
O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) 5or the
semester, hile none o5 the te&cher
pro/ided &n entirel' correct e9pl&n&tion (le/el
semester, on the other h&nd, it &s determined
th&t $7!CO o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided p&rti&ll'
correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) to the s&me @uestion, hile
o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided entirel' correct
Substances that provide H
$
to their environ"ent are
acids. Their pH value is less than 7.
Science teacher candidate !s answer to question 1 in the 1
st


Ahen Ji"ure 1 is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be
science te&cher c&ndid&te : de5ined &cids &s subst&nces th&t
pro/ide L
P
ions to their en/ironment! 1he 5&ct th&t this
te&cher c&ndid&te e9pl&ined onl' & sin"le &spect o5 this
concept demonstr&ted p&rti&ll' correct *noled"eon the
concept o5 &cids!

ccording to the Lowr% &ronsted and acid
theor%'
ccording to rrhenius( "olecules with H
acids. However( he was not able to e#plain )H
ccording to rrhenius( "olecules with *H
bases.
ccording to Lowr% &ronsted( substances
protons to their environ"ent are acids( while
substances that take protons fro" their environ"ent
are bases.
lso( as the reaction of salts such as *+l
leads to the for"ation of *H
,
ions( such substances
are bases.
Figure 2. Science teacher candidate !s answer to question 1 in the -
se"ester
:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 2, the s&me te&cher c&ndid&te
correctl' e9pl&ined the concept o5 &cid in the %
&ccordin" to both :rrheniusB &nd 4or'
theories! ?t &s hence determined th&t the te&cher c&ndid&te
h&d &n entirel' correct &nd complete *noled"e o5 the
sub#ect!
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion M
strength of an acid depend on.N in the 1
&re pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in ;r&ph 2!
1he &nsers pro/ided b' the science te&cher c&ndid&te 8 in
both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure 3 &nd Ji"ure 4!
Graph 2. The percentage distribution of the answers to question /
?n the 1
st
semester, 2$!CO o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided incorrect e9pl&n&tions (le/el 2) re"&rdin" the
5&ctors th&t determine the stren"th o5 &cids, hile $1!CO
pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3)!Loe/er,
none o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes ere &ble to pro/ide correct
e9pl&n&tions 5or this@uestion! ?n the %
other h&nd, 4>!0O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided
(duc&tion Qourn&l 2014; 3(1): 7-14

Ahen Ji"ure 1 is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t the
science te&cher c&ndid&te : de5ined &cids &s subst&nces th&t
ions to their en/ironment! 1he 5&ct th&t this
te&cher c&ndid&te e9pl&ined onl' & sin"le &spect o5 this
p&rti&ll' correct *noled"eon the
ccording to the Lowr% &ronsted and acid,base
ccording to rrhenius( "olecules with H
$
ions are
acids. However( he was not able to e#plain )H
0
.
ccording to rrhenius( "olecules with *H
,
are
ccording to Lowr% &ronsted( substances that give
protons to their environ"ent are acids( while
substances that take protons fro" their environ"ent
lso( as the reaction of salts such as *+l
,
with H
/
*
ions( such substances
teacher candidate !s answer to question 1 in the -
th

:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 2, the s&me te&cher c&ndid&te
correctl' e9pl&ined the concept o5 &cid in the %
th
semester
&ccordin" to both :rrheniusB &nd 4or'-8ronstedBs
termined th&t the te&cher c&ndid&te
h&d &n entirel' correct &nd complete *noled"e o5 the
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion Mwhat does the
N in the 1
st
&nd %
th
semesters
&re pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in ;r&ph 2!
1he &nsers pro/ided b' the science te&cher c&ndid&te 8 in
both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure 3 &nd Ji"ure 4!

The percentage distribution of the answers to question /
semester, 2$!CO o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided incorrect e9pl&n&tions (le/el 2) re"&rdin" the
5&ctors th&t determine the stren"th o5 &cids, hile $1!CO
pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3)!Loe/er,
ere &ble to pro/ide correct
e9pl&n&tions 5or this@uestion! ?n the %
th
semester, on the
other h&nd, 4>!0O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided
p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3), hile 3$!7O
pro/ided correct but incomplete e9pl&n&tions (le/el 4)!?t
&s &lso obser/ed th&t $!1O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided entirel' correct e9pl&n&tions to the @uestion!

The acid that undergoes "ore ioni1ation in water is a
strong acid( while the acid that undergoes less
ioni1ation is a weak acid. This is what we hav
for.
Figure 3. Science teacher candidate &!s answer to question / in the 1
se"ester
Ahen Ji"ure 3 is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t the
science te&cher c&ndid&te 8 described the &cid th&t
under"oes more ioni+&tion in &ter &s the stron"er
hile describin" the &cid th&t under"oes less ioni+&tion &s
the e&*er &cid! 1he 5&ct th&t the te&cher c&ndid&te
described the stren"th o5 &cids b' onl' t&*in" ioni+&tion
into &ccount demonstr&ted &p&rti&ll' correct *noled"e on
the sub#ect!

To be able to deter"ine whether an acid is weak or
strong( we can deter"ine its2
, Electronegativit%
, cid constant
, &ond structure
cid strength can be deter"ined according to these.
Figure 4. Science teacher candidate &!s answer to question / in the -
se"ester
:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 4, the s&me te&cher c&ndid&te
e9pl&ined in the %
th
semester th&t it is necess&r' to loo* &t
the electrone"&ti/it', &cid const&nt &nd bond structure hen
determinin" the stren"th o5 &cids! 1his demonstr&tes th&t
the te&cher c&ndid&te h&d correct but incomplete
*noled"e on the sub#ect!
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion M
of the binar% acids H3( H&r( H4( H+l( and provide %our
reasons for this rankingN in the 1
pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in ;r&ph 3! 1he
&nsers pro/ided b' the science te&cher c&ndid&te 7 in
both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure C &nd Ji"ure $!
Graph 3. The percentage distribution of the an
>
p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3), hile 3$!7O
pro/ided correct but incomplete e9pl&n&tions (le/el 4)!?t
&lso obser/ed th&t $!1O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided entirel' correct e9pl&n&tions to the @uestion!
The acid that undergoes "ore ioni1ation in water is a
strong acid( while the acid that undergoes less
ioni1ation is a weak acid. This is what we have to look
Science teacher candidate &!s answer to question / in the 1
st

