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CONDENSATION HEAT

TRANSFER OVER HORIZONTAL

TUBES AND ENHANCEMENT

TECHNIQUES

Nishant Gupta IIT Delhi

TUTOR-Prof. Ravi Kumar IIT Roorkee

Indo-German Winter Academy-2009

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Outline

What is Condensation Heat Transfer?

Types of condensation

Condensation over a

1.Vertical Plate

2.Horizontal tube

Introduction of integral fin tubes

Enhancement techniques for condensation outside the tube

1.Condensate Flooding

2. Drainage Strips

3.Vapor Velocity

4.Condensate inundation

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Introduction

What is condensation ?

Condensation is the heat transfer process by

which a saturated vapor is converted into a

liquid by means of removing the latent heat

of condensation.

Condensation occurs when the enthalpy of

the vapor is reduced to the state of saturated

liquid.

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Introduction

MECHANISM OF CONDENSATION

Drop-wise condensation

Film condensation

Direct Contact condensation

Homogenous condensation

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Introduction

DROP-WISE CONDENSATION

Drops of liquid form from the vapor at particular nucleation sites on a solid

surface and drops remain separate during growth until carried away by

vapor shear or gravity

FILM-CONDENSATION

Drops formed quickly coalesce to produce a continuous film of liquid

DIRECT CONTACT CONDENSATION

The vapor condenses directly on the (liquid) coolant surface which is

sprayed in the vapor space

HOMOGENOUS CONDENSATION

Liquid forms directly from the supersaturated vapor-away from any

macroscopic surface

Various Modes of Condensation

a)Film-wise

Condensation

b)Homogenous

Condensation

c)Film-wise

Condensation

d)Direct Contact

Condensation

(Ref1)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

Film Condensation over a vertical

plate(Ref1)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

ASSUMPTIONS

The flow is laminar

Temperature profile is linear

Heat transfer is by one-dimensional heat conduction across the film to the

wall.

Vapor temperature is uniform and is at its saturation temperature

Gravity is the only external force

Adjoining vapor is stagnant and doesnt exert drag force on the film

Fluid properties are constant

Sensible cooling is neglected with respect to the latent heat

The curvature of the interface is negligible

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

Falling laminar film on a vertical plate(Ref1)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

ANALYSIS

At a distance z from the top, the thickness of the film is .

Ignoring inertia effects i.e. no acceleration of the flow, the force balance on

the liquid element gives

________(1)

gravity force-buoyancy force=shear force

u

y

denotes that velocity is a function of y.

a unit width of the plate is assumed.

This expression is also valid for an inclined plane as long as the angle of

inclination is sufficient for drainage of the condensate.

Only g is replaced by g sin, where is the angle of the plane relative to

the horizontal.

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

Now rearranging and integrating the above equation using the boundary

conditions that u

y

=0 at y=0(No slip), the velocity profile at any location y in

the film is given by

______(2)

Integrating this velocity profile across the film, the mass flow rate per unit

width of the plate is

______(3)

has dimensions kg/ms

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

Now differentiating it with respect to ,the rate of increase of the film flow

rate with film thickness is

______(4)

Taking the film temperature as T

sat

and the wall temperature as T

w

,the heat

conducted across the film element of length dz with a thermal conductivity

of k

L

is

______(5)

Applying an energy balance this rate of heat transfer by conduction is equal

to the rate of the latent heat removed from the vapor at the interface which

means that dq=h

FG

d

h

FG

is the latent heat of condensation per unit mass.

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

The rate of condensation on this element(d) is

_______(6)

Substituting equation 6 in equation 4 and then integrating from =0 at z=0

gives

______(7)

Rearranging the expression for the local film thickness, we get

______(8)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

As we see from the equation 7 the film thickness is proportional to th

power of the temperature difference

This means larger temperature difference( T

sat

T

w

) results in higher

condensation rates

From the thermal conductive resistance across the film, the local

condensation heat transfer coefficient

f

(z) at any point z from the top of

the plate is given by

______(9)

The local Nusselt number using z as the characteristic length

______(10)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

Integrating from z=0 to z, the mean heat transfer coefficient for the plate up

to point z is

______(11)

Taking a closer look we find that mean heat transfer coefficient is 4/3 times

the value of the local heat transfer coefficient at z.

The mean heat transfer coefficient can also be obtained from

______(12)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

Combining equation 12 and 6 to eliminate T

sat

- T

w

,we get the thickness as

______(13)

Eliminating by combining equation 13 and 3

______(14)

where

L=k

=k

L

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a vertical plate

Integrating the above equation we get the average heat transfer coefficient,

______(15)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over horizontal tube

For laminar film condensation on smooth horizontal tubes, Nusselt

obtained the following relation-

here d is the diameter of the tube

Chato obtained the expression for condensation of refrigerants at low vapor

velocities inside smooth horizontal tubes-

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a horizontal tube

Condensation over horizontal tube(axis

is perpendicular to the plane)(Ref1)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a horizontal tube

