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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY COURSE NO: EEE 232 EXPT.

NO.- 04
NAME OF THE EXPT.: DETERMINATION OF TRANSFORMER POLARITY.

OBJECTIVES
To determine the polarity of transformer windings. To learn how to connect transformer windings in series aiding. To learn how to connect transformer in series opposing.

INTRODUCTION
When the primary of a transformer is energized by an ac source, an alternating magnetic flux is established in the transformer core. The alternating flux links the turns of each of the windings on the transformer, thereby inducing ac voltages in them. By definition, an ac voltage is continually changing its magnitude and its polarity, therefore, the voltage across the primary winding keeps changing the polarity of one terminal with respect to the other. So both terminals can never have the same polarity. ne terminal must always be positive of negative with respect to other. Similarly the alternating magnetic flux induces voltage in the secondary winding causing an ac voltage to be produced across its terminal and the terminals of the secondary winding also change polarity with respect to each other. When we speak of !the polarity" of transformer windings, we are identifying all of the terminals that are the same polarity at any instant of time. #olarity marks are employed to identify these terminals. When batteries are connected in series, to obtain a higher output voltage, the positive terminal of one battery must be connected to the negative terminal of the other battery. $onnected in this manner, their individual voltages will add. Similarly, if transformer windings are to be connected in series, so that their individual voltages add, the !polarity mark" terminal of one winding must connect to the !unmarked" terminal of the other winding.

APPARATUS:
%&' %+' %.' %3' %*' %)' %5' (esistance %)* , +.,-' Single phase transformer /$ voltmeter %01+*0 2' -$ voltmeter %01.00 2' #ower supply $onnection 4ead S#ST switch

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

V
+ S1

110V DC
-

DC Voltmeter

V
7 7

DC Voltmeter

220 V AC

V
7
6ig. +

AC Voltmeter

Resistor=65 Ohm

6ig. &

PROCEDURE:
&. -. $onnect the single1phase transformer, resistor, S#ST switch and /$ voltmeter as shown in 6ig. &. B. 7eep the switch open and turn on the supply. $. 8ow, momentarily close the switch and open it again. By this time carefully observe the deflection of the voltmeter pointer. 9f the voltmeter pointer momentarily deflects to the right, the terminals &# and &S have the same polarity mark. /. Turn the supply 66. +. -. $onnect the ckt. as shown in 6ig. +. B. Turn 8 the supply. :easure and record the voltage across the following terminals; 2&# to 5# < 1111111111 2 ac 2&S to 5S < 1111111111 2 ac 2&# to &S < 1111111111 2 ac $. 9f the voltage 2&# to 5S is approximately zero then &# and &S have the same polarity mark. /. Turn 66 the supply. 8ow remove the connection between 5# and 5S. $onnect the terminals &# and 5S. =. Turn 8 the supply. :easure and record the voltage across the following terminals; 2&# to 5# < 11111111111 2 ac 2&S to 5S < 111111111111 2 ac 25# to &S < 111111111111 2 ac 6. 9f the voltage 25# to &S is approximately zero then 5# and &S have the same polarity mark. >. Turn the power 66.

REPORT:
&. Which two terminals are positive in windings &# to 5# and &S to 5S?

UESTIONS:
&. 9n the second method, explain why the voltage with the two windings in series is approximately zero in one case and nearly 330 2 in other case. +. What are the advantages of knowing the polarity of a transformer? .. -ssume that you have a three winding transformer and a +30 2 ac power source. The transformer windings are rated as below. Show how you would connect the windings to obtain the following voltages; i' 3,0 2, ii' .5, 2, iii' &0& 2 and iv' )3 2
240 V ac 416 V ac 240 V ac