Ahen Ji"ure 3 is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t the
science te&cher c&ndid&te 8 described the &cid th&t
under"oes more ioni+&tion in &ter &s the stron"er &cid,
hile describin" the &cid th&t under"oes less ioni+&tion &s
1he 5&ct th&t the te&cher c&ndid&te
described the stren"th o5 &cids b' onl' t&*in" ioni+&tion
into &ccount demonstr&ted &p&rti&ll' correct *noled"e on
ble to deter"ine whether an acid is weak or
strong( we can deter"ine its2
cid strength can be deter"ined according to these.
Science teacher candidate &!s answer to question / in the -
th

:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 4, the s&me te&cher c&ndid&te
semester th&t it is necess&r' to loo* &t
the electrone"&ti/it', &cid const&nt &nd bond structure hen
determinin" the stren"th o5 &cids! 1his demonstr&tes th&t
cher c&ndid&te h&d correct but incomplete
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion Mlist the strength
of the binar% acids H3( H&r( H4( H+l( and provide %our
N in the 1
st
&nd %
th
semesters &re
pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in ;r&ph 3! 1he
&nsers pro/ided b' the science te&cher c&ndid&te 7 in
both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure C &nd Ji"ure $!

The percentage distribution of the answers to question 0
10 Dile* 3eli*ler: 1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r',
)r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods
?n the 1
st
semester, it &s obser/ed th&t C>!2O o5 the
te&cher c&ndid&tes listed the stren"th o5 the L?, L8r, LJ,
L7l bin&r' &cids incorrectl' (le/el 2), hile onl' 2%!$O
pro/ided & p&rti&ll' correct r&n*in"5or the &cids (le/el 3)!
=one o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes ere &ble to pro/ide &n
entirel' correct r&n*in" 5or the &cid stren"ths!
&s obser/ed th&t there ere still te&cher c&ndid&tes
(22!4O) ith correct but incomplete *noled"e (le/el 4)!

5e can list the acids as H46H+l6H&r
to their strengths.
Here( reactivit% can lead to increase in the tendenc% to
acquire electrons.
Figure 5. Science teacher candidate +!s answer to question 0 in the 1
se"ester
Ahen Ji"ure C is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t the
science te&cher c&ndid&te 7 listed
correctl', but th&t the e9pl&n&tion pro/ided b' this te&cher
c&ndid&te 5or this r&n*in"&sincorrect!8&sed this
e9pl&n&tion, it c&n be seen th&t the te&cher c&ndid&te h&d
incorrect *noled"e o5 the sub#ect!

H4( H3( H&r( H+l' Here( as a g
electronegativit% decreases when we go down a period.
The acidit% increases as a result.
Thus( H3 7H&r7H+l7 H48
Figure 6. Science teacher candidate +!s answer to question 0 in the -
se"ester
:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure $, the science
c&ndid&te 7Bs e9pl&n&tion in the %
electrone"&ti/it' decre&ses hen mo/in" don the periodic
t&ble, &nd th&t this conse@uentl' incre&ses the &cidit',
demonstr&ted&n incomplete *noled"e o5 the sub#ect!1his
is bec&use the te&cher c&ndid&te &ttempted to pro/ide &n
e9pl&n&tion ithout mentionin" bond len"ths &nd bond
dissoci&tion ener"ies!
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers"i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion M
of the co"pounds +H
9
( )H
0
( H
/
*( H4 a
providing %our reasonsN in the 1
st
&nd %
pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in ;r&ph 4!
(9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the science te&cher
c&ndid&te D in both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure 7 &nd
Ji"ure %!
Graph 4. The percentage distributions of the answers to question 9
1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r',
)r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods
semester, it &s obser/ed th&t C>!2O o5 the
te&cher c&ndid&tes listed the stren"th o5 the L?, L8r, LJ,
L7l bin&r' &cids incorrectl' (le/el 2), hile onl' 2%!$O
pro/ided & p&rti&ll' correct r&n*in"5or the &cids (le/el 3)!
e &ble to pro/ide &n
entirel' correct r&n*in" 5or the &cid stren"ths! Loe/er, it
&s obser/ed th&t there ere still te&cher c&ndid&tes
(22!4O) ith correct but incomplete *noled"e (le/el 4)!
5e can list the acids as H46H+l6H&r
,
6 H3 according
Here( reactivit% can lead to increase in the tendenc% to
Science teacher candidate +!s answer to question 0 in the 1
st

Ahen Ji"ure C is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t the
science te&cher c&ndid&te 7 listed the &cid stren"ths
correctl', but th&t the e9pl&n&tion pro/ided b' this te&cher
c&ndid&te 5or this r&n*in"&sincorrect!8&sed this
e9pl&n&tion, it c&n be seen th&t the te&cher c&ndid&te h&d
H4( H3( H&r( H+l' Here( as a general rule(
electronegativit% decreases when we go down a period.
Science teacher candidate +!s answer to question 0 in the -
th

:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure $, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te 7Bs e9pl&n&tion in the %
th
semester th&t
electrone"&ti/it' decre&ses hen mo/in" don the periodic
t&ble, &nd th&t this conse@uentl' incre&ses the &cidit',
demonstr&ted&n incomplete *noled"e o5 the sub#ect!1his
did&te &ttempted to pro/ide &n
e9pl&n&tion ithout mentionin" bond len"ths &nd bond
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers"i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion ME#plain which
*( H4 are acids b%
&nd %
th
semester &re
pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in ;r&ph 4!
(9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the science te&cher
c&ndid&te D in both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure 7 &nd

he percentage distributions of the answers to question 9
?n the 5irst semester, it &s noted th&t C1!0
te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided incorrect &nsers (le/el 2)
re"&rdin" hich o5 the 7L
4
, =L
should be ch&r&cteri+ed &s &cids,
*noled"e on the sub#ect! ?n the %
obser/ed th&t 2%!$O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes h&d correct
but incomplete (le/el 4), or entirel' correct (le/el C)
*noled"e on this sub#ect!

