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APUNTES BSICOS DE INGLS

ARTCULOS -the artculo determinado Ex. The sun is shining today. Se omite cuando se est expresando una generalizacin Ex. Babies cry too much. Hay excepciones Ex. The bat can see in the dark. Se suprime en las siguientes situaciones: -Delante de los das de la semana -Con palabras como church, home, hospital, school, bed. -Delante de Mr., Lord., Miss. -Delante de los pronombres posesivos -Delante de los idiomas en sentido global (English) -a/an artculo indeterminado Ex. You have to be polite to an old lady. FORMACIN DEL PLURAL -La mayora de sustantivos ingleses aaden una s al singular. Ex. boy-boys, desk-desks, place-places -Si la palabra termina en ss, -sh, -ch x, se aade es. Ex. glass-glasses, church-churches, boss-bosses, box-boxes, dish-dishes, peachpeaches. -Si la palabra acaba en o, se aade es, o s I. es si el trmino es de uso corriente Ex. tomato-tomatoes, potato-potatoes, hero-heroes II. s si es una palabra de origen extranjero Ex. piano-pianos, dynamo-dynamos, kilo-kilos, banjo-banjos -Si la palabra termina en y precedida por consonante, la y se convierte en i y se aade es. Es decir ies Ex. party-parties, hobby-hobbies, story-stories, -Si la palabra acaba en f o fe, la terminacin es ves Ex. life-lives, shelf-shelves, wolf-wolves Hay excepciones como proof-proofs, relief-reliefs (creencia), roof-roofs (tejado) -Plurales anglosajones man-men, woman-women, tooth-teeth, child-children, foot-feet, mousemicesh, sheep-sheep, ox-oxen EL GENITIVO SAJN -Esquema 1: poseedor (es)s + lo posedo (sin artculo) I. Cuando el poseedor es uno Ex. Peters shirt Ex. James pipe II. Cuando hay varios poseedores y el sustantivo no acaba en s Ex. These mens ties Ex. These childrens shoes -Esquema 2: poseedor (es) + lo posedo (sin artculo) Ex. My friends daughter Ex. The pupils workbooks Ex. Cervantes novels.

COMPARATIVOS Y SUPERLATIVOS -Igualdad: as + adjetivo o adverbio + as Ex. This book is as interesting as that one Ex. You run as fast as your brother -Superioridad: adjetivo o adverbio-er + than more + adjetivo o adverbio + than Ex. The girl is cleverer tan her mother Ex. Your brother is more formal than your sister -Superlativo: the + adjetivo o adverbio-est the most + adjetivo o adverbio I. of: para introducir los dems elementos ll. in/at: lugar Ex. This man is the most trustful of the staff Ex. George is cleverest at the school Ex. She is the most beautiful girl in the village Ex. Hes the shyest boy Ive ever met -Comparativos y superlativos irregulares good-better-the best, little-less-the least, much-more-the most, bad-worse-the worst -Inferioridad: little-less Ex. Your sister is less intelligent than mine Se suele usar: Your sister is not as/so intelligent as mine RELATIVOS -who/that, who/whom (que)/that, whose (cuyo), which (la cual, cual) Ex. The boy who/that is playing in the street is my brother Ex. I know the lady he is talkig to/whom he is talking Ex. The girl whose father is here is coming now -No defining Ex. Paris, which is a cosmopolitan city, is really gorgeous (maravillosa) REVISIN DE TIEMPOS VERBALES [En ingls no usan el se] tengo

