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APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS


TABLE OF CONTENTS
B
B1SECTIONAL PROPERTIES FOR TUBULAR SHAPES.......................................................................................... B-1
B2STRESSES FOR TUBULAR SECTIONS.................................................................................................................. B-2
B3DEFLECTION EQUATIONS FOR TAPERED TUBULAR CANTILEVERED BEAMS ....................................... B-4
B4DEFLECTION EQUATIONS FOR TAPERED CANTILEVERED BEAMS ........................................................... B-5
B5EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTORS FOR COLUMNS............................................................................................... B-6
B6ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR SELECTED ALUMINUM ALLOYS................................................................... B-7
B7REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................................... B-42


B-1
APPENDIX B
DESIGN AIDS

B1SECTIONAL PROPERTIES FOR TUBULAR SHAPES

Table B-1 provides approximate equations to compute sectional properties of tubular shapes.

Table B-1Estimated Sectional Properties for Common Tubular Shapes
Property Round Tube Hexdecagonal Tube Dodecagonal Tube Octagonal Tube Square Tube
Square Tube
(Axis on Diagonal)
Moment of inertia, I 3.14R
3
t 3.22R
3
t 3.29R
3
t 3.50R
3
t 5.33R
3
t 5.33R
3
t
Section modulus, S 3.14R
2
t 3.22R
2
t 3.29R
2
t 3.50R
2
t 5.33R
2
t 3.77R
2
t
Area, A 6.28Rt 6.37Rt 6.43Rt 6.63Rt 8.00Rt 8.00Rt
Shape factor, K
p
1.27 1.27 1.26 1.24 1.12
Radius of gyration, r 0.707R 0.711R 0.715R 0.727R 0.816R 0.816R
Cross-sectional constant, C 3.14 3.22 3.29 3.50 5.33
Pictorial representation






Notation:
C = cross-sectional constant used in Table B-3
R = radius measured to the mid-thickness of the wall
t = wall thickness

B-2 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



B2STRESSES FOR TUBULAR SECTIONS

The following equations calculate stresses for round and multisided tubular shapes. If more than one equation is provided, then the greatest value should be used.
For round tubes in biaxial bending, the maximum bending stress occurs at the resulting moment. For multisided tubular shapes in biaxial bending, the maximum
bending stress occurs at one of the corners. The maximum transverse shear stress for tubular shape occurs in the tube walls that are intersected by the neutral axis,
which is normal to the resultantant shear force.

Table B-2Formulas for Maximum Stresses in Common Tubular Shapes
Stress Round Tube Hexdecagonal Tube Dodecagonal Tube Octagonal Tube Square Tube
Square Tube
(Axis on Diagonal)
Maximum bending stress, f
b

2 2
x y
f f +
0.199 +
or
0.567 +0.848
or
0.848 +0.567
or
+0.199
x y
x y
x y
x y
f f
f f
f f
f f

0.732( + )
or
+0.268
or
0.268 +
x y
x y
x y
f f
f f
f f

+0.414
or
0.414 +
x y
x y
f f
f f

+
x y
f f
f
x


or

f
y

Maximum shear stress due to transverse
loads, f
vb

2.0
s
V
A

2.02
s
V
A

2.025
s
V
A

2.05
s
V
A

2.25
s
V
A

2.12
s
V
A

Maximum shear stress due to torsion, f
vt

2
6.28
z
M
R t

2
6.37
z t
M k
R t

2
6.43
z t
M k
R t

2
6.63
z t
M k
R t

2
8.00
z t
M k
R t

2
8.00
z t
M k
R t

Values of k
t
, stress concentration factor See Figure B-1
Pictorial Representation


Notation:
A = area
f
vb
= shear stress due to transverse loads
f
vt
= shear stress due to torsion
f
x
= stress due to bending about the x-axis

f
y
= stress due to bending about the y-axis
k
t
= stress concentration factor for multisided tubular
shapes
M
z
= torsional moment

R = radius measured to the mid-thickness of the wall
t = wall thickness
V
s
= applied shear
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-3


Torsional shear stresses are present on a transverse cross-section due to torsional moments, M
z
, and are uniform
around the periphery of thin-walled tubular section, except for stress concentrations at the corners of polygonal tubes. The
stress concentration factor for a polygonal tube is obtained from Timoshenkos Strength of Materials. The stress
concentration factor may be found by using Figure B-1 or by using the following equation:

1 1
1
2
1.0
1
ln
R n
t n t
n t n
k
n
R R
n
t

+
+


= +












where:

k
t
= stress concentration factor
t = wall thickness
R = radius measured to the mid-thickness of the wall
n = ratio of the inside-corner radius to wall thickness


Figure B-1Stress-Concentration Factors for Polygonal Tubes in Torsion
(Source: Timoshenko, S. 1957. Strength of MaterialsPart II. D. Van Nostrand Company, Princeton, NJ.)

B-4 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS


B3DEFLECTION EQUATIONS FOR TAPERED TUBULAR CANTILEVERED BEAMS

Equations to compute deflections of prismatic beams are not applicable for tapered beams. Table B-3 provides
equations to compute deflection and slope at the tip of tubular cantilever tapered beams. Equations provided in Table B-3
are valid only when the wall thickness t is very small in comparison with the mean radius R of the cross-section.

