Sei sulla pagina 1di 87

1

C programming examples
Hello world Print Integer Addition Odd or Even Add, subtract, multiply and divide Check vowel Leap year Add digits Factorial HCF and LCM Decimal to binary conversion ncR and nPr Add n numbers Swapping Reverse number Palindrome number Print Pattern Diamond Prime numbers Find armstrong number Generate armstrong number Fibonacci series Print floyd's triangle Print pascal triangle Addition using pointers Maximum element in array Minimum element in array Linear search Binary search Reverse array Insert element in array Delete element from array Merge arrays Bubble sort Insertion sort Selection sort Add matrices Subtract matrices Transpose matrix Multiply two matrices Print string String length Compare strings Copy string Concatenate strings Reverse string Find palindrome Delete vowels C substring Sort a string Remove spaces Change case Swap strings Character's frequency Anagrams Read file Copy files Merge two files List files in a directory Delete file Random numbers Add complex numbers Print date Get IP address Shutdown computer

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d", &a); printf("Integer that you have entered is %d\n", a); return 0; }

Output of program:

C programming code
#include<stdio.h> int main() { int a, b, c; printf("Enter two numbers to add\n"); scanf("%d%d",&a,&b); c = a + b; printf("Sum of entered numbers = %d\n",c);

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

3
return 0; }

Download Add numbers program executable. Output of program:

c program to check odd or even


c program to check odd or even: We will determine whether a number is odd or even by using different methods all are provided with a code in c language. As you have study in mathematics that in decimal number system even numbers are divisible by 2 while odd are not so we may use modulus operator(%) which returns remainder, For example 4%3 gives 1 ( remainder when four is divided by three). Even numbers are of the form 2*p and odd are of the form (2*p+1) where p is is an integer.

C program to check odd or even using modulus operator


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d",&n); if ( n%2 == 0 )

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

4
printf("Even\n"); else printf("Odd\n"); return 0; }

We can use bitwise AND (&) operator to check odd or even, as an example consider binary of 7 (0111) when we perform 7 & 1 the result will be one and you may observe that the least significant bit of every odd number is 1, so ( odd_number & 1 ) will be one always and also ( even_number & 1 ) is zero.

C program to check odd or even using bitwise operator


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d",&n); if ( n & 1 == 1 ) printf("Odd\n"); else printf("Even\n"); return 0; }

Find odd or even using conditional operator


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n; printf("Input an integer\n"); scanf("%d",&n); n%2 == 0 ? printf("Even\n") : printf("Odd\n"); return 0; }

C program to check odd or even without using bitwise or modulus operator


C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

5
#include<stdio.h> main() { int n; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d",&n); if ( (n/2)*2 == n ) printf("Even\n"); else printf("Odd\n"); return 0; }

In c programming language when we divide two integers we get an integer result, For example the result of 7/3 will be 2.So we can take advantage of this and may use it to find whether the number is odd or even. Consider an integer n we can first divide by 2 and then multiply it by 2 if the result is the original number then the number is even otherwise the number is odd. For example 11/2 = 5, 5*2 = 10 ( which is not equal to eleven), now consider 12/2 = 6 and 6 *2 = 12 ( same as original number). These are some logic which may help you in finding if a number is odd or not.

C program to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division


C program to perform basic arithmetic operations which are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of two numbers. Numbers are assumed to be integers and will be entered by the user.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int first, second, add, subtract, multiply; float divide; printf("Enter two integers\n"); scanf("%d%d", &first, &second); add = first subtract = first multiply = first * divide = first + second; second; second; / (float)second;

//typecasting

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

printf("Sum = %d\n",add); printf("Difference = %d\n",subtract); printf("Multiplication = %d\n",multiply); printf("Division = %.2f\n",divide); return 0; }

Download Arithmetic operations program. Output of program:

In c language when we divide two integers we get integer result for example 5/2 evaluates to 2. As a general rule integer/integer = integer and float/integer = float or integer/float = float. So we convert denominator to float in our program, you may also write float in numerator. This explicit conversion is known as typecasting.

C program to check leap year


C program to check leap year: c code to check leap year, year will be entered by the user.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int year; printf("Enter a year to check if it is a leap year\n"); scanf("%d", &year); if ( year%400 == 0)

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

7
printf("%d is a leap year.\n", year); else if ( year%100 == 0) printf("%d is not a leap year.\n", year); else if ( year%4 == 0 ) printf("%d is a leap year.\n", year); else printf("%d is not a leap year.\n", year); return 0; }

Download Leap year program. Output of program:

Please read the leap year article at Wikipedia, it will help you to understand the program. This code is based on Gregorian Calendar.

Factorial program in c
Factorial program in c: c code to find and print factorial of a number, three methods are given, first one uses for loop, second uses a function to find factorial and third using recursion. Factorial is represented using '!', so five factorial will be written as (5!), n factorial as (n!). Also n! = n*(n-1)*(n-2)*(n-3)...3.2.1 and zero factorial is defined as one i.e. 0! = 1.

Factorial program in c using for loop


Here we find factorial using for loop.
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int c, n, fact = 1; printf("Enter a number to calculate it's factorial\n"); scanf("%d", &n);

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

for (c = 1; c <= n; c++) fact = fact * c; printf("Factorial of %d = %d\n", n, fact); return 0; }

Download Factorial program. Output of code:

Factorial program in c using function


#include <stdio.h> long factorial(int); int main() { int number; long fact = 1; printf("Enter a number to calculate it's factorial\n"); scanf("%d", &number); printf("%d! = %ld\n", number, factorial(number)); return 0; } long factorial(int n) { int c; long result = 1; for (c = 1; c <= n; c++) result = result * c; return result; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

Factorial program in c using recursion


#include<stdio.h> long factorial(int); int main() { int n; long f; printf("Enter an integer to find factorial\n"); scanf("%d", &n); if (n < 0) printf("Negative integers are not allowed.\n"); else { f = factorial(n); printf("%d! = %ld\n", n, f); } return 0; } long factorial(int n) { if (n == 0) return 1; else return(n * factorial(n-1)); }

Recursion is a technique in which a function calls itself, for example in above code factorial function is calling itself. To solve a problem using recursion you must first express its solution in recursive form.

C program to find hcf and lcm


C program to find hcf and lcm: The code below finds highest common factor and least common multiple of two integers. HCF is also known as greatest common divisor(GCD) or greatest common factor(gcf).

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a, b, x, y, t, gcd, lcm;

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

10

printf("Enter two integers\n"); scanf("%d%d", &x, &y); a = x; b = y; while t = b = a = } (b != 0) { b; a % b; t;

gcd = a; lcm = (x*y)/gcd; printf("Greatest common divisor of %d and %d = %d\n", x, y, gcd); printf("Least common multiple of %d and %d = %d\n", x, y, lcm); return 0; }

Download HCF and LCM program. Output of program:

C program to find hcf and lcm using recursion


#include <stdio.h> long gcd(long, long); int main() { long x, y, hcf, lcm; printf("Enter two integers\n"); scanf("%ld%ld", &x, &y); hcf = gcd(x, y); lcm = (x*y)/hcf; printf("Greatest common divisor of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, hcf); printf("Least common multiple of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, lcm);

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

11

return 0; } long gcd(long a, long b) { if (b == 0) { return a; } else { return gcd(b, a % b); } }

C program to find hcf and lcm using function


#include <stdio.h> long gcd(long, long); int main() { long x, y, hcf, lcm; printf("Enter two integers\n"); scanf("%ld%ld", &x, &y); hcf = gcd(x, y); lcm = (x*y)/hcf; printf("Greatest common divisor of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, hcf); printf("Least common multiple of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, lcm); return 0; } long gcd(long x, long y) { if (x == 0) { return y; } while (y != 0) { if (x > y) { x = x - y; } else { y = y - x; } } return x; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

12

Decimal to binary conversion


C program to convert decimal to binary: c language code to convert an integer from decimal number system(base-10) to binary number system(base-2). Size of integer is assumed to be 32 bits. We use bitwise operators to perform the desired task. We right shift the original number by 31, 30, 29, ..., 1, 0 bits using a loop and bitwise AND the number obtained with 1(one), if the result is 1 then that bit is 1 otherwise it is 0(zero).