+H
9
$ H
/
* : +H
0
$
$ *H
&ase cid

)H
0
$ H
/
* : )H
9
$
$ *H
,
&ase cid

H
/
* : H
$
$ *H
,
;)eutral<

H4 $ H/* : H
$
$ 4
,

&ase cid
Figure . Science teacher candidate =!s answer to question 9 in the 1
se"ester
Ahen Ji"ure 7 is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen
te&cher c&ndid&te 7 &ttempted to pro/ide e9pl&n&tion b'
ritin" don the re&ction 5or e&ch one o5 these subst&nces
ith &ter; hoe/er, the ritten re&ctions &re incorrect,
&nd the pro/ided e9pl&n&tion is hence incomplete! Jor
inst&nce, the compound LJ &s erroneousl' ritten &s &
b&se!

+H
9
( H
/
*( H4( )H
0


H42 =ue to the 4 ele"ent( there is h%drogen bond here.
The presence of the h%drogen bond increases acidit%.
+onsequentl%( H%drogen 4luoride de"onstrates strong
acidit%.

H
/
*2 +onsists of / "ol h%drogen and 1 "ol o#%gen.
5ater is a polar co"pound. 5ater has low acidit%.

+H
9
2 >ethane is an organic co"pound. 3t is neither
acidic nor basic.

)H
0
2 &onds are nonpolar. ""onia is not acidic.
""onia is a weak base.
Figure !. Science teacher candidate =!s answer to question 1 in the -
se"ester
:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure %, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te D does not mention bond pol&rit' &nd the
di55erences in electrone"&ti/it' hen describin" compound
LJ &s &n &cid in the %
th
semester! ,oreo/er, the te&cher
c&ndid&te described LJ &s & stron" &cid, hile it is &ctu&ll'
& moder&tel' stron" &cid!
1he percent&"e distributiono5the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&chers c&ndid&tes to the @uestion M
one of the acids H*+l
acidb%providing %our reasons
1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r',
)r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods
?n the 5irst semester, it &s noted th&t C1!0 O o5 the
te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided incorrect &nsers (le/el 2)
, =L
3
, L
2
) &nd LJ compounds
should be ch&r&cteri+ed &s &cids, hile 14!3 O h&d no
*noled"e on the sub#ect! ?n the %
th
semester, it &s
obser/ed th&t 2%!$O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes h&d correct
but incomplete (le/el 4), or entirel' correct (le/el C)
$ *H
,


;)eutral<
Science teacher candidate =!s answer to question 9 in the 1
st

Ahen Ji"ure 7 is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t science
te&cher c&ndid&te 7 &ttempted to pro/ide e9pl&n&tion b'
ritin" don the re&ction 5or e&ch one o5 these subst&nces
ith &ter; hoe/er, the ritten re&ctions &re incorrect,
&nd the pro/ided e9pl&n&tion is hence incomplete! Jor
mpound LJ &s erroneousl' ritten &s &
2 =ue to the 4 ele"ent( there is h%drogen bond here.
The presence of the h%drogen bond increases acidit%.
+onsequentl%( H%drogen 4luoride de"onstrates strong
"ol h%drogen and 1 "ol o#%gen.
5ater is a polar co"pound. 5ater has low acidit%.
2 >ethane is an organic co"pound. 3t is neither
2 &onds are nonpolar. ""onia is not acidic.
candidate =!s answer to question 1 in the -
th

:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure %, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te D does not mention bond pol&rit' &nd the
di55erences in electrone"&ti/it' hen describin" compound
semester! ,oreo/er, the te&cher
c&ndid&te described LJ &s & stron" &cid, hile it is &ctu&ll'
1he percent&"e distributiono5the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&chers c&ndid&tes to the @uestion ME#plain which
one of the acids H*+l ? H*&r is the stronger
acidb%providing %our reasonsN in the 1
st
&nd %
th
semesters

&re pro/ided in ;r&ph C! (9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided
b' the science te&cher c&ndid&te ( in both semesters &re
shon in Ji"ure > &nd Ji"ure 10!

Graph 5. The percentage distributions of the answers to question @
?n the 1
st
semester, C1!0 O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) re"&rdin"
hich one o5 the L)7l / L)8r o9' &cids is stron"er &nd
h', hile 34!7O pro/ided correct but incomp
e9pl&n&tions (le/el 4) in the %
th
semester!?t &s determined
th&t 22!4O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided entirel'
correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el C)!

cidit% decreases when "oving downwards on the
periodic table. s +l is above &r( H*+l is the stronger
acid.
Figure ". Science teacher candidate E!s answer to question @ in the 1
se"ester
Ahen Ji"ure > is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t te&cher
c&ndid&te ( described the compound L)7l &s more &cidic
ithout correctl' e9pl&inin" electrone"&ti/it', hich
&ctu&ll' &55ects the stren"th o5 o9' &cids!
c&ndid&teBs e9pl&n&tion includes onl' p&rti&ll' correct
in5orm&tion!

H*+l is a stronger acid than the H*&r co"pound.
&ecause( if we consider the"fro" the standpoint of
electronegativit%( +l is "ore electronegative than &r(
and the +l ato" will draw the electrons closer to itself(
"aking it easier re"ove a proton fro" the +l co"pound.
Figure 1#. Science teacher candidate E!s answer to question @ in the -
se"ester
:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 10, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te ( e9pl&ined the underl'in" c&use 5or the stren"th
o5 bin&r' o9' &cids in the %
th
semester b' dr&in" 4eis
structures! ?n this e9&mple, the te&cher c&ndid&te pro/ided
&n entirel' correct &nd complete &nser b' e9pl&inin" &cid
stren"th b&sed on 7l &nd 8rBs electrone"&ti/it'!
1he percent&"e distribution o5 &nsers to "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion M
one of the acids H
/
S*
9
? H
/
S*
0
is the stronger acid( b%
(duc&tion Qourn&l 2014; 3(1): 7-14

