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TABLE OF CONTENTS

B

B1SECTIONAL PROPERTIES FOR TUBULAR SHAPES.......................................................................................... B-1

B2STRESSES FOR TUBULAR SECTIONS.................................................................................................................. B-2

B3DEFLECTION EQUATIONS FOR TAPERED TUBULAR CANTILEVERED BEAMS ....................................... B-4

B4DEFLECTION EQUATIONS FOR TAPERED CANTILEVERED BEAMS ........................................................... B-5

B5EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTORS FOR COLUMNS............................................................................................... B-6

B6ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR SELECTED ALUMINUM ALLOYS................................................................... B-7

B7REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................................... B-42

B-1

APPENDIX B

DESIGN AIDS

B1SECTIONAL PROPERTIES FOR TUBULAR SHAPES

Table B-1 provides approximate equations to compute sectional properties of tubular shapes.

Table B-1Estimated Sectional Properties for Common Tubular Shapes

Property Round Tube Hexdecagonal Tube Dodecagonal Tube Octagonal Tube Square Tube

Square Tube

(Axis on Diagonal)

Moment of inertia, I 3.14R

3

t 3.22R

3

t 3.29R

3

t 3.50R

3

t 5.33R

3

t 5.33R

3

t

Section modulus, S 3.14R

2

t 3.22R

2

t 3.29R

2

t 3.50R

2

t 5.33R

2

t 3.77R

2

t

Area, A 6.28Rt 6.37Rt 6.43Rt 6.63Rt 8.00Rt 8.00Rt

Shape factor, K

p

1.27 1.27 1.26 1.24 1.12

Radius of gyration, r 0.707R 0.711R 0.715R 0.727R 0.816R 0.816R

Cross-sectional constant, C 3.14 3.22 3.29 3.50 5.33

Pictorial representation

Notation:

C = cross-sectional constant used in Table B-3

R = radius measured to the mid-thickness of the wall

t = wall thickness

B-2 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

B2STRESSES FOR TUBULAR SECTIONS

The following equations calculate stresses for round and multisided tubular shapes. If more than one equation is provided, then the greatest value should be used.

For round tubes in biaxial bending, the maximum bending stress occurs at the resulting moment. For multisided tubular shapes in biaxial bending, the maximum

bending stress occurs at one of the corners. The maximum transverse shear stress for tubular shape occurs in the tube walls that are intersected by the neutral axis,

which is normal to the resultantant shear force.

Table B-2Formulas for Maximum Stresses in Common Tubular Shapes

Stress Round Tube Hexdecagonal Tube Dodecagonal Tube Octagonal Tube Square Tube

Square Tube

(Axis on Diagonal)

Maximum bending stress, f

b

2 2

x y

f f +

0.199 +

or

0.567 +0.848

or

0.848 +0.567

or

+0.199

x y

x y

x y

x y

f f

f f

f f

f f

0.732( + )

or

+0.268

or

0.268 +

x y

x y

x y

f f

f f

f f

+0.414

or

0.414 +

x y

x y

f f

f f

+

x y

f f

f

x

or

f

y

Maximum shear stress due to transverse

loads, f

vb

2.0

s

V

A

2.02

s

V

A

2.025

s

V

A

2.05

s

V

A

2.25

s

V

A

2.12

s

V

A

Maximum shear stress due to torsion, f

vt

2

6.28

z

M

R t

2

6.37

z t

M k

R t

2

6.43

z t

M k

R t

2

6.63

z t

M k

R t

2

8.00

z t

M k

R t

2

8.00

z t

M k

R t

Values of k

t

, stress concentration factor See Figure B-1

Pictorial Representation

Notation:

A = area

f

vb

= shear stress due to transverse loads

f

vt

= shear stress due to torsion

f

x

= stress due to bending about the x-axis

f

y

= stress due to bending about the y-axis

k

t

= stress concentration factor for multisided tubular

shapes

M

z

= torsional moment

R = radius measured to the mid-thickness of the wall

t = wall thickness

V

s

= applied shear

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-3

Torsional shear stresses are present on a transverse cross-section due to torsional moments, M

z

, and are uniform

around the periphery of thin-walled tubular section, except for stress concentrations at the corners of polygonal tubes. The

stress concentration factor for a polygonal tube is obtained from Timoshenkos Strength of Materials. The stress

concentration factor may be found by using Figure B-1 or by using the following equation:

1 1

1

2

1.0

1

ln

R n

t n t

n t n

k

n

R R

n

t

+

+

= +

where:

k

t

= stress concentration factor

t = wall thickness

R = radius measured to the mid-thickness of the wall

n = ratio of the inside-corner radius to wall thickness

Figure B-1Stress-Concentration Factors for Polygonal Tubes in Torsion

(Source: Timoshenko, S. 1957. Strength of MaterialsPart II. D. Van Nostrand Company, Princeton, NJ.)

B-4 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

B3DEFLECTION EQUATIONS FOR TAPERED TUBULAR CANTILEVERED BEAMS

Equations to compute deflections of prismatic beams are not applicable for tapered beams. Table B-3 provides

equations to compute deflection and slope at the tip of tubular cantilever tapered beams. Equations provided in Table B-3

are valid only when the wall thickness t is very small in comparison with the mean radius R of the cross-section.