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, c, k; printf("Enter an integer in decimal number system\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("%d in binary number system is:\n", n); for (c = 31; c >= 0; c--) { k = n >> c; if (k & 1) printf("1"); else printf("0"); } printf("\n"); return 0; }

Download Decimal binary program. Output of program:

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

13

Above code only prints binary of integer, but we may wish to perform operations on binary so in the code below we are storing the binary in a string. We create a function which returns a pointer to string which is the binary of the number passed as argument to the function.

C code to store decimal to binary conversion in a string


#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> char *decimal_to_binary(int); main() { int n, c, k; char *pointer; printf("Enter an integer in decimal number system\n"); scanf("%d",&n); pointer = decimal_to_binary(n); printf("Binary string of %d is: %s\n", n, t); free(pointer); return 0; } char *decimal_to_binary(int n) { int c, d, count; char *pointer; count = 0; pointer = (char*)malloc(32+1); if ( pointer == NULL ) exit(EXIT_FAILURE); for ( c = 31 ; c >= 0 ; c-- ) { d = n >> c; if ( d & 1 ) *(pointer+count) = 1 + '0'; else *(pointer+count) = 0 + '0'; count++; } *(pointer+count) = '\0'; return } pointer;

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

14

Memory is allocated dynamically because we can't return a pointer to a local variable (character array in this case). If we return a pointer to local variable then program may crash or we get incorrect result.

C program to find ncr and npr

C program to find nCr using function


#include<stdio.h> long factorial(int); long find_ncr(int, int); long find_npr(int, int); main() { int n, r; long ncr, npr; printf("Enter the value of n and r\n"); scanf("%d%d",&n,&r); ncr = find_ncr(n, r); npr = find_npr(n, r); printf("%dC%d = %ld\n", n, r, ncr); printf("%dP%d = %ld\n", n, r, npr); return 0; } long find_ncr(int n, int r) { long result; result = factorial(n)/(factorial(r)*factorial(n-r)); return result; } long find_npr(int n, int r) { long result; result = factorial(n)/factorial(n-r); return result; } long factorial(int n) {

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

15
int c; long result = 1; for( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++ ) result = result*c; return ( result ); }

Download NCR and NPR program. Output of program:

C program to add n numbers


This c program add n numbers which will be entered by the user. Firstly user will enter a number indicating how many numbers user wishes to add and then user will enter n numbers. In the first c program to add numbers we are not using an array, and using array in the second code.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, sum = 0, c, value; printf("Enter the number of integers you want to add\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d integers\n",n); for (c = 1; c <= n; c++) { scanf("%d",&value); sum = sum + value; } printf("Sum of entered integers = %d\n",sum); return 0;

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

16
}

Download Add n numbers program. Output of program:

C programming code using array


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, sum = 0, c, array[100]; scanf("%d", &n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) { scanf("%d", &array[c]); sum = sum + array[c]; } printf("Sum = %d\n",sum); return 0; }

C program to reverse a number


C Program to reverse a number :- This program reverse the number entered by the user and then prints the reversed number on the screen. For example if user enter 123 as input then 321 is printed as output. In our program we use modulus(%) operator to obtain the digits of a number. To invert number look at it and write it from opposite direction or the output of code is a number obtained by writing original number from right to left. To reverse or invert large numbers use
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

17

long data type or long long data type if your compiler supports it, if you still have large numbers then use strings or other data structure.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, reverse = 0; printf("Enter a number to reverse\n"); scanf("%d",&n); while (n != 0) { reverse = reverse * 10; reverse = reverse + n%10; n = n/10; } printf("Reverse of entered number is = %d\n", reverse); return 0; }

Download Reverse number program. Output of program:

Palindrome Numbers
Palindrome number in c: A palindrome number is a number such that if we reverse it, it will not change. For example some palindrome numbers examples are 121, 212, 12321, -454. To check whether a number is palindrome or not first we reverse it and then compare the number obtained with the original, if both are same then number is palindrome otherwise not. C program for palindrome number is given below.

Palindrome number algorithm


C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

18

1. Get the number from user. 2. Reverse it. 3. Compare it with the number entered by the user. 4. If both are same then print palindrome number 5. Else print not a palindrome number.

Palindrome number program c


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, reverse = 0, temp; printf("Enter a number to check if it is a palindrome or not\n"); scanf("%d",&n); temp = n; while( temp != 0 ) { reverse = reverse * 10; reverse = reverse + temp%10; temp = temp/10; } if ( n == reverse ) printf("%d is a palindrome number.\n", n); else printf("%d is not a palindrome number.\n", n); return 0; }

Download Palindrome number program. Output of program:

C program to print patterns of numbers and stars


These program prints various different patterns of numbers and stars. These codes illustrate how to create various patterns using c programming. Most of these c programs involve usage of
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

19

nested loops and space. A pattern of numbers, star or characters is a way of arranging these in some logical manner or they may form a sequence. Some of these patterns are triangles which have special importance in mathematics. Some patterns are symmetrical while other are not. Please see the complete page and look at comments for many different patterns.
* *** ***** ******* *********

We have shown five rows above, in the program you will be asked to enter the numbers of rows you want to print in the pyramid of stars.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int row, c, n, temp; printf("Enter the number of rows in pyramid of stars you wish to see "); scanf("%d",&n); temp = n; for ( row = 1 ; row <= n ; row++ ) { for ( c = 1 ; c < temp ; c++ ) printf(" "); temp--; for ( c = 1 ; c <= 2*row - 1 ; c++ ) printf("*"); printf("\n"); } return 0; }

Download Stars pyramid program.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

20

Output of program:

For more patterns or shapes on numbers and characters see comments below and also see codes on following pages: Floyd triangle Pascal triangle Consider the pattern * ** *** **** ***** to print above pattern see the code below:
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, c, k; printf("Enter number of rows\n"); scanf("%d",&n); for ( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++ ) { for( k = 1 ; k <= c ; k++ ) printf("*"); printf("\n"); } return 0; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

21

Using these examples you are in a better position to create your desired pattern for yourself. Creating a pattern involves how to use nested loops properly, some pattern may involve alphabets or other special characters. Key aspect is knowing how the characters in pattern changes.
C pattern programs

Pattern:
* *A* *A*A* *A*A*A*

C pattern program of stars and alphabets:


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n, c, k, space, count = 1; printf("Enter number of rows\n"); scanf("%d",&n); space = n; for ( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++) { for( k = 1 ; k < space ; k++) printf(" "); for ( k = 1 ; k <= c ; k++) { printf("*"); if ( c > 1 && count < c) { printf("A"); count++; } } printf("\n"); space--; count = 1; } return 0; }

