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48571 Electrical Machines

Contents
Introduction Principle Elemental DC Machines Structure Name Plate Magnetic Fields EMF and Torque Steady State Equivalent Circuit DC Generator Performance
Establishment of terminal voltage External characteristics and voltage regulation Efficiency

DC Machines

Prof. J.G. Zhu School of Electrical, Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology University of Technology, Sydney

DC Motor Performance
Torque/speed curve Efficiency Speed control

Introduction
The DC machine is an electromechanical device that converts

Principle
Elementary DC machine
The fundamental principle is based on the Faradays law, and

mechanical energy into DC electrical energy (generator) or the other way around as in the case of a motor. The DC machine is the first type of electrical machine employed for practical applications. DC generators are commonly used for battery charging, electrolysis, synchronous machine excitation and welding, etc. DC motors have excellent drive performance for wide speed range with convenient, smooth, and accurate speed control, and high starting, braking, and over load capability, and therefore, are suitable for electrical drive systems with requirements for wide speed range and high precision and dynamic performance, such as steel rolling, electrical propulsion, crane, textile and cold machining, etc. With the fast development of power electronics and control, DC generators are being replaced by rectifiers, and motors by AC motor drive systems, but still there are a number of applications.

the electromagnetic force/torque produced by current carrying conductors in a magnetic field.


Diagram

on the right shows the structure of an elementary DC machine, which consists of a pair of electromagnets on the stator, and a rotor also known as armature with slots to hold coils.

Principle
Elementary DC generator
Consider a coil placed in a uniform magnetic field inclined at an
(t ) = NAB sin = N sin

Principle
Elementary DC generator
In order to generate a DC emf, a device known as commutator

angle . The magnetic flux linkage of the coil varies with its angular position by

(rectifier by mechanical means) can be used. The average value of the DC emf can be calculated as
Eav = =

where N is the number of turns, A the cross sectional area, B the flux density, and =AB the flux linking the coil.
When the coil is rotated at an angular

[ N cos( t + )]d t
1
3 2 2 r r 0 r

speed r, an electromotive force (emf) is induced. By Faradays law, this emf can be expressed as
e(t ) = d (t ) = r N cos( r t + 0 ) dt d dt

When there are a great number of coils

r Nsin (r t + 0 ) 3 2 =
2

r N

embedded in the slots around the rotor or armature surface, a stable DC emf can be obtained.

where
r =

and (t ) = r t + 0

Principle
Elementary DC motor
When the elementary DC generator is operated inversely, i.e.

DC Machine Structure
Large DC machine
Commutator Brushes Stator Poles Inter Poles Armature Slots and Winding Shaft

supplied by a DC current, a unidirectional torque can be produced with the help of the commutator.
If the DC current is ia, the average

torque can be calculated by dividing the electromagnetic power by the speed, i.e.
Tav = Eav ia

Bearing

Nia

Stator Case

DC Machine Structure
Small DC machine

DC Machine Structure
Permanent Magnet DC machine

DC Machine Structure
Cross sectional illustration
The

DC Machine Structure
Stator
The DC machine housing supports

the stator, brushes, and bearings. stator contains main poles excited by DC current to produce the magnetic fields. These poles are mounted on an iron core that provides a closed magnetic circuit. On the surface of main poles, there are slots to hold the compensation windings, which are connect in series with the armature winding to reduce the effect of armature reaction. In the middle between main poles or the neutral zone, commutating/inter poles, which are connected in series with the armature winding, are placed to reduce sparks on the commutator.

DC Machine Structure
Rotor or armature
The rotor has a ring-shaped

DC Machine Structure
Commutator and brushes
The commutator consists of insulated

laminated iron core with slots. Coils with multiple turns are placed in the slots. The distance between the coil sides is about 180o electrical. The coils are connected in series through the commutator segments.

copper segments mounted on an insulated tube. The ends of each coil are connected to two commutator segments. Brushes of positive and negative polarities are pressed to the commutator to permit current flow. These brushes are placed in the neutral zone, where the magnetic field and hence the induce emf are close to zero, to reduce arcing. The commutator and brushes switch the current from one rotor coil to the adjacent coil.