Table B-3Estimated Maximum Deflection and Slope of Tapered Hollow Beams
Transverse Point Load at Tip of Beam

( )
3
max
3
2ln 3
2
B B A A
A B B
B A
R R R R WL
y
R R R
ECt R R

=




2
max
2

2
A B
WL
ECtR R
=
End Moment Applied at Tip of Beam

( )
2
max
2
2
A B
ML
y
ECt R R
=

( )
max
2 2

2
A B
A B
ML R R
ECtR R
+
=
Uniform Load

( )
2 3
max
4 2
1
3 ln
2 6
2
B A A
A B
A B B
B A
R R R WL
y R R
R R R
ECt R R

= + + +



( )
( )
2
max
3 2
3
ln 4
2 2
2
B A
B A
A B
B A
R R WL
R R
R R
ECt R R

= +



W wL =
Triangular Load

( )
2 3 3
2 2
max
5 2
8
12 ln 8
6
B A A
A A B B
A B B
B A
R R R WL
y R R R R
R R R
ECt R R

= + +




( )
2 2
max
4 2
1
ln
2 3 6
B A A B
A
A B B
B A
R R R R WL
R
R R R
ECt R R

= + +




2
wL
W =
Notation:
C = cross-sectional constant defined per Table B-1
E = modulus of elasticity
L = length of the beam (from ground line to tip)
M = applied moment
R
A
= radius measured to mid-thickness of wall at free end
(see Table B-1)
R
B
= radius measured to mid-thickness of wall at fixed end
(see Table B-1)
t = wall thickness
W = load
w = load per unit length
y
max
= maximum horizontal deflection at free end of beam

max
= maximum slope at free end of beam (rad)
Note: Equations are based on the small deflection theory; therefore tan = .
Adapted from: Hopkins, R. B. 1970. Design Analysis of Shafts and Beams. McGrawHill, New York, NY.

APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-5


B4DEFLECTION EQUATIONS FOR TAPERED CANTILEVERED BEAMS

Table B-4 provides equations to compute tip deflections and slope for solid round cantilevered beams, such as wood poles.

Table B-4Maximum Deflection and Slope of Solid Round Tapered Beams
Slope Deflection
Transverse Point Load at Free End

2
max
2.497

2.068
b
a
a
PL
d
EI
d
=




3
max
3
3
b
a
a
PL
y
d
EI
d
=




End Moment Applied at Free End

max
1 587

1.075
b
a
a
ML
d
EI
d
=



.

2
max
2.497
2.068
b
a
a
ML
y
d
EI
d
=




Uniform Load Applied Along Length

3
max
3

6
b
a
a
wL
d
EI
d
=




4
max
3.282
7.872
b
a
a
wL
y
d
EI
d
=




Notation:
d
a
= diameter at free end
d
b
= diameter at fixed end
E = modulus of elasticity
I
a
= moment of inertia of cross-section at free end of beam
L = length
M = moment applied at free end of beam
P = horizontal load applied at free end of beam
w = uniformly distributed load applied along the beam length
y
max
= deflection at free end of beam

max
= slope at free end of beam (rad)

Source: Author, Initials. 1985. Graphs to Determine Structure Deflections, Transmission and Distribution. July 1985, pp. XY.
B-6 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS


B5EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTORS FOR COLUMNS

Table B-5 provides effective length factors for centrally loaded columns with various end conditions.

Table B-5Effective Length Factors for Centrally Loaded Columns
Buckled Shape of Column Shown by
Dashed Line
























Theoretical K Value 0.50 0.70 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00
Recommended Design Values when
Ideal Conditions are Approximated
0.65 0.80 1.00 1.20 2.10 2.00


Rotation fixed, Translation fixed


Rotation free, Translation fixed


Rotation fixed, Translation free
End Conditions Code


Rotation free, Translation free


APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-7



B6ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR SELECTED ALUMINUM ALLOYS

Tables B-6 through B-11 provide allowable stresses for welded and nonwelded members for A6005-T5, A6061-T6, and A6063-T6.

Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set Allowable Stress
Tension, axial, net
section
Any tension member


6-1 131 72.4 6005T5 Extrusions
Thickness Up Through 25 mm
Rectangular tubes, structural
shapes bent around strong axis

6-2 131 72.4 White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther
than 25.4 mm from a weld.
Round or oval tubes


6-3 165 82.7 Shaded bars apply to within 25.4 mm of a weld.
Tension in Beams,
extreme fiber, net
section
Shapes bent about weak axis,
bars, plates

6-4 193 93.1
Notes:
See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding
allowable stresses.
For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R
b
/t, as applicable, shall be 20,
except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment
requirements of Article 6.5.
On bolts 6-5 234 124
See Article 6.5 for additional provisions regarding allowable stresses in welded
members.
The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,
Aluminum Design.
Bearing
On flat surfaces and on bolts in
slotted holes

6-6 159 82.7
Continued on next page
B-8 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS


Continued on next page
Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
1

(b) Slenderness
Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress Slenderness
Between S
1
and S
2

(d) Slenderness
Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

131
9.5
kL
r
= 139.3 0.869
kL
r



66
kL
r
=
351600
2
kL
r




Compression in
Columns, axial,
gross section

All columns

6-7
72.4 72.4
70
kL
r
=
351600
2
kL
r




131
5.2
b
t
= 159.3 5.45
b
t



10
b
t
=
1062
b
t




Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns buckling about a
symmetry axis

