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INTRODUCTION TO

CONDENSATION HEAT
TRANSFER OVER HORIZONTAL
TUBES AND ENHANCEMENT
TECHNIQUES
Nishant Gupta IIT Delhi
TUTOR-Prof. Ravi Kumar IIT Roorkee
Indo-German Winter Academy-2009
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Outline
What is Condensation Heat Transfer?
Types of condensation
Condensation over a
1.Vertical Plate
2.Horizontal tube
Introduction of integral fin tubes
Enhancement techniques for condensation outside the tube
1.Condensate Flooding
2. Drainage Strips
3.Vapor Velocity
4.Condensate inundation
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Introduction
What is condensation ?
Condensation is the heat transfer process by
which a saturated vapor is converted into a
liquid by means of removing the latent heat
of condensation.
Condensation occurs when the enthalpy of
the vapor is reduced to the state of saturated
liquid.
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Introduction
MECHANISM OF CONDENSATION
Drop-wise condensation
Film condensation
Direct Contact condensation
Homogenous condensation
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Introduction
DROP-WISE CONDENSATION
Drops of liquid form from the vapor at particular nucleation sites on a solid
surface and drops remain separate during growth until carried away by
vapor shear or gravity
FILM-CONDENSATION
Drops formed quickly coalesce to produce a continuous film of liquid
DIRECT CONTACT CONDENSATION
The vapor condenses directly on the (liquid) coolant surface which is
sprayed in the vapor space
HOMOGENOUS CONDENSATION
Liquid forms directly from the supersaturated vapor-away from any
macroscopic surface
Various Modes of Condensation
a)Film-wise
Condensation
b)Homogenous
Condensation
c)Film-wise
Condensation
d)Direct Contact
Condensation
(Ref1)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
Film Condensation over a vertical
plate(Ref1)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
ASSUMPTIONS
The flow is laminar
Temperature profile is linear
Heat transfer is by one-dimensional heat conduction across the film to the
wall.
Vapor temperature is uniform and is at its saturation temperature
Gravity is the only external force
Adjoining vapor is stagnant and doesnt exert drag force on the film
Fluid properties are constant
Sensible cooling is neglected with respect to the latent heat
The curvature of the interface is negligible
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
Falling laminar film on a vertical plate(Ref1)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
ANALYSIS
At a distance z from the top, the thickness of the film is .
Ignoring inertia effects i.e. no acceleration of the flow, the force balance on
the liquid element gives
________(1)
gravity force-buoyancy force=shear force
u
y
denotes that velocity is a function of y.
a unit width of the plate is assumed.
This expression is also valid for an inclined plane as long as the angle of
inclination is sufficient for drainage of the condensate.
Only g is replaced by g sin, where is the angle of the plane relative to
the horizontal.
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
Now rearranging and integrating the above equation using the boundary
conditions that u
y
=0 at y=0(No slip), the velocity profile at any location y in
the film is given by
______(2)
Integrating this velocity profile across the film, the mass flow rate per unit
width of the plate is
______(3)
has dimensions kg/ms
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
Now differentiating it with respect to ,the rate of increase of the film flow
rate with film thickness is
______(4)
Taking the film temperature as T
sat
and the wall temperature as T
w
,the heat
conducted across the film element of length dz with a thermal conductivity
of k
L
is
______(5)
Applying an energy balance this rate of heat transfer by conduction is equal
to the rate of the latent heat removed from the vapor at the interface which
means that dq=h
FG
d
h
FG
is the latent heat of condensation per unit mass.
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
The rate of condensation on this element(d) is
_______(6)
Substituting equation 6 in equation 4 and then integrating from =0 at z=0
gives
______(7)
Rearranging the expression for the local film thickness, we get
______(8)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
As we see from the equation 7 the film thickness is proportional to th
power of the temperature difference
This means larger temperature difference( T
sat
T
w
) results in higher
condensation rates
From the thermal conductive resistance across the film, the local
condensation heat transfer coefficient
f
(z) at any point z from the top of
the plate is given by
______(9)
The local Nusselt number using z as the characteristic length
______(10)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
Integrating from z=0 to z, the mean heat transfer coefficient for the plate up
to point z is
______(11)
Taking a closer look we find that mean heat transfer coefficient is 4/3 times
the value of the local heat transfer coefficient at z.
The mean heat transfer coefficient can also be obtained from
______(12)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
Combining equation 12 and 6 to eliminate T
sat
- T
w
,we get the thickness as
______(13)
Eliminating by combining equation 13 and 3
______(14)
where
L=k
=k
L
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a vertical plate
Integrating the above equation we get the average heat transfer coefficient,
______(15)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over horizontal tube
For laminar film condensation on smooth horizontal tubes, Nusselt
obtained the following relation-
here d is the diameter of the tube
Chato obtained the expression for condensation of refrigerants at low vapor
velocities inside smooth horizontal tubes-
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a horizontal tube
Condensation over horizontal tube(axis
is perpendicular to the plane)(Ref1)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a horizontal tube
Taking the same assumptions as we did on the vertical plate
Energy balance between one dimensional heat conduction across the liquid
film of thickness and the latent heat absorbed by the liquid from the
condensing vapors at the interface will give
______(16)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a horizontal tube
Gravitation gsin is applied along the
circumference of the tube where is
the angle around the perimeter from
the top
Now using the same force balance
as we did in the case of vertical plate-
here g is gsin
____(17)
(Ref1)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a horizontal tube
This equation when integrated with boundary conditions that u=0 at y=0
gives
_______(18)
Integrating this velocity profile from the wall to the film interface gives the
total mass flow rate per unit length of the tube at any angle ,
________(19)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a horizontal tube
Now length from the top of the tube i.e. z is related to as =z/r where r is
the radius of the tube
Now taking its derivative with respect to z and introducing it in the equation
of heat balance, we get
_____(20)
Now integrating from the top of the tube when at =0 ,=0 and at =,=,
we get the condensate flow rate on one side of the tube per unit axial
length of the tube
_____(21)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation over a horizontal tube
Now an energy balance on the circumference of the tube gives the mean
heat transfer coefficient for the perimeter of the tube as
______(22)
Substituting the value of in equation 6 in the above equation we get
______(23)
As we have seen earlier that the numerical solution gives a value of 0.725
while the actual analytical value comes out to be 0.728.
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubesand enhancement techniques
Condensation on the horizontal integral fin tubes
Integral fin tubes have higher heat transfer coefficient than the smooth tubes
They have been used in surface condensers in the refrigeration and process
industries
Primary concern increase the surface area
Lead to compact heat exchanger devices.
Common integral fin tubes in use today(Ref2)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation on the horizontal integral fin tubes
Integral finned tube(Ref1)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensation on the horizontal integral fin tubes
No generalized theory to predict accurately the thermal performance of
surface condensers
Basic questions to be answered are-
1.What is the fin shape?
2.What is the fin size?
3.What is the fin spacing?
for the maximum heat transfer coefficient
And there are other considerations that need to be discussed before the
decision is taken about the tube
1.Condensate Flooding
2.Condensate Inundation
3.Vapour velocity
4.Drainage Strips
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Condensate Flooding
Horizontal finned tubes when come in contact with a highly wetting liquid,
to be retained between fins on the bottom part of tube
This is known as liquid hold up, retention or flooding
First measured by Katz et al.(over static liquids)
Different amount of flooding observed with different fluids
Flooding under dynamic and static conditions was same
Masuda and Rose found out that liquid also retained on the upper part of
the tube in the form of wedges between the flanks and the tube surface in
the inter-fin space.
A critical value of inter-fin spacing b
c
is there when the tube is fully flooded
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Drainage Strips
Amount of flooding decreased significantly by using longitudinal
condensate drainage strips
They are placed at the very bottom of the tube
It creates a low pressure region at the bottom of the tube, pulling the
condensate into its pores
However a liquid wedge persists at the base of the fin to the top
Using of drainage strips has drastically increased the heat transfer
coefficient
Largest increase occurs for the tube with the smallest fin spacing
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Other Effects
Honda et al. arrived at following relation for h(height) >b(inter-fin spacing)/2

