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Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.

Tanenbaum 3
rd
Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.



AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSLATION PROCEDURES OF TRANSLATING
COMPUTER TERM IN ANDREW S. TANENBAUM 3
rd
COMPUTER
NETWORKS INTO BAHASA INDONESIA

A THESIS

BY:

FACHWINALIA KEUMALA SARI
REG. STUDENT NO: 050705048







ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LETTERS
UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA
MEDAN
2009

Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
Tanenbaum 3
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.




ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Alhamdulillah, Alhamdulillah, Alhamdulillah,
First of all, I would like to give my biggest gratitude to Almighty Allah
Subhanahu wa Taala for blessings and endowments in my life so I can finish my
study, especially in during the process of finishing this thesis. Nothing is possible
to happen without his permission.

I address my gratitude to the Dean of Faculty of Letters, University of Sumatera
Utara, Prof. Syaifuddin, M.A. Ph.D, for giving all students facilities to support
their study. I am also grateful to the Head and the Secretary of Department of
English for their advice and encouragement during my study at the faculty.
I would like to thank to all my lecturers in the English Department who have
taught me lesson so long that I can get knowledge. My gratitude for my academic
Supervisor, Dra, Roma Ayuni Loebis, M. A., who has supported me during my
study in the English Department And also bang Samsul for his help in
administration matters.
I also would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Roswita Silalahi, Dip. TESOL
M.Hum and Drs. Yulianus Harefa, Med TESOL as my Supervisor and my Co-
Supervisor. I am grateful for their helps, guidance, understanding, and
contributions to my thesis.
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


My lovely thanks are due to my beloved parents, Fadly P.Amin and Rumiana
Sukrie. I feel grateful for greatest supports and prayers from my lovely sisters and
brothers, kiin, ktitin, kririn, bdam,bisan, brobby and also my lovely nieces
anya, nayla and kheisa. Thanks for caem bersodara Desi, Pipi, Ayu, Tia, Qiqi,
Aik, you all the best. My gratitude is also addressed to my colleagues, emak,
wawan, noni, ratih, novi, kajol, dodo, dini, reza, takem. And also keka n ayu, I do
love you all thanks for support me in many things.

Medan, December 2009

Reg. No. 050705048
FACHWINALIA KEUMALA SARI__





Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
Tanenbaum 3
rd
Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


ABSTRAK

Skripsi ini berjudul An Analysis of Translation Procedures of Translating
Computer Term in Andrew S. Tanembaum 3
rd
Computer Networks into Bahasa
Indonesia. Skripsi ini menganalisis terjemahan istilah-istilah computer yang
terdapat pada buku Andrew S. Tanembaum, Edisi ke-3 Jaringan Komputer dan
terjemahannya dalam bahasa Indonesia. Teori yang digunakan adalah teori
penerjemahan Vinay dan Darbelnet. Teori ini membagi metode penerjemahan
menjadi dua bagian: (1) terjemahan harfiah (literal translation) dan (2) wajib
(oblique translation) yang kemudian di pecah lagi menjadi tujuh bagian yang
dikenal dengan sebutan prosedur: (a) peminjaman (borrowing), (b) calque, (c)
terjemahan harfiah, (d) transposisi, (e) modulasi, (f) kesepadanan dan (g)
penyesuaian.
Dari hasil analisis, dapat dilihat adanya kompleksitas pemahaman tentang
prosedur penerjemahan. Hal ini harus lebih dipahami secara benar. Banyak hal
yang perlu diperhatikan dalam proses penerapan prosedur penerjemahan seperti
hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan proses peminjaman, calque, terjemahan harfiah,
modulasi, transposisi, kesepadanan dan penyesuaian. Hasil dari analisis yaitu
tidak terdapatnya kesepadanan, modulasi dan penyesuaian.
Kata Kunci: Peminjaman, Calque, Terjemahan Harfiah, Modulasi,
Transposisi, Kesepadanan dan Penyesuaian.
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................ i
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................ iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... iv
LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................... vii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................................. viii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ................................................................. 1
1.1 Background of the Analysis ............................................. 1
1.2 Problems of the Analysis................................................... 4
1.3 Objectives of the Analysis ................................................. 4
1.4 Scope of the Analysis ........................................................ 4
1.5 Significances of the Analysis ............................................ 5
1.6 Literature Review ............................................................. 5
CHAPTER II AN OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION PROCEDURES ..... 9
2.1 What is Translation? ......................................................... 9
2.1.1 Art, Craft, and Science .......................................... 10
2.1.2 Language and Culture ............................................ 11
2.2 Process, Product, and Theory ............................................ 15
2.3 Translation Procedures ...................................................... 18
2.3.1 Borrowing ............................................................. 18
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


2.3.2 Calque ................................................................... 19
2.3.3 Literal Translation ................................................. 20
2.3.4 Transposition ......................................................... 21
2.3.5 Modulation ............................................................ 21
2.3.6 Equivalence ........................................................... 22
2.3.7 Adaptation ............................................................. 23
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY ................................................................ 25
3.1 Research Method .............................................................. 25
3.2 Data collecting Method ..................................................... 25
CHAPTER IV AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSLATION PROCEDURES ....... 28
4.1 Data .............................................................................. 28
4.2 Data Analysis .................................................................... 32
4.3 Discussions ....................................................................... 36
4.3.1 Borrowing ............................................................. 36
4.3.2 Calque ................................................................... 43
4.3.3 Literal Translation ................................................. 51
4.3.4 Equivalence ........................................................... 53
4.3.5 Transposition ......................................................... 53
4.3.6 Modulation ............................................................ 54
4.3.7 Adaptation ............................................................. 54
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


4.4 Data Findings .................................................................... 54
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS .............................. 57
5.1 Conclusions ...................................................................... 57
5.2 Suggestions ....................................................................... 58
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 59
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 : Percentages of each change rank occurred ......................................... 7
Table 2 : Data .................................................................................................. 28
Table 3 : Table of Data Analysis ...................................................................... 32
Table 4 : Pure Loanwords ................................................................................ 37
Table 5 : Mix Loanwords ................................................................................. 37
Table 6 : Loan Blends ...................................................................................... 39
Table 7 : Calque ............................................................................................... 43
Table 8 : Literal Translation ............................................................................. 52
Table 9 : Transposition ..................................................................................... 53
Table 10 : Table of findings ............................................................................... 55
Table 11 : The number of cases and the percentage of each procedure................ 59


Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
Tanenbaum 3
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


PL : Pure loanwords
ML : Mix Loanwords
LB : loan Blends
TL : Target Language
SL : Source Language
ST : Source Text
TT : Target Text





























Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
Tanenbaum 3
rd
Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Nowadays, we cannot imagine our life without computers and the fact is that
they have become so important that nothing can replace them. They seem to be
everywhere today. Computers are evolving daily and it is already affecting our
daily life and our society. Distance is no longer an obstacle with the use of
computer. Crossing oceans takes only a mouse click and a second of waiting. This
is what people say about how the computer affects our life.
Virtually, computer which affects most peoples lives are considered as the
most important technological achievement of the days. Using computers, we can
make or solve most of difficult things which are hardly completed without them.
Because of these different varieties of abilities, computers have been creating
many noticeable achievements in most of societies fields especially medicine,
education, and usual life. Finally, having a computer is a very spectacular tool that
has many functions and very interesting object to analyze related to translating.
Crystal (1997) begins English as a Global Language by asking what it
means for a language to be global, and what the advantages and disadvantages of
having a global language are. A language is a system for encoding information
(http://en. Wikipedia. Org/wiki/language/ July, 15th 2009; 08:00 PM). Moreover
as quoted from Oxford Dictionary language is a system of sounds, words, etc
used by humans to communicate thoughts and feelings.
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