Pattern:
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

22
1 232 34543 4567654 567898765

C program:
#include<stdio.h> main() { int n, c, d, num = 1, space; scanf("%d",&n); space = n - 1; for ( d = 1 ; d <= n ; d++ ) { num = d; for ( c = 1 ; c <= space ; c++ ) printf(" "); space--; for ( c = 1 ; c <= d ; c++ ) { printf("%d", num); num++; } num--; num--; for ( c = 1 ; c < d ; c++) { printf("%d", num); num--; } printf("\n"); } return 0; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

23

C program for prime number


Prime number program in c: c program for prime number, this code prints prime numbers using c programming language. To check whether a number is prime or not see another code below. Prime number logic: a number is prime if it is divisible only by one and itself. Remember two is the only even and also the smallest prime number. First few prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17....etc. Prime numbers have many applications in computer science and mathematics. A number greater than one can be factorized into prime numbers, For example 540 = 22*33*51

Prime number program in c language


#include<stdio.h> int main() { int n, i = 3, count, c; printf("Enter the number of prime numbers required\n"); scanf("%d",&n); if ( n >= 1 ) { printf("First %d prime numbers are :\n",n); printf("2\n"); } for ( count = 2 ; count <= n ; ) { for ( c = 2 ; c <= i - 1 ; c++ ) { if ( i%c == 0 ) break; } if ( c == i ) { printf("%d\n",i); count++; } i++; } return 0; }

Download Prime number program.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

24

Output of program:

C program for prime number or not


#include<stdio.h> main() { int n, c = 2; printf("Enter a number to check if it is prime\n"); scanf("%d",&n); for ( c = 2 ; c <= n - 1 ; c++ ) { if ( n%c == 0 ) { printf("%d is not prime.\n", n); break; } } if ( c == n ) printf("%d is prime.\n", n); return 0; }

C program for prime number using function


#include<stdio.h> int check_prime(int); main() {

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

25
int n, result; printf("Enter an integer to check whether it is prime or not.\n"); scanf("%d",&n); result = check_prime(n); if ( result == 1 ) printf("%d is prime.\n", n); else printf("%d is not prime.\n", n); return 0; } int check_prime(int a) { int c; for ( c = 2 ; c <= a - 1 ; c++ ) { if ( a%c == 0 ) return 0; } if ( c == a ) return 1; }

There are many logic to check prime numbers, one given below is more efficient then above method.
for ( c = 2 ; c <= (int)sqrt(n) ; c++ )

Only checking from 2 to square root of number is sufficient. There are many more efficient logic available.

Armstrong number c program


Armstrong number c program: c programming code to check whether a number is armstrong or not. A number is armstrong if the sum of cubes of individual digits of a number is equal to the number itself. For example 371 is an armstrong number as 33 + 73 + 13 = 371. Some other armstrong numbers are: 0, 1, 153, 370, 407.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() {

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

26
int number, sum = 0, temp, remainder; printf("Enter an integer\n"); scanf("%d",&number); temp = number; while( temp != 0 ) { remainder = temp%10; sum = sum + remainder*remainder*remainder; temp = temp/10; } if ( number == sum ) printf("Entered number is an armstrong number.\n"); else printf("Entered number is not an armstrong number.\n"); return 0; }

Download Check Armstrong number program. Output of program:

Fibonacci series in c
Fibonacci series in c programming: c program for Fibonacci series without and with recursion. Using the code below you can print as many numbers of terms of series as desired. Numbers of Fibonacci sequence are known as Fibonacci numbers. First few numbers of series are 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 etc, Except first two terms in sequence every other term is the sum of two previous terms, For example 8 = 3 + 5 (addition of 3, 5). This sequence has many applications in mathematics and Computer Science.

Fibonacci series in c using for loop


/* Fibonacci Series c language */ #include<stdio.h> int main() {

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

27
int n, first = 0, second = 1, next, c; printf("Enter the number of terms\n"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("First %d terms of Fibonacci series are :-\n",n); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) { if ( c <= 1 ) next = c; else { next = first + second; first = second; second = next; } printf("%d\n",next); } return 0; }

Output of program:

Fibonacci series program in c using recursion


#include<stdio.h> int Fibonacci(int); main() { int n, i = 0, c; scanf("%d",&n); printf("Fibonacci series\n");

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

28

for ( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++ ) { printf("%d\n", Fibonacci(i)); i++; } return 0; } int Fibonacci(int n) { if ( n == 0 ) return 0; else if ( n == 1 ) return 1; else return ( Fibonacci(n-1) + Fibonacci(n-2) ); }

Recursion method is less efficient as it involves function calls which uses stack, also there are chances of stack overflow if function is called frequently for calculating larger Fibonacci numbers.

C program to add two numbers using pointers


This program performs addition of two numbers using pointers. In our program we have two two integer variables x, y and two pointer variables p and q. Firstly we assign the addresses of x and y to p and q respectively and then assign the sum of x and y to variable sum. Note that & is address of operator and * is value at address operator.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int first, second, *p, *q, sum; printf("Enter two integers to add\n"); scanf("%d%d", &first, &second); p = &first; q = &second; sum = *p + *q; printf("Sum of entered numbers = %d\n",sum); return 0;

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

29
}

Download Add integers using pointers program. Output of program:

C program to find maximum element in array


This code find maximum or largest element present in an array. It also prints the location or index at which maximum element occurs in array. This can also be done by using pointers (see both codes).

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], maximum, size, c, location = 1; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d", &size); printf("Enter %d integers\n", size); for (c = 0; c < size; c++) scanf("%d", &array[c]); maximum = array[0]; for (c = 1; c < size; c++) { if (array[c] > maximum) { maximum = array[c]; location = c+1; } } printf("Maximum element is present at location %d and it's value is %d.\n", location, maximum); return 0;

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

30
}

Download Maximum element in array program. Output of program:

C programming code using pointers


#include <stdio.h> int main() { long array[100], *maximum, size, c, location = 1; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%ld", &size); printf("Enter %ld integers\n", size); for ( c = 0 ; c < size ; c++ ) scanf("%ld", &array[c]); maximum = array; *maximum = *array; for (c = 1; c < size; c++) { if (*(array+c) > *maximum) { *maximum = *(array+c); location = c+1; } } printf("Maximum element found at location %ld and it's value is %ld.\n", location, *maximum); return 0; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

31

The complexity of above code is O(n) as the time used depends on the size of input array or in other words time to find maximum increases linearly as array size grows.

C program to find minimum element in array


C code to find minimum or smallest element present in an array. It also prints the location or index at which minimum element occurs in array. This can also be done by using pointers (see both the codes).

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], minimum, size, c, location = 1; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d",&size); printf("Enter %d integers\n", size); for ( c = 0 ; c < size ; c++ ) scanf("%d", &array[c]); minimum = array[0]; for ( c = 1 ; c < size ; c++ ) { if ( array[c] < minimum ) { minimum = array[c]; location = c+1; } } printf("Minimum element is present at location %d and it's value is %d.\n", location, minimum); return 0; }

Download Minimum element in array program.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

32

Output of program:

C programming code using pointers


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], *minimum, size, c, location = 1; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d",&size); printf("Enter %d integers\n", size); for ( c = 0 ; c < size ; c++ ) scanf("%d", &array[c]); minimum = array; *minimum = *array; for ( c = 1 ; c < size ; c++ ) { if ( *(array+c) < *minimum ) { *minimum = *(array+c); location = c+1; } } printf("Minimum element found at location %d and it's value is %d.\n", location, *minimum); return 0; }

Our algorithm first assumes first element as minimum and then compare it with other elements if an element is smaller than it then it becomes the new minimum and this process is repeated till complete array is scanned.
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

33

Linear search in c
Linear search in c programming: The following code implements linear search (Searching algorithm) which is used to find whether a given number is present in an array and if it is present then at what location it occurs. It is also known as sequential search. It is very simple and works as follows: We keep on comparing each element with the element to search until the desired element is found or list ends. Linear search in c language for multiple occurrences and using function.