6-8
72.4 72.4
15
b
t
=
1062
b
t




131
5.2
b
t
=
159.3 5.45
b
t



12
b
t
=
13580
2
b
t




Compression in
Components of
Columns, gross
section
Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns not buckling
about a symmetry axis


6-9
72.4 72.4
14
b
t
=
13580
2
b
t




APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-9


ibn

Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Continued on next page
Type of Stress Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
1

(b) Slenderness
Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress Slenderness
Between S
1
and S
2

(d) Slenderness
Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

131
16
b
t
= 159.3 1.72
b
t



33
b
t
=
3378
b
t




Flat plates with both edges
supported


6-10
72.4 72.4
47
b
t
=
3378
b
t




131
16
R
t
=
153.1 5.52
R
t

141
R
t
=
22060
2
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





Compression in
Components of
Columns, gross
section

Curved plates supported on both
edges, walls of round or oval
tubes
b



6-11
72.4
5.1
R
t
=
1
78.6 2.76 sin
R
t


340
R
t
=
22060
2
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





B-10 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1
(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2
(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

145
23
b
y
L
r
=
164.8 0.855
L
b
r
y
79
L
b
r
y
=
2
600000
b
y
L
r





Single web beams bent about
strong axis


6-12
72.4

72.4
91
L
b
r
y
=
2
600000
b
y
L
r





172
28
R
b
t
=
271.0 18.62
R
b
t

81
R
b
t
=
same as Eq. 6-11 with R = R
b
Round or oval tubes
b



6-13
82.7
53
R
b
t
=
128.2 6.89
R
b
t

134
R
b
t
=
same as Eq. 6-11 with R = R
b

193
13
b
L d
t d
= 279.2 6.41
b
L d
t d
29
d L
b
t d
=
2
78600
b
L d
t d




Solid rectangular and round
section beams

6-14
93.1 93.1
29
d L
b
t d
=
2
78600
b
L d
t d




145
146
0.5
L S
b c
I J
y
=
164.8 1.66
0.5
b c
y
L S
L J

1700
0.5
b c
y
L S
L J
=
165500
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J





Compression in
Beams, extreme
fiber, gross section

Rectangular tubes and box
sections


6-15
72.4 72.4
2290
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
165500
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J





Continued on next page

t
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-11




Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

145
6.8
b
t
= 188.2 6.41
b
t
10
b
t
=
1262
b
t




Flat plates supported on one
edge

6-16
72.4 72.4
17
b
t
=
1262
b
t




145
22
b
t
= 188.2 2.0
b
t
33
b
t
=
4000
b
t




Compression in
Components of
Beams, component
under uniform
compression, gross
section
Flat plates with both edges
supported

6-17
93.1 72.4
55
b
t
=
4000
b
t




172
1.6
b
R
t
=
180.6 6.48
b
R
t

141
b
R
t
=
26200
1
35
b
b
R
R
t
t




+






Curved plates supported on
both edges
b


6-18
82.7
1.3
b
R
t
=
85.5 02.41
b
R
t

340
b
R
t
=
Same as nonwelded
members
Continued on next page
B-12 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-6Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1
(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2
(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

193
8.9
b
t
= 279.2 9.72
b
t
19
b
t
=
2
33780
b
t




Flat plates with compression
edge free, tension edge
supported

6-19
93.1 93.1
19
b
t
=
2
33780
b
t




193
46
h
t
= 279.2 1.86
h
t
75
h
t
=
10480
h
t




Compression in
Components of
Beams, component
under bending in
own plane, gross
section
Flat plate with both edges
supported

6-20
93.1 93.1
113
h
t
=
10480
h
t




83
36
h
t
= 107.6 0.683
h
t
65
h
t
=
2
268900
h
t




Shear in Webs,
gross section
Unstiffened flat webs

6-21
41.4 41.4
81
h
t
=
2
268900
h
t






APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-13



Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set Allowable Stress
Tension, axial, net
section
Any tension member



6-1 19 10.5 6005T5 Extrusions
Thickness 1.0 in
Rectangular tubes, structural
shapes bent around strong
axis


6-2 19 10.5 White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther than
1.0 in from a weld.
Round or oval tubes




6-3 24 12 Shaded bars apply to within 1.0 in of a weld.
Tension in Beams,
extreme fiber, net
section
Shapes bent about weak axis,
bars, plates

6-4 28 13.5
On bolts




6-5 34 18 Bearing
On flat surfaces and on bolts
in slotted holes



6-6 23 12
Notes:
a
See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding
allowable stresses.
b
For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R
b
/t, as applicable, shall be 20,
except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment
requirements of Article 6.5.
c
See Article 6.5 for additional provisions regarding allowable stresses in welded
members.
d
The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,
Aluminum Design.
Continued on next page

B-14 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

19
9.5
kL
r
= 20.2 0.126
kL
r



66
kL
r
=
2
51000
kL
r




Compression in
Columns, axial, gross
section
All columns

6-7
10.5 10.5
70
kL
r
=
2
51000
kL
r




19
5.2
b
t
= 23.1 0.79
b
t



10
b
t
=
154
b
t




Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns buckling about
a symmetry axis