Some languages, most constructed, are meant specifically for communication
between people of different nationalities or language groups as an easy-to-learn
second language. There are about 5,000-6,000 different languages spoken in the
world today. Several of these languages have been constructed by individuals or
groups. Sapir (in Mandelboum, 1958) expressed this view as follows:
Human beings do not live in the objective social activity as ordinarily
understood, but are very much at the mercy of the particular language which
has become the medium of expression for their society. It is quite an illusion
to imagine that one adjust to reality essentially without the use of language
and that language is merely an incidental means of solving specific problems
of communication or reflection.
As a means of communication, translation is known as a technique for
learning foreign languages. According to Newmark (1988) translation is a two-
edged instrument: it has the special purpose of demonstrating the learners
knowledge of foreign language. Catford (1996) defined a translation as the
replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual
material in another language (TL). Newmark (1988) he also defined translation
is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author
intended the text. Addition to Machali (2000) in her book defined
penerjemahan bukan hanya upaya menggantikan teks bahasa sumber dengan text
yang sepadan atau makna yang dimaksud pengarang ke dalam bahasa sasaran
melainkan juga memperhatikan aspek-aspek sosial ketika aspek tersebut dibaca
atau dikomunikasikan. It means that translation communicates the same message
in another language.
Moreover translation is also a field of various procedures. In addition to word-
for-word and sense-for-sense procedures, the translator may use a variety of
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
Tanenbaum 3
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


procedures that differ in importance according to the contextual factors of both the
ST and the TT. Accessed at: http://www.thelanguagetranslation.com/what-
translation.html August, 27th 2009; 11.05 PM. According to The Macquarie
Dictionary in Machali (2000: 62), a procedure is the act or manner of proceeding
in any action or process. At first the different methods or procedures seem to be
countless, generally speaking, translator can choose from two methods of
translating. Newmark (1988) mentions the difference between translation methods
and translation procedures. He writes that, While translation methods relate to
whole texts, translation procedures are used for sentences and the smaller units of
language. The translating procedures, as depicted by Nida (1964) are Technical
procedures and Organizational procedures. Whereas Vinay and Darbelnets ( in
Steiner and Yallop 2001) translation procedures are the basic techniques of
translation. Vinay and Darbelnet (1958) was the first classification of translation
technique that had a clear methodological purpose. According to them the
procedures were classified as two methods covering seven procedures (in Hatim
and Munday 2004:30), are (i) direct translation, which covers borrowing, calque,
and literal translation, and (ii) oblique translation, which is transposition,
modulation, equivalence, and adaptation.
Vinay and Darbelnets theory of translation procedures is so compact and
relatively easy to understand, that there is no need to rephrase it. Thats why I
choose to analyze computer terms in Andrew S. Tanenbaum 3
rd
Computer
Networks to see whether of Vinay and Darbelnets theory of translation
procedures above are exist or not. For example packet which is translated into
paket is an example of borrowing procedure because the SL is transferred directly
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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to the TL. The next example is network which translated into jaringan as an
example of Literal Translation procedure because the direct transfer of a source
language text into a grammatically and idiomatically appropriate target text.
1.2 Problems of the Analysis
Based on the background above there are some problems of the analysis
which are discussed.
a. What kinds of translation procedures found in the target text?
b. What is the most dominant translation procedures found in the
target text?
1.3 Objectives of the Analysis
The objectives of the analysis are to answer the problems above that can
be described as follows:
a. To find and to analyze the translation procedures found in the
target text.
b. To find out the dominant types of the translation procedures found
in the target text.
1.4 Scope of the Analysis
In this thesis, I focused on analyzing the data from Andrew S. Tanenbaum
3
rd
Computer Networks into Bahasa Indonesia to find out translation procedures
by using Vinay and Dalbernets theory. The data are computer terms only which
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
Tanenbaum 3
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


collected from chapter one to chapter four. The analysis covers the seven
procedures in other to get the results of the analysis related to the procedures.
1.5 Significances of the Analysis
There are theoretical and practical significances that can be taken from this
thesis. Theoretically, this thesis can be used for the readers and especially for the
students of English department to expand their knowledge about translation.
Practically, this thesis can be used by translator in practicing the translation and
also as the reference in Foreign Language Teaching.
1.6 Literature Review
To support the ideas of this thesis, I haveconsulted some references concerned
with the topic to support the ideas of analysis. Those references are:
Jakobson's (in Venuti 2000) study of equivalence gave new impetus to the
theoretical analysis of translation since he introduced the notion of 'equivalence in
difference'. He suggests three kinds of translation:
Intralingual (within one language, i.e. rewording or paraphrase)

Interlingual (between two languages)

Intersemiotic (between sign systems).

According to his theory, translation involves two equivalent messages in two
different codes. There seems to be some similarities between Vinay and
Darbelnet's theory of translation procedures and Jakobson's theory of translation.
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


Both Vinay and Darbelnet as well as Jakobson conceive the translation task as
something which can always be carried out from one language to another,
regardless of the cultural or grammatical differences between ST and TT.

Benjamin (in Venuti 2000), in his The task of the translator, Benjamin based
his theorys of translation on the concept of a universal pure language which
expressed universal thought; within this circumference, languages complemented
and borrowed from each other when translating. Benjamin statement is closely to
borrowing in Vinay and Darbelnets seven procedures.
Besides those experts and their theory on translation, I also read some
thesis that also related to this topic. Roswani Siregar (2009) in her thesis Analisis
Penerjemahan Dan Pemaknaan Istilah Teknik: Studi Kasus Pada Terjemahan
Dokumen Kontrak has given a lot of contribution to this thesis. Her thesis is very
closely relevant to this thesis. She talks about methodology for translation which
some theory that she uses is relevant to this thesis, such as Vinay and Dalbernet
theorys about translation procedures.
Dhany Novi Anesthasia (2009) in her thesis Unit Shifts in the Interpreting
of Reverends English Sermon into Bahasa Indonesia gives a contribution to this
thesis. She uses the descriptive method in writing the thesis. She also uses a
formula referring to Nawawis social analysis method to account the most
dominant change of rank occurred in the interpreting. Then she draws the
percentages of each change rank occurred on a table. The following table is the
result of the thesis.
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Table 1: Percentages of each change rank occurred
No.
Kinds of
Unit
Shifts
No. Data Total Percentage
1. W-P 5,8, 11, 12, 13, 23, 32, 49, 56,
63, 69, 71, 85, 102, 114, 125,
126, 137, 139, 140, 144, 154,
157,
23 14.56%
2. W-C 1, 3, 7, 9, 10, 24, 26, 35, 36, 41,
44, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 60, 65, 66,
77, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 90, 91,
92, 94, 95, 96, 99, 106, 108, 112,
118, 120, 121, 127, 128, 129,
148, 149, 153
45 28.48%
3. P-W 2, 4, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21,
22, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 34, 37, 38,
39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 53, 54, 55, 57,
58, 59, 62, 67, 68, 70, 72, 73, 74,
75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 88, 97, 100,
101, 103, 104, 105, 107, 109,
110, 111, 113, 116, 119, 122,
123, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135,
136, 141, 143, 145, 146, 147,
75 47.47%
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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150, 151, 152, 155, 156, 158
4. P-C 25, 48, 64, 89, 98, 115, 117, 142 8 5.06%
5. P-S 20, 61, 138 3 1.9%
6. C-S 124 1 0.63%
7. S-P 93 1 0.63%
8. S-C 29, 134