Linear search c program


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], search, c, n; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter %d integer(s)\n", n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) scanf("%d", &array[c]); printf("Enter the number to search\n"); scanf("%d", &search); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) { if (array[c] == search) /* if required element found */ { printf("%d is present at location %d.\n", search, c+1); break; } } if (c == n) printf("%d is not present in array.\n", search); return 0; }

Download Linear search program.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

34

Output of program:

C program for binary search

Linear search for multiple occurrences


In the code below we will print all the locations at which required element is found and also the number of times it occur in the list.
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], search, c, n, count = 0; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter %d numbers\n", n); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) scanf("%d",&array[c]); printf("Enter the number to search\n"); scanf("%d",&search); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) { if ( array[c] == search ) { printf("%d is present at location %d.\n", search, c+1); count++; } } if ( count == 0 ) printf("%d is not present in array.\n", search); else printf("%d is present %d times in array.\n", search, count);

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

35
return 0; }

Download Linear search multiple occurrence program. Output of code:

C program for linear search using function


#include <stdio.h> int linear_search(int*, int, int); int main() { int array[100], search, c, n, position; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter %d numbers\n", n); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) scanf("%d", &array[c]); printf("Enter the number to search\n"); scanf("%d",&search); position = linear_search(array, n, search); if ( position == -1 ) printf("%d is not present in array.\n", search); else

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

36
printf("%d is present at location %d.\n", search, position+1); return 0; } int linear_search(int *pointer, int n, int find) { int c; for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) { if ( *(pointer+c) == find ) return c; } return -1; }

Time required to search an element using linear search algorithm depends on size of list. In best case element is present at beginning of list and in worst case element is present at the end. Time complexity of linear search is O(n).

C program for binary search


C program for binary search: This code implements binary search in c language. It can only be used for sorted arrays, but it's fast as compared to linear search. If you wish to use binary search on an array which is not sorted then you must sort it using some sorting technique say merge sort and then use binary search algorithm to find the desired element in the list. If the element to be searched is found then its position is printed. The code below assumes that the input numbers are in ascending order.

C programming code for binary search


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int c, first, last, middle, n, search, array[100]; printf("Enter number of elements\n"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter %d integers\n", n); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) scanf("%d",&array[c]); printf("Enter value to find\n");

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

37
scanf("%d",&search); first = 0; last = n - 1; middle = (first+last)/2; while( first <= last ) { if ( array[middle] < search ) first = middle + 1; else if ( array[middle] == search ) { printf("%d found at location %d.\n", search, middle+1); break; } else last = middle - 1; middle = (first + last)/2; } if ( first > last ) printf("Not found! %d is not present in the list.\n", search); return 0; }

C program for linear search Download Binary search program. Output of program:

Binary search is faster than linear search but list should be sorted, hashing is faster than binary search and perform searches in constant time.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

38

C program to reverse an array


C program to reverse an array: This program reverses the array elements. For example if a is an array of integers with three elements such that a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 Then on reversing the array will be a[0] = 3 a[1] = 2 a[0] = 1 Given below is the c code to reverse an array.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, c, d, a[100], b[100]; printf("Enter the number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter the array elements\n"); for (c = 0; c < n ; c++) scanf("%d", &a[c]); /* * Copying elements into array b starting from end of array a */ for (c = n - 1, d = 0; c >= 0; c--, d++) b[d] = a[c]; /* * Copying reversed array into original. * Here we are modifying original array, this is optional. */ for (c = 0; c < n; c++) a[c] = b[c]; printf("Reverse array is\n"); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) printf("%d\n", a[c]); return 0;

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

39
}

Download Reverse array program. Output of program:

Reverse array by swapping (without using additional memory)


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], n, c, t, end; scanf("%d", &n); end = n - 1; for (c = 0; c < n; c++) { scanf("%d", &array[c]); } for (c = 0; c < n/2; c++) { t = array[c]; array[c] = array[end]; array[end] = t; end--; } printf("Reversed array elements are:\n"); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) { printf("%d\n", array[c]); }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

40

return 0; }

C program to reverse an array using pointers


#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> void reverse_array(int*, int); int main() { int n, c, *pointer; scanf("%d",&n); pointer = (int*)malloc(sizeof(int)*n); if( pointer == NULL ) exit(EXIT_FAILURE); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) scanf("%d",(pointer+c)); reverse_array(pointer, n); printf("Original array on reversal is\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) printf("%d\n",*(pointer+c)); free(pointer); return 0; } void reverse_array(int *pointer, int n) { int *s, c, d; s = (int*)malloc(sizeof(int)*n); if( s == NULL ) exit(EXIT_FAILURE); for ( c = n - 1, d = 0 ; c >= 0 ; c--, d++ ) *(s+d) = *(pointer+c); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) *(pointer+c) = *(s+c); free(s); }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

41

Array is passed to function and a new array is created and contents of passed array (in reverse order) are copied into it and finally contents of new array are copied into array passed to function.

C program to insert an element in an array


This code will insert an element into an array, For example consider an array a[10] having three elements in it initially and a[0] = 1, a[1] = 2 and a[2] = 3 and you want to insert a number 45 at location 1 i.e. a[0] = 45, so we have to move elements one step below so after insertion a[1] = 1 which was a[0] initially, and a[2] = 2 and a[3] = 3. Array insertion does not mean increasing its size i.e array will not be containing 11 elements.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], position, c, n, value; printf("Enter number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d elements\n", n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) scanf("%d", &array[c]); printf("Enter the location where you wish to insert an element\n"); scanf("%d", &position); printf("Enter the value to insert\n"); scanf("%d", &value); for (c = n - 1; c >= position - 1; c--) array[c+1] = array[c]; array[position-1] = value; printf("Resultant array is\n"); for (c = 0; c <= n; c++) printf("%d\n", array[c]); return 0; }

Download Insert element in array program.


C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

42

Output of program:

C program to delete an element from an array


his program delete an element from an array. Deleting an element does not affect the size of array. It is also checked whether deletion is possible or not, For example if array is containing five elements and you want to delete element at position six which is not possible.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], position, c, n; printf("Enter number of elements in array\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d elements\n", n); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) scanf("%d", &array[c]); printf("Enter the location where you wish to delete element\n"); scanf("%d", &position); if ( position >= n+1 ) printf("Deletion not possible.\n");

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

43
else { for ( c = position - 1 ; c < n - 1 ; c++ ) array[c] = array[c+1]; printf("Resultant array is\n"); for( c = 0 ; c < n - 1 ; c++ ) printf("%d\n", array[c]); } return 0; }

Download Delete element from array program. Output of program:

C program for bubble sort


C program for bubble sort: c programming code for bubble sort to sort numbers or arrange them in ascending order. You can easily modify it to print numbers in descending order.