Rotation

Ir_dc/2
Shaft

Brush

Ir_dc

Ir_dc/2

Pole winding

| 1 8 2 3 6 5 4

Insulation Rotor Winding

Ir_dc

Copper segment

DC Machine Structure
Armature windings
According to the pattern how the coils are connected, the

DC Machine Structure
Armature windings
Lap winding: a = p, where

armature windings can be classified as (a) Lap winding and (b) Wave winding. These two different connections result in different numbers of the parallel paths of the armature winding between the positive and negative brushes, a.

p is the number of poles.

DC Machine Structure
Armature windings
Wave winding: a = 2

DC Machine Name Plate


Rated quantities
Rated Power Prated (W or kW) The output power under the

rated operating conditions. For a generator, it is the electrical power output at the terminals, whereas for a motor, the mechanical power output at the shaft. Rated voltage Vrated (V) The voltage at the electrical terminals when the machine is operated under the rated conditions. Rated current Irated (A) The current at the electrical terminals when the machine is run with rated voltage and output power. Rated speed rrated (rev/min) The rotor speed when the machine is operated with rated voltage and output power. Rated excitation current Ifrated (A) The field winding current when the machine is run with rated voltage, current and speed. Rated efficiency rated (%) The percentage ratio between the output and input power when the machine is in rated conditions.

Magnetic Fields
Stator, rotor and combined field distribution
Stator field Armature field Resultant field

Magnetic Fields
Armature field in airgap
Cut and unroll of a 2 pole DCM Armature mmf

The stator and armature fields in a DC machine are

perpendicular to each other, because of the effect of commutator. The resultant field is distorted by the armature field with the neutral zone shifts towards the rotating direction in the case of a generator, or away from the rotating direction in a motor.

Magnetic Fields
Resultant airgap field and armature reaction
Stator airgap field and mmf Resultant field

Magnetic Fields
Armature field compensation and commutation
The armature reaction can cause serious commutation difficulty

heavy sparks.
Three methods to improve commutation: (a) Interpoles,

(b) Compensation coils, and (c) Shift brushes.

Armature reaction: Shift the neutral zone for an angle Reduce the total flux because of the magnetic saturation

C=# of coils in rotor Z=# of conductors on rotor N=# of turns per coil a=# of current paths in the rotor

EMF & Torque


Assume a real DC machine has p poles, Ca conductors in the

EMF & Torque


The induced emf and electromagnetic torque of a single coil in

armature, and a parallel paths between the positive and negative brushes. The total number of coils, which has N turns each, is Ca/(2N), and the number of coils in each path is Ca/(2Na). Previously, it was calculated that the induced emf and electromagnetic torque in an elementary single coil two pole DC machine are
Eav = 2

the real DC machine of p poles are


Tcoil = av a = Nia and r The total armature emf and electromagnetic torque can then be calculated by multiplying the emf and torque of a single coil by the number of coils in a parallel path and the total number of coils respectively as
Ecoil = Ea = Ca C p pCa Ecoil = a r N = r 2 Na 2 Na 2a C C p pCa T = a Tcoil = a Nia = I a 2N 2N 2a p

r N

E i

r N

and

Tav =

Eav ia

Nia

The real machine however has p poles. Once the coil rotates for

a complete cycle of NSN poles, or 2 electrical radians, mechanically it only rotates for 4/p mechanical radians, or =(p/2)m, and r=dm/dt, where m is the angular position in mechanical radians. Therefore, we obtain
(t ) =
p (r t + m 0 ) 2

and or

Ea = K a r pC a Ka = 2a

and

T = K a I a

and

d p = r dt 2

where I a = aia , and constant.

is known as the emf or torque

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Symbol
The DC machine symbol shown below on the right hand side

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Excitation connections
There are four types of connections: (a) Separate excitation, (b)

resembles its cross section on the left hand side. The field winding produces a flux when excited by a DC current, and across the brushes, an emf is produced when the armature or rotor rotates.