Table B-3Estimated Maximum Deflection and Slope of Tapered Hollow Beams

Transverse Point Load at Tip of Beam

( )

3

max

3

2ln 3

2

B B A A

A B B

B A

R R R R WL

y

R R R

ECt R R

=

2

max

2

2

A B

WL

ECtR R

=

End Moment Applied at Tip of Beam

( )

2

max

2

2

A B

ML

y

ECt R R

=

( )

max

2 2

2

A B

A B

ML R R

ECtR R

+

=

Uniform Load

( )

2 3

max

4 2

1

3 ln

2 6

2

B A A

A B

A B B

B A

R R R WL

y R R

R R R

ECt R R

= + + +

( )

( )

2

max

3 2

3

ln 4

2 2

2

B A

B A

A B

B A

R R WL

R R

R R

ECt R R

= +

W wL =

Triangular Load

( )

2 3 3

2 2

max

5 2

8

12 ln 8

6

B A A

A A B B

A B B

B A

R R R WL

y R R R R

R R R

ECt R R

= + +

( )

2 2

max

4 2

1

ln

2 3 6

B A A B

A

A B B

B A

R R R R WL

R

R R R

ECt R R

= + +

2

wL

W =

Notation:

C = cross-sectional constant defined per Table B-1

E = modulus of elasticity

L = length of the beam (from ground line to tip)

M = applied moment

R

A

= radius measured to mid-thickness of wall at free end

(see Table B-1)

R

B

= radius measured to mid-thickness of wall at fixed end

(see Table B-1)

t = wall thickness

W = load

w = load per unit length

y

max

= maximum horizontal deflection at free end of beam

max

= maximum slope at free end of beam (rad)

Note: Equations are based on the small deflection theory; therefore tan = .

Adapted from: Hopkins, R. B. 1970. Design Analysis of Shafts and Beams. McGrawHill, New York, NY.

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-5

B4DEFLECTION EQUATIONS FOR TAPERED CANTILEVERED BEAMS

Table B-4 provides equations to compute tip deflections and slope for solid round cantilevered beams, such as wood poles.

Table B-4Maximum Deflection and Slope of Solid Round Tapered Beams

Slope Deflection

Transverse Point Load at Free End

2

max

2.497

2.068

b

a

a

PL

d

EI

d

=

3

max

3

3

b

a

a

PL

y

d

EI

d

=

End Moment Applied at Free End

max

1 587

1.075

b

a

a

ML

d

EI

d

=

.

2

max

2.497

2.068

b

a

a

ML

y

d

EI

d

=

Uniform Load Applied Along Length

3

max

3

6

b

a

a

wL

d

EI

d

=

4

max

3.282

7.872

b

a

a

wL

y

d

EI

d

=

Notation:

d

a

= diameter at free end

d

b

= diameter at fixed end

E = modulus of elasticity

I

a

= moment of inertia of cross-section at free end of beam

L = length

M = moment applied at free end of beam

P = horizontal load applied at free end of beam

w = uniformly distributed load applied along the beam length

y

max

= deflection at free end of beam

max

= slope at free end of beam (rad)

Source: Author, Initials. 1985. Graphs to Determine Structure Deflections, Transmission and Distribution. July 1985, pp. XY.

B-6 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

B5EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTORS FOR COLUMNS

Table B-5 provides effective length factors for centrally loaded columns with various end conditions.

Table B-5Effective Length Factors for Centrally Loaded Columns

Buckled Shape of Column Shown by

Dashed Line

Theoretical K Value 0.50 0.70 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00

Recommended Design Values when

Ideal Conditions are Approximated

0.65 0.80 1.00 1.20 2.10 2.00

Rotation fixed, Translation fixed

Rotation free, Translation fixed

Rotation fixed, Translation free

End Conditions Code

Rotation free, Translation free

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-7

B6ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR SELECTED ALUMINUM ALLOYS

Tables B-6 through B-11 provide allowable stresses for welded and nonwelded members for A6005-T5, A6061-T6, and A6063-T6.

Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set Allowable Stress

Tension, axial, net

section

Any tension member

6-1 131 72.4 6005T5 Extrusions

Thickness Up Through 25 mm

Rectangular tubes, structural

shapes bent around strong axis

6-2 131 72.4 White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther

than 25.4 mm from a weld.

Round or oval tubes

6-3 165 82.7 Shaded bars apply to within 25.4 mm of a weld.

Tension in Beams,

extreme fiber, net

section

Shapes bent about weak axis,

bars, plates

6-4 193 93.1

Notes:

See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding

allowable stresses.

For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R

b

/t, as applicable, shall be 20,

except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment

requirements of Article 6.5.

On bolts 6-5 234 124

See Article 6.5 for additional provisions regarding allowable stresses in welded

members.

The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,

Aluminum Design.