6-8
10.5 10.5
15
b
t
=
154
b
t




19
5.2
b
t
= 23.1 0.79
b
t



12
b
t
=
2
1970
b
t




Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns not buckling
about a symmetry axis


6-9
10.5 10.5


14
b
t
=
2
1970
b
t




19
16
b
t
= 23.1 0.25
b
t



33
b
t
=
490
b
t




Compression in
Components of
Columns, gross section

Flat plates with both edges
supported


6-10
10.5 10.5
47
b
t
=
490
b
t




Continued on next page
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-15



Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

19
16
R
t
=
22.2 0.80
R
t

141
R
t
=
2
3200
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





Compression in
Components of
Columns, gross section

Curved plates supported on
both edges, walls of round or
oval tubes
b



6-11
10.5
5.1
R
t
=
11.4 0.40
R
t

340
R
t
=
2
3200
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





Continued on next page
B-16 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS




Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1
(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2
(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

21
23
b
y
L
r
= 23.9 0.124
b
y
L
r
79
b
y
L
r
=
2
87000
b
y
L
r





Single web beams bent about
strong axis


6-12
10.5 10.5
91
b
y
L
r
=
2
87000
b
y
L
r





25
28
b
R
t
=
39.3 2.70
b
R
t

81
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with R = R
b

Round or oval tubes
b



6-13
12
53
b
R
t
=
18.6 1.00
b
R
t

134
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with R = R
b

28
13
b
L d
t d
= 40.5 0.93
b
L d
t d
29
b
L d
t d
=
2
11400
b
L d
t d




Solid rectangular and round
section beams


6-14
13.5 13.5
29
b
L d
t d
=
2
11400
b
L d
t d




21
146
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
23.9 0.24
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J

1700
0.5
b c
y
L S
l J
=
24000
0.5
b c
y
L S
l J





Compression in
Beams, extreme
fiber, gross section

Rectangular tubes and box
sections


6-15
10.5 10.5
2290
0.5
b c
y
L S
l J
=
24000
0.5
b c
y
L S
l J





Continued on next page
t
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-17



Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between S
1
and
S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

21
6.8
b
t
= 27.3 0.93
b
t
10
b
t
=
183
b
t



Flat plates supported on one
edge

6-16

10.5 10.5
17
b
t
=
183
b
t




21
22
b
t
= 27.3 0.29
b
t
33
b
t
=
580
b
t




Flat plates with both edges
supported


6-17
13.5 10.5
55
b
t
=
580
b
t




25
1.6
b
R
t
=
26.2 0.94
b
R
t

141
b
R
t
=
2
3800
1
35
b
b
R
R
t
t




+






Compression in
Components of
Beams, component
under uniform
compression, gross
section
Curved plates supported on both
edges
b



6-18
12
1.3
b
R
t
=
12.4 0.35
b
R
t

340
b
R
t
=
Same as nonwelded
members
Continued on next page

B-18 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-7Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6005T5 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

28
8.9
b
t
= 40.5 1.41
b
t
19
b
t
=
2
4900
b
t




Flat plates with compression
edge free, tension edge
supported

6-19
13.5 13.5
19
b
t
=
2
4900
b
t




28
46
h
t
= 40.5 0.27
h
t
75
h
t
=
1520
h
t




Compression in
Components of
Beams, component
under bending in
own plane, gross
section
Flat plate with both edges
supported


6-20
13.5 13.5
113
h
t
=
1520
h
t




12
36
h
t
= 15.6 0.099
h
t
65
h
t
=
2
39000
h
t




Shear in Webs, gross
section
Unstiffened flat webs


6-21
6 6
81
h
t
=
2
39000
h
t





APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-19



Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set Allowable Stress
Tension, axial, net
section
Any tension member

6-1 131 75.8

6061T6 Extrusions Up Through 25 mm, Sheet and Plate, Standard Structural Shapes,
Drawn Tube, Rolled Rod and Bar
Rectangular tubes, structural
shapes bent around strong axis

6-2 131 75.8

White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther
than 25 mm from a weld
Round or oval tubes

6-3 165 93

Shaded bars apply to within 25 mm of a weld


Tension in Beams,
extreme fiber, net
section
Shapes bent about weak axis,
bars, plates

6-4 193 110


On bolts

6-5 234 124

Bearing
On flat surfaces and on bolts in
slotted holes
6-6 159 82.7


Notes:
a
See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding
allowable stresses.
b
For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R
b
/t, as applicable, shall be 20,
except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment
requirements of Article 6.5
c
See Article 6.5 for additional provision regarding allowable stresses in welded
members.
d
The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,
Aluminum Design.

Values when welded with 5183, 5356, or 5556 alloy filler wire, regardless of
thickness. Values also apply to thicknesses 9.5 mm when welded with 4043
alloy filler wire; for greater thicknesses multiply allowable tensile stresses by
0.8 and allowable compressive and shear stresses by 0.75.