2 1.27%
Total 158 100%

















Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
Tanenbaum 3
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


CHAPTER II
AN OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION PROCEDURES
2.1 What is Translation?
To state a simplistic definition of translation we can say that it is re-telling,
as exactly as possible, the meaning of the original message in a way that is natural
in the language into which the translation is being made. The term translation
can be generally defined as the action of interpretation of the meaning of a text,
and production of an equivalent text that communicates the same message in
another language. Accessed at: http://www.wikianswers..com/what-
translation.html. October, 3
rd
2009; 03:06 PM
Hatim and Munday (2004:6) prefer to talk of the ambit of translation defined as:
1. The process of transferring a written text from SL to TL, conducted by a
translator, or translators, in a specific socio-cultural context.
2. The written product, or TT, which results from that process and which
functions in the socio-cultural context of the TL.
3. The cognitive, linguistic, visual, cultural and ideological phenomena which are
an integral part of 1 and 2.
Brislin (1976: 1) defines translation as The general term referring to the
transfer of thoughts and ideas from one language (source) to another (target),
whether the languages are in written or oral form; whether the languages have
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


established orthographies or do not have such standardization or whether one or
both languages is based on signs, as with sign languages of the deaf.
Nida (1984:83) points out: translation consists of reproducing in the
receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message,
first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. Likewise, translation, as
Bell (1991:8) asserts, translation involves the transfer of meaning from a text in
one language into a text in another language.
Finally, Wills (1982:3) defines translation more or less similarly that
Translation is a transfer process which aims at the transformation of a written SL
text into an optimally equivalent TL text, and which requires the syntactic, the
semantic and the pragmatic understanding and analytical processing of the SL.
2.1.1 Art, Craft, and Science
There is a long-standing debate as to whether translation is an art, a craft or a
science. Literary translators, such as Cary (in Nababan, 1999: 11), defines
translation as an art. Newmark (1988: 7) defines that Translation is a craft
consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one
language by the same message and/or statement in another language. Other
translators and translation theorists, such as Jumpelt in Nababan (1999:11) defines
that penerjemahan adalah sebuah ilmu, mostly those who work on technical,
business or legal documents, regard their mtier as a science and a craft, one that
can not only be taught but that is subject to linguistic analysis and that benefits
from academic study.
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
Tanenbaum 3
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


However, Gabr (2001:2) considers translation both a craft and a science when
he writes that "translation being a craft on the one hand, requires training, i.e.
practice under supervision, and being a science on the other hand, has to be based
on language theories".
Most translators, however, will agree that the situation depends on the nature
of the text being translated. A simple document, for example a product brochure,
can in many cases be translated quickly, using simple techniques familiar to
advanced language-students. By contrast, a newspaper editorial, political speech,
or book on almost any subject will require not only the good language skills and
research technique, but the art of good writing and cultural sensitivity. Culture is,
in fact, a crucial element in translation, in particular, and language in general.
2.1.2 Language and Culture
According to Newmark Culture can be defined as the way of life and its
manifestations that are peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as
its means of expressions; however, Goodenough (1964: 36) puts:
As I see it, a society's culture consists of whatever it is one has to know
or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its members, and
do so in any role that they accept for any one of themselves. Culture, being
what people have to learn as distinct from their biological heritage, must
consist of the end product of learning: knowledge, in a most general, if
relative, sense of the term. By definition, we should note that culture is not
material phenomenon; it does not consist of things, people, behavior, or
emotions. It is rather an organization of these things. It is the forms of
things that people have in mind, their models of perceiving and dealing
with their circumstances. To one who knows their culture, these things and
events are also signs signifying the cultural forms or models of which they
are material representation.
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


