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By. Elizabeth Mattison
Evaluation of Previous Knowledge
What does anyone remember about Malcolm
Can anyone name any of the 6 principles of
Malcolms Life
Born in 1913 and raised in Montana.
His father was a vet and from a young age, Malcolm
frequently accompanied his father on trips to farms and
While driving to and from these locations, we engaged in
serious discussions about all sorts of subjects, such as
the meaning of life, right and wrong, religion, politics,
success, happiness and everything a growing child is
curious about. I distinctly remember feeling like a
companion rather than an inferior. My father often asked
what I thought about before he said what he thought, and
gave me the feeling that he respected my mind. (Knowles
1989: 2)

Malcolms Life contd
His mother was also a positive influence in
Malcolms life who taught him to be a more
tender and caring person.
Boy scouts was also a huge influence on young
Malcolms life teaching him to knowledge and
life skills as well as training him to be a leader
in his life.
Malcolms Education
Malcolm went to Harvard College on scholarship in
1930 and took courses in philosophy, literature,
history, political science, ethics, and international
He also met his wife, Hulda, there!
In 1943, in order to avoid being drafted into the
Navy, Knowles undertook the masters program for
Adult Education at the University of Chicago .
Malcolm completed his MA in 1949
Malcolms Employment History
In 1935, newlywed Malcolm Knowles got a job at
the new National Youth Administration in
Massachusetts where he found out what skills local
employers were looking for in workers and then
created adult education courses to teach these
skills and recruiting people to take these courses
While working here, Knowles met Eduard Lindeman
who took Knowles under his wing and became his
mentor and inspired Knowles work and ideas
throughout the rest of his life
Malcolms Employment History
In 1940 Knowles was hired as the director of Adult
Education at the Boston YMCA
When he moved to Chicago in 1943 to finish up his
schooling he became the director of Adult Education
at the Central Chicago YMCA instead
In 1951 he became executive director of the newly
formed Adult Education Association of the USA.
In 1959 he became an associate professor at
Boston University of adult education and worked
there for 14 years before retiring in 1979.
Socio-Cultural Context
Malcolm Knowles came into the adult
education world just as it was starting to
become wildly popular.
People were starving for ideas about how to
improve adult education and make it worth
their wild and Malcolm was just the one to
come up with some.
Malcolms Contributions to AE
Knowles is known as the Father of Andragogy
The Greek root andr means man not boy
Believed that adults needed to be taught in a
different way than children
Created the 6 assumptions of Andragogy

6 Assumptions of Andragogy
1. The Learners Need to Know
2. Self-Concept of the Learner
3. Prior Experience of the Learner
4. Readiness to Learn
Orientation to Learning
Motivation to Learn

6 Assumptions of Andragogy
1. The Learners Need to Know- why, what, how
2. Self-Concept of the Learner- autonomous,
3. Prior Experience of the Learner-resource
4. Readiness to Learn-life related
Orientation to Learning- problem centered,
Motivation to Learn- intrinsic value
Impact on Adult Education
Put together a lot of different ideas about
education in a clear, concise, 6 point theory
Changed the way many institutions approached
adult education
Many became more facilitators of learning than
lecturing type of teachers
Even some child/youth educators started using
parts of andragogy

How does it relate to our class?
We have learned the 6 principles of
Andragogy A LOT
I feel like our class has been based on the
andragogical principles
Dr. Crosby more as facilitator than lecture based
Talk about what we think is important and our
opinions are valued
Tell us how it will apply to our lives

What about Christ?
This is the model that Christ seemed to use
with his disciples and followers
We can use this to lead bible studies and small
groups in the college and career settings
Any other ways?