Series excitation, (c) Shunt excitation, and (d) Compound excitation.

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Separately excited DC generator
Complete

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Separately excited DC generator
Corresponding to the steady state equivalent circuit of a

dynamic equivalent circuit of a separately excited DC generator Model


vt = va = ea Ra ia La
v f = Rf if + Lf di f dt d r dt

separately excited DC generator shown below, the circuit and torque equations are:
Va = Ea Ra I a

Vf = Rf I f

and T = Tshaft Tloss

dia dt

Tshaft Tloss T = J

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Separately excited DC motor
Complete dynamic equivalent circuit of a

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Separately excited DC motor
Corresponding to the steady state equivalent circuit of a

separately excited DC motor Model


vt = va = ea + Ra ia + La v f = Rf if + Lf di f dt d r dt dia dt

separately excited DC motor shown below, the circuit and torque equations are:
Va = Ea + Ra I a

Vf = Rf I f

and

T = Tload + Tloss

T Tloss Tshaft = J

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Shunt DC machines

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Series DC machines
Ia Ra Is Rs Vs Ea Va Vt It

T+Tloss
r

Tshaft

For shunt DC motor


Va = Ea + Ra I a

For shunt DC generator


Va = Ea Ra I a

For series DC motor


Va = Ea + Ra I a

For series DC generator


Va = Ea Ra I a

Vf = Rf I f It = I a + I f

Vf = Rf I f Ia = It + I f

Vs = Rs I s It = I a = I s

Vs = Rs I s It = I a = I s

Vt = V f = Va

Vt = V f = Va

Vt = Vs + Va

Vt = Va Vs

and T = Tload + Tloss

and T = Tshaft Tloss

and T = Tload + Tloss

and T = Tshaft Tloss

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Compound DC machines

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Parameter determination
The DC machine steady state equivalent circuit parameters to be

For compound DC motor


Va = Ea + Ra I a

For compound DC generator


Va = Ea Ra I a

determined are the field winding resistance, armature circuit resistance (winding resistance plus brush-commutator contact resistance), and emf or torque constant. The resistances can be measured by V/A method. It should be noted that the shunt field winding has a large resistance while the armature circuit and series field winding have small resistances. Therefore, the Ammeter should be connect in series with the shunt field winding first and then in parallel with the Voltmeter, where for the latter test, the Voltmeter should be connected in parallel with the armature circuit or series field winding and then in series with the Ammeter.

Vf = Rf I f

Vf = Rf I f

Vs = Rs I s It = I s + I f

Vt = Vs + Va = V f Is = Ia

Vs = Rs I s It = I s I f

Vt = Va Vs = V f Is = Ia

and

T = Tload + Tloss

and T = Tshaft Tloss

Steady State Equivalent Circuit


Parameter determination
The emf or torque constant can

DC Generator Performance
Shunt generator self excitation

be determined by the no load test in the following steps:


Set up and connect the DC

machine as a separately excited generator with the armature open circuited; Drive it at the rated speed; Adjust If from zero to the rated value, and measure the terminal voltage or emf; Ka = Ea/r
Ea(If) is known as the

The conditions for voltage

build-up:
There must be residual

magnetisation curve
When magnetic saturation is

considered, Ka is not a constant.

magnetism If not, use a battery to given an initial excitation; The connection of the field circuit to the armature circuit must be correct such that the excitation field aids the residual magnetism If not, swap the terminals; The Re + Rf line must be lower than the airgap line such that the rated voltage can be established.