It can be summarized that this definition suggests three things, the first
culture seen as a totality of knowledge and model for perceiving things, the
second immediate connection between culture and behavior and events, and the
last culture depends on norms. While Kridalaksana in chaer (2007:32) explains
that bahasa adalah sistem lambang bunyi yang arbitrer yang digunakan oleh para
anggota kelompok sosial untuk bekerja sama, berkomunikasi, dan
mengindentifikasi diri.
Many translation scholars distinguish cultural language from universal
and personal language. For them, words like father, die, live, star, swim
and almost virtually every artifact like table are universals which generate no
translation problem. But even with regard to such words there is a cultural aspect.
Take, for instance, the example of father. The notion of fatherhood takes new
characteristics in each different cultural community. A French father is different
from an English father who is in turn different from Arabic father a father
normally called Si Sayyed. Another radical cultural difference can be further
noticed. Some Amazonian tribes who lead animal-like lives have no father
notion in their culture and consequently in their language.
Language does contain all kinds of cultural deposits, in the grammar
(genders of inanimate nouns, take the example of couleur which is a feminine
noun in French but masculine in Arabic Lawn). Other examples see the following
excerpts for illustration. The source language (SL) is Indonesian and the target
language (TL) is English.
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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(1.) SL: Sebuah lembaga penelitian mengadakan penelitian tentang jumlah
tabungan perbulan dari para buruh sebuah perusahaan negara di ibukota.
Penelitian tersebut menggunakan sampel yang terdiri dari 100 keluarga dan
hasilnya dinyatakan sebagai persentasi dari jumlah pendapatan per bulan.
TL: A research institution conducted a research on the amount of saving deposited
by workers of a company located in a capital city. The research took 100 families
as a sample and the result was presented in percentage of their monthly wages.
(2) SL: Dalam masyarakat Jawa bila seseorang wanita atau istri sedang hamil,
menurut tradisi perlu diadakan bermacam-macam selamatan dan upacara-upacara
lainnya. Hal ini perlu dilaksanakan dengan maksud agar bayi yang dikandung
akan lahir dengan mudah dan selamat sehingga si anak akan mendapat
kebahagiaan hidup dikemudian hari.
TL: In a Javanese community, based on traditions, a pregnant woman or wife
should be celebrated with various kinds of selamatan (traditional fiest)
(3) SL: Upacara siraman dilakukan pada pagi hari sekitar pukul 09.00. Upacara
siraman dilakukan oleh ibu dari anak yang diruwat dengan air kembang setaman.
Setelah dibersihkan anak itu mengenakan busana adat Jawa yang secara khusus
dibuat. Anak yang diruwat diajak oleh Ki Dalang serta didampingi oleh para
pisisepuh (neneknya, budenya, dan lain sebagainya) untuk bersujud di hadapan
ayah dan ibunya
and rituals.
These should be done so that she can give a birth to a child easily and safely and
the newly-born will get happy life later.
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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TL: Siraman (showering) ceremony is held in the morning around 09:00 oclock.
This ritual is led by the mother of the child being "ruwat" (cleansed) by showering
him with "kembang setaman" (flower) water. After being cleansed, the child is
dresed in Javanese traditional clothes specially designed for him. The ("ruwat")
child is then guided by Ki Dalang (the puppeteer) and accompnied by the elders
(the grandmother, aunts, etc.) to pay a homage to by bowing down to earth in
front of the father and mother. (Each example accessed at
http://www.wikianswers..com/example of translation in Indonesian into
English.html. October, 15
th
2009; 8:50 PM)
Reading the texts, we can imagine that translating the first text is easier
than the second one, and the second text is easier than the last one. The difficulty
is caused by the culturally-bound words (concepts) found in each text.
Practically, however, the depth of embededness of a text into its culture is
not the first consideration. The purpose of translating is the first determinant. If
the purpose of translating text (2) and (3), for example, is to give general
introduction of a certain type of text or culture, the TL should not carry all the
meaning possessed by the SLT. The words underlined and put in the brackets will
do. In this case there are a lot of possibilities for the TL.
However, if the purpose is to present the Javanese culture before the
English readership, the italicized words should be used and accompanied with a
lot of explanation. Supposed the two paragraphs are parts of a novel, and the
translator wants to keep the local color, only the italicized words should be used.
These different purposes govern the choice of translation procedures. Yet, if the
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purpose of translating text (2) and (3) is to present all the meaning, beauty, and
the style contained in it, then, translation is impossible.
2.2 Process, Product and Theory
Above we provided a definition of translation which left ambiguous the term
translation. A second crucial point is needed to distinguish between the three
meanings of the term translation. Translation can denote the meaning of
translating, a translation or translation.
Translating is the process to translate the activity rather than the tangible
object whereas a translation is the product of the process of translating for
example the translated text. According to Hatim and Munday (2004:3) the first of
these two senses relates to translation as a process, the second to the product.
This immediately means that term translation encompasses very distinct
perspectives. The first senses focuses on the role of the translator in taking the
original or source text (ST) and turning it into a text in another language ( The
Target Text, TT). The second sense centres on the concrete translation product
produced by translator.
Shuttleworth and Cowle in Hatim and Munday (2004:3) defined translation
an incredibly notion which can be understood in many different ways. For
example one may talk of translation as a process or a product In addition
Machali (2000:9) expressed this view as follows:
Perbedaan antara produk dan proses ini penting sekali dalam kegiatan
penerjemahan. Apabila kita melihat penerjemahan sebagai proses berarti kita
meneliti jalan yang dilalui penerjemah untuk sampai pada hasil akhir. Kita
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melihat tahap-tahap apa saja yang dilalui seoarng penerjemah, prosedur apa
yang di dilewatinya,metode apa yang digunakan untuk menerjemahkan dan
mengapa dia memilih metode itu, mengapa ia memilih suatu istilah tertentu
untuk menerjemahkan suatu konsep dan bukannya memilih istilah lain yang
sama maknanya, dan sebagainya.
Nababan states (1999:24), proses penerjemahan dapat diartikan sebagai
serangkaian kegiatan yang dilakukan oleh seorang penerjemah pada saat dia
mengalihkan amanat dari bahasa sumber ke dalam bahasa sasaran.
Next, Nida and Taber (1969) explain the process of translating as follows
Translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural
equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly
in terms of style.
In this chapter, however, I shall focus on the third meaning of translation
that is translation theory. In a narrow sense, translation theory is concerned with
the translation method appropriately used for a certain type of text. However, in a
wider sense, translation theory is the body of knowledge that we have about
translating, extending from general principles to guidelines, suggestions and hints.
Newmark (1988:9) defines, what translation theory does is, first, to
identify a translation problem (no problem no translation theory!); second to
indicate all the factors that have to be taken into account in solving the problem;
third, to list all the possible translation procedures (or methods); finally, to
recommend the most suitable translation procedures, plus the appropriate
translation. Translation theory is pointless and sterile if it does not arise from the
problems of translation practice, from the need to stand back and reflect, to
consider all the factors, within the text and outside it, before coming into a
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decision in fact translating (or translation process) is a matter of taking decisions.
Because translation has to do with selecting one option among many, many
scholars take it as an artistic activity; others, however, argue that because it arise
thinking and discussions and has to do with grammatical rules, it is a science.
The linguistic approach to translation theory focusing on the key issues of
meaning, equivalence and shift began to emerge around 50 years ago. This branch
of linguistics, known as structural linguistics, features the work of Roman
Jakobson, Eugene Nida, Newmark, Koller, Vinay, Darbelnet, Catford and van
Leuven-Zwart.
The emphasis of the structural approach to translation changes towards the
end of the 1950s with the work of Vinay and Darbelnet. Vinay and Darbelnet in
venuti (2000:84) identify two methods of translating, the first of three procedures
are direct, or literal translation and the other procedures are called oblique
translation. Literal translation occurs when there is an exact structural, lexical, and
even morphological equivalence between two languages. According to Vinay and
darbelnet, this is only possible when the two languages are very close two each
other. The literal translation (direct) procedures are borrowing, calque and literal
translation. While oblique translation occurs when word for word translation is
possible. The oblique procedures are transposition, modulation, equivalence and
adaptation.


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2.3 Translation Procedures
2.3.1 Borrowing
Borrowing is the simplest of all translation method. We can say that this
task refers to a case where a word or an expression is taken from the SL and used
in the TL, but in a naturalized form, that is, it is made to conform to the rules of
grammar or pronunciation of the TL.
Borrowing in translation is not always justified by lexical gap in the TL,
but it can mainly be used as a way to preserve the local color of the word, or be
used out of fear from losing some of the semiotic aspects and cultural aspects of
the word if it is translated.
According to Haugen in Siregar (2009:37) there are some possibilities that
may occur in this procedure; first, borrowing with no change in form and meaning
(pure loanwords), the second, borrowing with changes in form but without
changes the meaning (mix loanwords) and the third, borrowing when part of the
term is native and other part is borrowed, but the meaning is fully borrowed (loan
blends)
Examples:
a. Borrowing with no change in form and meaning (pure loanwords):
email email
dollar dollar
internet internet
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b. Borrowing with change in form but without change the meaning (mix
loanwords):
computer komputer
packet paket
negotiation negosiasi
c. Loan blend
computer network jaringan komputer
broadcast network jaringan broadcast
internet provider penyedia layanan internet
2.3.2 Calque
A calque is a special kind of borrowing whereby a language borrows an
expression from another, but then translates literally each of its elements. Calque,
where the SL expression is literally transferred to the TL, such as the English
character Snow White in French becomes Blanche Neige, because the normal
word configuration in English of white snow would be transferred as neige
blanche.
Vinay and Darbelnet note that both borrowing and calque often become
fully integrated into the TL, although sometimes with semantic change, which can
turn them into false friends.
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Examples:
broadcasting broadcasting
service user service user
transceiver cable kabel transceiver
2.3.3 Literal Translation
Literal, or word for word, translation is the direct transfer of a SL text into
a grammatically and idiomatically appropriate TL text in which the translators
task is limited to observing the adherence to the linguistic servitudes of the TL. In
principle, a literal translation is unique solution in which is reversible and
complete in itself. The translation has not needed to make any changes other than
the obvious one, like those concerning grammatical concord or inflectional
endings, for example English where are you? translated into French Ou etes
vous?. This procedure is most commonly found in translations between closely
related language, for example French-Italian, and especially those having a similar
culture. There are other examples of literal translation.
Examples:
network layer lapisan jaringan
flow control pengendalian aliran
high reliability keandalan tinggi
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2.3.4 Transposition
The method called transposition involves replacing one word class with
another without changing the meaning of the message. It can also be used within a
language, as when rewarding the phrase, for example He announced that he
would return to He announced his return (the subordinate verb becomes a
noun). In translation, there are two types of transposition: obligatory and optimal.
It is also a change in the grammar from source language to target language
(singular to plural; position of the adjective, changing the word class or part of
speech). There are other examples of transposition.
Examples:
speed of
performance unjuk kerja
light kecepatan cahaya
suppressor anti gema
2.3.5 Modulation
Modulation is a variation of the form of the message, obtained by a change
in the point of view. This change can be justified when, although a literal, or even
transposed, translation results in a grammatically correct utterance, it is
considered unsuitable, unidiomatic or awkward in the TL.
As with transposition, there are two types of modulation, namely free or
optional modulation and fixed or obligatory modulation. For instance, what time
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is it? which must be translated into Arabic as kam essa3a? is an example of
obligatory modulation. Also, the type of modulation which turns a negative SL
expression into a positive TL expression is a fixed modulation, other example of
fixed modulation is:
it isnt expensive its cheap
The difference between fixed and free modulation is one of degree. In the
case of fixed modulation, translators with a good knowledge of both languages
and freely used this method, as they will be aware of the frequency of use, the
overall acceptable, and the confirmation provided by a dictionary or grammar of
the preferred expression.

