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Type II Sedimentation—Flocculent Settling

Expected results

Students shall obtain a design curve of TSS removal vs. time and design a basin based on the curve generated. An example of the detailed analysis follows.

1. From the measured weights determine the TSS concentration (mg/L).

TSS = (final weight – tared weight)/sample volume filtered

Table 1: Sample TSS results from each sample port for 22 L column.

Time

 

TSS Concentration (mg/L)

 
 

A

B

C

D

0

130.1

130.1

130.1

130.1

5

85.5

98.9

110.8

118.5

10

52.7

69.7

83.5

105

15

31.6

42.4

64.3

85.8

20

18.8

25.6

42.1

55.6

30

5.1

11.8

29.4

30.7

40

0.7

2.5

13.7

16.6

Note: A, B, C, and D are the sampling ports. A is at the top and D is at the bottom.

2. Determine the % solids removed for each port and plot.

% solids removed = (TSS 0 – TSS t )/TSS 0 × 100

Table 2: Sample % solids removal for 22 L column.

Time

 

% solids removed

 

(min)

A

B

C

D

0

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

5

34.28

23.98

14.83

8.92

10

59.49

46.43

35.82

19.29

15

75.71

67.41

50.58

34.05

20

85.55

80.32

67.64

57.26

30

96.08

90.93

77.40

76.40

40

99.46

98.08

89.47

87.24

100.00 90.00 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 A B C D 0.00
100.00
90.00
80.00
70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
A
B
C
D
0.00
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
% Solids Removed

Tim e (m in)

3. Correct for depth change from the water surface to the sampling ports due to

sampling. From plot determine the time and depth for each 10% solids removed. For the 22 L column, it is about a 1.3 cm loss of depth for each sampling time point. Organize % solids values as a function of depth and time in a chart and plot as follows:

Table 3: Isoconcentration table corrected for depth.

Time

 

Depth

(cm)

(min)

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.5

28

2.5

58.5

28

4

89

58.5

28

5.5

109.3

6

87.6

26.6

6.5

57.1

7.5

26.6

8.5

87.6

57.1

10.5

106.6

25.3

11

55.8

11.5

86.3

13

55.8

25.3

14

106.6

15

84.6

16

105

54.2

17

84.6

23.7

18

105

20

52.7

21

103.5

22

83.1

24

22.2

26

103.5

29

52.7

32

80.9

33

101.3

0 ∆d 1 20 90% 40 ∆d 2 60 80% ∆d 40% 3 80 10%
0
∆d
1
20
90%
40
∆d
2
60
80%
∆d
40%
3
80
10%
50%
60%
70%
100
20%
30%
∆d 4
120
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Depth (cm)

Time (min)

4. The overall removal at selected times is calculated from:

% overall removal at t

=

n

i = 1

d

i

R

i

+

R

i + 1

D

2

with d i as shown in the isoconcentration curve, D is the total depth of the settling column, R i and R i+1 are the lower and upper bounds of % removal for d i (use R i = 100% for d 1 ). This procedure is repeated for a range of times to obtain the design curve of overall removal vs. time.

5. The design settling velocity (D/t design ) is equal to the surface loading rate (Q/A s ) where

D is the depth of the column, Q is the flowrate and A s is the surface area of the basin. However, safety factors of 0.65-0.85 need to be applied to the design settling velocity and 1.25-1.5 to the detention time.

References

Droste, R. L. (1997) Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. (1991) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, Reuse, 3 rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.