Presente simple: (sujeto + presente) I have I havent He has He hasnt

Presente continuo: (sujeto + to be + ing) I am having He is having You/We/They are having Pasado simple (sujeto + segunda columna) I had I played

estoy teniendo

tuve

Pasado continuo (sujeto + to be en pasado + ing) I was having He was having

estaba o estuve teniendo

Pretrito perfecto/present perfect (sujeto + have/participio (3)) I have had He has had

he tenido

Pretrito pluscuamperfeto/past perfect (sujeto + had + participio (3col)) haba tenido I had had He had had He had played Futuro simple (sujeto + will/shall + infinitivo) I will have Futuro continuo (sujeto + will/shall + to be + ing ) I will be having Going to (sujeto + to be conjugado + to + infinitive) I am going to have Futuro perfecto (sujeto + will /shall + participio) I will have had He will have had tendr

estar teniendo

tendr /voy a tener (planeado)

habr tenido

Futuro perfecto continuo (sujeto + will/shall have been + ing) habr estado teniendo I will have been having He will have been having Condicional simple (sujeto + should/would + infinitive) They would go if they had to [go] yo limpiara, tendra

Condicional compuesto (sujeto + should/would + have + participio ed) I would have cleaned We should have talked to her if it had been necessary Condicional progresivo perfecto (sujeto + would/should + have been) habra estado teniendo We should have been cleaning INFINITIVE Drive Conducir PAST SIMPLE Drove Conduje PAST PARTICIPLE Driven Conducido

Despus de cualquier preposicin siempre se pone ing ESTILO INDIRECTO Hay dos maneras de contar lo que alguien dijo: I. Ex: She said: Ive lost my keys II. Ex: She said that she had lost her keys Demostrativos ESTILO DIRECTO This (ste, esto, sta) These (stos, stas) ESTILO INDIRECTO That (aqul, aquello, aquello, eso, sa) Those (aqullos, aqullas)

Adverbios y expresiones temporalis ESTILO DIRECTO now Today Yesterday The day before yesterday Tomorrow The day after tomorrow Next week/year Last week/year A year ago ESTILO INDIRECTO Then That day The day before Two days before The next/following day In two days time In following week/year Previous week/year. A year before/the previous year

Pasado perfecto continuo Pasado perfecto

Pasado continuo Presente simple

Presente continuo

Pasado simple

ESTILO DIRECTO Can May Must Will Shall (manera formal del will) Could Might Would Should Ough to (debes)

ESTILO INDIRECTO Could Might Had to Would Should Could Might Would Should Ought to

En interrogativas el estilo indirecto sera: Ex. He asked me where I was going MODAL VERBS Presente -Obligacin: Must, Have to -No es obligatorio: Dont have to, Neednt -Prohibicin: Cant, Mustnt -Consejo: Should/Shouldnt, Ought to, Must (recomendacin fuerte) Pasado -Consejo: Should have/shouldnt have, Ough to have -Obligacin: Had to -No es obligatorio: Neednt have to, Didnt have to Presente -Habilidad: Can, Cant, Be able to -Permiso: Can, Cant, Be allowed to -Preguntas educadas: May Pasado -Habilidad: Could, Couldnt -Permiso: Could, Couldnt

-Preguntas educadas: Could, Might Presente -Certeza de que algo es cierto: Must -Certeza de que algo no es cierto: Cant -Posibilidad: Could, Might Pasado -Posibilidad: May have, Might have -Algo posible pero que no ocurrir: Could have -Certeza de que algo es imposible: Cant have, Couldnt have -Deduccin, certeza, conclusiones lgicas: Must have Ejemplo con May: -Simple: It may rain tomorrow (sujeto + modal + infinitivo) -Presente continuo: It may be raining (sujeto + modal + be + ing del verbo) -Presente perfecto: It may have rained (sujeto + modal + have + 3 columna) -Pasado continuo: It may have been raining (sujeto + modal + have been + ing) LA VOZ PASIVA TENSES Infinitive Perfect infinitive Simple present Present continuous Simple past Past continuous Present perfect Future Conditional ACTIVE VOICE To sell To have sold Sells Is selling Sold Was selling Has sold Will sell Would sell PASSIVE VOICE To be sold To have been sold Is sold Is being sold Was sold Was being sold Has been sold Will be sold Would be sold

