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The future of the textile processing geotextile structures and Robotics sided stitching

Vojisalv Gligorijevi1, Jovan Stepanovi1, Vasilije Petrovi2, Nenad irkovi1 University of Nis Faculty of Technology, Leskovac Technical Faculty "Mihajlo Pupin" in Zrenjanin Apstract
Richness of textile structure is available for a wide range of geotechnical applications. Understanding the dynamic interaction between the textile structure and the geotechnical environment is essential in the design and selection of textile materials for geotextile applications. Fundamentals multiaxial knitted structure and tensile structure (cross-woven) are presented as examples of this understanding while showing their potential as multifunctional structural Fleece. This paper presents an overview of a new way of accessing geotextile of unilateral robotic quilting technology and testing the implications of new technologies for the next generation of nanofiber geotextiles. Geometric features and performance yarn for knitted fabric and fiber-to-woven structures in the form of performance maps are shown in Figures 2-5. These performance maps show that geometric parameters play an important role in the structural and physical properties of materials. The fiber fineness geometrijaski is a key factor. Keywords: knitting, textile structures, geotextile, nanofiber, multiaxial, geosynthetic.

Introduction
Geotextile is a non-woven textile that technology is making getting runes from high quality synthetic fiber polyester (PES) and polypropylene (PP) and mechanically fastened, stitching ie creating loops or fiber in solid mixing creation similar to felt. In 1982, the first time they researched new "multiaxial Basics knitted textile structures" - small twists, which illustrate the hybrid concept for more multifunctional geotextiles. Geotextiles can be the next material composition: - 100% polypropylene fibers, PP 150 to 1200 g/m; - 100% polyester fiber PES 150-1200 g/m. Name of Professor Robert Koerner is synonymous with geotextiles and geosynthetics. His name has been associated with pioneering developments in the 1970s, stimulated by his tireless offering a range of courses in the geotextile in Philadelphia, the club engineers the U.S. and the world. At Drexel, he played a leading role in encouraging the formation of perfect different centers in 1986, which officially began a steady rise in the geotextile Research Institute (GRI) in the leading R & D center for geosynthetics. Structural composites, stimulate usage multi axial basics of knitted fabrics for airplane wings and tensile structure (cross-woven) for stiffening. Many TSCs like plaited composites have also found their way back to the application in geotechnical reinforcement of concrete (concrete) and a reinforcing core columns.

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For geotextiles can say that is a subset of industrial textiles or technical textiles. According to the late Kaswell [2], industrial textiles can be categorized according to the form and manner of textile structures that are used for. Composite Industrial Textiles-prepared textile coating (coating), impregnating, laminating or other processes usually are not undertaken in the textile industry. Examples of products in this category include the reinforcement of rubber, reinforced plastics, metals, ceramics, and organic matrix, abrasive materials, asphalt, impregnation, etc. Processing Industrial textiles - textile structures are used as components in the production process. Examples include filtration fabrics such as paper, felt (felt), polishing cloth, apron washing machines, etc. Direct benefits of industrial textiles - textile structures that are manufactured or built directly into finished products such as awnings, marine equipment, outer furniture, sporting goods, cotton bags, linings for shoes, etc. Geotextiles are the first and third categories. For many years, the textile industry has been known as a 'mechanical fabric' as described by Haven in 1932 his thesis focusing on rubber fabrics, balloon fabrics and woven fabrics of cotton sash cord as the primary material [3]. Many industrial textiles are traditionally produced by members of the Association of cloth products (CPA) in the U.S. in diversification (a revision) of the fiber material and the extension requested by canopy on geotechnical and other industrial applications, as well as the trend of globalization of markets in 1970, led to the reorganization of the CPC in the industrial association fibers International (IFAI), who played an important role in promoting geotextiles. This transition is accentuated by the introduction of the list of industrial textiles in 1982 [4]. Industrial Fiber manufacturers like Owens Corning Fiberglas, DuPont, Celanese, Allied and Union Carbide and Dow Corning have played an important role in facilitating the development of materials and processing technologies that support industrial growth in the textile market. There are a large family of textile structures available for geotextiles. Figure 1 shows examples of these structures. In the past two decades, in addition to traditional fabric, diversification (diversification) in different forms, there has been a switch to a special non-woven fabric material. A special type of textile structures that have been discovered and suffered a great development for advanced composites and many other industrial applications is the 3-D the rhythm [5].