For all thicknesses with filler alloys 5183, 5356 or 5556; and for
thicknesses 9.5 mm for 4043 filler alloy.
Continued on next page

B-20 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Continued on next page


Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness S
1

(b) Slenderness
Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2

(d) Slenderness Limit
S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

6-7 131
9.5
kL
r
= 139.3 0.869
kL
r



66
kL
r
=
2
351600
kL
r




Compression in
Columns, axial, gross
section
All columns
82.7

82.7


65
kL
r
=

2
351600
kL
r




6-8 131
5.2
b
t
= 159.3 5.45
b
t



10
b
t
=
1062
b
t




Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns buckling about a
symmetry axis

82.7

82.7


13
b
t
=

1062
b
t




6-9 131
5.2
b
t
= 159.3 5.45
b
t



12
b
t
=
2
13580
b
t




Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns not buckling
about a symmetry axis

82.7

82.7


13
b
t
=

2
13580
b
t




6-10 131
16
b
t
= 159.3 1.72
b
t



33
b
t
=
3378
b
t




Compression in
Components of
Columns, gross
section

Flat plates with both edges
supported


82.7

82.7


41
b
t
=

3378
b
t




APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-21



Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness S
1

(b) Slenderness
Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2

(d) Slenderness Limit
S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

131
16
R
t
=
153.1 5.52
R
t

141
R
t
=
2
22060
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





Compression in
Components of
Columns, gross
section
Curved plates supported on both
edges, walls of round or oval
tubes
b


6-11
82.7


9.0
R
t
=
93.1 3.45
R
t

290
R
t
=
2
22060
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





145
23
b
y
L
r
= 164.8 0.855
b
y
L
r
79
b
y
L
r
=
2
600000
b
y
L
r





Single web beams bent about
strong axis

6-12
82.7

82.7


85
b
y
L
r
=

2
600000
b
y
L
r





172
28
b
R
t
=
270.6 18.61
b
R
t

81
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with
R = R
b

Compression in
Beams, extreme fiber,
gross section

Round or oval tubes
b


6-13
96.5


51
b
R
t
=
164.8 9.58
b
R
t

137
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with
R = R
b

Continued on next page

B-22 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness S
1

(b) Slenderness
Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2
(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

6-12 145
23
b
y
L
r
= 164.8 0.855
b
y
L
r
79
b
y
L
r
=
2
600000
b
y
L
r





Single web beams bent about
strong axis

82.7

82.7


85
b
y
L
r
=

2
600000
b
y
L
r





6-13 172
28
b
R
t
=
270.6 18.61
b
R
t

81
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with
R = R
b

Round or oval tubes
b


96.5


51
b
R
t
=
164.8 9.58
b
R
t

137
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with
R = R
b

6-14 193
13
b
L d
t d
= 279.2 6.41
b
L d
t d
29
b
L d
t d
=
2
78600
b
L d
t d




Solid rectangular and round
section beams

110


26
b
L d
t d
= 279.2 6.41
b
L d
t d
29
b
L d
t d
=
2
78600
b
L d
t d




6-15 145
146
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
164.8 1.66
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J

1700
0.5
b c
y
L S
i J
=
165500
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J





Compression in
Beams, extreme fiber,
gross section

Rectangular tubes and box
sections

82.7

82.7


2000
0.5
b c
y
L S
i J
=

165500
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J





Continued on next page

t
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-23



Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness S
1

(b) Slenderness
Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2
(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

6-16 145
6.8
b
t
= 188.2 6.41
b
t
10
b
t
=
1255
b
t




Flat plates supported on one
edge

82.7

82.7


15
b
t
=

1255
b
t




6-17 145
22
b
t
= 188.2 2.0
b
t
33
b
t
=
4000
b
t




Flat plates with both edges
supported

82.7

82.7


48
b
t
=

4000
b
t




6-18 172
1.6
b
R
t
=
180.6 6.48
b
R
t

141
b
R
t
=
2
26200
1
35
b
b
R
R
t
t




+






Compression in
Components of
Beams, component
under uniform
compression, gross
section
Curved plates supported on
both edges
b


96.5


2.5
b
R
t
=
101.4 3.03
b
R
t

290
b
R
t
=
Same as nonwelded
members
Continued on next page

B-24 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-8Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness S
1

(b) Slenderness
Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2
(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

6-19 193
8.9
b
t
= 279.2 9.72
b
t
19
b
t
=
2
33780
b
t




Flat plates with compression
edge free, tension edge
supported

110


17
b
t
= 279.2 9.72
b
t
19
b
t
=
2
33780
b
t




6-20 193
46
h
t
= 279.2 1.86
b
t
75
h
t
=
10480
h
t




Compression in
Components of
Beams, component
under bending in own
plane, gross section
Flat plate with both edges
supported

110

110


95
h
t
=

10480
h
t




6-21 83
36
h
t
= 107.6 0.683
h
t
65
h
t
=
2
268900
h
t




Shear in Webs, gross
section
Unstiffened flat webs

51.7



51.7


72
h
t
=

2
268900
h
t




APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-25



Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set Allowable Stress
Tension, axial, net
section
Any tension member


6-1 19 11


Rectangular tubes, structural
shapes bent around strong axis


6-2 19 11


Round or oval tubes


6-3 24 13.5


6061T6 Extrusions Up Through 1.0 in, Sheet and Plate, Standard Structural Shapes,
Drawn Tube, Rolled Rod and Bar

White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther
than 1.0 in from a weld

Shaded bars apply to within 1.0 in of a weld
Tension in Beams,
extreme fiber, net
section
Shapes bent about weak axis,
bars, plates