2.3.6 Equivalence
Vinay and Darbelnet use this term to refer to cases where languages
described the same situation by different stylistic or structural means. The
classical example of equivalence is given by reaction of an amateur who
accidentally hits his finger with hammer: if he were French his cry of pain would
be transcribed as, aie!, but he were English this would be interpreted as,
ouch!. Another striking case of equivalences are the many onomatopoeia of
animal sounds, for example:
cocorico cock-a-doodle-do
miaou miaow
hi-han heehaw
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2.3.7 Adaptation
With this seventh method we reach the extreme limit of translation: it is
used in those cases where the type of situation being referred to by the SL
message is unknown in the TL culture. Adaptation can, therefore, be described as
a special kind of equivalence, a situational equivalence. For example, English
father who would think nothing of kissing his daughter on the mouth, something
which is normal in that culture but which would not be acceptable in a literal
rendering into Arabic or even French. Translating, He kissed his daughter on the
mouth by qabbala ibnatahu min famiha or Il embrassa sa fille sur la bouche,
would introduce into the TL an element which is not present in the SL, where the
situation may be that of a loving father returning home and greeting his daughter
after a long journey. While the French rendering would be a special kind of
overtranslation, the Arabic rendering would simply be a catastrophe. A more
appropriate translation in French would be Il serra tendrement sa fille dans ses
bras and in Arabic Laqad 3anaqa ibnatahu bi hararatin.
This involves changing the culture reference when a situation in source
culture does not exist in target culture. For example, Vinay and Darbelnet in
Munday (2001:58) suggest that the culture connotation of a reference in English
text to the game of cricket might be best translated into French by reference to the
tour de France. They claim that they refusal to use such adaptation in an otherwise
perfectly correct TT, may still noticeable by an undefinable tone, something
may work for some restricted metaphorical uses, it would make little sense to
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change cricket to cycling in phrases such as that isnt cricket or a sleepy
Wednesday morning country match at lord.

















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CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
3. 1 Research Method
In analyzing the data in this study, I use the descriptive qualitative method.
Descriptive qualitative method is applied by giving a description of the result of
analysis of Computer Terms in Andrew S. Tanenbaum 3
rd
Computer Networks
into Bahasa Indonesia. As quoted from Bodgan and Bliken in Samosir (2007:4):
Qualitative research is descriptive. The data is collected in the form of word or
picture rather than number, I also use library research in analysis as I read some
relevant books in analyzing the data.
3. 2 Data Collecting Method
Purposive sampling is used to collect the required data. Sutopo (2002:36)
says that teknik cuplikan penelitian kualitatif cenderung bersifat purposive
karena dipandang lebih mampu menangkap kelengkapan dan kedalaman data,
besides; Bailey (1987:94) also cites:
In purposive sampling the investigator does not necessarily have a quota
to fill from within various strata, as in quota sampling, but neither does he
or she just pick the nearest warm bodies, as in convenience sampling.
Rather, the researcher uses his or her own judgment about which
respondents to choose and picks only those who best meet the purposes of
the study.

In addition Arikunto (2006: 139) says that:
Sampel bertujuan atau purposive sample dilakukan dengan cara
mengambil subjek bukan didasarkan atas strata, random atau daerah tetapi
didasarkan atas adanya tujuan tertentu. Teknik ini biasanya dilakukan
karena beberapa pertimbangan, misalnya alasan keterbatasan waktu,
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tenaga, dan dana sehingga tidak dapat mengambil sample yang besar dan
jauh.
The data are collected from Andrew S. Tanenbaum 3
rd
Computer Networks
into Bahasa Indonesia to find out translation procedures by using Vinay and
Dalbernets theory. The original book consists of 8 Chapters containing 813
pages. The translation of the book is made into 2 books which first book consists
of 1-4 Chapters containing 344 pages and of 5-8 chapters containing 331 pages
respectively. The data are computer terms which are collected only from chapter
one to chapter four. The analysis covers the seven procedures in order to get the
results of the analysis related to the procedures. So, the following procedures were
executed to carry out this analysis:
a. Collecting the data from the original book and its translation into
Indonesian.
b. Listing translation procedures as the data findings.
c. Analyzing the seven procedures from the data.
d. Finding out the most dominant type of the translation procedures
found in target text.
To find out the most dominant type of the translation procedures
this thesis is going to apply a formula referring to Nawawis social
analysis method. The following is the formula of calculating the
percentage of the data.



X x 100% =N
Y
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X: Number of types of procedure
Y: Number of all data
N: The percentage of types of procedure
e. Finally, I make some conclusions of the result of the analysis, and
suggestions for the reader.


















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CHAPTER IV
AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSLATION PROCEDURES
4. 1 Data
Table 2: Data
No. Data SOURCE TEXT TARGET TEXT
1. computer network jaringan computer
2. interconnected interkoneksi
3. computer center pusat computer
4. autonomous computers computer autonomous
5. distributed system sistem terdistribusi
6. software perangkat lunak
7. resource sharing resource sharing
8. high reliability keandalan tinggi
9. file server file server
10. client-server model model client-server
11. scalability skalabilitas
12. communication medium medium komunikasi
13. email email
14. videoconference videoconference
15. broadcast network jaringan broadcast
16. packet paket
17. broadcasting broadcasting
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18. multicasting multicasting
19. communication subnet subnet komunikasi
20. subnet subnet
21. internet internet
22. layer lapisan
23. interface antar muka
24. network architecture arsitektur jaringan
25. header header
26. service provider service provider
27. peer entity peer entity
28. service user service user
29. quality of service kualitas layanan
30. datagram service layanan datagram
31.
the acknowledged
datagram service
layanan acknowledged
datagram
32. request- reply service layanan Request- reply
33. negotiation negosiasi
34. connect connect
35. data link layer lapisan jalur data
36. network layer lapisan jaringan
37. hardware perangkat keras
38. flow control pengendalian aliran
40. frame relay frame relay
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41. news news
42. public network jaringan public
43. promiscuous mode
mode tidak membeda-
bedakan
44. dispersion dispersi
45. speed of light kecepatan cahaya
46. wireless transmission transmisi tanpa kabel
47. attenuation atenuasi
48. delay distortion distorsi delay
49. modem modem
50. sine wave carrier carrier gelombang sinus
51. amplitude modulation modulasi amplitude
52. frequency modulation modulasi frekuensi
53. suppressor anti gema
54. delta modulation modulasi delta
55. path jalur
56. tributary tributer
57. direct trunks trunk langsung
58. crosspoints titik potong
59. channel kanal
60. bit stuffing penyisipan bit
61. sliding window jendela geser
62. finite state keadaan terbatas
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63. initial state keadaan awal
64. fire menembak
65. output arms lengan output
66. internet provider penyedia layanan internet
67. station model model station
68. collision assumption asumsi tabrakan
69. continues time waktu kontinu
70. slotted time waktu slot
71. carrier sense carrier sense
72. contention persaingan
73. wireless tanpa kabel
74. chip sequence rangkaian chip
75. orthogonal orthogonal
76. ethernet ethernet
77. thick ethernet ethernet tipis
78. transceiver cable kabel transceiver
79. performance unjuk kerja
80. response window jendela response
81. wire center pusat kabel
82. backward learning backward learning
83. satellite networks jaringan satelit
84. fibre channel kanal fibre



