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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS]

Chapter 4: Fractions and Decimals 4.1 Understanding Fractions (Revision of equivalent fractions)
A fraction describes part of a whole. Each fraction consists of a denominator (bottom) and a numerator (top), representing (respectively) the number of equal parts that an object is divided into. Numerator

Denominator

Equivalent fractions Equivalent fractions are fractions that are equal.

Are the following equivalent fraction? (i)

2 8 , 5 20 3 6 , 2 3
5 25 , 6 30

(ii)

(iii)

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS]

4.2 " Adding and subtracting fractions and mixed numbers Example 1: Find:
2 1 + 3 5

Step 1: Find the lowest common multiple of both denominators. The multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, The multiples of 5 are 5, 10, 15, 15 is the lowest common multiple (LCM) Step 2: Change the denominators to make them both equal to the LCM by using equivalent fractions.

2 10 (Multiplying top and bottom by 3) = 3 15 1 3 (Multiplying top and bottom by 3) = 5 15


Step 3: Add or subtract both fractions with the same denominator. So

2 1 10 3 13 + = + = 3 5 15 15 15

Exercise 1: Work out the following:


(i)

5 3 ! 6 4

(ii)

2 1 ! 3 5

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS] (iii)

1 1 + 3 6

(iv)

3 1 + 4 3

Adding and Subtracting Mixed Numbers


Example 2: Work out: 2 + 5
Step 1: Add the whole numbers: 2+5=7 Step 2: Work out

1 3

1 2

1 1 + 3 2

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS] Exercise 2: Work out: (i)

1 2 7 !3 4 3

(ii)

3 6 2 +5 4 7

4.3 Ordering fractions Example 1: Which fraction is bigger?


a)

1 2 or 3 5

Step1: Find the LCM The multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, The multiples of 5 are 5, 10, 15, 15 is the lowest common multiple (LCM)

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS] Step 2: Multiply top and bottom so as to get the same denominator (Equivalent fractions). !!!!!! " !!!!!! ! "

1 5 2 6 = and = 5 15 3 15 !3 ! !5 " !!!!!! " !!!!!!


Step 3: Compare the numerator.

!5

!3

2 1 is bigger than . 5 3

Example 1: Which fraction is bigger?

3 4 or 4 5

Exercise 2: Order the following


! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !" ! Step 1: Find the LCM of the denominators The multiples of 2 are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, The multiples of 4 are 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, The multiples of 5 are 5, 10, 15, 20, The multiples of 10 are 10, 20, 20 is the lowest common multiple (LCM) Step 2: Get all fractions with a common denominator ! !" ! ! !" ! ! ! ! !" ! !" ! !" !" ! !" ! ! !" C.Camenzuli | www.smcmaths.webs.com 5

Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS] Step 2: Compare the numerators (in ascending order) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !" !

Example 2: Arrange in descending order:

2 11 23 7 3 , , , , 3 15 30 10 5

4.4 Multiplying fractions


To multiply a fraction by an integer, multiply the numerator of the fraction by the integer. Do not change the denominator of the fraction.

Example 1: Work out: 6 !


6!

2 3

2 6! 2 = 3 3

6! 2 = 3
1

=
The answer is 4.

2! 2 1 =4

To multiply two fractions, multiply the numerators and then multiply the denominators.

Example 2: Work out:


=

3 2 ! 4 3

3! 2 4!3
1 1

3! 2 = 4! 3
2 1

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS]

1! 1 2 !1 1 = 2
=

Example 4: Work out:

2 ! 33 3

Example 5: Work out:

2 2 ! 3 5

Example 6: Work out:

5 7 ! 14 10

Example 7: Work out:

4 12 of 3 18

When multiplying mixed numbers, first write the mixed numbers as improper fractions.