6-4 28 16


On bolts



6-5 34 18

Bearing
On flat surfaces and on bolts in
slotted holes


6-6 23 12


Notes:
a
See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding
allowable stresses.
b
For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R
b
/t, as applicable, shall be
20, except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment
requirements of Article 6.5.
c
See Article 6.5 for additional provisions regarding allowable stresses in
welded members.
d
The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,
Aluminum Design.
e
Values when welded with 5183, 5356, or 5556 alloy filler wire, regardless of
thickness. Values also apply to thicknesses 0.375 in. when welded with
4043 alloy filler wire; for greater thicknesses multiply allowable tensile
stresses by 0.8 and allowable compressive and shear stresses by 0.75.
f
For all thicknesses with filler alloys 5183, 5356 or 5556 and for thicknesses
0.375 in. for 4043 filler alloy.
Continued on next page
B-26 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

19
9.5
kL
r
= 20.2 0.126
kL
r



66
kL
r
=
2
51000
kL
r




Compression in
Columns, axial, gross
section
All columns

6-7
12

12


65
kL
r
=

2
51000
kL
r




19
5.2
b
t
= 23.1 0.79
b
t



10
b
t
=
154
b
t




Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns buckling about
a symmetry axis

6-8
12

12


13
b
t
=

154
b
t




19
5.2
b
t
= 23.1 1.39
b
t



12
b
t
=
2
1970
b
t




Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns not buckling
about a symmetry axis

6-9
12

12


13
b
t
=

2
1970
b
t




19
16
b
t
= 23.1 0.25
b
t



33
b
t
=
490
b
t




Compression in
Components of
Columns, gross section
Flat plates with both edges
supported


6-10
12

12


41
b
t
=

490
b
t




Continued on next page
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-27


Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

19
16
R
t
=
22.2 0.80
R
t

141
R
t
=
2
3200
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





Compression in
Components of
Columns, gross section
Curved plates supported on
both edges, walls of round or
oval tubes
b



6-11
12


90
R
t
=
13.5 0.50
R
t

290
R
t
=
2
3200
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





Continued on next page
B-28 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

21
23
b
y
L
r
= 23.9 0.124
b
y
L
r
79
b
y
L
r
=
2
87000
b
y
L
r





Single web beams bent about
strong axis

6-12
12

12


85
b
y
L
r
=

2
87000
b
y
L
r





25
28
b
R
t
=
39.3 2.70
b
R
t

81
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with
R = R
b

Round or oval tubes
b




6-13
14


51
b
R
t
=
23.9 1.39
b
R
t

137
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with
R = R
b

28
13
b
L d
t d
= 40.5 0.93
b
L d
t d
29
b
L d
t d
=
2
11400
b
L d
t d




Solid rectangular and round
section beams

6-14
16


26
b
L d
t d
= 40.5 0.93
b
L d
t d
29
b
L d
t d
=
2
11400
b
L d
t d




21
146
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
23.9 0.24
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J

1700
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
24000
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J





Compression in
Beams, extreme fiber,
gross section

Rectangular tubes and box
sections

6-15
12



12


2000
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=

24000
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J





Continued on next page
t
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-29



Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1
(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2
(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

21
6.8
b
t
= 27.3 0.93
b
t
10
b
t
=
182
b
t




Flat plates supported on one
edge

6-16
12 12


15
b
t
=
182
b
t




21
22
b
t
= 27.3 0.29
b
t
33
b
t
=
580
b
t




Flat plates with both edges
supported

6-17
12 12


48
b
t
=

580
b
t




25
1.6
b
R
t
=
26.2 0.94
b
R
t

141
b
R
t
=
3800
1
35
b
b
R
R
t
t




+






Compression in
Components of Beams,
component under
uniform compression,
gross section
Curved plates supported on
both edges
b


6-18
14
2.5
b
R
t
=
1.47 0.44
b
R
t

290
b
R
t
=
Same as nonwelded
members
Continued on next page

B-30 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-9Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6061T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1
(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2
(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

28
8.9
b
t
= 40.5 1.41
b
t
19
b
t
=
2
4900
b
t




Flat plates with compression
edge free, tension edge
supported

6-19
16
17
b
t
= 40.5 1.41
b
t
19
b
t
=
2
4900
b
t




28
46
h
t
= 40.5 0.27
h
t
75
h
t
=
1520
h
t




Compression in
Components of Beams,
component under
bending in own plane,
gross section
Flat plate with both edges
supported

6-20
16 16


95
h
t
=

1520
h
t




12
36
h
t
= 15.6 0.099
h
t
65
h
t
=
2
39000
h
t




Shear in Webs, gross
section
Unstiffened flat webs


6-21
7.5 7.5


72
h
t
=

2
39000
h
t




APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-31



Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set Allowable Stress
Tension, axial, net
section
Any tension member



6-1 103 44.8 6063T6
Extrusions, Pipe
Rectangular tubes, structural
shapes bent around strong axis



6-2 103 44.8 White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther
than 25.4 mm from a weld
Round or oval tubes



6-3 124 55.2 Shaded bars apply to within 25.4 mm of a weld
Tension in Beams,
extreme fiber, net section
Shapes bent about weak axis,
bars, plates