Bearing

On flat surfaces and on bolts in

slotted holes

6-6 159 82.7

Continued on next page

B-8 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Continued on next page

Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

1

(b) Slenderness

Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress Slenderness

Between S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness

Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

131

9.5

kL

r

= 139.3 0.869

kL

r

66

kL

r

=

351600

2

kL

r

Compression in

Columns, axial,

gross section

All columns

6-7

72.4 72.4

70

kL

r

=

351600

2

kL

r

131

5.2

b

t

= 159.3 5.45

b

t

10

b

t

=

1062

b

t

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns buckling about a

symmetry axis

6-8

72.4 72.4

15

b

t

=

1062

b

t

131

5.2

b

t

=

159.3 5.45

b

t

12

b

t

=

13580

2

b

t

Compression in

Components of

Columns, gross

section

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns not buckling

about a symmetry axis

6-9

72.4 72.4

14

b

t

=

13580

2

b

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-9

ibn

Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Continued on next page

Type of Stress Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

1

(b) Slenderness

Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress Slenderness

Between S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness

Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

131

16

b

t

= 159.3 1.72

b

t

33

b

t

=

3378

b

t

Flat plates with both edges

supported

6-10

72.4 72.4

47

b

t

=

3378

b

t

131

16

R

t

=

153.1 5.52

R

t

141

R

t

=

22060

2

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of

Columns, gross

section

Curved plates supported on both

edges, walls of round or oval

tubes

b

6-11

72.4

5.1

R

t

=

1

78.6 2.76 sin

R

t

340

R

t

=

22060

2

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

B-10 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

145

23

b

y

L

r

=

164.8 0.855

L

b

r

y

79

L

b

r

y

=

2

600000

b

y

L

r

Single web beams bent about

strong axis

6-12

72.4

72.4

91

L

b

r

y

=

2

600000

b

y

L

r

172

28

R

b

t

=

271.0 18.62

R

b

t

81

R

b

t

=

same as Eq. 6-11 with R = R

b

Round or oval tubes

b

6-13

82.7

53

R

b

t

=

128.2 6.89

R

b

t

134

R

b

t

=

same as Eq. 6-11 with R = R

b

193

13

b

L d

t d

= 279.2 6.41

b

L d

t d

29

d L

b

t d

=

2

78600

b

L d

t d

Solid rectangular and round

section beams

6-14

93.1 93.1

29

d L

b

t d

=

2

78600

b

L d

t d

145

146

0.5

L S

b c

I J

y

=

164.8 1.66

0.5

b c

y

L S

L J

1700

0.5

b c

y

L S

L J

=

165500

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

Compression in

Beams, extreme

fiber, gross section

Rectangular tubes and box

sections

6-15

72.4 72.4

2290

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

165500

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

Continued on next page

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-11

Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

145

6.8

b

t

= 188.2 6.41

b

t

10

b

t

=

1262

b

t

Flat plates supported on one

edge

6-16

72.4 72.4

17

b

t

=

1262

b

t

145

22

b

t

= 188.2 2.0

b

t

33

b

t

=

4000

b

t

Compression in

Components of

Beams, component

under uniform

compression, gross

section

Flat plates with both edges

supported

6-17

93.1 72.4

55

b

t

=

4000

b

t

172

1.6

b

R

t

=

180.6 6.48

b

R

t

141

b

R

t

=

26200

1

35

b

b

R

R

t

t

+

Curved plates supported on

both edges

b

6-18

82.7

1.3

b

R

t

=

85.5 02.41

b

R

t

340

b

R

t

=

Same as nonwelded

members

Continued on next page

B-12 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

193

8.9

b

t

= 279.2 9.72

b

t

19

b

t

=

2

33780

b

t

Flat plates with compression

edge free, tension edge

supported

6-19

93.1 93.1

19

b

t

=

2

33780

b

t

193

46

h

t

= 279.2 1.86

h

t

75

h

t

=

10480

h

t

Compression in

Components of

Beams, component

under bending in

own plane, gross

section

Flat plate with both edges

supported

6-20

93.1 93.1

113

h

t

=

10480

h

t

83

36

h

t

= 107.6 0.683

h

t

65

h

t

=

2

268900

h

t

Shear in Webs,

gross section

Unstiffened flat webs

6-21

41.4 41.4

81

h

t

=

2

268900

h

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-13

Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set Allowable Stress

Tension, axial, net

section

Any tension member

6-1 19 10.5 6005T5 Extrusions

Thickness 1.0 in

Rectangular tubes, structural

shapes bent around strong

axis

6-2 19 10.5 White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther than

1.0 in from a weld.

Round or oval tubes

6-3 24 12 Shaded bars apply to within 1.0 in of a weld.

Tension in Beams,

extreme fiber, net

section

Shapes bent about weak axis,

bars, plates

6-4 28 13.5

On bolts

6-5 34 18 Bearing

On flat surfaces and on bolts

in slotted holes

6-6 23 12

Notes:

a

See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding

allowable stresses.

b

For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R

b

/t, as applicable, shall be 20,

except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment

requirements of Article 6.5.

c

See Article 6.5 for additional provisions regarding allowable stresses in welded

members.

d

The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,

Aluminum Design.