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4.2 Data Analysis

Table 3: Table of Data Analysis
No.
Data
SOURCE TEXT TARGET TEXT
Translation
Procedures
1. computer network jaringan komputer borrowing (LB)
2. interconnected interkoneksi calque
3. computer center pusat computer borrowing (LB)
4.
autonomous
computers
computer autonomous calque
5. distributed system sistem terdistribusi calque
6. software perangkat lunak transposition
7. resource sharing resource sharing calque
8. high reliability keandalan tinggi literal translation
9. file server file server calque
10.
Client-server
model
model client-server calque
11. scalability skalabilitas borrowing (LB)
12.
communication
medium
medium komunikasi calque
13. email email borrowing (PL)
14. videoconference videoconference calque
15. broadcast network jaringan broadcast borrowing (LB)
16. packet paket borrowing (ML)
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17. broadcasting broadcasting calque
18. multicasting multicasting calque
19.
communication
subnet
subnet komunikasi calque
20. subnet subnet borrowing (PL)
21. internet internet borrowing (PL)
22. layer lapisan literal translation
23. interface antar muka transposition
24.
network
architecture
arsitektur jaringan borrowing (LB)
25. header header
borrowing
(PL)
26. service provider service provider calque
27. peer entity peer entity calque
28. service user service user calque
29. quality of service kualitas layanan borrowing (LB)
30. datagram service layanan datagram borrowing (LB)
31.
the acknowledged
datagram service
layanan acknowledged
datagram
borrowing (LB)
32.
request- reply
service
layanan request- reply borrowing (LB)
33. negotiation negosiasi
borrowing
(ML)
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34. connect connect borrowing (PL)
35. data link layer lapisan jalur data borrowing (LB)
36. network layer lapisan jaringan literal translation
37. hardware perangkat keras transposition
38. flow control pengendalian aliran literal translation
39. channel paging channel paging calque
40. frame relay frame relay calque
41. news news borrowing (PL)
42. public network jaringan public borrowing (LB)
43. promiscuous mode
mode tidak membeda-
bedakan
transposition
44. dispersion dispersi borrowing (ML)
45. speed of light kecepatan cahaya transposition
46.
wireless
transmission
transmisi tanpa kabel borrowing (LB)
47. attenuation atenuasi borrowing (ML)
48. delay distortion distorsi delay calque
49. modem modem borrowing (PL)
50. sine wave carrier carrier gelombang sinus borrowing (LB)
51.
amplitude
modulation
modulasi amplitude calque
52.
frequency
modulation
modulasi frekuensi calque
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53. suppressor anti gema transposition
54. delta modulation modulasi delta calque
55. path jalur literal translation
56. tributary tributer borrowing (ML)
57. direct trunks trunk langsung borrowing (LB)
58. crosspoints titik potong transposition
59. channel kanal literal translation
60. bit stuffing penyisipan bit borrowing (LB)
61. sliding window jendela geser literal translation
62. finite state keadaan terbatas literal translation
63. initial state keadaan awal literal translation
64. fire menembak literal translation
65. output arms lengan output borrowing (LB)
66. internet provider penyedia layanan internet borrowing (LB)
67. station model model station calque
68.
collision
assumption
asumsi tabrakan borrowing (LB)
69. continues time waktu kontinu borrowing (LB)
70. slotted time waktu slot borrowing (LB)
71. carrier sense carrier sense calque
72. contention persaingan literal translation
73. wireless tanpa kabel transposition
74. chip sequence rangkaian chip borrowing (LB)
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75. orthogonal ortogonal borrowing (ML)
76. ethernet ethernet borrowing (PL)
77. thick Ethernet ethernet tipis borrowing (LB)
78. transceiver cable kabel transceiver calque
79. performance unjuk kerja transposition
80. response window jendela response borrowing (LB)
81. wire center pusat kabel literal translation
82. backward learning backward learning calque
83. satellite networks jaringan satelit borrowing (LB)
84. fibre channel kanal fibre borrowing (LB)

4.3 DISCUSSIONS
4.3.1 Borrowing
Borrowing is the procedure which carryover source language lexeme or
lexemes combinations into target language in order to fill the gaps between the
languages. According to Haugen in Siregar (2009:37) there are three possibilities
that may occur in this procedure; first, borrowing with no change in form and
meaning (pure loanwords), the second, borrowing with changes in form but
without changes the meaning (mix loanwords) and the third, borrowing when part
of the term is native and other part is borrowed, but the meaning is fully borrowed
(loan blends).
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The following table is borrowing which is found from the data and
followed by the analysis.
Table 4: Pure loanwords
No.
No.
data

SOURCE TEXT

TARGET TEXT
1. 13. email email
2. 20. subnet subnet
3. 21. internet internet
4. 25. header header
5. 34. connect connect
6. 41. news news
7. 49. modem modem
8. 76. ethernet ethernet
1.) email, subnet, internet, header, connect, news, modem,
and ethernet are purely borrowed from source language without any change
in target language writing system.
Table 5: Mix Loanwords.
No. No. Data SOURCE TEXT TARGET TEXT
1. 11. scalability skalabilitas
2. 16. packet paket
3. 33. negotiation negosiasi
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4. 44. dispersion dispersi
5. 47. attenuation atenuasi
6. 56. tributary tributer
7. 75. orthogonal ortogonal
1). scalability skalabili
skalabilitas is borrowed from source language scalability with some
changes in writing system. The letter c in source language changes to letter k
in target language and suffix -ity in source language changes to tas in target
language.
tas
2) packet paket
paket is borrowed from source language packet with some changes in
writing system. The letter c in source language is lost.
3) negotiation negosiasi
negosiasi is borrowed from source language negotiation. The word
negosiasi with some change writing system (form). The letter t in source
language changes to letter s in target language and suffix -tion in source
language changes to si in target language.