f
=cos
-1
((2cos/gbR
0
) -1) ______(24)

f
is the flooding angle.
R
0
is the integral fin tube outer radius.
More flooding should occur as the fin density is increased and/or surface
tension/density ratio is increased
Design trade off-
Fin density increasing-more total surface area
Fin density increasing-more flooding
Optimum fin spacing must exist.
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Effect of Condensate Inundation
Mechanisms of condensate inundation
(Ref1)
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Effect of Condensate Inundation
Shell side condensation in an actual condenser is widely different from a
single tube
One of the reasons for this difference is condensate inundation
Nusselt considered the case with smooth tubes and assumed condensate
drains by gravity as a continuous laminar sheet
He arrived at the following result-

N
/
1
=N
-s
where
N
is the average heat transfer coefficient for a vertical column
of N tubes,

1
is the heat transfer coefficient at the top
s =1/4
Kern assumed condensate drains as discrete droplets or columns, which
causes disturbances in the film and hence s=1/6
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Effect of Vapor Velocity
Large vapor velocity
Large interfacial shear force
Different condensate flow
around the tube
Appreciable change in the
heat transfer
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Effect of Vapor Velocity
The data of effect of vapor velocity on integral fin model is almost non-
existent
Gogoninand Dorokhovfound out that the effect of vapor velocity on the
finned tube is very small in comparison to the effect for smooth tubes.
Ref3
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Summary
Condensation over vertical plates
Condensation over horizontal tubes
For the condensation outside tubes condensate flooding
significantly affects finned tube performance
Drainage strips can be used for better enhancements
Effects of Vapor Velocity on integral finned tubes
Decrease in the total heat transfer coefficients in bundle
of tubes
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
Acknowledgement
Thanks to Prof Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee for his
invaluable support by the way of providing me
studymaterial and motivation
Introduction to condensation heat transfer over horizontal tubes and enhancement techniques
References
Condensation inside and outside smooth and
enhanced tubes a review of recent research
by A. Cavallinia,*, G. Censia, D. Del Cola, L.
Dorettia, G.A. Longob,L. Rossettoa, C.
Zilioa,2003
An evaluation of Film Condensation on
Horizontal Integral-Fin tubes by P.J .Marto,1988
Heat Transfer by J .P.Holman
Engineering data handbook (Wolverine Tube
inc.)
Image References
Ref1-Wolwerine tube inc Engineering data book
Ref2-http://www.tradekorea.com/products/integral_fin_tube.html
Ref3-An evaluation of Film Condensation on Horizontal Integral-Fin tubes by
P.J .Marto,1988
Thank You!!!