Continued on next page

B-14 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

19

9.5

kL

r

= 20.2 0.126

kL

r

66

kL

r

=

2

51000

kL

r

Compression in

Columns, axial, gross

section

All columns

6-7

10.5 10.5

70

kL

r

=

2

51000

kL

r

19

5.2

b

t

= 23.1 0.79

b

t

10

b

t

=

154

b

t

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns buckling about

a symmetry axis

6-8

10.5 10.5

15

b

t

=

154

b

t

19

5.2

b

t

= 23.1 0.79

b

t

12

b

t

=

2

1970

b

t

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns not buckling

about a symmetry axis

6-9

10.5 10.5

14

b

t

=

2

1970

b

t

19

16

b

t

= 23.1 0.25

b

t

33

b

t

=

490

b

t

Compression in

Components of

Columns, gross section

Flat plates with both edges

supported

6-10

10.5 10.5

47

b

t

=

490

b

t

Continued on next page

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-15

Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

19

16

R

t

=

22.2 0.80

R

t

141

R

t

=

2

3200

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of

Columns, gross section

Curved plates supported on

both edges, walls of round or

oval tubes

b

6-11

10.5

5.1

R

t

=

11.4 0.40

R

t

340

R

t

=

2

3200

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

Continued on next page

B-16 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

21

23

b

y

L

r

= 23.9 0.124

b

y

L

r

79

b

y

L

r

=

2

87000

b

y

L

r

Single web beams bent about

strong axis

6-12

10.5 10.5

91

b

y

L

r

=

2

87000

b

y

L

r

25

28

b

R

t

=

39.3 2.70

b

R

t

81

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with R = R

b

Round or oval tubes

b

6-13

12

53

b

R

t

=

18.6 1.00

b

R

t

134

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with R = R

b

28

13

b

L d

t d

= 40.5 0.93

b

L d

t d

29

b

L d

t d

=

2

11400

b

L d

t d

Solid rectangular and round

section beams

6-14

13.5 13.5

29

b

L d

t d

=

2

11400

b

L d

t d

21

146

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

23.9 0.24

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

1700

0.5

b c

y

L S

l J

=

24000

0.5

b c

y

L S

l J

Compression in

Beams, extreme

fiber, gross section

Rectangular tubes and box

sections

6-15

10.5 10.5

2290

0.5

b c

y

L S

l J

=

24000

0.5

b c

y

L S

l J

Continued on next page

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-17

Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between S

1

and

S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

21

6.8

b

t

= 27.3 0.93

b

t

10

b

t

=

183

b

t

Flat plates supported on one

edge

6-16

10.5 10.5

17

b

t

=

183

b

t

21

22

b

t

= 27.3 0.29

b

t

33

b

t

=

580

b

t

Flat plates with both edges

supported

6-17

13.5 10.5

55

b

t

=

580

b

t

25

1.6

b

R

t

=

26.2 0.94

b

R

t

141

b

R

t

=

2

3800

1

35

b

b

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of

Beams, component

under uniform

compression, gross

section

Curved plates supported on both

edges

b

6-18

12

1.3

b

R

t

=

12.4 0.35

b

R

t

340

b

R

t

=

Same as nonwelded

members

Continued on next page

B-18 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

28

8.9

b

t

= 40.5 1.41

b

t

19

b

t

=

2

4900

b

t

Flat plates with compression

edge free, tension edge

supported

6-19

13.5 13.5

19

b

t

=

2

4900

b

t

28

46

h

t

= 40.5 0.27

h

t

75

h

t

=

1520

h

t

Compression in

Components of

Beams, component

under bending in

own plane, gross

section

Flat plate with both edges

supported

6-20

13.5 13.5

113

h

t

=

1520

h

t

12

36

h

t

= 15.6 0.099

h

t

65

h

t

=

2

39000

h

t

Shear in Webs, gross

section

Unstiffened flat webs

6-21

6 6

81

h

t

=

2

39000

h

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-19

Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set Allowable Stress

Tension, axial, net

section

Any tension member

6-1 131 75.8

6061T6 Extrusions Up Through 25 mm, Sheet and Plate, Standard Structural Shapes,

Drawn Tube, Rolled Rod and Bar

Rectangular tubes, structural

shapes bent around strong axis

6-2 131 75.8

White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther

than 25 mm from a weld

Round or oval tubes

6-3 165 93

Tension in Beams,

extreme fiber, net

section

Shapes bent about weak axis,

bars, plates

6-4 193 110

On bolts

6-5 234 124

Bearing

On flat surfaces and on bolts in

slotted holes

6-6 159 82.7

Notes:

a

See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding

allowable stresses.

b

For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R

b

/t, as applicable, shall be 20,

except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment

requirements of Article 6.5

c

See Article 6.5 for additional provision regarding allowable stresses in welded

members.

d

The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,

Aluminum Design.

Values when welded with 5183, 5356, or 5556 alloy filler wire, regardless of

thickness. Values also apply to thicknesses 9.5 mm when welded with 4043

alloy filler wire; for greater thicknesses multiply allowable tensile stresses by

0.8 and allowable compressive and shear stresses by 0.75.