4) dispersion disper
dispersi is borrowed from source language dispersion. The word dispersi
with some change writing system (form). The suffix -ion in source language
changes to si in target language.
si

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5) attenuation atenua
atenua
si
si
6). tributa
is borrowed from source language attenuation. The word
atenuasi with some change writing system (form). The letter t in target language
is lost one letter. The suffix -ion in source language changes to si in target
language.
ry tribut
tributer is borrowed from source language tributary. The word tributer
with some change writing system (form). The suffix -ry in source language
changes to er in target language.
er
7). orthogonal ortogonal
ortogonal is borrowed from source language orthogonal. The word ortogonal
with some change writing system (form). The letter h in source language is lost
in target language.
Loan blends: One of the two or more morphemes making up the compound form
is replaced by native morpheme.
Table 6: Loan blends.
No. No. Data SOURCE TEXT TARGET TEXT
1. 1. computer network jaringan computer
2. 3. computer center pusat computer
3. 15. broadcast network jaringan broadcast
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4. 24. network architecture arsitektur jaringan
5. 29. quality of service kualitas layanan
6. 30. datagram service layanan datagram
7.
31.
the acknowledged datagram
service
layanan acknowledged
datagram
8. 32. request- reply service layanan Request- reply
9. 35. data link layer lapisan jalur data
10. 42. public network jaringan public
11. 46. wireless transmission transmisi tanpa kabel
12. 50. sine wave carrier carrier gelombang sinus
13. 57. direct trunks trunk langsung
14. 60. bit stuffing penyisipan bit
15. 65. output arms lengan output
16. 66. internet provider penyedia layanan internet
17. 68. collision assumption asumsi tabrakan
18. 69. continues time waktu kontinu
19. 70. slotted time waktu slot
20. 74. chip sequence rangkaian chip
21. 77. thick Ethernet ethernet tipis
22. 80. response window jendela response
23. 83. satellite networks jaringan satelit
24. 84. fibre channel kanal fibre
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1) jaringan is native while komputer is borrowed from source language
computer.
2) pusat is native while komputer is borrowed from source language
computer.
3) jaringan is native while broadcast is borrowed from source language
broadcast.
4) jaringan is native while arsitektur is borrowed from source language
architecture.
5) layanan is native whilekualitas is borrowed from source language
quality.
6) layanan is native while datagram is borrowed from source language
datagram.
7) layanan is native while acknowledged is borrowed from source
language acknowledged and datagram also borrowed from source
language datagram.
8) layanan is native while request is borrowed from source language
request and reply also borrowed is from source language reply.
9) lapisan and jalur are native while data is borrowed from source
language data.
10) jaringan is native while public is borrowed from source language
public.
11) transmisi is borrowed from source language transmission while
tanpa and kabel are native.
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12) carrier is borrowed from source language carrier and sinus also
borrowed from source language sine while gelombang is native.
13) trunk is borrowed from source language trunk while langsung is
native.
14) penyisipan is native while bit is borrowed from source language bit.
15) lengan is native while output is borrowed from source language
output.
16) penyedia and layanan are native while internet is borrowed from
source language internet.
17) asumsi is borrowed from source language assumption while tabrakan
is native.
18) waktu is native while kontinu is borrowed from source language
continues.
19) waktu is native while slot is borrowed from source language slot.
20) rangkaian is native while chip is borrowed from source language
chip.
21) ethernet is borrowed from source language ethernet while tipis is
native.
22) jendela is native while response is borrowed from source language
response.
23) jaringan is native while satelit is borrowed source language satellite.
24) kanal is native while fibre is borrowed from surce language fibre.

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4.3.2 Calque
Table 7: Calque
No. No. Data SOURCE TEXT TARGET TEXT
1. 2. interconnected interkoneksi
2. 4. autonomous computers computer autonomous
3. 5. distributed system sistem terdistribusi
4. 7. resource sharing resource sharing
5. 9. file server file server
6. 10. client-server model model Client-server
7. 12. communication medium medium komunikasi
8. 14. videoconference videoconference
9. 17. broadcasting broadcasting
10. 18. multicasting multicasting
11. 19. communication subnet subnet komunikasi
12. 26. service provider service provider
13. 27. peer entity peer entity
14. 28. service user service user
15. 39. channel paging channel paging
16. 40. frame relay frame relay
17. 48. delay distortion distorsi delay
18. 51. amplitude modulation modulasi amplitude
19. 52. frequency modulation modulasi frekuensi
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20. 54. delta modulation modulasi delta
21. 67. station model model station
22. 71. carrier sense carrier sense
23. 78. transceiver cable kabel transceiver
24. 82. backward learning backward learning
1). interconnecte
The phrase interco
d interkoneksi
nnected is translated as interkoneksi
2). autonomous computers komputer autonomous
where the letter c in
source language is replaced by target language k.
The phrase autonomous computers is translated with linear substitution into
target language. autonomous which comes as a first word in source language
goes to second word in target language and vice versa. Each item in source
language is borrowed by target language.
The word autonomous is purely imported from source language
autonomous but the word komputer is imported from source language
computer with some writing system changes in target language. The first letter
c in source language is replaced by target language k.
3). distributed system sistem terdistribusi
The phrase distributed system is translated with linear substitution into target
language. distributed which comes as a first word in source language goes to
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


second word in target language and vice versa. Each item in source language is
borrowed by target language.
The word distributed is loan word used with affix ter-. And the word
sistem is imported from source language system with some writing system
changes in target language. The first letter y in source language is replaced by
target language i
4). resource sharing resource sharing
The phrase resource sharing is translated with structural substitution into
target language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
5). file server file server
The phrase file server is translated with structural substitution into target
language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
6). client-server model model client-server
The phrase client-server model is translated with linear substitution into
target language. client-server which comes as a first phrase in source language
goes to second phrase in target language and vice versa. model which comes as
last word in source language goes to first word in target language and vice versa.
Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.


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7). communication medium medium komunika
The phrase communication medium is translated with linear substitution into
target language. communication which comes as a first word in source language
goes to second phrase in target language and vice versa. The word komunika
si
si is
imported from source language communication
medium which comes as last word in source language goes to first word in
target language and vice versa. The word medium is purely imported from
source language medium. Each item in source language is borrowed by target
language.
with some writing system
changes in target language. The letter c in source language is replaced by target
language respelling k. The letter m which double in source language loss one
letter in target language and suffix -tion in source language changes to si in
target language.
8). videoconference videoconference
The phrase videoconference is translated with structural substitution into
target language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
9). broadcasting broadcasting
The phrase broadcasting is translated with structural substitution into target
language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.

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10). multicasting multicasting
The phrase multicasting is translated with structural substitution into target
language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
11). communication subnet subnet komunika
The phrase communication subnet is translated with linear substitution into
target language. Communication which comes as a first word in source language
goes to second phrase in target language and vice versa. The word komunika
si
si is
imported from source language communication
subnet which comes as last word in source language goes to first word in
target language and vice versa. The word subnet is purely imported from source
language subnet. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
with some writing system
changes in target language. The letter c in source language is replaced by target
language respelling k. The letter m which double in source language is lost one
letter in target language and suffix -tion in source language changes to si in
target language.
12). service provider service provider
The phrase service provider is translated with structural substitution into
target language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.