Bubble sort algorithm in c


/* Bubble sort code */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], n, c, d, swap;

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

44

printf("Enter number of elements\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d integers\n", n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) scanf("%d", &array[c]); for (c = 0 ; c < { for (d = 0 ; d { if (array[d] { swap array[d] array[d+1] } } } ( n - 1 ); c++) < n - c - 1; d++) > array[d+1]) /* For decreasing order use < */ = array[d]; = array[d+1]; = swap;

printf("Sorted list in ascending order:\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) printf("%d\n", array[c]); return 0; }

Download Bubble sort program. Output of program:

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

45

Bubble sort in c language using function


#include <stdio.h> void bubble_sort(long [], long); int main() { long array[100], n, c, d, swap; printf("Enter number of elements\n"); scanf("%ld", &n); printf("Enter %ld integers\n", n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) scanf("%ld", &array[c]); bubble_sort(array, n); printf("Sorted list in ascending order:\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) printf("%ld\n", array[c]); return 0; } void bubble_sort(long list[], long n) { long c, d, t; for (c = 0 ; c < ( n - 1 ); c++) { for (d = 0 ; d < n - c - 1; d++) { if (list[d] > list[d+1]) { /* Swapping */ t = list[d]; list[d] = list[d+1]; list[d+1] = t; } } } }

You can also sort strings using Bubble sort, it is less efficient as its average and worst case complexity is high, there are many other fast sorting algorithms.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

46

insertion sort in c
Insertion sort in c: c program for insertion sort to sort numbers. This code implements insertion sort algorithm to arrange numbers of an array in ascending order. With a little modification it will arrange numbers in descending order.

Insertion sort algorithm implementation in c


/* insertion sort ascending order */ #include <stdio.h> int main() { int n, array[1000], c, d, t; printf("Enter number of elements\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d integers\n", n); for (c = 0; c < n; c++) { scanf("%d", &array[c]); } for (c = 1 ; c <= n - 1; c++) { d = c; while ( d > 0 && array[d] < array[d-1]) { t = array[d]; array[d] = array[d-1]; array[d-1] = t; d--; } } printf("Sorted list in ascending order:\n"); for (c = 0; c <= n - 1; c++) { printf("%d\n", array[c]); } return 0; }

Download Insertion sort program.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

47

Output of program:

Selection sort in c
Selection sort in c: c program for selection sort to sort numbers. This code implements selection sort algorithm to arrange numbers of an array in ascending order. With a little modification it will arrange numbers in descending order.

Selection sort algorithm implementation in c


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int array[100], n, c, d, position, swap; printf("Enter number of elements\n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter %d integers\n", n); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) scanf("%d", &array[c]); for ( c = 0 ; c < ( n - 1 ) ; c++ ) { position = c; for ( d = c + 1 ; d < n ; d++ ) { if ( array[position] > array[d] ) position = d; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

48
if ( position != c ) { swap = array[c]; array[c] = array[position]; array[position] = swap; } } printf("Sorted list in ascending order:\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) printf("%d\n", array[c]); return 0; }

Download Selection sort program. Output of program:

c program to add two matrix


This c program add two matrices i.e. compute the sum of two matrices and then print it. Firstly user will be asked to enter the order of matrix ( number of rows and columns ) and then two
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

49

matrices. For example if the user entered order as 2, 2 i.e. two rows and two columns and matrices as First Matrix :12 34 Second matrix :45 -1 5 then output of the program ( sum of First and Second matrix ) will be 57 29

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int m, n, c, d, first[10][10], second[10][10], sum[10][10]; printf("Enter the number of rows and columns of matrix\n"); scanf("%d%d", &m, &n); printf("Enter the elements of first matrix\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) for ( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) scanf("%d", &first[c][d]); printf("Enter the elements of second matrix\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) for ( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) scanf("%d", &second[c][d]); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) for ( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) sum[c][d] = first[c][d] + second[c][d]; printf("Sum of entered matrices:-\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) { for ( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) printf("%d\t", sum[c][d]); printf("\n"); } return 0; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

50

Download Add Matrix program. Output of program:

Subtract matrices
C code to subtract matrices of any order. This program finds difference between corresponding elements of two matrices and then print the resultant matrix.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int m, n, c, d, first[10][10], second[10][10], difference[10][10]; printf("Enter the number of rows and columns of matrix\n"); scanf("%d%d", &m, &n); printf("Enter the elements of first matrix\n"); for (c = 0; c < m; c++) for (d = 0 ; d < n; d++) scanf("%d", &first[c][d]); printf("Enter the elements of second matrix\n"); for (c = 0; c < m; c++) for (d = 0; d < n; d++) scanf("%d", &second[c][d]); for (c = 0; c < m; c++) for (d = 0; d < n; d++) difference[c][d] = first[c][d] - second[c][d];

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

51
printf("difference of entered matrices:-\n"); for (c = 0; c < m; c++) { for (d = 0; d < n; d++) printf("%d\t",difference[c][d]); printf("\n"); } return 0; }

Download Subtract matrices program. Output of program:

C program to transpose a matrix


This c program prints transpose of a matrix. It is obtained by interchanging rows and columns of a matrix. For example if a matrix is 12 34 56 then transpose of above matrix will be 135 246 When we transpose a matrix then the order of matrix changes, but for a square matrix order remains same.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h>

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

52

int main() { int m, n, c, d, matrix[10][10], transpose[10][10]; printf("Enter the number of rows and columns of matrix "); scanf("%d%d",&m,&n); printf("Enter the elements of matrix \n"); for( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) { for( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) { scanf("%d",&matrix[c][d]); } } for( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) { for( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) { transpose[d][c] = matrix[c][d]; } } printf("Transpose of entered matrix :-\n"); for( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ ) { for( d = 0 ; d < m ; d++ ) { printf("%d\t",transpose[c][d]); } printf("\n"); } return 0; }

Download Transpose Matrix program.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

53

Output of program:

Matrix multiplication in c
Matrix multiplication in c language: c program to multiply matrices (two dimensional array), this program multiplies two matrices which will be entered by the user. Firstly user will enter the order of a matrix. If the entered orders of two matrix is such that they can't be multiplied then an error message is displayed on the screen. You have already studied the logic to multiply them in Mathematics.

Matrix multiplication in c language


#include <stdio.h> int main() { int m, n, p, q, c, d, k, sum = 0; int first[10][10], second[10][10], multiply[10][10]; printf("Enter the number of rows and columns of first matrix\n"); scanf("%d%d", &m, &n); printf("Enter the elements of first matrix\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) for ( d = 0 ; d < n ; d++ ) scanf("%d", &first[c][d]); printf("Enter the number of rows and columns of second matrix\n"); scanf("%d%d", &p, &q); if ( n != p ) printf("Matrices with entered orders can't be multiplied with each other.\n"); else { printf("Enter the elements of second matrix\n");

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

54

for ( c = 0 ; c < p ; c++ ) for ( d = 0 ; d < q ; d++ ) scanf("%d", &second[c][d]); for ( c = { for ( d { for ( { sum } 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) = 0 ; d < q ; d++ ) k = 0 ; k < p ; k++ ) = sum + first[c][k]*second[k][d];

multiply[c][d] = sum; sum = 0; } } printf("Product of entered matrices:-\n"); for ( c = 0 ; c < m ; c++ ) { for ( d = 0 ; d < q ; d++ ) printf("%d\t", multiply[c][d]); printf("\n"); } } return 0; }

Download Matrix multiplication program.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

55

A 3 X 3 matrix multiply in c is shown as example below.

Matrices are frequently used while doing programming and are used to represent graph data structure, in solving system of linear equations and many more. Lot of research is being done on how to multiply matrices using minimum number of operations. You can also implement it using pointers.