DC Generator Performance
External characteristic
The relationship between the terminal voltage and current, Vt vs. It, of

DC Generator Performance
External characteristic

a DC generator excited by the rated field current and driven at the rated speed is defined as the external characteristic. It can be determined experimentally by measuring the terminal voltage at different load currents when the generator is operated at the defined condition. It can also be calculated by the equivalent circuit model. For example, for a separately excited generator, it can be calculated by
Vt = Va = Ea Ra I a

when r = rrated and I f = I frated The discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical results is due to the armature reaction.

Theoretical

DC Generator Performance
Voltage regulation
The voltage regulation of a DC generator is defined as the percentage

DC Generator Performance
Efficiency
The efficiency of a DC generator is defined as the percent ratio

variation of the terminal voltage from no load to full load, i.e.


VR = Vt , NL Vt , FL Vt ,rated = Ea Vt ,rated Vt ,rated

between the output power and input power, and can be expressed as
=
Pout Vt I t = 2 Pin V f I f + I a Ra + Vs I s + Vt I t + Tlossr

For a separately excited DC generator, for example, the voltage

regulation can be calculated as


VR = Ra I a ,rated Vt ,rated = Ra RL ,rated
Ra (I t ,rated + I f ) Vt ,rated

For the separately excited DC generator, for example, one has Vt I t Va I a Va I a = = = 2 V f I f + Tshaftr V f I f + (T + Tloss )r V f I f + I a Ra + Va I a + Tlossr

For a shunt DC generator, the voltage

regulation can be calculated as


VR = Ra I a ,rated Vt ,rated =

where Tloss is the retarding torque corresponding to the total of core and mechanical power losses, which is approximately equal to the no load power.

1 1 = Ra + R R f + Re L ,rated

DC Motor Performance
Efficiency
The efficiency of a DC motor is defined as the percent ratio between

DC Motor Performance
Torque/Speed curves
The external characteristic of a DC

the output power and input power, and can be expressed as (T Tloss )r P Toutr = out = =
Pin Va I a + V f I f Va I a + V f I f

motor is the torque/speed curve.


For a separately excited DC motor,

one has

r =

where Tloss is the retarding torque corresponding to the total of core and mechanical power losses, which is approximately equal to the no load power, and Tout = TL.

or

Ea V Ra I a = a Ka Ka Va Ra r = T K a (K a )2

Because of the armature reaction, at

heavy load the speed increases.

DC Motor Performance
Torque/Speed curves
For a shunt DC motor, the torque/speed

DC Motor Performance
Torque/Speed curves
The torque/speed curve of a typical

curve can be expressed same as the separately excited motor, i.e.


r =
Vt Ra T K a (K a )2

The operating point of series DC motors are

= KsIs, where Is = Ia, and thus


2 T = K a I a = K a K s I a

generally designed in the linear region, i.e. or I a =


T Ka Ks

Therefore, we have
r =
Ea V ( Ra + Rs ) I a Vt ( Ra + Rs ) I a = t = Ka Ka Ka Ks Ia

or

r =

Vt R + Rs a Ka Ks K a K sT

series DC motor is plotted on the right hand side. Because the torque of a series DC motor is proportional to the square of armature current, for the same value of armature current, the series motor can produce much higher torque, and as the load torque increase, the speed drops very fast. Therefore, the series DC motors are suitable for electrical vehicle drive. It should be noted that series DC motors must not be operated at no load. As the armature current changes its direction, the magnetic field alters its direction accordingly, and hence series motors can also be operated by AC current universal motors.