Figure 1. Textile structure for geotechnical applications 2

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Knitted performance characteristics


Knitted performance characteristics are the result of interactions between fibers (material properties), yarn and fabric geometry and finish. Textile fabrics shaped structure (product yarn-to-fabric, such as woven and knitted fabric or fiber-to-fabric processes such as nonwoven fabrics) can be described in terms of geometry and performance characteristics. Performance maps provide insight into the range of behaviors of different twists depending on four geometric parameters and four performance fabrics.

The geometrical parameters of knitted structures


The geometrical parameter knitted structures include: 1) Porosity: the amount of open space per unit volume of twists. As fiber diameter and yarn diameter increases, the structure tends to be porous. Porosity of the twists is inversely proportional to the comprehensiveness or surface covering factor twists. Porous fabrics tend to be lighter and more permeable. 2) Surface Texture: Surface geometry is characterized by smooth fabric surface, which in turn is regulated by fiber and yarn diameter. Modularity fiber or yarn length geometric repeating unit twists. 3) Puffiness: a reflection on the extensiveness of the knitting for a particular surface density (mass per unit area). Knitting tends to be more voluminous if the diameter of the fiber/yarn greater freedom and mobility of fibers in the geometric repeating unit is great. Puffiness is directly associated with the density of fibers in this voluminous material tends to be thicker. 4) Thickness twists: just as large in volume, thickness twists concerning the diameter of the fibers and yarns. The larger the diameter of the fiber and yarn, thicker and bulky knitting.

Executive parameters of knitted fabric


The executive parameter knitted structures include: 1) Throughput: simple passage of air or fluid through knitting. Throughput twists is higher when the high porosity fabric. Porosity and fiber volume fraction (1-porosity) related to the efficiency of the package, which is under the influence of fiber diameter and fiber geometry of the intersection. Permeability is a strong function of fiber or yarn diameter for a given fiber architecture (fiber orientation). 2) Compressibility: the ability of materials to resist transverse (through the thickness) compression. Voluminous material tends to be more compresses. On the other hand, the compressibility decreases stiffness fibers and yarns, which significantly increases fiber diameter. When the diameter of the fiber increases, the bending stiffness and axial compression stiffness of fibers increases geometrically. 3) Extensibility of twists: A measure of the ability of twists to stretch the line. Resilience twists affect the geometry of the twists and inextricably bending the fiber elongation. Yarn which is composed of finer fibers tends to have a greater potential to expand the fabric. 4) Toughness twists: A measure of life twists. As can be seen in the areas under the stress-strain curves of some twists, twists high strength with high elongation typically give high toughness Meshes that have high compatibility and extensibility are usually stronger and thicker.

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Figure 2. Geometrical properties of yarns for knitted structures

Figure 3. Performance (final) yarn for knitted structures

Figure 4. Geometrical properties of fiber knitted structures (woven textiles)

Figure 5. The performance characteristics of fiber knitted structures (woven textiles)

Robotic quilting system


Joining of geotextiles in the area is well-established practice of using traditional sewing machines. New single sewing (quilting) technology is now available in Germany. Altin system, shown in Figure 6, is composed of many systems of industrial robot arms, head sewing and programmed control module. In contrast to traditional sewing machines, which require access to the knitting and the top and bottom (which thus limits the size and shape of the fabric that will be sewn), quilting formation using robotic sided quilting (RJP) technology can only be realized on top of the shield . Different geometries loops (including chain loop (fringes), the loop is always used (brick knitted loops) and elongated traps with loops) can be used. Figure 6. Unilateral robotic quilting system Figure 7 shows the formation of chains with two pins that come from the same (top) side twists. Ross is recognized as important emerging technologies of advanced composite deformation and protect the textile industry, due to programming robotic arm and one-sided approach knitting, ROSS can join in a highly complex structures over large areas. It may also provide a means to put themselves locally through-thickness reinforcement for composite