Estructura de la voz pasiva: Sujeto + Verbo to be conjugado + participio pasado del verbo + by + agente (se suele omitir) Ex. My sisters dog was run over by a bus Ex. My watch has been stolen Act. My mother keeps the sugar in the cupboard Pas. The sugar is kept in the cupboard by my mother Act. Someone built this tower in 1495 Pas. This tower was built in 1495 COSTUMBRE EN EL PRESENTE -Usually, Generally, Never, Often Ex. Norman usually drinks wine Ex. James doesnt often smoke cigars Ex. Lulu is always late Ex. My children go to the park every day COSTUMBRE O HBITO DEL PASADO -Sujeto + used to + infinitive -Did + sujeto + use to + infinitive? -Used + sujeto + to + infinitive? -Sujeto + didnt use to + infinitive -Sujeto + usednt to + infinitivo

Ex. I used to play the mouthorgan when I was a boy -Would: sola (Internviene en la voluntad) Ex. He would light a cigarette after dinner (voluntad) Ex. She used to catch a cold every winter (no interviene la voluntad)

PREPOSITIONS IN TIME EXPRESSIONS -At -at six oclock -at midnight -at Christmas -at the weekend -In -in 2007 -in the morning/afternoon/evening -in December -in Summer -in two weeks time -On -on Saturday -on Monday morning -on Christmas day -on January 18 -Some: uncountable + countable -A little, little: uncountable -A few, few: countable -A lot of: Cuando hay algo detrs. Ex. A lot of people -Hardly ever: Rara vez ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Tipo 0. Falsas condicionales (general conditions) If + clause en presente.presente Ex. If you heat a piece of ice, it melts Tipo 1. Probable conditions If + clause en presente.futuro Ex. If you are late, I wont wait for you Tipo 2. Improbable conditions If + clause en pasado simple condicional simple Ex. If broke that vase, my mother would get very angry Tipo 3. Impossible conditions If + clause en past perfect condicional compuesto If + clause en past perfect condicional simple Ex. If you had seen Mary, you wouldnt have recognized her Alternativas en las condicionales -Unless: a menos que (usar en vez de if not) Ex. Unless you do your homework, your teacher will punish you -Provided that: Pero solo s, siempre y cuando

CONJUNCIONES -and, but, bothand, or, eitheror, neither.nor, not only.but also -Besides: adems de -However: sin embargo -Neverheless: a pesar de, sin embargo -Otherwise: de otra manera, si no -So: as que, por lo tanto -Therefore = So pero ms formal -Though: aunque -There is: hay (singular) -There are: hay (plural) DOBLAR CONSONANTES Si un verbo en su infinitivo termina en consonante + vocal + consonante, entonces al hacer el ing, tenemos que doblar su ltima letra. Ex. run - running POSESIVOS (mi) (ir) (jis) (jer) (its) (ur) (ir) (dir) my your his her its our your their mi, mis tu, tus (de t); su, sus (de ustedes) su, sus (de l) su, sus (de ella) su, sus (de l o ella, para cosas) nuestro, nuestra, nuestros, nuestras vuestro, vuestra, vuestros, vuestras su, sus (de ellos o ellas)

PRONOMBRES PERSONALES (COMO SUJETO) (i) (i) (j) (sh) (it) (u) (i) (di) I you he she it we you they yo tu, usted l ella ello (para cosas) nosotros, nosotras ustedes, vosotros, vosotras ellos, ellas

PRONOMBRES OBJETIVOS (COMO COMPLEMENTO) (m) (i) (jm) (jer) (it) (as) (i) (dm) me you him her it us you them me, a m te, a ti, a usted le, a l le, a ella le, a ello (para cosas) nos, a nosotros, a nosotras les, a ustedes; a vosotros, a vosotras les, a ellos, a ellas