For all thicknesses with filler alloys 5183, 5356 or 5556; and for

thicknesses 9.5 mm for 4043 filler alloy.

Continued on next page

B-20 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Continued on next page

Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness S

1

(b) Slenderness

Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit

S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

6-7 131

9.5

kL

r

= 139.3 0.869

kL

r

66

kL

r

=

2

351600

kL

r

Compression in

Columns, axial, gross

section

All columns

82.7

82.7

65

kL

r

=

2

351600

kL

r

6-8 131

5.2

b

t

= 159.3 5.45

b

t

10

b

t

=

1062

b

t

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns buckling about a

symmetry axis

82.7

82.7

13

b

t

=

1062

b

t

6-9 131

5.2

b

t

= 159.3 5.45

b

t

12

b

t

=

2

13580

b

t

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns not buckling

about a symmetry axis

82.7

82.7

13

b

t

=

2

13580

b

t

6-10 131

16

b

t

= 159.3 1.72

b

t

33

b

t

=

3378

b

t

Compression in

Components of

Columns, gross

section

Flat plates with both edges

supported

82.7

82.7

41

b

t

=

3378

b

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-21

Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness S

1

(b) Slenderness

Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit

S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

131

16

R

t

=

153.1 5.52

R

t

141

R

t

=

2

22060

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of

Columns, gross

section

Curved plates supported on both

edges, walls of round or oval

tubes

b

6-11

82.7

9.0

R

t

=

93.1 3.45

R

t

290

R

t

=

2

22060

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

145

23

b

y

L

r

= 164.8 0.855

b

y

L

r

79

b

y

L

r

=

2

600000

b

y

L

r

Single web beams bent about

strong axis

6-12

82.7

82.7

85

b

y

L

r

=

2

600000

b

y

L

r

172

28

b

R

t

=

270.6 18.61

b

R

t

81

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with

R = R

b

Compression in

Beams, extreme fiber,

gross section

Round or oval tubes

b

6-13

96.5

51

b

R

t

=

164.8 9.58

b

R

t

137

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with

R = R

b

Continued on next page

B-22 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness S

1

(b) Slenderness

Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

6-12 145

23

b

y

L

r

= 164.8 0.855

b

y

L

r

79

b

y

L

r

=

2

600000

b

y

L

r

Single web beams bent about

strong axis

82.7

82.7

85

b

y

L

r

=

2

600000

b

y

L

r

6-13 172

28

b

R

t

=

270.6 18.61

b

R

t

81

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with

R = R

b

Round or oval tubes

b

96.5

51

b

R

t

=

164.8 9.58

b

R

t

137

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with

R = R

b

6-14 193

13

b

L d

t d

= 279.2 6.41

b

L d

t d

29

b

L d

t d

=

2

78600

b

L d

t d

Solid rectangular and round

section beams

110

26

b

L d

t d

= 279.2 6.41

b

L d

t d

29

b

L d

t d

=

2

78600

b

L d

t d

6-15 145

146

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

164.8 1.66

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

1700

0.5

b c

y

L S

i J

=

165500

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

Compression in

Beams, extreme fiber,

gross section

Rectangular tubes and box

sections

82.7

82.7

2000

0.5

b c

y

L S

i J

=

165500

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

Continued on next page

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-23

Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness S

1

(b) Slenderness

Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

6-16 145

6.8

b

t

= 188.2 6.41

b

t

10

b

t

=

1255

b

t

Flat plates supported on one

edge

82.7

82.7

15

b

t

=

1255

b

t

6-17 145

22

b

t

= 188.2 2.0

b

t

33

b

t

=

4000

b

t

Flat plates with both edges

supported

82.7

82.7

48

b

t

=

4000

b

t

6-18 172

1.6

b

R

t

=

180.6 6.48

b

R

t

141

b

R

t

=

2

26200

1

35

b

b

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of

Beams, component

under uniform

compression, gross

section

Curved plates supported on

both edges

b

96.5

2.5

b

R

t

=

101.4 3.03

b

R

t

290

b

R

t

=

Same as nonwelded

members

Continued on next page

B-24 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness S

1

(b) Slenderness

Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

6-19 193

8.9

b

t

= 279.2 9.72

b

t

19

b

t

=

2

33780

b

t

Flat plates with compression

edge free, tension edge

supported

110

17

b

t

= 279.2 9.72

b

t

19

b

t

=

2

33780

b

t

6-20 193

46

h

t

= 279.2 1.86

b

t

75

h

t

=

10480

h

t

Compression in

Components of

Beams, component

under bending in own

plane, gross section

Flat plate with both edges

supported

110

110

95

h

t

=

10480

h

t

6-21 83

36

h

t

= 107.6 0.683

h

t

65

h

t

=

2

268900

h

t

Shear in Webs, gross

section

Unstiffened flat webs

51.7

51.7

72

h

t

=

2

268900

h

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-25

Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set Allowable Stress

Tension, axial, net

section

Any tension member

6-1 19 11

Rectangular tubes, structural

shapes bent around strong axis

6-2 19 11

Round or oval tubes

6-3 24 13.5

6061T6 Extrusions Up Through 1.0 in, Sheet and Plate, Standard Structural Shapes,