C program print string


This program print a string. String can be printed by using various functions such as printf, puts.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> int main() { char array[20] = "Hello World"; printf("%s\n",array); return 0; }

To input a string we use scanf function.

C programming code
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

56
#include <stdio.h> int main() { char array[100]; printf("Enter a string\n"); scanf("%s", array); printf("You entered the string %s\n",array); return 0; }

Input string containing spaces


#include <stdio.h> int main() { char a[80]; gets(a); printf("%s\n", a); return 0; }

Note that scanf can only input single word strings, to receive strings containing spaces use gets function.

String length
This program prints length of string, for example consider the string "c programming" it's length is 13. Null character is not counted when calculating string length. To find string length we use strlen function of string.h.

C program to find string length


#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> int main() { char a[100]; int length; printf("Enter a string to calculate it's length\n"); gets(a); length = strlen(a);

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

57

printf("Length of entered string is = %d\n",length); return 0; }

Download String length program. Output of program:

You can also find string length using pointer or without strlen function. Following program shows how to achieve this.

C program to find string length without strlen


C program to find length of a string using pointers.
#include <stdio.h> int main() { char array[100], *pointer; int length = 0; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(array); pointer = array; while(*(pointer+length)) length++; printf("Length of entered string = %d\n",length); return 0; }

Function to find string length


int string_length(char *s) { int c = 0;

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

58
while(*(s+c)) c++; return c; }

c program to compare two strings


This c program compares two strings using strcmp, without strcmp and using pointers. For comparing strings without using library function see another code below.

C program to compare two strings using strcmp


#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> int main() { char a[100], b[100]; printf("Enter the first string\n"); gets(a); printf("Enter the second string\n"); gets(b); if( strcmp(a,b) == 0 ) printf("Entered strings are equal.\n"); else printf("Entered strings are not equal.\n"); return 0; }

Download Compare Strings program. Output of program:

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

59

C program to compare two strings without using strcmp


Here we create our own function to compare strings.
int compare(char a[], char b[]) { int c = 0; while( a[c] == b[c] ) { if( a[c] == '\0' || b[c] == '\0' ) break; c++; } if( a[c] == '\0' && b[c] == '\0' ) return 0; else return -1; }

C program to compare two strings using pointers


In this method we will make our own function to perform string comparison, we will use character pointers in our function to manipulate string.
#include<stdio.h> int compare_string(char*, char*); int main() { char first[100], second[100], result; printf("Enter first string\n"); gets(first); printf("Enter second string\n"); gets(second); result = compare_string(first, second); if ( result == 0 ) printf("Both strings are same.\n"); else printf("Entered strings are not equal.\n"); return 0; } int compare_string(char *first, char *second) { while(*first==*second)

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

60
{ if ( *first == '\0' || *second == '\0' ) break; first++; second++; } if( *first == '\0' && *second == '\0' ) return 0; else return -1; }

string copying in c programming


This program copy string using library function strcpy, to copy string without using strcpy see source code below in which we have made our own function to copy string.

C program to copy a string


#include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char source[] = "C program"; char destination[50]; strcpy(destination, source); printf("Source string: %s\n", source); printf("Destination string: %s\n", destination); return 0; }

c program to copy a string using pointers


: here we copy string without using strcmp by creating our own function which uses pointers.
#include<stdio.h> void copy_string(char*, char*); main() { char source[100], target[100];

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

61
printf("Enter source string\n"); gets(source); copy_string(target, source); printf("Target string is \"%s\"\n", target); return 0; } void copy_string(char *target, char *source) { while(*source) { *target = *source; source++; target++; } *target = '\0'; }

C program to concatenate strings


This program concatenates strings, for example if the first string is "c " and second string is "program" then on concatenating these two strings we get the string "c program". To concatenate two strings we use strcat function of string.h, to concatenate without using library function see another code below which uses pointers.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> int main() { char a[100], b[100]; printf("Enter the first string\n"); gets(a); printf("Enter the second string\n"); gets(b); strcat(a,b); printf("String obtained on concatenation is %s\n",a); return 0; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

62

Download String Concatenation program. Output of program:

String concatenation without strcat


#include <stdio.h> void concatenate_string(char*, char*); int main() { char original[100], add[100]; printf("Enter source string\n"); gets(original); printf("Enter string to concatenate\n"); gets(add); concatenate_string(original, add); printf("String after concatenation is \"%s\"\n", original); return 0; } void concatenate_string(char *original, char *add) { while(*original) original++; while(*add) { *original = *add; add++; original++; } *original = '\0'; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

63

Reverse string
This program reverses a string entered by the user. For example if a user enters a string "reverse me" then on reversing the string will be "em esrever". We show you three different methods to reverse string the first one uses strrev library function of string.h header file and in second we make our own function to reverse string using pointers, reverse string using recursion and Reverse words in string. If you are using first method then you must include string.h in your program.

C programming code
/* String reverse in c*/
#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> int main() { char arr[100]; printf("Enter a string to reverse\n"); gets(arr); strrev(arr); printf("Reverse of entered string is \n%s\n",arr); return 0; }

Download Reverse string program. Output of program:

/* Second method */

C program to reverse a string using pointers


: Now we will invert string using pointers or without using library function strrev.
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

64
#include<stdio.h> int string_length(char*); void reverse(char*); main() { char string[100]; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(string); reverse(string); printf("Reverse of entered string is \"%s\".\n", string); return 0; } void reverse(char *string) { int length, c; char *begin, *end, temp; length = string_length(string); begin = string; end = string; for ( c = 0 ; c < ( length - 1 ) ; c++ ) end++; for ( c = { temp = *end = *begin 0 ; c < length/2 ; c++ ) *end; *begin; = temp;

begin++; end--; } } int string_length(char *pointer) { int c = 0; while( *(pointer+c) != '\0' ) c++; return c; }

C program to reverse a string using recursion


C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

65
#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> void reverse(char*, int, int); int main() { char a[100]; gets(a); reverse(a, 0, strlen(a)-1); printf("%s\n",a); return 0; } void reverse(char *x, int begin, int end) { char c; if (begin >= end) return; c = *(x+begin); *(x+begin) = *(x+end); *(x+end) = c; reverse(x, ++begin, --end); }

In recursion method we swap characters at the begin and at the end and then move towards the middle of the string. This method is inefficient due to repeated function calls but useful in practicing recursion.

C palindrome program, c program for palindrome


C program for palindrome or palindrome in c programming: palindrome program in c language, c code to check if a string is a palindrome or not and for palindrome number. This program works as follows :- at first we copy the entered string into a new string, and then we reverse the new string and then compares it with original string. If both of them have same sequence of characters i.e. they are identical then the entered string is a palindrome otherwise not. To perform copy, reverse and compare operations we use strcpy, strrev and strcmp functions of string.h respectively, if you do not wish to use these functions see c programming code for palindrome without using string functions. Some palindrome strings examples are "dad", "radar", "madam" etc.