&re pro/ided in ;r&ph C! (9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided
b' the science te&cher c&ndid&te ( in both semesters &re

distributions of the answers to question @
O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) re"&rdin"
hich one o5 the L)7l / L)8r o9' &cids is stron"er &nd
h', hile 34!7O pro/ided correct but incomplete
semester!?t &s determined
th&t 22!4O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided entirel'
cidit% decreases when "oving downwards on the
periodic table. s +l is above &r( H*+l is the stronger
Science teacher candidate E!s answer to question @ in the 1
st

Ahen Ji"ure > is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t te&cher
c&ndid&te ( described the compound L)7l &s more &cidic
ithout correctl' e9pl&inin" electrone"&ti/it', hich
&ctu&ll' &55ects the stren"th o5 o9' &cids! 1he te&cher
c&ndid&teBs e9pl&n&tion includes onl' p&rti&ll' correct

H*+l is a stronger acid than the H*&r co"pound.
&ecause( if we consider the"fro" the standpoint of
electronegativit%( +l is "ore electronegative than &r(
and the +l ato" will draw the electrons closer to itself(
"aking it easier re"ove a proton fro" the +l co"pound.
Science teacher candidate E!s answer to question @ in the -
th

c&n be seen in Ji"ure 10, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te ( e9pl&ined the underl'in" c&use 5or the stren"th
semester b' dr&in" 4eis
?n this e9&mple, the te&cher c&ndid&te pro/ided
&nser b' e9pl&inin" &cid
stren"th b&sed on 7l &nd 8rBs electrone"&ti/it'!
1he percent&"e distribution o5 &nsers to "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion ME#plain which
is the stronger acid( b%
providing %our reasonsN in the 1
pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in ;r&ph $!
(9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the science te&cher
c&ndid&te J in both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure 11 &nd
Ji"ure 12!
Graph 6. The percentage distributions of the answers to question A
?n the 1
st
semester, 44!>
pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) re"&rdin"
hich one o5 the L
2
0)4 / L
2
h', hile & l&r"e percent&"e o5 3$!7
&nsers (le/el 2) to the @uestion! ?n the %
other h&nd, 3$!7 O pro/ided correct but incomplete
e9pl&n&tions (le/el 4), hile 20!4
le/el o5 *noled"e such th&t the' ere &ble to pro/ide
entirel' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el C)!

B&etween H
/
S*
9
and H
/
S*
0
acid strength. This is because of the decreasing nu"ber
of *.8
Figure 11. Science teacher candidate 4!s answer to question A in the 1
se"ester
Ahen Ji"ure 11 is e/&lu&ted, it c&n
science te&cher c&ndid&te J &nsered the @uestion on the
stren"th o5 o9'&cids b' describin" L
&cid due to & hi"her number o5 ) &toms! 1his demonstr&tes
th&t the te&cher c&ndid&te h&d incorrect *noled"e on the
sub#ect!

5e will looking at the electron
because the substance that has "ore electrons will be
"ore acidic. Therefore(
H
/
S*
9
7 H
/
S*
0

Figure 12. Science teacher candidate 4!s answer to question A in the -
se"ester
:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 12, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te J e9pl&ined the underl'in" c&use 5or the stren"th
o5 the "i/en bin&r' o9' &cids in the %
11
N in the 1
st
&nd %
th
semesters &re
pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in ;r&ph $!
(9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the science te&cher
c&ndid&te J in both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure 11 &nd

ibutions of the answers to question A
O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) re"&rdin"
2
0)
3
o9' &cids is stron"er &nd
h', hile & l&r"e percent&"e o5 3$!7 O pro/ided incorrect
&nsers (le/el 2) to the @uestion! ?n the %
th
semester, on the
O pro/ided correct but incomplete
e9pl&n&tions (le/el 4), hile 20!4 O h&d incre&sed their
le/el o5 *noled"e such th&t the' ere &ble to pro/ide
9pl&n&tions (le/el C)!
0
( H
/
S*
9
6 H
/
S*
0
in ter"s of
acid strength. This is because of the decreasing nu"ber
Science teacher candidate 4!s answer to question A in the 1
st

Ahen Ji"ure 11 is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t the
science te&cher c&ndid&te J &nsered the @uestion on the
stren"th o5 o9'&cids b' describin" L
2
0)
4
&s the e&*er
&cid due to & hi"her number o5 ) &toms! 1his demonstr&tes
th&t the te&cher c&ndid&te h&d incorrect *noled"e on the

5e will looking at the electron,drawing strengths(
because the substance that has "ore electrons will be
Science teacher candidate 4!s answer to question A in the -
th

seen in Ji"ure 12, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te J e9pl&ined the underl'in" c&use 5or the stren"th
o5 the "i/en bin&r' o9' &cids in the %
th
semester b' dr&in"
12 Dile* 3eli*ler: 1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r',
)r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods
4eis structures!?n this e9&mple, it c&n be seen th&t the
te&cher c&ndid&te pro/ided &n entirel' correct &nd complete
e9pl&n&tion b' loo*in" &t the number o5 termin&l o9'"en
&toms!
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion M
one of the co"pounds +H
0
+**H ? +H
stronger acidb%providing %our reasons
semesters &re pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in
;r&ph 7! (9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the science
te&cher c&ndid&te ; in both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure
13 &nd Ji"ure 14!
Graph . The percentage distributions of the answers to question 7
?n the 1
st
semester, 44!>O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) re"&rdin"
hich one o5 the +H
0
+**H ? +H
0
+H
/
*H
&nd h', hile & l&r"e percent&"e o
incorrect &nsers (le/el 2) to the @uestion! ?n the %
semester, on the other h&nd, 3$!7O pro/ided p&rti&ll'
correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 4), hile 30!$O pro/ided
correct but incomplete e9pl&n&tions (le/el 4)! ?t &s &lso
noted th&t the percent&"e o5 entirel' correct &nsers (le/el
C) incre&sed 5rom 0!0 O in the 1
st
semester to 10!2
%
th
semester!

B+H
0
+** His the stronger( because it has "ore o#%gen
ato"s than eth%l alcohol.8
Figure 13. Science teacher candidate C!s answer to
se"ester
Ahen Ji"ure 13 is e/&lu&ted, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te ;Bs e9pl&n&tion th&t the or"&nic &cid ith more
) &toms is the stron"er &cid demonstr&tes incorrect
*noled"e on the te&cher c&ndid&teBs p&rt!