Drawn Tube, Rolled Rod and Bar

White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther

than 1.0 in from a weld

Shaded bars apply to within 1.0 in of a weld

Tension in Beams,

extreme fiber, net

section

Shapes bent about weak axis,

bars, plates

6-4 28 16

On bolts

6-5 34 18

Bearing

On flat surfaces and on bolts in

slotted holes

6-6 23 12

Notes:

a

See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding

allowable stresses.

b

For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R

b

/t, as applicable, shall be

20, except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment

requirements of Article 6.5.

c

See Article 6.5 for additional provisions regarding allowable stresses in

welded members.

d

The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,

Aluminum Design.

e

Values when welded with 5183, 5356, or 5556 alloy filler wire, regardless of

thickness. Values also apply to thicknesses 0.375 in. when welded with

4043 alloy filler wire; for greater thicknesses multiply allowable tensile

stresses by 0.8 and allowable compressive and shear stresses by 0.75.

f

For all thicknesses with filler alloys 5183, 5356 or 5556 and for thicknesses

0.375 in. for 4043 filler alloy.

Continued on next page

B-26 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

19

9.5

kL

r

= 20.2 0.126

kL

r

66

kL

r

=

2

51000

kL

r

Compression in

Columns, axial, gross

section

All columns

6-7

12

12

65

kL

r

=

2

51000

kL

r

19

5.2

b

t

= 23.1 0.79

b

t

10

b

t

=

154

b

t

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns buckling about

a symmetry axis

6-8

12

12

13

b

t

=

154

b

t

19

5.2

b

t

= 23.1 1.39

b

t

12

b

t

=

2

1970

b

t

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns not buckling

about a symmetry axis

6-9

12

12

13

b

t

=

2

1970

b

t

19

16

b

t

= 23.1 0.25

b

t

33

b

t

=

490

b

t

Compression in

Components of

Columns, gross section

Flat plates with both edges

supported

6-10

12

12

41

b

t

=

490

b

t

Continued on next page

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-27

Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

19

16

R

t

=

22.2 0.80

R

t

141

R

t

=

2

3200

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of

Columns, gross section

Curved plates supported on

both edges, walls of round or

oval tubes

b

6-11

12

90

R

t

=

13.5 0.50

R

t

290

R

t

=

2

3200

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

Continued on next page

B-28 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

21

23

b

y

L

r

= 23.9 0.124

b

y

L

r

79

b

y

L

r

=

2

87000

b

y

L

r

Single web beams bent about

strong axis

6-12

12

12

85

b

y

L

r

=

2

87000

b

y

L

r

25

28

b

R

t

=

39.3 2.70

b

R

t

81

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with

R = R

b

Round or oval tubes

b

6-13

14

51

b

R

t

=

23.9 1.39

b

R

t

137

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with

R = R

b

28

13

b

L d

t d

= 40.5 0.93

b

L d

t d

29

b

L d

t d

=

2

11400

b

L d

t d

Solid rectangular and round

section beams

6-14

16

26

b

L d

t d

= 40.5 0.93

b

L d

t d

29

b

L d

t d

=

2

11400

b

L d

t d

21

146

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

23.9 0.24

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

1700

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

24000

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

Compression in

Beams, extreme fiber,

gross section

Rectangular tubes and box

sections

6-15

12

12

2000

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

24000

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

Continued on next page

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-29

Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

21

6.8

b

t

= 27.3 0.93

b

t

10

b

t

=

182

b

t

Flat plates supported on one

edge

6-16

12 12

15

b

t

=

182

b

t

21

22

b

t

= 27.3 0.29

b

t

33

b

t

=

580

b

t

Flat plates with both edges

supported

6-17

12 12

48

b

t

=

580

b

t

25

1.6

b

R

t

=

26.2 0.94

b

R

t

141

b

R

t

=

3800

1

35

b

b

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of Beams,

component under

uniform compression,

gross section

Curved plates supported on

both edges

b

6-18

14

2.5

b

R

t

=

1.47 0.44

b

R

t

290

b

R

t

=

Same as nonwelded

members

Continued on next page

B-30 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

28

8.9

b

t

= 40.5 1.41

b

t

19

b

t

=

2

4900

b

t

Flat plates with compression

edge free, tension edge

supported

6-19

16

17

b

t

= 40.5 1.41

b

t

19

b

t

=

2

4900

b

t

28

46

h

t

= 40.5 0.27

h

t

75

h

t

=

1520

h

t

Compression in

Components of Beams,

component under

bending in own plane,

gross section

Flat plate with both edges

supported

6-20

16 16

95

h

t

=

1520

h

t

12

36

h

t

= 15.6 0.099

h

t

65

h

t

=

2

39000

h

t

Shear in Webs, gross

section

Unstiffened flat webs

6-21

7.5 7.5

72

h

t

=

2

39000

h

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-31

Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set Allowable Stress

Tension, axial, net

section

Any tension member

6-1 103 44.8 6063T6

Extrusions, Pipe

Rectangular tubes, structural

shapes bent around strong axis

6-2 103 44.8 White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther

than 25.4 mm from a weld

Round or oval tubes

6-3 124 55.2 Shaded bars apply to within 25.4 mm of a weld

Tension in Beams,

extreme fiber, net section

Shapes bent about weak axis,

bars, plates

6-4 138 58.6

Bearing On bolts 6-5 165 93.1

On flat surfaces and on bolts in

slotted holes

6-6 110 62.1

Notes:

a

See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding

allowable stresses.

b

For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R

b

/t, as applicable, shall be

20, except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment

requirements of Article 6.5

c

See Article 6.5 for additional provisions regarding allowable stresses in

welded members.

d

The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,

Aluminum Design.