Taking the same assumptions as we did on the vertical plate

Energy balance between one dimensional heat conduction across the liquid

film of thickness and the latent heat absorbed by the liquid from the

condensing vapors at the interface will give

______(16)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a horizontal tube

Gravitation gsin is applied along the

circumference of the tube where is

the angle around the perimeter from

the top

Now using the same force balance

as we did in the case of vertical plate-

here g is gsin

____(17)

(Ref1)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a horizontal tube

This equation when integrated with boundary conditions that u=0 at y=0

gives

_______(18)

Integrating this velocity profile from the wall to the film interface gives the

total mass flow rate per unit length of the tube at any angle ,

________(19)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a horizontal tube

Now length from the top of the tube i.e. z is related to as =z/r where r is

the radius of the tube

Now taking its derivative with respect to z and introducing it in the equation

of heat balance, we get

_____(20)

Now integrating from the top of the tube when at =0 ,=0 and at =,=,

we get the condensate flow rate on one side of the tube per unit axial

length of the tube

_____(21)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation over a horizontal tube

Now an energy balance on the circumference of the tube gives the mean

heat transfer coefficient for the perimeter of the tube as

______(22)

Substituting the value of in equation 6 in the above equation we get

______(23)

As we have seen earlier that the numerical solution gives a value of 0.725

while the actual analytical value comes out to be 0.728.

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubesand enhancement techniques

Condensation on the horizontal integral fin tubes

Integral fin tubes have higher heat transfer coefficient than the smooth tubes

They have been used in surface condensers in the refrigeration and process

industries

Primary concern increase the surface area

Lead to compact heat exchanger devices.

Common integral fin tubes in use today(Ref2)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation on the horizontal integral fin tubes

Integral finned tube(Ref1)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensation on the horizontal integral fin tubes

No generalized theory to predict accurately the thermal performance of

surface condensers

Basic questions to be answered are-

1.What is the fin shape?

2.What is the fin size?

3.What is the fin spacing?

for the maximum heat transfer coefficient

And there are other considerations that need to be discussed before the

decision is taken about the tube

1.Condensate Flooding

2.Condensate Inundation

3.Vapour velocity

4.Drainage Strips

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Condensate Flooding

Horizontal finned tubes when come in contact with a highly wetting liquid,

to be retained between fins on the bottom part of tube

This is known as liquid hold up, retention or flooding

First measured by Katz et al.(over static liquids)

Different amount of flooding observed with different fluids

Flooding under dynamic and static conditions was same

Masuda and Rose found out that liquid also retained on the upper part of

the tube in the form of wedges between the flanks and the tube surface in

the inter-fin space.

A critical value of inter-fin spacing b

c

is there when the tube is fully flooded

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Drainage Strips

Amount of flooding decreased significantly by using longitudinal

condensate drainage strips

They are placed at the very bottom of the tube

It creates a low pressure region at the bottom of the tube, pulling the

condensate into its pores

However a liquid wedge persists at the base of the fin to the top

Using of drainage strips has drastically increased the heat transfer

coefficient

Largest increase occurs for the tube with the smallest fin spacing

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Other Effects

Honda et al. arrived at following relation for h(height) >b(inter-fin spacing)/2

f

=cos

-1

((2cos/gbR

0

) -1) ______(24)

f

is the flooding angle.

R

0

is the integral fin tube outer radius.

More flooding should occur as the fin density is increased and/or surface

tension/density ratio is increased

Design trade off-

Fin density increasing-more total surface area

Fin density increasing-more flooding

Optimum fin spacing must exist.

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Effect of Condensate Inundation

Mechanisms of condensate inundation

(Ref1)

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Effect of Condensate Inundation

Shell side condensation in an actual condenser is widely different from a

single tube

One of the reasons for this difference is condensate inundation

Nusselt considered the case with smooth tubes and assumed condensate

drains by gravity as a continuous laminar sheet

He arrived at the following result-

N

/

1

=N

-s

where

N

is the average heat transfer coefficient for a vertical column

of N tubes,

1

is the heat transfer coefficient at the top

s =1/4

Kern assumed condensate drains as discrete droplets or columns, which

causes disturbances in the film and hence s=1/6

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Effect of Vapor Velocity

Large vapor velocity

Large interfacial shear force

Different condensate flow

around the tube

Appreciable change in the

heat transfer

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Effect of Vapor Velocity

The data of effect of vapor velocity on integral fin model is almost non-

existent

Gogoninand Dorokhovfound out that the effect of vapor velocity on the

finned tube is very small in comparison to the effect for smooth tubes.

Ref3

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Summary

Condensation over vertical plates

Condensation over horizontal tubes

For the condensation outside tubes condensate flooding

significantly affects finned tube performance

Drainage strips can be used for better enhancements

Effects of Vapor Velocity on integral finned tubes

Decrease in the total heat transfer coefficients in bundle

of tubes

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

Acknowledgement

Thanks to Prof Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee for his

invaluable support by the way of providing me

studymaterial and motivation

Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques

References

Condensation inside and outside smooth and

enhanced tubes a review of recent research

by A. Cavallinia,*, G. Censia, D. Del Cola, L.

Dorettia, G.A. Longob,L. Rossettoa, C.

Zilioa,2003

An evaluation of Film Condensation on

Horizontal Integral-Fin tubes by P.J .Marto,1988

Heat Transfer by J .P.Holman

Engineering data handbook (Wolverine Tube

inc.)

Image References

Ref1-Wolwerine tube inc Engineering data book

Ref2-http://www.tradekorea.com/products/integral_fin_tube.html

Ref3-An evaluation of Film Condensation on Horizontal Integral-Fin tubes by

P.J .Marto,1988

Thank You!!!

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