B+H
0
+** His the stronger acid(
electronegative. 3n other words( the energ% for re"oving
an e
,
is greater in co"parison to +H
0
Figure 14. Science teacher candidate C!s answer to question 7 in the -
se"ester
1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r',
)r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods
4eis structures!?n this e9&mple, it c&n be seen th&t the
' correct &nd complete
e9pl&n&tion b' loo*in" &t the number o5 termin&l o9'"en
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion ME#plain which
+**H ? +H
0
+H
/
*H is the
acidb%providing %our reasonsN in the 1
st
&nd %
th

semesters &re pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in
;r&ph 7! (9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the science
te&cher c&ndid&te ; in both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure

percentage distributions of the answers to question 7
semester, 44!>O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) re"&rdin"
*H &cids is stron"er
&nd h', hile & l&r"e percent&"e o5 30!$O pro/ided
incorrect &nsers (le/el 2) to the @uestion! ?n the %
th

semester, on the other h&nd, 3$!7O pro/ided p&rti&ll'
correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el 4), hile 30!$O pro/ided
correct but incomplete e9pl&n&tions (le/el 4)! ?t &s &lso
rcent&"e o5 entirel' correct &nsers (le/el
semester to 10!2 O in the
His the stronger( because it has "ore o#%gen
Science teacher candidate C!s answer to question 7 in the 1
st

Ahen Ji"ure 13 is e/&lu&ted, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te ;Bs e9pl&n&tion th&t the or"&nic &cid ith more
) &toms is the stron"er &cid demonstr&tes incorrect
*noled"e on the te&cher c&ndid&teBs p&rt!

acid( because * is
electronegative. 3n other words( the energ% for re"oving
0
+H
/
*H8
Science teacher candidate C!s answer to question 7 in the -
th

:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure
c&ndid&te ; e9pl&ined the stren"th o5 or"&nic &cids in the
%
th
semester b' dr&in" 4eis structures! Loe/er, in this
e9&mple, the te&cher c&ndid&te h&s m&de &n error hen
dr&in" the 4eis structure b' ritin" omittin" &n o9'"en
&tom ithin the -7))L "roup!Loe/er, the te&cher
c&ndid&te demonstr&ted p&rti&ll' correct *noled"e b'
emph&si+in" the import&nce o5 electrone"&ti/it'!
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion M
one of the co"pounds +H
0
+**H ? +H
stronger acid b%providing %our reasons
semesters &re pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in
;r&ph %! (9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the science
te&cherc&ndid&teL in both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure
1C &nd Ji"ure 1$!
Graph !. The percentage distributions of the answers to questio
?n the 1
st
semester, it &s noted th&t & l&r"e percent&"e o5
44!> O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided incorrect
e9pl&n&tions (le/el 2) re"&rdin" hich one o5 the
+H
0
+**H ? +H
0
;+H
/
<
A
+**H
hile none o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes p
correct &nser (le/el C) to the @uestion! ?n the %
on the other h&nd, 3$!7O pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct
e9pl&n&tions (le/el C), hile 12!2
correct e9pl&n&tions (le/el C)!

+H
0
;+H
/
<
A
+**H is the stronger
nu"ber of carbon ato"s( and the nu"ber of h%drogen
ato"s attached to the"( is higher.
Figure 15. Science teacher candidate H!s answer to question - in the 1
se"ester
Ahen Ji"ure 1C is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t the
science te&cher c&ndid&te L described 7L
the stron"er &cid due to its hi"her number o5 c&rbon &nd
h'dro"en &toms!?t &s hence determined th&t the te&cher
c&ndid&te h&d incorrect *noled"e re"&rdin" the stren"th
o5 or"&nic &cids!

1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r',
)r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods
:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 14, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te ; e9pl&ined the stren"th o5 or"&nic &cids in the
semester b' dr&in" 4eis structures! Loe/er, in this
c&ndid&te h&s m&de &n error hen
dr&in" the 4eis structure b' ritin" omittin" &n o9'"en
7))L "roup!Loe/er, the te&cher
c&ndid&te demonstr&ted p&rti&ll' correct *noled"e b'
emph&si+in" the import&nce o5 electrone"&ti/it'!
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion ME#plain which
+**H ? +H
0
;+H
/
<
A
+**H is the
stronger acid b%providing %our reasonsN in the 1
st
&nd %
th

semesters &re pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in
;r&ph %! (9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the science
te&cherc&ndid&teL in both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure

The percentage distributions of the answers to question -
semester, it &s noted th&t & l&r"e percent&"e o5
O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided incorrect
e9pl&n&tions (le/el 2) re"&rdin" hich one o5 the
+**H &cids is stron"er &nd h',
hile none o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes pro/ided &n entirel'
correct &nser (le/el C) to the @uestion! ?n the %
th
semester,
on the other h&nd, 3$!7O pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct
e9pl&n&tions (le/el C), hile 12!2 O pro/ided entirel'
C)!
+**H is the stronger acid( because its
nu"ber of carbon ato"s( and the nu"ber of h%drogen
ato"s attached to the"( is higher.
Science teacher candidate H!s answer to question - in the 1
st

Ahen Ji"ure 1C is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t the
c&ndid&te L described 7L
3
(7L
2
)
$
7))L &s
the stron"er &cid due to its hi"her number o5 c&rbon &nd
h'dro"en &toms!?t &s hence determined th&t the te&cher
c&ndid&te h&d incorrect *noled"e re"&rdin" the stren"th


+H
0
;+H
/
<
A
+**H is a stronger acid than +H
s the nu"ber of carbon ato"s increase( so does the
abilit% to drawelectrons. The second structure above is
"ore distributed and branched. Since each carbon will
draw an e,( and since the% will draw "ore on the *
bond( it is the stronger acid.