Continued on next page

B-32 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit

S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit

S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

93.1

9.5

kL

r

= 97.9 0.510

kL

r

78

kL

r

=

2

351600

kL

r

Compression in Columns,

axial, gross section

All columns

6-7

44.8 44.8

89

kL

r

=

2

351600

kL

r

93.1

5.7

b

t

= 111.0 3.17

b

t

12

b

t

=

889

b

t

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns buckling about a

symmetry axis

6-8

44.8 44.8

20

b

t

=

889

b

t

93.1

5.7

b

t

= 111.0 3.17

b

t

15

b

t

=

2

13580

b

t

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns not buckling

about a symmetry axis

6-9

44.8 44.8

17

b

t

=

2

13580

b

t

6-10 93.1

18

b

t

= 111.0 1.0

b

t

39

b

t

=

2827

b

t

Compression in

Components of Columns,

gross section

Flat plates with both edges

supported

44.8 44.8

63

b

t

=

2827

b

t

Continued on next page

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-33

Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit

S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit

S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

6-11 93.1

18

R

t

=

107.6 3.45

R

t

188

R

t

=

2

22060

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of Columns,

gross section

Curved plates supported on both

edges, walls of round or oval

tubes

b

44.8

10

R

t

=

49.6 1.52

R

t

510

R

t

=

2

22060

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

103

23

b

y

L

r

=

151.1 0.503

b

y

L

r

94

b

y

L

r

=

2

600000

b

y

L

r

Single web beams bent about

strong axis

6-12

44.8 44.8

116

b

y

L

r

=

2

600000

b

y

L

r

124

33

b

R

t

=

191.0 11.72

b

R

t

102

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with

R = R

b

Compression in Beams,

extreme fiber, gross

section

Round or oval tubes

b

6-13

55.2

62

b

R

t

=

88.3 4.21

b

R

t

206

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with

R = R

b

Continued on next page

B-34 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

138

15

b

L d

t d

= 192.4 3.65

b

L d

r d

35

b

L d

t d

=

2

78600

b

L d

t d

Solid rectangular and round

section beams

6-14

58.6 58.6

37

b

R d

t t

=

2

78600

b

L d

t d

103

145

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

115.1 0.972

0.5

S L

b c

J

I

y

2380

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

165500

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

Compression in Beams,

extreme fiber, gross

section

Rectangular tubes and box

sections

6-15

44.8 44.8

3690

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

165500

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

Continued on next page

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-35

Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

103

7.4

b

t

= 131.0 3.72

b

t

12

b

t

=

1048

b

t

Flat plates supported on one

edge

6-16

44.8 44.8

23

b

t

=

1048

b

t

103

24

b

t

= 131.0 1.172

b

t

39

b

t

=

3309

b

t

Flat plates with both edges

supported

6-17

44.8 44.8

74

b

t

=

3309

b

t

124

0.7

b

R

t

=

127.6 4.07

b

R

t

188

b

R

t

=

2

26200

1

35

b

b

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of Beams,

component under

uniform compression,

gross section

Curved plates supported on both

edges

b

6-18

55.2

0.3

b

R

t

=

5.45 1.31

b

R

t

510

b

R

t

=

Same as nonwelded

members

Continued on next page

B-36 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

138

9.8

b

t

= 192.4 5.59

b

t

23

b

t

=

2

33780

b

t

Flat plates with compression

edge free, tension edge supported

6-19

58.6 58.6

24

b

t

=

2

33780

b

t

138

51

h

t

= 192.4 1.07

h

t

90

h

t

=

8687

h

t

Compression in

Components of

Beams, component

under bending in own

plane, gross section

Flat plate with both edges

supported

6-20

58.6 58.6

148

h

t

=

8687

h

t

58.6

39

h

t

= 73.8 0.386

h

t

78

h

t

=

2

268900

h

t

Shear in Webs, gross

section

Unstiffened flat webs

6-21

26.9 26.9

100

h

t

=

2

268900

h

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-37

Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set Allowable Stress

Tension, axial, net

section

Any tension member

6-1 15 6.5 6063T6

Extrusions, Pipe

Rectangular tubes, structural

shapes bent around strong axis

6-2 15 6.5 White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther

than 1.0 in from a weld

Round or oval tubes

6-3 18 8.0 Shaded bars apply to within 1.0 in of a weld

Tension in Beams,

extreme fiber, net

section

Shapes bent about weak axis,

bars, plates

6-4 20 8.5

On bolts 6-5 24 13.5 Bearing

On flat surfaces and on bolts in

slotted holes

6-6 16 9

Notes:

a

See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding

allowable stresses.

b

For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R

b

/t, as applicable, shall be

20, except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment

requirements of Article 6.5

c

See Article 6.5 for additional provisions regarding allowable stresses in

welded members.

d

The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,

Aluminum Design.