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13). peer entity peer entity
The phrase peer entity is translated with structural substitution into target
language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
14). service user service user
The phrase service user is translated with structural substitution into target
language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
15). channel paging channel paging
The phrase channel paging is translated with structural substitution into
target language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
16). frame relay frame relay
The phrase frame relay is translated with structural substitution into target
language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
17). delay distortion
The phrase delay distortion is translated with linear substitution into target
language. delay which comes as a first word in source language goes to second
word in target language and vice versa. The word delay is purely imported from
source language delay.
distorsi delay
The word distortion which comes as last word in source language goes to
first word in target language. The word distorsi is imported from source
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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Computer Networks Into Bahasa Indonesia, 2009.


language distortion with some writing system changes in target language. The
suffix -tion in source language changes to si in target language. Each item in
source language is borrowed by target language.
18). amplitude modulation modulasi
The phrase amplitude modulation is translated with linear substitution into
target language. The word amplitude which comes as a first word in source
language goes to second word in target language and vice versa. The word
amplitude is purely imported from source language amplitude.
amplitude
The word modulation which comes as last word in source language goes to
first word in target language. The word modulasi is imported from source
language modulation with some writing system changes in target language. The
suffix -tion in source language changes to si in target language. Each item in
source language is borrowed by target language.
19). frequency modulation modulasi frekuen
The phrase frequency modulation is translated with linear substitution into
target language. The word frequency which comes as a first word in source
language goes to second word in target language and vice versa. The word
frekuensi is imported from source language frequency with some writing
system changes in target language. The letter q in source language changes to
k in target language and the suffix cy in source language changes to si in
target language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
si
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The word modulation which comes as last word in source language goes to
first word in target language. The word modulasi is imported from source
language modulation with some writing system changes in target language. The
suffix -tion in source language changes to si in target language. Each item in
source language is borrowed by target language.
20). delta modulation modulasi
The phrase delta modulation is translated with linear substitution into target
language. The word delta which comes as a first word in source language goes
to second word in target language. The word delta is purely imported from
source language delta.
delta
The word modulation which comes as last word in source language goes to
first word in target language. The word modulasi is imported from source
language modulation with some writing system changes in target language. The
suffix -tion in source language changes to si in target language. Each item in
source language is borrowed by target language.
21). station model model station
The phrase station model is translated with linear substitution into target
language. The word station which comes as a first word in source language goes
to second word in target language. The word model which comes as last word in
source language goes to first word in target language. Each item in source
language is borrowed by target language.
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22). carrier sense carrier sense
The phrase carrier sense is translated with structural substitution into target
language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
23). transceiver cable kabel transceiver
The phrase Transceiver cable is translated with linear substitution into target
language. The word transceiver which comes as a first word in source language
goes to second word in target language. The word cable which comes as last
word in source language goes to first word in target language. Each item in source
language is borrowed by target language.
24). backward learning backward learning
The phrase backward learning is translated with structural substitution into
target language. Each item in source language is borrowed by target language.
4.3.3 Literal translation
Literal translation is defined by vinay and darbelnet (1995:215) as the
direct transfer of a source language into a grammatically and idiomatically
appropriate target text.. that means Literal, or word for word, translation is the
direct transfer of a source language text into a grammatically and idiomatically
appropriate target language text in which the translators task is limited to
observing the adherence to the linguistic servitudes of the target language.
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These following table shows the data which concluded into literal
translation where the text in source language is translated word for word into
target language by adopting target language structure.
Table 8: Literal translation
No.
No.
Data

SOURCE TEXT

TARGET TEXT
1. 6. software perangkat lunak
2. 8. high reliability keandalan tinggi
3. 22. layer lapisan
4. 23. interface antar muka
5. 36. network layer lapisan jaringan
6. 37. hardware perangkat keras
7. 38. flow control pengendalian aliran
8. 55. path jalur
9. 58. crosspoints titik potong
10. 59. channel kanal
11. 61. Sliding window jendela geser
12. 62. Finite state keadaan terbatas
13. 63. Initial state keadaan awal
14. 64. fire menembak
15. 72. contention persaingan
16. 81. wire center pusat kabel
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4.3.4 Equivalence
There is no equivalence fo8und in the data.
4.3.5 Transposition
According to Vinay and Darbelnet (1995:36) transposition involves
8replacing one word class with another without changing the meaning of the
message.
Table 9: Transposition.
No. No. Data SOURCE TEXT TARGET TEXT
1. 43. promiscuous mode
mode tidak membeda-
bedakan
2. 45. speed of kecepatan cahaya light
3 53. suppressor anti gema
4. 73. wireless tanpa kabel
5. 79. performance unjuk kerja
1). promiscuous mode mode tidak membeda-bedakan
(a phrase) (a clause)
promiscuous mode that is phrase in source language turning into a clause in
target language.
2). of is omitted, but does not change the meaning
of the message.
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3). suppressor anti gema
(a word) (a phrase)
suppressor which is a word level in source language turning into a phrase
level in target language.
4). wireless tanpa kabel
(a word) (a phrase)
wireless which is a word level in source language turning into a phrase level
in target language.
5). performance unjuk kerja
(a word) (a phrase)
performance which is a word level in source language turning into a phrase
level in target language.
4.3.6 Modulation
There is no modulation found in the data.
4.3.7 Adaptation
There is no adaptation found in the data.
4.4 Data Findings
After analysis, it is found 84 computer terms; there are 39 cases of
borrowing (8 cases of pure loanwords, 7 cases of mix loanwords, and 24
Fachwinalia Keumala Sari : An Analysis Of Translation Procedures Of Translating Computer Term In Andrew S.
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cases of loan blend), 24 cases of calque, 16 cases of literal translation, and 5
cases of transposition. There are no cases of modulation, equivalence and
adaptation found from the data which are analyzed.
Table 10: Table of findings
No.
Translation
Procedures
No. Data Total Percentage
1. borrowing
PL (13, 20, 21, 25, 34, 41,
49, 76)
ML ( 11, 16, 33, 44, 47, 56,
75)
LB (1,3,15, 24, 29, 30, 31,
32, 35, 42, 46, 50, 57, 60,
65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 74, 77,
80, 83, 84
39 46 %
2. calque
2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 17,
18, 19, 26, 27, 28, 39, 40,
48, 51, 52, 54, 67, 71, 78,
82
24 29%
3.
literal
translation
6, 8, 22, 23, 36, 37, 38, 55,
58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 72,
81
16 19%
4. transposition 43, 45, 53, 73, 79 5 6%
Total 84 100%
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It is translation procedures from the data analysis that there 84 cases
containing 4 procedures, there are 39 cases of borrowing or 46%, 24 cases of
calque or 29%, 16 cases of literal translation or 19%, and 5 cases of transposition
or 6%.














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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1 Conclusions
Having analyzed the data of this analysis, it is concluded that the most
dominant procedure that is found from the data is borrowing with 39 cases (46 %)
so computer terms which used in computers book is borrowed from source
language. Besides Vinay and Darbelnet theory of translation procedure that used
to analysis data are easy to apply because each procedure is easy to understand.
Based on table concludes that not all procedures exist in this data analysis.
Equivalence, modulation and adaptation do not exist in this analysis. The results
of data analysis will be presented by following table which conclude the number
of cases and the percentage of each procedure.
Table 11: The number of cases and the percentage of each procedure
No. Type of procedures Number of cases Percentages
1. Borrowing 39 cases 46.%
2. Calque 24 cases 29%
3. Literal translation 15 cases 19%
4 Equivalence 0 case 0%
5. Transposition 5 cases 6%
6. Modulation 0 case 0 %
7. Adaptation 0 case 0 %


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5.2 Suggestions
Translation is an interesting subject to study. There are other parts of
translation that can be observed from the data in this thesis. Therefore, it is
suggested to those who are interested in studying translation to make other
translation from this thesis such as the translation shifts, translation equivalence,
and others. It is also suggested for those who are interested to observe seven
procedures of translation to explore more about each process in translation such as
the elaboration of borrowing, calque, and so on.







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