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Cause & Effect Diagram

The output or result of a process can be attributed to a multitude of factors, and a cause-and-effect relation can be found among those factors. We can determine the structure or a multiple cause-andeffect relation by observing it systematically. It is difficult to solve complicated problems without considering this structure, which consists of a chain of causes and effects, and a Cause-and-effect diagram is method of expressing it simply and easily. Kauro Ishikawa introduced the Cause and Effect (CE) diagram in Kawasaki Iron Works in 1943. Though it also known as Ishikawa Diagram and Fishbone diagram, the term Cause and Effect is self explanatory. A simple cause-effect diagram is shown below. The phenomenon to be explained is Lo st control of car. Some of the possible major factors contributing to that lost control are a flat tyre, a slippery road, mechanical failure, and driver error. Each of these major categories of causes may, in turn, have multiple causes. A flat tyre may come from a nail, a roack, glass, or a blow-out from material failure. The causal relationship can be traced back still more step in the causal chain if necessary or appropriate. Lost control may arise from a mechanical failure; that failure may be a brake failure, which, in turn, may come either from fluid loss or from worn pads. You can probably think of other factors to add to this diagram.

POSSIBLE CAUSES OF LOST CONTROL OF CAR


FLAT TYRE SLIPPERY ROAD

ROCK NAIL GLASS RAIN BLOW OUT OIL

ICE

SNOW

BROKEN TIE ROAD WORN PAD STUCK ACCELERATOR RECKLESS FLUID LOSS MECHANICAL FAILURE

POOR TRAINING CHEMICALLY IMPAIRED

LOST CONTOR L OF CAR

BRAKE FAILURE

POOR REFLEXES SLEEPY

DRIVER ERROR

As we can see from figure, this tool has three prominent basic features: It is a visual representation of the factors that might contribute to an observed phenomenon that is being examined.

The interrelationships among the possible causal factors are clearly shown. One causal factor may appear at several places in the diagram. For example, if temperature affects both moisture content and physical dimensions, then temperature would appear in both places. The interrelationships are generally qualitative and hypothetical. A CE diagram is usually prepared as a prelude to developing the data needed to establish causation empirically. The most important consideration in the construction of Diagram is clear understanding of the CauseEffect relationship. All possible sources of causation need to be considered. 1. Objects Machines and Material. 2. Conditions - Motivations, temperature.. 3. Timed sequence in the process - time of the day, sequence in production 4. Place production line, distributor, branch office. These are what, why, when and where (4 W) of cause and effect. How to construct Cause-and-Effect diagram 1. Define clearly the effect or symptom for which the causes must be identified. 1. Place the effect or symptoms being explained at the right, enclosed in a box. 2. Draw the central spine as a thick line pointing to it. 3. Use brainstorming or rational step-by step approach to identify the possible causes. 4. Each of the major area of causes (not less than 2 and normally not more than 6) should be placed in a box and connected with the central spine by a line at an angle of about 70 degree) 5. Add causes for each main area. 6. Add subsidiary causes for each cause already entered. 7. Continue adding possible causes to diagram until each branch reaches a root cause. 8. Check the logical validity of each causal chain. 9. Check for Completeness. Three types of C& E Diagram 1. Dispersion Analysis Type : The Dispersion Analysis Type of CE diagram is constructed by repeatedly asking the question, why does this dispersion (or scatter) occur? Its strong point is that it helps organize and relate factors that cause variability is products and other process outcomes. Its weak points are that the form of resulting diagram is dependent on the views of the people making it and that small causes may not get isolated or observed. 2. Cause enumeration type: The cause enumeration type of CE diagram is generated by listing all possible causes and organizing the causes to show their relationships to the aspect of product or process quality that is being examined (Ishikawa 1986). This type of CE diagram can also be produced in brainstorming sessions where principal categories such as manpower, materials (inputs), methods, and machinery (tools) are used to prompt probing questions that uncover possible causes. The completed diagram may end up looking much like one produced by the dispersion analysis process, but it may not. The thought process used to generate cause enumeration type diagram are (and should be) more free-from and less constrained than for dispersion analysis type CE diagram. The strength of the Cause enumeration type is that enumerating large numbers of likely causes reduces the probability of overlooking a major problem area. When done well, this tends to give a more complete picture in comparison to Dispersion Analysis Type. The weakness is that it may be hard to relate the twigs of the tree to the end result, which can make the diagram difficult to draw and interpret.