6-4 138 58.6
Bearing On bolts 6-5 165 93.1
On flat surfaces and on bolts in
slotted holes


6-6 110 62.1
Notes:
a
See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding
allowable stresses.
b
For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R
b
/t, as applicable, shall be
20, except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment
requirements of Article 6.5
c
See Article 6.5 for additional provisions regarding allowable stresses in
welded members.
d
The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,
Aluminum Design.
Continued on next page

B-32 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1

(b) Slenderness Limit
S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2

(d) Slenderness Limit
S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

93.1
9.5
kL
r
= 97.9 0.510
kL
r



78
kL
r
=
2
351600
kL
r




Compression in Columns,
axial, gross section
All columns


6-7
44.8 44.8
89
kL
r
=
2
351600
kL
r




93.1
5.7
b
t
= 111.0 3.17
b
t



12
b
t
=
889
b
t




Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns buckling about a
symmetry axis


6-8
44.8 44.8
20
b
t
=
889
b
t




93.1
5.7
b
t
= 111.0 3.17
b
t



15
b
t
=
2
13580
b
t




Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns not buckling
about a symmetry axis



6-9
44.8 44.8
17
b
t
=
2
13580
b
t




6-10 93.1
18
b
t
= 111.0 1.0
b
t



39
b
t
=
2827
b
t




Compression in
Components of Columns,
gross section
Flat plates with both edges
supported


44.8 44.8
63
b
t
=
2827
b
t




Continued on next page
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-33


Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1

(b) Slenderness Limit
S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2

(d) Slenderness Limit
S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

6-11 93.1
18
R
t
=
107.6 3.45
R
t

188
R
t
=
2
22060
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





Compression in
Components of Columns,
gross section
Curved plates supported on both
edges, walls of round or oval
tubes
b



44.8
10
R
t
=
49.6 1.52
R
t

510
R
t
=
2
22060
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





103
23
b
y
L
r
=
151.1 0.503
b
y
L
r

94
b
y
L
r
=
2
600000
b
y
L
r





Single web beams bent about
strong axis


6-12
44.8 44.8
116
b
y
L
r
=
2
600000
b
y
L
r





124
33
b
R
t
=
191.0 11.72
b
R
t

102
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with
R = R
b

Compression in Beams,
extreme fiber, gross
section
Round or oval tubes
b




6-13
55.2
62
b
R
t
=
88.3 4.21
b
R
t

206
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with
R = R
b

Continued on next page
B-34 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1

and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

138
15
b
L d
t d
= 192.4 3.65
b
L d
r d
35
b
L d
t d
=
2
78600
b
L d
t d




Solid rectangular and round
section beams

6-14
58.6 58.6
37
b
R d
t t
=
2
78600
b
L d
t d




103
145
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
115.1 0.972
0.5
S L
b c
J
I
y


2380
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
165500
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J





Compression in Beams,
extreme fiber, gross
section
Rectangular tubes and box
sections


6-15
44.8 44.8
3690
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
165500
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J





Continued on next page
t
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-35



Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1

and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

103
7.4
b
t
= 131.0 3.72
b
t
12
b
t
=
1048
b
t




Flat plates supported on one
edge

6-16
44.8 44.8
23
b
t
=
1048
b
t




103
24
b
t
= 131.0 1.172
b
t
39
b
t
=
3309
b
t




Flat plates with both edges
supported


6-17
44.8 44.8
74
b
t
=
3309
b
t




124
0.7
b
R
t
=
127.6 4.07
b
R
t

188
b
R
t
=
2
26200
1
35
b
b
R
R
t
t




+






Compression in
Components of Beams,
component under
uniform compression,
gross section
Curved plates supported on both
edges
b

6-18
55.2
0.3
b
R
t
=
5.45 1.31
b
R
t

510
b
R
t
=
Same as nonwelded
members
Continued on next page

B-36 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-10Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (MPa)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

138
9.8
b
t
= 192.4 5.59
b
t
23
b
t
=
2
33780
b
t




Flat plates with compression
edge free, tension edge supported

6-19
58.6 58.6
24
b
t
=
2
33780
b
t




138
51
h
t
= 192.4 1.07
h
t
90
h
t
=
8687
h
t




Compression in
Components of
Beams, component
under bending in own
plane, gross section
Flat plate with both edges
supported


6-20
58.6 58.6
148
h
t
=
8687
h
t




58.6
39
h
t
= 73.8 0.386
h
t
78
h
t
=
2
268900
h
t




Shear in Webs, gross
section
Unstiffened flat webs

6-21
26.9 26.9
100
h
t
=
2
268900
h
t




APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-37



Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set Allowable Stress
Tension, axial, net
section
Any tension member



6-1 15 6.5 6063T6
Extrusions, Pipe
Rectangular tubes, structural
shapes bent around strong axis

6-2 15 6.5 White bars apply to nonwelded members and to welded members at locations farther
than 1.0 in from a weld
Round or oval tubes


6-3 18 8.0 Shaded bars apply to within 1.0 in of a weld
Tension in Beams,
extreme fiber, net
section
Shapes bent about weak axis,
bars, plates

6-4 20 8.5
On bolts 6-5 24 13.5 Bearing
On flat surfaces and on bolts in
slotted holes