T=

(Ra + Rs )2

K a K sVt 2

r =

Ra + Rs KaKs

DC Motor Performance
Torque/Speed curves
In a compound DC motor, the series excitation is employed to

DC Motor Performance
Speed control
There are two methods to control

compensate the field weakening effect of armature reaction such that the total flux remains constant. The torque/speed curve can be derived as
r =
= Ea V (Ra + Rs )I a = t K a ( f + s ) K a ( f + s ) Vt R + Rs a T K a (K a )
If Vf Rf Ia Ra Is Rs Vs Ea Va Vt It

the speed of a separately excited DC motor: (a) Varying armature terminal voltage, and (b) Flux weakening.
r =
Va Ra T K a (K a )2

When the armature voltage varies, the

T
r

TL+Tloss

no load speed varies accordingly, but the gradient is kept constant. Therefore, the torque/speed curves are in parallel. Note that Va must < Va,rated. When Vf is reduced while Va = Va,rated, both the no load speed and gradient increase. For a normal load torque, the operating speed increases.

DC Motor Performance
Speed control
There are also two methods to control the

DC Motor Performance
Speed control
There are also two method to control the
r

TL
T=

speed of a shunt DC motor: (a) Varying armature circuit resistance, and (b) Flux weakening, while the terminal voltage is kept constant.
r =
Va R + Rea a T K a (K a )2

speed of a series DC motor: (a) Varying the terminal voltage, and (b) Varying the armature circuit resistance.
r =
Vt R + Rs + Rea a Ka Ks K a K sT
P1 0

(Ra + Rs )2
2 K a K sVt1

K a K sVt 2 2

Vt1 > Vt2

T=

(Ra + Rs )2

T
R + Rs r = a Ka Ks

When reducing the terminal voltage below

When the armature resistance increases, the

no load speed does not vary, but the gradient increases. Therefore, for a given load, the speed reduces. When the field circuit resistance increases, both the no load speed and gradient increase. For a normal load torque, the operating speed increases.

the rated value, the intersection of the torque/speed curve and the T axis moves towards the origin and the operating speed is reduced. When the armature circuit resistance is increased while the terminal voltage is kept constant, the lower bound of the torque/speed curve moves down, and the operating speed is reduced.

TL
T=

(Ra + Rs + Rea )2 (Ra + Rs )2


K a K sVt 2

K a K sVt 2

P P1 0

T=

T
R + Rs r = a Ka Ks

r =

Ra + Rs + Rea KaKs

DC Motor Performance
Speed control
Since the series excitation is

DC Motor Performance
Speed control systems
Multi stage starting (DCM_MultiStage_Starting.mdl). One quadrant chopper 5HP DC motor drive system

used to compensate the field weakening effect of the armature reaction, the torque/speed curves of a compound DC motor are the same as those of a shunt motor, and therefore the speed control methods are the same as those for a shunt DC motor. The speed control methods are often employed to limit the starting current of DC motors. The diagram on the right hand side illustrates the three step starting of a shunt DC motor to limit the armature current below I2=T2/(Ka).

(power_dcdrive.mdl, power_dcdrive_disc.mdl, dc5_example.mdl).


Two quadrant three phase rectifier 200HP DC motor drive system

(dc3_example.mdl)
Note that Ka = LafIf, where Laf is the mutual inductance between

field and armature windings (a parameter used in the Simulink DC machine model). More examples can be found in Matlab/Simulink help Contents and Demo.
P
Rea = 0 Rea = R1 Rea = R1+R2 Rea = R1+R2+R3

ro

T1

T2

DC Motor Performance
Speed control systems
Example: One quadrant chopper 5HP DC motor drive system

Reading
Textbook:
Chapter 4. Introduction to Rotating Machines Chapter 7. DC Machines Exercises: Textbook Section 7.12, Problems 7.1 7.27

(power_dcdrive.mdl).

Lecture notes at UTSOnline

Specified speed r = 120 rad/s; TL = 5 Nm;

In the PI controller, Ia is capped at 30 A to avoid overheating.


(TL+Tloss)/(Ka) = (5+0.02x120)/1.23 = 6.016 (A), and Va= Kar + RaIa = 1.23x120 + 0.5x6.016 = 150.608 (V)

If = Vf/Rf = 1 A, and in steady state, Ia =