C program for palindrome


C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

66
#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> int main() { char a[100], b[100]; printf("Enter the string to check if it is a palindrome\n"); gets(a); strcpy(b,a); strrev(b); if( strcmp(a,b) == 0 ) printf("Entered string is a palindrome.\n"); else printf("Entered string is not a palindrome.\n"); return 0; }

Download palindrome program. Output of program:

Palindrome number in c
#include <stdio.h> main() { int n, reverse = 0, temp; printf("Enter a number to check if it is a palindrome or not\n"); scanf("%d",&n); temp = n; while( temp != 0 ) { reverse = reverse * 10; reverse = reverse + temp%10; temp = temp/10; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

67
if ( n == reverse ) printf("%d is a palindrome number.\n", n); else printf("%d is not a palindrome number.\n", n); return 0; }

C program for palindrome without using string functions


#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> int main() { char text[100]; int begin, middle, end, length = 0; gets(text); while ( text[length] != '\0' ) length++; end = length - 1; middle = length/2; for( begin = 0 ; begin < middle ; begin++ ) { if ( text[begin] != text[end] ) { printf("Not a palindrome.\n"); break; } end--; } if( begin == middle ) printf("Palindrome.\n"); return 0; }

C program check palindrome


#include <stdio.h> int is_palindrome(char*); void copy_string(char*, char*); void reverse_string(char*); int string_length(char*); int compare_string(char*, char*); int main() {

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

68
char string[100]; int result; printf("Enter a string\n"); gets(string); result = is_palindrome(string); if ( result == 1 ) printf("\"%s\" is a palindrome string.\n", string); else printf("\"%s\" is not a palindrome string.\n", string); return 0; } int is_palindrome(char *string) { int check, length; char *reverse; length = string_length(string); reverse = (char*)malloc(length+1); copy_string(reverse, string); reverse_string(reverse); check = compare_string(string, reverse); free(reverse); if ( check == 0 ) return 1; else return 0; } int string_length(char *string) { int length = 0; while(*string) { length++; string++; } return length; } void copy_string(char *target, char *source) { while(*source) { *target = *source;

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

69
source++; target++; } *target = '\0'; } void reverse_string(char *string) { int length, c; char *begin, *end, temp; length = string_length(string); begin = string; end = string; for ( c = 0 ; c < ( length - 1 ) ; c++ ) end++; for ( c = { temp = *end = *begin 0 ; c < length/2 ; c++ ) *end; *begin; = temp;

begin++; end--; } } int compare_string(char *first, char *second) { while(*first==*second) { if ( *first == '\0' || *second == '\0' ) break; first++; second++; } if( *first == '\0' && *second == '\0' ) return 0; else return -1; }

Pointers are used in functions, you can develop your code without using pointers.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

70

C program to sort a string in alphabetic order


C program to sort a string in alphabetic order: For example if user will enter a string "programming" then output will be "aggimmnoprr" or output string will contain characters in alphabetical order.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> void sort_string(char*); int main() { char string[100]; printf("Enter some text\n"); gets(string); sort_string(string); printf("%s\n", string); return 0; } void sort_string(char *s) { int c, d = 0, length; char *pointer, *result, ch; length = strlen(s); result = (char*)malloc(length+1); pointer = s; for ( ch = 'a' ; ch <= 'z' ; ch++ ) { for ( c = 0 ; c < length ; c++ ) { if ( *pointer == ch ) { *(result+d) = *pointer; d++; } pointer++; } pointer = s; } *(result+d) = '\0';

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

71

strcpy(s, result); free(result); }

Download Sort string program. Output of program:

strlwr, strupr in c
Here we will change string case with and without strlwr, strupr functions.

strlwr in c
#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> int main() { char string[] = "Strlwr in C"; printf("%s\n",strlwr(string)); return } 0;

strupr in c
#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> int main() { char string[] = "strupr in c"; printf("%s\n",strupr(string)); return } 0;

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

72

Change string to upper case without strupr


#include <stdio.h> void upper_string(char*); int main() { char string[100]; printf("Enter a string to convert it into upper case\n"); gets(string); upper_string(string); printf("Entered string in upper case is \"%s\"\n", string); return 0; } void upper_string(char *string) { while(*string) { if ( *string >= 'a' && *string <= 'z' ) { *string = *string - 32; } string++; } }

Change string to lower case without strlwr


#include <stdio.h> void lower_string(char*); int main() { char string[100]; printf("Enter a string to convert it into lower case\n"); gets(string); lower_string(string); printf("Entered string in lower case is \"%s\"\n", string); return 0; } void lower_string(char *string)

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

73
{ while(*string) { if ( *string >= 'A' && *string <= 'Z' ) { *string = *string + 32; } string++; } }

C program to read a file


C program to read a file: This program reads a file entered by the user and displays its contents on the screen, fopen function is used to open a file it returns a pointer to structure FILE. FILE is a predefined structure in stdio.h . If the file is successfully opened then fopen returns a pointer to file and if it is unable to open a file then it returns NULL. fgetc function returns a character which is read from the file and fclose function closes the file. Opening a file means we bring file from disk to ram to perform operations on it. The file must be present in the directory in which the executable file of this code sis present.

C program to open a file


C programming code to open a file and to print it contents on screen.
#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int main() { char ch, file_name[25]; FILE *fp; printf("Enter the name of file you wish to see\n"); gets(file_name); fp = fopen(file_name,"r"); // read mode if( fp == NULL ) { perror("Error while opening the file.\n"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } printf("The contents of %s file are :\n", file_name); while( ( ch = fgetc(fp) ) != EOF ) printf("%c",ch);

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

74

fclose(fp); return 0; }

Download Read file program. Output of program:

There are blank lines present at end of file. In our program we have opened only one file but you can open multiple files in a single program and in different modes as desired. File handling is very important when we wish to store data permanently on a storage device. All variables and data of program is lost when program exits so if that data is required later we need to use files.

C program to copy files


C program to copy files: This program copies a file, firstly you will specify the file to copy and then you will enter the name of target file, You will have to mention the extension of file also. We will open the file that we wish to copy in read mode and target file in write mode.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int main() { char ch, source_file[20], target_file[20]; FILE *source, *target; printf("Enter name of file to copy\n"); gets(source_file); source = fopen(source_file, "r"); if( source == NULL ) {

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

75
printf("Press any key to exit...\n"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } printf("Enter name of target file\n"); gets(target_file); target = fopen(target_file, "w"); if( target == NULL ) { fclose(source); printf("Press any key to exit...\n"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while( ( ch = fgetc(source) ) != EOF ) fputc(ch, target); printf("File copied successfully.\n"); fclose(source); fclose(target); return 0; }

Download File copy program. Output of program:

C program to merge two files


This c program merges two files and stores their contents in another file. The files which are to be merged are opened in read mode and the file which contains content of both the files is opened in write mode. To merge two files first we open a file and read it character by character and store the read contents in another file then we read the contents of another file and store it in file, we read two files until EOF (end of file) is reached.

C programming code
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

76
#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int main() { FILE *fs1, *fs2, *ft; char ch, file1[20], file2[20], file3[20]; printf("Enter name of first file\n"); gets(file1); printf("Enter name of second file\n"); gets(file2); printf("Enter name of file which will store contents of two files\n"); gets(file3); fs1 = fopen(file1,"r"); fs2 = fopen(file2,"r"); if( fs1 == NULL || fs2 == NULL ) { perror("Error "); printf("Press any key to exit...\n"); getch(); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } ft = fopen(file3,"w"); if( ft == NULL ) { perror("Error "); printf("Press any key to exit...\n"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while( ( ch = fgetc(fs1) ) != EOF ) fputc(ch,ft); while( ( ch = fgetc(fs2) ) != EOF ) fputc(ch,ft); printf("Two files were merged into %s file successfully.\n",file3); fclose(fs1); fclose(fs2); fclose(ft); return 0; }

Download merge files program.


C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

77

Output of program:

C program to list files in directory


This program list all files present in a directory/folder in which this executable file is present. For example if this executable file is present in C:\\TC\\BIN then it will lists all the files present in C:\\TC\\BIN.