6-6 16 9
Notes:
a
See Articles 6.4.1, 6.4.2.1, and 6.4.4.1 for additional provisions regarding
allowable stresses.
b
For tubes with circumferential welds, R/t and R
b
/t, as applicable, shall be
20, except when the design meets the details and post-weld heat treatment
requirements of Article 6.5
c
See Article 6.5 for additional provisions regarding allowable stresses in
welded members.
d
The article numbers and equations referenced in this table refer to Section 6,
Aluminum Design.
Continued on next page

B-38 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

13.5
9.5
kL
r
= 14.2 0.074
kL
r



78
kL
r
=
2
51000
kL
r




Compression in
Columns, axial, gross
section
All columns

6-7
6.5 6.5
89
kL
r
=
2
51000
kL
r




13.5
5.7
b
t
= 16.1 0.46
b
t



12
b
t
=
129
b
t




Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns buckling about a
symmetry axis

6-8
6.5 6.5
20
b
t
=
129
b
t




13.5
5.7
b
t
= 16.1 0.46
b
t



15
b
t
=
2
1970
b
t




Compression in
Components of
Columns, gross
section
Flat plates supported along one
edgecolumns not buckling
about a symmetry axis


6-9
6.5 6.5
17
b
t
=
2
1970
b
t




Continued on next page
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-39



Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

13.5
18
b
t
= 16.1 0.144
b
t



39
b
t
=
410
b
t




Flat plates with both edges
supported


6-10
6.5 6.5
63
b
t
=
410
b
t




13.5
18
R
t
=
15.6 0.50
R
t

188
R
t
=
2
3200
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





Compression in
Components of
Columns, gross
section

Curved plates supported on both
edges, walls of round or oval
tubes
b


6-11
6.5
10
R
t
=
7.2 0.22
R
t

510
R
t
=
2
3200
1
35
R
R
t
t




+





Continued on next page
B-40 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1
(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2
(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

15
206
b
R
t
= 16.7 0.073
b
y
L
r
94
b
y
L
r
=
2
87000
b
y
L
r





Single web beams bent about
strong axis


6-12
6.5 6.5
116
b
y
L
r
=
2
87000
b
y
L
r





18
33
b
R
t
=
27.7 1.70
b
R
t

102
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with
R = R
b

Round or oval tubes
b




6-13
8
62
b
R
t
=
12.8 0.61
b
R
t

206
b
R
t
=
Same as Eq. 6-11 with
R = R
b

20
15
b
L d
t d
= 27.9 0.53
b
L d
t d
35
b
L d
t d
=
2
11400
b
L d
t d




Solid rectangular and round
section beams

6-14
8.5 8.5
37
b
L d
t d
=
2
11400
b
L d
t d




15
145
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
16.7 0.141
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J

2380
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
24000
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J





Compression in
Beams, extreme fiber,
gross section

Rectangular tubes and box
sections

6-15
6.5 6.5
3690
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J
=
24000
0.5
b c
y
L S
I J





Continued on next page

t
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AIDS B-41



Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1

(b) Slenderness Limit
S
1

(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2

(d) Slenderness Limit
S
2

(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

15
7.4
b
t
= 19.0 0.54
b
t
12
b
t
=
152
b
t




Flat plates supported on one
edge


6-16
6.5 6.5
23
b
t
=
152
b
t




15
24
b
t
= 19.0 0.170
b
t
39
b
t
=
480
b
t




Flat plates with both edges
supported


6-17
6.5 6.5
74
b
t
=
480
b
t




18
0.7
b
R
t
=
18.5 0.59
b
R
t

188
b
R
t
=
2
3800
1
35
b
b
R
R
t
t




+






Compression in
Components of Beams,
component under
uniform compression,
gross section

Curved plates supported on
both edges
b



6-18
8
0.3
b
R
t
=
7.9 0.19
b
R
t

510
b
R
t
=
Same as nonwelded
members
Continued on next page
B-42 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS, LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS



Table B-11Allowable Stresses for Aluminum 6063T6 Alloy (ksi)Continued
Type of Stress
Type of Member
or Component
Eq.
Set
(a) Allowable
Stress
Slenderness
S
1
(b) Slenderness Limit S
1
(c) Allowable Stress
Slenderness Between
S
1
and S
2
(d) Slenderness Limit S
2
(e) Allowable Stress
Slenderness S
2

20
9.8
b
t
= 27.9 0.81
b
t
23
b
t
=
2
4900
b
t




Flat plates with compression
edge free, tension edge
supported


6-19
8.5 8.5
24
b
t
=
2
4900
b
t




20
51
h
t
= 27.9 0.155
h
t
90
h
t
=
1260
h
t




Compression in
Components of
Beams, component
under bending in own
plane, gross section
Flat plate with both edges
supported


6-20
8.5 8.5
148
h
t
=
1260
h
t




8.5
39
h
t
= 10.7 0.056
h
t
78
h
t
=
2
39000
h
t




Shear in Webs, gross
section
Unstiffened flat webs




6-21
3.9 3.9
100
h
t
=
2
39000
h
t







B7REFERENCES

Author, Initials. 1985. Graphs to Determine Structure Deflections, Transmission and Distribution. July 1985, pp. XY.
Timoshenko, S. 1957. Strength of MaterialsPart II. D. Van Nostrand Company, Princeton, NJ.