Typist
Understanding of Material Experience Preliminary Checks Eyesight Physical Fatigue Physical Condition

Typewriter
Servicing Maintenance Repairs Height

Person Requesting Typing

Checking of Memo Dictation Pronunciation Format

Physical Condition Distance from Speed Typists Body Technique Rhythm Pauses Type of Pen Thickness Of nib Writing Materials Type of ink Quality Style Paper Size Colour Instructions Layout

Typing Errors (mistyping)


Other Jobs Interruptions Location of Equipment

Size Fitting Material Location Lighting Brightness Colours

Omissions Handwriting Errors

Attending to Visitors Conversation Noise

Answering Telephone

Ringing of Telephone

Manuscript

Working Environment

MACHINE EXHAUST ANGLE ALLOY MAINTENANCE AIR SUPPLY CONTAMINATION AIR SUPPLY CONTAMINATION CONVEYOR SPEED CONTAMINATION

SOLDER UNEVEN WAVE

FLUX SPECIFIC GRAVITY

WAVE HEIGHT WAVE DYNAMIC CONTACT TIME INCOMING SOLDER CONTAMINATION LOW HIGH SPEED WEIGHT TEMPERATURE ORIENTATION DROSS

AMOUNT STORAGE ACTIVITY

FLUDITY TEMPERATURE DROSS CONTROLLER CONTAMINATED LEADS STORAGE GEOMETRY PLACEMENT

INTERPRETATION

WRAPPED OUTGASSING PAD GEOMETRY TIME TAR MASKING STORE MASK TYPE PRE HEAT TEMPERATURE

VALIDITY

LENGTH SOLDERABILITY MOVEMENT

METALLURGY OF LEADS FLUDITY

SPECIFICATION

COMPONENTS

PRINTED WIRE CARD

Possible Causes of Solder Defects


3. Production process classification type Production process classification type of CE diagram is constructed by stepping mentally through the production process. This may be done in one of the two ways : (1) by making the steps in the process the major ribs of a fishbone diagram or (2) by superimposing boxes on the backbone so that each box

SOLDER DEFECTS

is a step in the production process. When the process steps are displayed along the backbone as illustrated in example given below., the causes are depicted on lines (ribs) that feed into either a box or one of the backbone segments that connects sequential boxes. The strength of this type of diagram is that it is easy to assemble and understand. The weaknesses are that similar causes often appear in more than one place and that problems resulting from combinations of more than one factor are difficult to illustrate.

PISTON & PISTON RINGS REJECTION

PISTON SUPPLY

PISTON SUB ASSEMBLY

CRANK SHAFT SUB ASSEMBLY

ASSEMBLY WITH ENGINE (STAGE NO. 11 )

PRODUCTION PROCESS CLASSIFICATION TYPE

PISTON UN PACKING
SIZE

OPERATOR
AWRAENESS UNSUFFICIENT

WORK LOAD
HIGH PRODUCTION NO INSPECTION
EXPERIENCE

BIN
DESIGN SPACE

EDUCATION
ILLITRATE BEHAVIOUR

OVERCONFIDENCE
SKILL

NEGLIGENCY
LACK OF MOTIVATION

WORKING TABLE
DESIGN

PISTON SUPPLY
TROLLY DESIGN

STRIKING BIN FLAT SURFACE

TRANSPORTATION
OVERLOADING

DAMAGE
NO GAP BETWEEN PISTONS BINNING AFTER UNPACKING

SUPPLY TO SUB ASSEMBLY

ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE
DAMAGE

PISTON RING
MORE

PIN GROOVE

RING EXPANDOR
BROKEN

LOCK FITMENT
TOOL DAMAGE

HARDNESS
LESS SIZE VARIATION

BEND

MORE

FALLING ON FLOOR
DESIGN

THICKNESS
LESS

MISMATCHING
~`T MARK POSITION

WORKING TABLE

IDENTIFICATION MARK

PISTON SUB ASSEMBLY


OVER INSPECTION

SIZE
UNDER OVERLOADING
VENDOR

WORK IN HURRY

WORN OUT
HIGH PRODUCTION

OVERLOADING MISHANDLING
HIGH MOVEMENT

DOUBLE STORY

STRIKING

BINNING

HANDLING

Whatever method you use for producing CE diagram, be on the lookout for the diagrams with many major ribs and few twigs. This almost always indicates either that the understanding of the process was shallow or that the diagram is too generalized. Use care also when a diagram lists only five or six causes. This kind of diagram is usually inadequately penetrating , even though its form may be correct