C programming code(Turbo C compiler only)


#include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> #include <dir.h> int main() { int done; struct ffblk a; printf("Press any key to view the files in the current directory\n"); getch(); done = findfirst("*.*",&a,0); while(!done) { printf("%s\n",a.ff_name); done = findnext(&a); } getch(); return 0; }

Obviously you will get a different output when you will execute this file on your computer.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

78

c program to delete a file


This c program deletes a file which is entered by the user, the file to be deleted should be present in the directory in which the executable file of this program is present. Extension of the file should also be entered, remove macro is used to delete the file. If there is an error in deleting the file then an error will be displayed using perror function.

C programming code
#include<stdio.h> main() { int status; char file_name[25]; printf("Enter the name of file you wish to delete\n"); gets(file_name); status = remove(file_name); if( status == 0 ) printf("%s file deleted successfully.\n",file_name); else { printf("Unable to delete the file\n"); perror("Error"); } return 0; }

Download Delete file program executable. Output of program:

Deleted file doesn't go to trash or recycle bin so you may not be able to recover it. Deleted files can be recovered using special recovery software if the files are not overwritten on the storage medium.
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

79

c program to generate random numbers


This c program generates random numbers using random function, randomize function is used to initialize random number generator. If you don't use randomize function then you will get same random numbers each time you run the program.

C programming code using rand


#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int main() { int c, n; printf("Ten random numbers in [1,100]\n"); for (c = 1; c <= 10; c++) { n = rand()%100 + 1; printf("%d\n", n); } return 0; }

C programming code using random function(Turbo C compiler only)


#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<stdlib.h> main() { int n, max, num, c; printf("Enter the number of random numbers you want "); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter the maximum value of random number "); scanf("%d",&max); printf("%d random numbers from 0 to %d are :-\n",n,max); randomize(); for ( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++ ) { num = random(max); printf("%d\n",num); }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

80

getch(); return 0; }

C program to add two complex numbers


C program to add two complex numbers: this program calculate the sum of two complex numbers which will be entered by the user and then prints it. User will have to enter the real and imaginary parts of two complex numbers. In our program we will add real parts and imaginary parts of complex numbers and prints the complex number, i is the symbol used for iota. For example if user entered two complex numbers as (1 + 2i) and (4 + 6 i) then output of program will be (5+8i). A structure is used to store complex number.

C programming code
#include <stdio.h> struct complex { int real, img; }; int main() { struct complex a, b, c; printf("Enter a and b where a + ib is the first complex number.\n"); printf("a = "); scanf("%d", &a.real); printf("b = "); scanf("%d", &a.img); printf("Enter c and d where c + id is the second complex number.\n"); printf("c = "); scanf("%d", &b.real); printf("d = "); scanf("%d", &b.img); c.real = a.real + b.real; c.img = a.img + b.img; if ( c.img >= 0 ) printf("Sum of two complex numbers = %d + %di\n",c.real,c.img); else printf("Sum of two complex numbers = %d %di\n",c.real,c.img); return 0; }

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

81

Download add complex numbers program executable. Output of c program to add two complex numbers is shown in image below:

C program to print date


This c program prints current system date. To print date we will use getdate function.

C programming code (Works in Turbo C only)


#include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> #include <dos.h> int main() { struct date d; getdate(&d); printf("Current system date is %d/%d/%d",d.da_day,d.da_mon,d.da_year); getch(); return 0; }

This code works in Turbo C only because it supports dos.h header file.

C programming code for Windows XP


#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> main() { char ch; printf("Do you want to shutdown your computer now (y/n)\n"); scanf("%c",&ch);

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

82

if (ch == 'y' || ch == 'Y') system("C:\\WINDOWS\\System32\\shutdown -s"); return 0; }

C programming code for Windows 7


#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> main() { char ch; printf("Do you want to shutdown your computer now (y/n)\n"); scanf("%c",&ch); if (ch == 'y' || ch == 'Y') system("C:\\WINDOWS\\System32\\shutdown /s"); return 0; }

To shutdown immediately use "C:\\WINDOWS\\System32\\ shutdown /s /t 0". To restart use /r instead of /s.

C programming code for Ubuntu Linux


#include <stdio.h> int main() { system("shutdown -P now"); return 0; }

You need to be logged in as root user for above program to execute otherwise you will get the message shutdown: Need to be root, now specifies that you want to shutdown immediately. '-P' option specifies you want to power off your machine. You can specify minutes as: shutdown -P "number of minutes" For more help or options type at terminal: man shutdown.

c program to get ip address


This c program prints ip (internet protocol) address of your computer, system function is used to execute the command ipconfig which prints ip address, subnet mask and default gateway. The code given below works for Windows xp and Windows 7. If you are using turbo c compiler then
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

83

execute program from folder, it may not work when you are working in compiler and press Ctrl+F9 to run your program.

C programming code
#include<stdlib.h> int main() { system("C:\\Windows\\System32\\ipconfig"); return 0; }

Download IP address program. Output of program: ( In Windows 7)

Only part of output is shown in image.


http://www.programmingsimplified.com/

C program to print Pascal triangle


Pascal Triangle in c: C program to print Pascal triangle which you might have studied in Binomial Theorem in Mathematics. Number of rows of Pascal triangle to print is entered by the user. First four rows of Pascal triangle are shown below :1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

84

Pascal triangle in c
#include <stdio.h> long factorial(int); int main() { int i, n, c; printf("Enter the number of rows you wish to see in pascal triangle\n"); scanf("%d",&n); for ( i = 0 ; i < n ; i++ ) { for ( c = 0 ; c <= ( n - i - 2 ) ; c++ ) printf(" "); for( c = 0 ; c <= i ; c++ ) printf("%ld ",factorial(i)/(factorial(c)*factorial(i-c))); printf("\n"); } return 0; } long factorial(int n) { int c; long result = 1; for( c = 1 ; c <= n ; c++ ) result = result*c; return ( result ); }

Download Pascal triangle program.

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

85

Output of program:

For more patterns or shapes on numbers and characters see codes on following pages:

Switch Case Statement Example Program In C Programming Language Syntax:


switch ( <variable> ) { case value1: //Code Here break; case value2: //Code Here break; ... default: Code to execute for not match case break; }

Example Program For Switch


/* Example Program For Switch Case In C Programming Language */

// Header Files #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h>


C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

86

//Main Function int main() { // Variable Declaration char ch; //Get Input Value printf("Enter the Vowel (In Capital Letter):"); scanf("%c",&ch); //Switch Case Check switch( ch ) { case 'A' : printf( "Your Character Is A\n" ); break; case 'E' : printf( "Your Character Is E\n" ); break; case 'I' : printf( "Your Character Is I\n" ); break; case 'O' : printf( "Your Character Is O\n" ); break; case 'U' : printf( "Your Character Is U\n" ); break; default : printf( "Your Character is Not Vowel.Otherwise Not a Capital Letter\n" ); break; } // Wait For Output Screen getch(); //Main Function return Statement return 0; }

Sample Output:
Enter the Vowel (In Capital Letter):A Your Character Is A Enter the Vowel (In Capital Letter):O Your Character Is O Enter the Vowel (In Capital Letter):h
C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN

87

Your Character is Not Vowel.Or Not a Capital Letter

C PROGRAMMING CODE FOR MCA & MSC CST- SRM ARTS & SCIENCE COLLEGE COMPILED BY R.KARTHIKEYAN