Figure 16. Science teacher candidate H!s answer to question - in the -
se"ester
:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 1$, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te L e9pl&ined the stren"th o5 or"&nic &cids in the
%
th
semester &s bein" rel&ted to the len"th o5 the c&rbon
ch&in b' dr&in" 4eis structures
describin" th&t &cidit' ill incre&se due to the 7 &toms
&bilit' to dr& electrons, the te&cher c&ndid&te 5&iled to
t&*e into &ccount the 5&ct th&t the c&rbon ch&in len"th h&s &
/er' limited e55ect on &cid stren"th!
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion M
one of the acids +H
0
+**H ? +H
0
+H
stronger acid b% providing %our reasons
semesters &re pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in
;r&ph >! (9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the science
te&cher c&ndid&te I in both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure
17 &nd Ji"ure 1%!
Graph ". The percentage distributions of the answers to quest
?n the 1
st
semester, 34!7O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided incorrect e9pl&n&tions (le/el 2) re"&rdin" hich
one o5 the +H
0
+** ? +H
0
+H
/
+l+**H
stron"er &nd h', hile 3%!%O pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct
e9pl&n&tions (le/el 3) in the %
th
semester! ?t &s &lso noted
th&t the percent&"e o5 entirel' correct &nsers (le/el C)
incre&sed 5rom 0!0O in the 1
st
semester to 1%!4O in the %
semester!

+H
/
+l+**H is the stronger acid( because it has a +l
ato"( which can react with the ion of a stronger
Figure 1. Science teacher candidate D!s answer to question E in the 1
se"ester
(duc&tion Qourn&l 2014; 3(1): 7-14

+**H is a stronger acid than +H
0
+**H.
s the nu"ber of carbon ato"s increase( so does the
abilit% to drawelectrons. The second structure above is
"ore distributed and branched. Since each carbon will
( and since the% will draw "ore on the *,H
Science teacher candidate H!s answer to question - in the -
th

:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 1$, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te L e9pl&ined the stren"th o5 or"&nic &cids in the
the len"th o5 the c&rbon
ch&in b' dr&in" 4eis structures!Loe/er, hen
describin" th&t &cidit' ill incre&se due to the 7 &toms
&bilit' to dr& electrons, the te&cher c&ndid&te 5&iled to
t&*e into &ccount the 5&ct th&t the c&rbon ch&in len"th h&s &
1he percent&"e distribution o5 the &nsers "i/en b' the
science te&cher c&ndid&tes to the @uestion ME#plain which
+H
/
+l+**H is the
stronger acid b% providing %our reasonsN in the 1
st
&nd %
th

semesters &re pro/ided ith respect to the le/el "roups in
;r&ph >! (9&mples o5 the &nsers pro/ided b' the science
te&cher c&ndid&te I in both semesters &re shon in Ji"ure

The percentage distributions of the answers to question E
semester, 34!7O o5 the te&cher c&ndid&tes
pro/ided incorrect e9pl&n&tions (le/el 2) re"&rdin" hich
+l+**H o9' &cids is
stron"er &nd h', hile 3%!%O pro/ided p&rti&ll' correct
mester! ?t &s &lso noted
th&t the percent&"e o5 entirel' correct &nsers (le/el C)
semester to 1%!4O in the %
th

+l+**H is the stronger acid( because it has a +l
ato"( which can react with the ion of a stronger base.
Science teacher candidate D!s answer to question E in the 1
st

Ahen Ji"ure 17 is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t the
science te&cher c&ndid&te I demonstr&ted p&rti&ll' correct
in5orm&tion b' &ccur&tel' describin" the stron"er &cid
(7L
2
7l7))L), 'et pro/idin" & ron" e9pl&n&tion 5or the
&ctu&l e55ect o5 the 7l &tom in the stren"th r&n*in" o5 the
or"&nic &cids in @uestion!

Here( chloroacetic acid is stronger. &ecause it has
chlorine( which is an electronegative ele"ent. +hlorine
draws the *,H bonds adFacent to the carbon ato"s and at
the ter"inal ends of the co"pound. Such an effect is not
observed in the other structure. The acid strength as well
as the D
c
value of the structure with chlorine is greater.
Figure 1!. Science teacher candidate 4!s answer to question E in the -
se"ester
:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 1%, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te I demonstr&ted entirel' correct &nd complete
*noled"e hen listin" the stren"th o5 the or"&nic &cids b'
dr&in" the 4eis structure o5
e9pl&inin" th&t the 7l &tom incre&sed the &cid stren"th due
to its electrone"&ti/it'!
$. 'onclusions and Discussion
1he most import&nt 5&ctor th&t &55ects le&rnin" is the
studentsB prelimin&r' *noled"e!
in5orm&tion in their minds b' usin" prelimin&r' *noled"e!
?t is import&nt to remed' studentsB misconceptions &nd l&c*
o5 *noled"e on & "i/en sub#ect b' 5irst identi5'in" their
prelimin&r' *noled"e! Ahen the le&rnin"o5science
te&cher c&ndid&tes pert&inin" to the c
o5 the 5und&ment&l sub#ects o5 chemistr') 5rom chemistr'
courses in pre/ious st&"es o5 their educ&tion is considered,
it c&n be seen th&t there &re continuin" misconceptions &nd
& "ener&l l&c* o5 *noled"e re"&rdin" &cids! 1his shos
the necessit' to pl&ce "re&ter emph&sis on this sub#ect in
uni/ersit' chemistr' courses!
?t &s obser/ed th&t, &s prelimin&r' *noled"e, some o5
the te&cher c&ndid&tes considered &cid stren"th to be rel&ted
to ioni+&tion! ?t &s &lso obser/ed th&t the' h&
*noled"e on the e55ects o5 electrone"&ti/it', bond
dissoci&tion ener"', bond structure &nd bond len"th! 1he
import&nce o5 bond pol&rit', hich &55ects the stren"th o5
bin&r' &cids 5ormed b' elements ithin the s&me period,
&s not mentioned &nd neither &s the import&nce o5
di55erences in the electrone"&ti/it' o5 &toms 5ormin" &
bond!Ahen describin" the &cid stren"th o5 o9' &cids, the
pro/ided e9pl&n&tions did not t&*e into &ccount the e55ect
o5 electrone"&ti/it'!?n &ddition, the e55ect o5 t
o9'"en &toms on the stren"th o5 o9' &cids &s not
mentioned! 1he te&cher c&ndid&tes ere un&ble to describe
th&t the c&rbon ch&in len"th o5 or"&nic &cids h&d minim&l
13
Ahen Ji"ure 17 is e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t the
science te&cher c&ndid&te I demonstr&ted p&rti&ll' correct
in5orm&tion b' &ccur&tel' describin" the stron"er &cid
7l7))L), 'et pro/idin" & ron" e9pl&n&tion 5or the
&ctu&l e55ect o5 the 7l &tom in the stren"th r&n*in" o5 the