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structures. Keeping in mind the unique capabilities of one sided stitching, Boeing has purchased a similar ROSS unit for its program of composite wing manufacturing program (wherein boned trimmed with leather wing structure for the production of 737 wings). ROSS at Drexel is one of only two systems in the U.S. u Considering diversity of sewing head, it is quite conceivable that a field robot can be equipped with the OSS unit to perform automatic sewing fields.

Types of stitches: one sewing-simple necklace point Two tools for sewing and needle catcher Sewing Technology "on one side with the sewing block on the upper surface of the workpiece Angular adjustment from sewing tools, 450

The requirement for the formation of points needed within the workpiece

Transient movement of the stylus with the common mixing of below the workpiece.

Figure 7. The formation of fringe (resa) the OSS unit

Nanofiber technology for future generations of textile


When looking at future generations of geotextiles, examining the role of nanotechnology in the functional improvement of geotextiles is fine. Decreasing diameter of the fiber to the nanoscale, it is possible a huge increase in the specific surface area at the level of 1000 m2/g This reduction in size and increase the surface area to a great extent influence the chemical and / biological reactivity and electrical activity of the polymer fibers. Due to the extreme fineness of fibers (as shown qualitatively in figures 8a 8b) there is a general effect on the geometric, and thus the success traits twists. There is explosive growth in worldwide research efforts recognizing the potential nanoeffect that will be created when the fibers are reduced to the nanoscale. Briefly, nanofiber technology is the synthesis, processing, manufacturing and application of fiber nano degress. By definition, nanofibers are fibers with a diameter equal to or less than 100 nm. Due to demand and manufacturing capacity constraints, some industries tend to consider all submicron diameter fibers to be "nanofibers".

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The rapid growth of nanofiber technology in the last few years can be attributed to the re-discovery of electrostatic spinning (or electrospinning) technology initially (originally) developed 1930 years This technique is used to produce high-performance filters, portable electronics and scaffolds for tissue engineering to use a high surface area of a single fiber. Schematic drawing of the process of spinning electro shown in Figure 8a, where the high electric field is created in a polymer fluid contained in a glass syringe with a capillary tip and metal collecting screen. When the voltage reaches a critical value, the electric field overcomes the surface tension of the deformed drop of polymer solution formed conditionally on top of a syringe and ultra-fine fibers are produced. Electrically charged stream passes through a series of electric-induction bending unstable during its passage collected on the screen as a result of the hyperExtend jet. This stretching process is accompanied by rapid evaporation of solvent molecules, which reduces the diameter of the jet cone radius. Dry fibers accumulate on the surface of an aggregate (collection) screens, resulting in non-woven twists of nanometers to microns diameter fibers. The process can be adjusted to control the fiber diameter variation of a strong electric field and the concentration of the polymer solution, and the duration of the electrical control of spinning fiber deposition thickness. Nanofibers in the yarn linear or planar nonwoven mat form can be produced by appropriate control electrodes. Huge specific surface area of these assemblies nanofibers can make them outstanding in relation to the collection and routing of greenhouse covering landfill gas in the system. Controlling the porosity and the appropriate choice of polymer systems, barrier membranes can be produced selectively failure characteristics similar to those used in Hem / Bio-protective barriers.