APUNTES VARIOS -So (tan, as, entonces) y Such (tan, semejante, tal, tanto) -So + adverd/adjetive + that tan que Ex. Shes so cute that everyone loves her Ex. So stupid -Such I. Such + an/a (cosas, sustantivos contables) Ex. Shes such a cute girl that II. Such + nada (plurals o incontables) Ex. They are such cute girls that Ex. We had such terrible weather that. -Whichever: cual sea -Whenever: cuando sea -Whoever: quien sea -Whatever: lo que sea -Instead of: en vez de -Because of: debido a -Unlike: a diferencia de Despus de Would you____-ing? Juan had just finished reviewing the project Have you ever been to Genova? (been- ir y volver) mientras que (gone- marcharse) None: ninguno, ninguna

PRONUNCIACIN EN INGLS Palabras con patrones de letras para ciertos sonidos Sonido i line, night, fly, lie, find, Sonido i tail, place, stay, eight,

Sonido u gold, coat, hole, slow, Sonido u round, out, down, now, Sonido i cube, use, new, view, Sonido ar care, rare, fair, pear, Sonido er learn, turn, bird, sir, Sonido ar fear, near, beer, here, Sonido ier fire, hire, dryer, flyer, Sonido o ball, law, cause, fraud, Palabras con letras mudas (Silent letters) Silent b debt, doubt, subtle, Silent c muscle, scene, science, Silent d handkerchief, handsome, Silent g gnome, sign, foreign, Silent h heir, honest, ghost, Silent k knee, knife, knot, Silent l could, half, folk, palm, Silent n autumn, column, hymn, Silent p cupboard, corps, receipt, Silent s aisle, island, debris, chassis, Silent t castle, listen, ballet, depot, Silent w wrap, wreck, answer, sword,

VERBOS IRREGULARES INFINITIVE Drive Conducir awake be have do bear beat become bid bind bite bleed break blow bring burn burst abide buy cast catch choose come cost cut draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget forgive forsake freeze hang get give go grow PAST SIMPLE Drove Conduje awoke was/were had did bore beat became bade bound bit bled broke blew brought burnt burst abode bought cast caught chose came cost cut drew dreamt drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave forsook froze hung got gave wen grew PAST PARTICIPLE Driven Conducido awoken been had done borne beaten become bidden bound bitten bled broken blown brought burnt burst abode bought cast caught chosen come cost cut drawn dreamt drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen hung got given gone grown SIGNIFICADO Conducir Conducir despertar/se ser/estar tener/haber hacer soportar golpear llegar a ser mandar, pedir atar, amarrar morder sangrar romper soplar traer quemar estallar, reventar habitar comprar echar, tirar coger escoger venir costar cortar dibujar, arrastrar soar beber conducir morar, habitar comer caer alimentar sentir luchar encontrar volar prohibir olvidar perdonar abandonar congelar, helar colgar lograr, alcanzar dar ir crecer

INFINITIVE hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead learn leave lend light let lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see seek sell send set shake shine shoot show shut sing sit sleep slide smell speak spell spend spoil stand swing steal stick strike swim

PAST SIMPLE heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led learnt left lent lit let lost made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set shook shone shot showed shut sang sat slept slid smelt spoke spelt spent spoilt stood swung stole stuck struck swam

PAST PARTICIPLE heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led learnt left lent lit let lost made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set shaken shone shot shown shut sung sat slept slid smelt spoken spelt spent spoilt stood swung stolen stuck struck swum

SIGNIFICADO or esconder pegar sujetar, agarrar herir guardar saber, conocer poner, colocar guiar, liderar aprender salir, dejar permitir encender permitir, alquilar perder hacer, fabricar significar encontrar, quedar pagar poner leer montar sonar, taer elevarse correr decir ver buscar vender enviar colocar agitar,temblar brillar disparar mostrar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir resbalar oler hablar deletrear gastar estropear sostener balancear robar pegar, untar golpear nadar

INFINITIVE take teach tell think tread understand undertake wake wear win write

PAST SIMPLE took taught told thought trod understood undertook woke wore won wrote

PAST PARTICIPLE taken taught told thought trodden understood undertaken woke (n) worn won written

SIGNIFICADO coger, tomar ensear decir pensar pisar entender emprender despertar usar ganar escribir