Here( chloroacetic acid is stronger. &ecause it has
chlorine( which is an electronegative ele"ent. +hlorine
H bonds adFacent to the carbon ato"s and at
the ter"inal ends of the co"pound. Such an effect is not
observed in the other structure. The acid strength as well
value of the structure with chlorine is greater.
candidate 4!s answer to question E in the -
th

:s it c&n be seen in Ji"ure 1%, the science te&cher
c&ndid&te I demonstr&ted entirel' correct &nd complete
*noled"e hen listin" the stren"th o5 the or"&nic &cids b'
dr&in" the 4eis structure o5 the compounds, &nd
e9pl&inin" th&t the 7l &tom incre&sed the &cid stren"th due
$. 'onclusions and Discussion
1he most import&nt 5&ctor th&t &55ects le&rnin" is the
studentsB prelimin&r' *noled"e! 0tudents structure ne
n in their minds b' usin" prelimin&r' *noled"e!
is import&nt to remed' studentsB misconceptions &nd l&c*
o5 *noled"e on & "i/en sub#ect b' 5irst identi5'in" their
Ahen the le&rnin"o5science
te&cher c&ndid&tes pert&inin" to the concept o5 &cids(&s one
o5 the 5und&ment&l sub#ects o5 chemistr') 5rom chemistr'
courses in pre/ious st&"es o5 their educ&tion is considered,
it c&n be seen th&t there &re continuin" misconceptions &nd
& "ener&l l&c* o5 *noled"e re"&rdin" &cids! 1his shos
the necessit' to pl&ce "re&ter emph&sis on this sub#ect in

?t &s obser/ed th&t, &s prelimin&r' *noled"e, some o5
the te&cher c&ndid&tes considered &cid stren"th to be rel&ted
to ioni+&tion! ?t &s &lso obser/ed th&t the' h&d insu55icient
*noled"e on the e55ects o5 electrone"&ti/it', bond
dissoci&tion ener"', bond structure &nd bond len"th! 1he
import&nce o5 bond pol&rit', hich &55ects the stren"th o5
bin&r' &cids 5ormed b' elements ithin the s&me period,
&nd neither &s the import&nce o5
di55erences in the electrone"&ti/it' o5 &toms 5ormin" &
bond!Ahen describin" the &cid stren"th o5 o9' &cids, the
pro/ided e9pl&n&tions did not t&*e into &ccount the e55ect
o5 electrone"&ti/it'!?n &ddition, the e55ect o5 termin&l
o9'"en &toms on the stren"th o5 o9' &cids &s not
1he te&cher c&ndid&tes ere un&ble to describe
th&t the c&rbon ch&in len"th o5 or"&nic &cids h&d minim&l
14 Dile* 3eli*ler: 1he 4e/els o5 6e&diness o5 0cience 1e&cher 7&ndid&tes 6e"&rdin" the 0tren"ths o5 8in&r',
)r"&nic &nd )9' :cids, &nd their ;&ins o/er the 7ourse o5 their (duc&tion&l Periods
e55ect on their &cid stren"th! 0imil&rl' to our stud',
IRseoElu, 8ud&* &nd I&/&* (2002) determined th&t
students h&rbored the misconception th&t &cid stren"th
depended not on the t'pe or n&ture o5 the subst&nce, but
r&ther on &n incre&sin" number o5 L &toms!
?n the %
th
semester, it &s obser/ed th&t the science
te&cher c&ndid&tes &ttempted to pro/ide e9pl&n&tions b'
dr&in" 4eis structures 5or @uestions &s*in" them to
comp&re o9' &nd or"&nic &cids! Aith the 4eis structure
th&t ere dr&n, the te&cher c&ndid&tes ende&/ored to
"ener&ll' describe the e55ects o5 bond structure, termin&l
o9'"en &toms &nd centr&l &toms on &cidit', &s ell &s the
import&nce o5 bond len"th!Loe/er, it &s obser/ed th&t
pro/idin" the correct e9pl&n&tions &lso re@uired th&t the'
dr& the 4eis structures &ccur&tel'!
Ahen the stud' results &re e/&lu&ted, it c&n be seen th&t
dr&in"s &nd ritten &nsers c&n contribute to determinin"
the scope o5 *noled"e o5 science te&cher c&ndid&tes, &nd
th&t these dr&in" c&n be used to re/e&l the te&cher
c&ndid&tesB le/el o5 le&rnin" in /&rious sub#ects, &s ell &s
the me&ns the' use to e9press h&t the' h&/e le&rned! ?n
the studies conducted b' GRre* (2007), 8&rtos+ec*,
,&ch&do &nd :m&nn-;&inotti (200%), I&r&, :/c- &nd
3e*b&D (200%), .+un*&/&* (200>&, 200>b), &nd 3eli*ler
&nd 1op&l (2011), the *noled"e o5 students ere &ssessed
ith the &id o5 dr&in"s, &nd it &s concluded th&t
dr&in"s pro/ided & more me&nin"5ul me&n 5or
determinin" the studentsB *noled"e!
?n conclusion, it &s determined th&t the le/els o5
re&diness o5 the science te&cher c&ndid&tes ere
insu55icient, despite o5 the 5&ct th&t the sub#ects co/ered
ithin the scope o5 the stud' ere e9pl&ined &nd t&u"ht &s
& p&rt o5 their hi"h school curriculum! 8' the time o5
"r&du&tion, it &s obser/ed th&t the l&r"e m&#orit' o5 the
science te&cher c&ndid&tesB incorrect or p&rti&ll' correct
*noled"e re"&rdin" bin&r', or"&nic &nd o9' &cid stren"ths
h&d impro/ed &nd ch&n"ed into correct *noled"e!
Loe/er, it &s noted th&t the science te&cher c&ndid&tes
still continued to h&rbor incorrect *noled"e on cert&in
sub#ects! :cids &re one o5 the 5und&ment&l sub#ects o5
chemistr', &nd it is belie/ed th&t educ&tion on &cids c&n be
rendered more interestin" 5rom the studentsB st&ndpoint i5
the sub#ect ere to be con/e'ed in & more concrete 5&shion
b' &cti/el' in/ol/in" the students in the le&rnin" processes,
m&*in" &ssoci&tions ith d&il' li5e, &nd desi"nin"
e9periments! .nder these circumst&nces, me&nin"5ul &nd
l&stin" le&rnin" ould be &chie/ed &t hi"h school,
impro/in" the le/els o5 re&diness o5 science te&cher
c&ndid&tes, &nd ensurin" th&t & sub#ect o5 this le/el o5
import&nce is le&rned in & 5ull &nd complete m&nner! ?n
&ddition, b' re5lectin" in det&il the le/el o5 *noled"e o5
science te&cher c&ndid&tes on bin&r', or"&nic &nd o9' &cids,
e belie/e th&t this stud' ill 5ill & "&p in liter&ture on this
sub#ect, pro/idin" depth &s ell &s contributin" to the
liter&ture in this respect!