Continued on next page

B-38 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

13.5

9.5

kL

r

= 14.2 0.074

kL

r

78

kL

r

=

2

51000

kL

r

Compression in

Columns, axial, gross

section

All columns

6-7

6.5 6.5

89

kL

r

=

2

51000

kL

r

13.5

5.7

b

t

= 16.1 0.46

b

t

12

b

t

=

129

b

t

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns buckling about a

symmetry axis

6-8

6.5 6.5

20

b

t

=

129

b

t

13.5

5.7

b

t

= 16.1 0.46

b

t

15

b

t

=

2

1970

b

t

Compression in

Components of

Columns, gross

section

Flat plates supported along one

edgecolumns not buckling

about a symmetry axis

6-9

6.5 6.5

17

b

t

=

2

1970

b

t

Continued on next page

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-39

Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

13.5

18

b

t

= 16.1 0.144

b

t

39

b

t

=

410

b

t

Flat plates with both edges

supported

6-10

6.5 6.5

63

b

t

=

410

b

t

13.5

18

R

t

=

15.6 0.50

R

t

188

R

t

=

2

3200

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of

Columns, gross

section

Curved plates supported on both

edges, walls of round or oval

tubes

b

6-11

6.5

10

R

t

=

7.2 0.22

R

t

510

R

t

=

2

3200

1

35

R

R

t

t

+

Continued on next page

B-40 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

15

206

b

R

t

= 16.7 0.073

b

y

L

r

94

b

y

L

r

=

2

87000

b

y

L

r

Single web beams bent about

strong axis

6-12

6.5 6.5

116

b

y

L

r

=

2

87000

b

y

L

r

18

33

b

R

t

=

27.7 1.70

b

R

t

102

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with

R = R

b

Round or oval tubes

b

6-13

8

62

b

R

t

=

12.8 0.61

b

R

t

206

b

R

t

=

Same as Eq. 6-11 with

R = R

b

20

15

b

L d

t d

= 27.9 0.53

b

L d

t d

35

b

L d

t d

=

2

11400

b

L d

t d

Solid rectangular and round

section beams

6-14

8.5 8.5

37

b

L d

t d

=

2

11400

b

L d

t d

15

145

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

16.7 0.141

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

2380

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

24000

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

Compression in

Beams, extreme fiber,

gross section

Rectangular tubes and box

sections

6-15

6.5 6.5

3690

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

=

24000

0.5

b c

y

L S

I J

Continued on next page

t

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-41

Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit

S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit

S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

15

7.4

b

t

= 19.0 0.54

b

t

12

b

t

=

152

b

t

Flat plates supported on one

edge

6-16

6.5 6.5

23

b

t

=

152

b

t

15

24

b

t

= 19.0 0.170

b

t

39

b

t

=

480

b

t

Flat plates with both edges

supported

6-17

6.5 6.5

74

b

t

=

480

b

t

18

0.7

b

R

t

=

18.5 0.59

b

R

t

188

b

R

t

=

2

3800

1

35

b

b

R

R

t

t

+

Compression in

Components of Beams,

component under

uniform compression,

gross section

Curved plates supported on

both edges

b

6-18

8

0.3

b

R

t

=

7.9 0.19

b

R

t

510

b

R

t

=

Same as nonwelded

members

Continued on next page

B-42 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS

Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued

Type of Stress

Type of Member

or Component

Eq.

Set

(a) Allowable

Stress

Slenderness

S

1

(b) Slenderness Limit S

1

(c) Allowable Stress

Slenderness Between

S

1

and S

2

(d) Slenderness Limit S

2

(e) Allowable Stress

Slenderness S

2

20

9.8

b

t

= 27.9 0.81

b

t

23

b

t

=

2

4900

b

t

Flat plates with compression

edge free, tension edge

supported

6-19

8.5 8.5

24

b

t

=

2

4900

b

t

20

51

h

t

= 27.9 0.155

h

t

90

h

t

=

1260

h

t

Compression in

Components of

Beams, component

under bending in own

plane, gross section

Flat plate with both edges

supported

6-20

8.5 8.5

148

h

t

=

1260

h

t

8.5

39

h

t

= 10.7 0.056

h

t

78

h

t

=

2

39000

h

t

Shear in Webs, gross

section

Unstiffened flat webs

6-21

3.9 3.9

100

h

t

=

2

39000

h

t

B7REFERENCES

Author, Initials. 1985. Graphs to Determine Structure Deflections, Transmission and Distribution. July 1985, pp. XY.

Timoshenko, S. 1957. Strength of MaterialsPart II. D. Van Nostrand Company, Princeton, NJ.

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