Figure 8a. Schematic drawing electro spun processes

Figure 8b. Electro spun nanofiber membrane

Summary and conclusions


The pioneering efforts of Professor Koerner in the new field of geotextiles has established a solid base of knowledge for engineering design and creative use of textiles for geotechnical applications. This has led to enormous economic growth for chemicals, fiber and complex geotechnical industries worldwide. And if there is a large family of textile structures available for geotechnical applications, a basic understanding of the dynamic interaction between the textile structure and the geotechnical environment is essential for the proper design and selection of geotextiles for a specific application. Basis for evaluation of various fiber architectures for geotextiles are the geometrical characteristics and performance of different textile structures are shown in terms of performance charts. Specific examples of textile technologies suitable for linear and planar multiaxial reinforcement are shown together with the introduction of new robotic technology sewing basics. The paper concludes with a geotextile between nanofibers generation technologies that can play a useful role in strengthening nanocomposites, hydraulic, geographic living areas of mining and energy applications.

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[1]. Koerner, R.M., and Ko, F.K., Laboratory Studies of Long Term Drainage Capability of Geotextiles, Proceedings, Part I. Second International Congress on Geotextiles, Las Vegas, August, 1982 [2]. Kaswell, E. R, Handbook of Industrial Textile, New York, West Point Pepperell, 1963 [3]. George B. Haven., Mechanical Fabrics, John Wiley & Sons, 1932 [4]. Journal of Industrial Fabrics, Vol.1, Number 1,Summer 1982, IFAI [5]. Chou, T.W. and Ko, F.K., Textile Structural Composites, Elsevier, 1989 [6]. Koerner, R.M. and Welsh, J.P., Construction and Geotechnical Engineering Using Synthetic Fabrics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1980. [7]. Rankilor, P.R., Membranes in Ground Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1981. [8]. Dierickx, W; The influence of Filter Materials and their Use as Wrapping Around Agricultural Drains, C.R. Coll. Int. Sols Textiles, Paris, 1977, Vol.2,pp.225-229. [9]. Hoffman,G.L. and Malasheskie, G., Laboratory Evaluation of Materials and Design Characteristics of PennDOT Underdrain System, Transportation Res. Rec. 675, Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC, 1978, pp.32-43 [10]. Koerner, R.M., Gugliemetti, J.L. and Rosenfarb, J.L., On the Permeability Testing of Fabrics and Fabric/Soil Systems, Proc. 8th Tech. Symp. on Nonwovens Innovative Fabrics for the Future, INDA, Kissimmee, Florida, March 19-21, 1980, pp.143-154 [11]. Ko, F. K., Bruner, J., Pastore, A. & Scardino, F. 1980, Development of Multi-Bar Weft Insertion Warp Knit Fabric for Industrial Applications, ASME Paper No. 90- TEXT-7, October. [12]. Ko, F. K., Krauland, K. & Scardino, F. 1982, Weft Insertion Warp Knit for Hybrid Composites, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Composites. [13]. Ko, F. K., Fang, P. & Pastore, C. 1985, Multilayer Multidirectional Warp Knit Fabrics for Industrial Applications, J. Industrial Fabrics, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1985. [14]. Ko, F.K., Pastore, C.M., Yang, J.M. & Chou, T.W. 1986. Structure and Properties of Multidirectional Warp Knit Fabric Reinforced Composites, in Composites '86: Recent Advances in Japan and the United States, Kawata, K., Umekawa, s. and Kobayashi, A., eds. Proceedings, Japan [15]. Ko, F.K. & Kutz, J. 1988b. Multiaxial Warp Knit for Advanced Composites, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference on Advanced Composites, ASM International, pp.377-384 [16]. Du, G.W. & Ko, F.K. 1992. Analysis of Multiaxial Warp Knitted Preforms for Composite Reinforcement, Proceedings of Textile Composites in Building Construction Second International Symposium, Lyon, France, June 23-25. [17]. Ko, F. K. 1988a. Braiding, Engineering Materials Handbook, Vol. 1, Composites, Reinhart, T.J. Editor, ASM International, Metal Park, OH, pp.519-528.and Braiding in Vol.21.ASM Handbook, Composites,2001,pp 69-77 [18]. Ko, F.K., Pastore, C.M. and Head, A.A., Atkins and Pearce Handbook of Industrial Braiding, Drexel University, 1989 [19]. Somboosong, W., development of Ductile Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (DHFRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, 1977, PhD Thesis, Drexel University.

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