&e(erences
S1T :'&s, :! (200$)! I&/r&m UErenimi! MJen /e te*nolo#i
REretimiN ((d! 0! 3epni)! :n*&r&: Pe"em& G&'-nc-l-*!
S2T 8&rtos+ec*, :!8! , ,&ch&do, D!V! W :m&nn-;&inotti, ,!
(200%)! 6epresent&tions o5 intern&l bod' im&"e: & stud' o5
pre&dolescents &nd &dolescent students in :r&uc&ri&, P&r&nX,
8r&+il! 7iYnci&s W 7o"niZ[o, 13 (2), s! 13>-1C>!
S3T 8&D&r&n, \! (! (1>>%)! (Eitim psi*olo#isi (C! 8&s*-)! :n*&r&:
:'d&n Aeb 1esisleri!
S4T 8inb&D-oElu, 7! (1>>C)! (Eitim psi*olo#isi (>! 8&s*-)!
:n*&r&: G&r"-c- ,&tb&&!
SCT 8loom, 8! (1>>C)! \ns&n niteli*leri /e o*uld& RErenme (2!
8&s*-)! (3e/iren: D! :! U+Zeli*)! :n*&r&: ,illi (Eitim
8&s-me/i!
S$T 3eli*ler, D! W 1op&l, =! (2011)! \l*REretim Jen 8il"isi
UEretmen :d&'l&r-n-n I&rbondio*sit /e 0u DRn"HsH
Ionusund&*i 8il"ilerinin 3i+im \le 0&pt&nm&s-! Qourn&l o5
(duc&tion&l &nd ?nstruction&l 0tudies in the Aorld, 1(1), 72-7>!
S7T (rs&nl-, I! W .+m&n, (! ((d)! (2007)! (Eitim psi*olo#isi!
\st&nbul: 4is&ns G&'-nc-l-*!
S%T I&r&,\!, :/c-, (! D! W 3e*b&D, G! (200%)! Jen bil"isi
REretmen &d&'l&r-n-n -D-* *&/r&m- ile il"ili bil"i
dH+e'lerinin &r&Dt-r-lm&s-! ,ehmet :*i5 (rso' Fni/ersitesi
(Eitim J&*Hltesi Der"isi, :r&l-* 200%! (10!11!2010)
http://e5d!mehmet&*i5!edu!tr/&rsi//&r&li*200%/4$-C7!html
S>T IRseoElu, J!, 8ud&*, 8! W I&/&*, =! (2002)! G&p-l&nd-r-c-
RErenme teorisine d&'&n&n ders m&ter'&li ] REretmen
&d&'l&r-n& &sit-b&+ *onusu ile il"ili *&/r&ml&r-n REretilmesi!
)D1. (Eitim J&*Hltesi <?! Jen 8ilimleri 0empo+'umu!
:n*&r&!
S10T .+un*&/&*, ,! (200>&)! UErencilerin =eton I&nunl&r-
bil"ilerinin '&+- /e Zi+im metodu'l& *&rD-l&Dt-r-lm&s-! 0D.
?ntern&tion&l Qourn&l o5 1echnolo"ic 0ciences, 1(1), s! 2>-
40!
S11T .+un*&/&*, ,! (200>b)! UErencilerin iD *&/r&m-nd&
po+iti5li*-ne"&ti5li* &'r-m- becerilerinin '&+- /e Zi+im
metodu'l& ort&'& Z-*&r-lm&s-! 0D. ?ntern&tion&l Qourn&l o5
1echnolo"ic 0ciences 1(2), s! 10-20!
S12T Fl"en, ;! (1>>7)! (Eitim psi*olo#isi! \st&nbul: :l*-m
G&'-ne/i!
S13T Ahite, 6!1! W ;unstone, 6! J! (1>>2)! Probin"
underst&ndin"! 4ondon: 1he J&lmer Pres!
S14T Genilme+, I! W I&*m&c-, U! (200%)! \l*REretim 'edinci
s-n-5 RErencilerinin m&tem&ti*te*i h&+-r bulunuDlu* dH+e'i!
I&st&monu (Eitim Der"isi, 1$(2), C2>-C42!
S1CT G-lm&+, L! W 0HnbHl, :! ,! (2003)! UEretimde pl&nl&m&
/e deEerlendirme! :n*&r&: ,i*ro G&'-nl&r-!
S1$T GRre*, =! (2007)! UErenci Zi+im 'olu'l& > /e 11! s-n-5
RErencilerinin hHcre *onusund& *&/r&ms&l &nl&m&
dH+e'lerinin belirlenmesi! Do*u+ ('lHl Fni/ersitesi 8uc&
(Eitim J&*Hltesi Der"isi, 22! s! 107-114!
S17T GH*sel, :!, ,&r&n"o+, D!3! /e 7&n&r&n, =!1! (2004)!
J&r*l-l&Dt-r-lm-D REretim str&te#ileri! (0>!04!2011)
http://!er"!s&b&nciuni/!edu/io*2004/bildiriler/:r+uO20
Gu*sel!doc