2 4 3 5 Step 1: Converting the mixed numbers as improper fractions: 2 8 (2 x 3 = 6 + 2 = 8) 2 = 3 3

Example 8: 2 !1

4 9 1 = 5 5

(1 x 5 = 5 + 4 = 9) C.Camenzuli | www.smcmaths.webs.com 7

Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS] Step 2: Carry out the multiplication:

2 4 8 9 Therefore, 2 !1 = ! 3 5 3 5

8! 9 = 3! 5
1

8! 3 = 1! 5 24 = 5
Step 3: Change the improper faction into a mixed number:

24 4 =4 5 5 1 2 3 5

Example 9: Work out 2 !1

Example 10: Work out !

1 6 5 ! 3 15 7

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS]

4.5 Fraction of a quantity Example 1: Find


3 of 25 cm. 5 3 by 25cm. 5

To work out this problem we need to multiply

To find a fraction of an amount, multiply by the numerator and divide by the denominator:
3 3 ! 25 ! 25 = 5 5
5

3 ! 25 = 5
1

= 15 cm
Answer: 15 cm

3! 5 = 1

Example 2: Find

of 63 g.

Answer

Example 3: Find

of !30

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS]

Example 4: Find 2" of 66

4.6 Dividing fractions


4 3 5 Step 1: Find the reciprocal of the divisor.

Example 1: Work out

The reciprocal of 3 is

1 3

Step 2: Multiply the dividend by the reciprocal 4 1 ! 5 3 4 !1 = 5! 3 4 = 15 4 Answer: 15

5 3 6 4 Step 1: Find the reciprocal of the divisor. 3 4 The reciprocal of is 4 3 Step 2: Multiply the dividend by the reciprocal 5 4 ! 6 3

Example 2: Work out

5! 4 = 6! 3
3

5! 2 3! 3 10 = 9

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS] Answer:

10 1 =1 9 9 5 15 8 32

Example 3: Work out

Division of Mixed numbers

Example 4: Work out 2 2

4 5

1 10

Step 1: Convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions. 4 14 2 = 5 5 1 21 2 = 10 10 4 1 14 21 Thus, 2 2 = 5 10 5 10 Step 2: Find the reciprocal of the divisor The reciprocal of

21 10 is 10 21

Step 3: Multiply the dividend by the reciprocal

14 10 ! 5 21

14! 10 = 5! 21
1 3

2! 2 = 1! 3 4 = 3
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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS] Answer:

4 1 =1 3 3 5 6 1 9

Example 5: Work out 5 1

Example 6: Work out

2 1 1 !4 7 9 3 5

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS]

4.7 Changing from fraction to decimal


All fractions can be changed back into a decimal

Method 1: Using equivalent fractions


Step 1: Check the denominator Step 2: Create an equivalent fraction with denominators 10, 100, 1000 etc. Step 3: Convert into a decimal

Example1: Convert
1) 2)

2 into a decimal 5

Denominator is 5 Equivalent fraction

2 4 = 5 10
3) Convert into a decimal 0.4

Example 2: Convert the following fractions into decimals


4 5

(i)

(ii)

7 20

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS]

(iii)

3 25

(iv)

8 50

Method 2: Short division


It is not always possible to create an equivalent fraction with denominators being multiples of 10. When this is not possible we can either use the calculator or perform a short division.

Example 1: Use short division to change these fractions to decimals.


3 8

(i)

(ii)

1 4

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Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS]

(iii)

1 6

4.8 Changing from decimal to fraction


A terminating decimal is a decimal which ends. E.g. 0.26, 0.628 are terminating decimals All terminating decimals can be converted into fractions. Step 1: Observe the decimal Step 2: Find the place value of the digit further to the right Step 3: The place value of the last digit shows the number over which we have to express the fraction Step 4: Simplify the resulting fraction

Example 1: Convert 0.24 into a fraction


1) 2) Observe the decimal 0.24 Finding the place value The place value of 4 is a hundredth( 3) Expressing the fraction

1 ) 100

0.24 =
4)

24 100 24 12 6 = = 100 50 25
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Simplify

0.24 =

Form 2 [CHAPTER 4: FRACTION AND DECIMALS]

Example 2: Convert 2.5 into a fraction


5 1 =2 10 2

2.5 = 2

Example 3: Convert the following decimals into fraction (i) 5.45

(ii)

0.67

(iii)

56.42

(iv)

0.0003

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