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Apr 24, 2014

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Contents

Introduction Principle Elemental DC Machines Structure Name Plate Magnetic Fields EMF and Torque Steady State Equivalent Circuit DC Generator Performance

Establishment of terminal voltage External characteristics and voltage regulation Efficiency

DC Machines

Prof. J.G. Zhu School of Electrical, Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology University of Technology, Sydney

DC Motor Performance

Torque/speed curve Efficiency Speed control

Introduction

The DC machine is an electromechanical device that converts

Principle

Elementary DC machine

The fundamental principle is based on the Faradays law, and

mechanical energy into DC electrical energy (generator) or the other way around as in the case of a motor. The DC machine is the first type of electrical machine employed for practical applications. DC generators are commonly used for battery charging, electrolysis, synchronous machine excitation and welding, etc. DC motors have excellent drive performance for wide speed range with convenient, smooth, and accurate speed control, and high starting, braking, and over load capability, and therefore, are suitable for electrical drive systems with requirements for wide speed range and high precision and dynamic performance, such as steel rolling, electrical propulsion, crane, textile and cold machining, etc. With the fast development of power electronics and control, DC generators are being replaced by rectifiers, and motors by AC motor drive systems, but still there are a number of applications.

Diagram

on the right shows the structure of an elementary DC machine, which consists of a pair of electromagnets on the stator, and a rotor also known as armature with slots to hold coils.

Principle

Elementary DC generator

Consider a coil placed in a uniform magnetic field inclined at an

(t ) = NAB sin = N sin

Principle

Elementary DC generator

In order to generate a DC emf, a device known as commutator

angle . The magnetic flux linkage of the coil varies with its angular position by

(rectifier by mechanical means) can be used. The average value of the DC emf can be calculated as

Eav = =

where N is the number of turns, A the cross sectional area, B the flux density, and =AB the flux linking the coil.

When the coil is rotated at an angular

[ N cos( t + )]d t

1

3 2 2 r r 0 r

speed r, an electromotive force (emf) is induced. By Faradays law, this emf can be expressed as

e(t ) = d (t ) = r N cos( r t + 0 ) dt d dt

r Nsin (r t + 0 ) 3 2 =

2

r N

embedded in the slots around the rotor or armature surface, a stable DC emf can be obtained.

where

r =

and (t ) = r t + 0

Principle

Elementary DC motor

When the elementary DC generator is operated inversely, i.e.

DC Machine Structure

Large DC machine

Commutator Brushes Stator Poles Inter Poles Armature Slots and Winding Shaft

supplied by a DC current, a unidirectional torque can be produced with the help of the commutator.

If the DC current is ia, the average

torque can be calculated by dividing the electromagnetic power by the speed, i.e.

Tav = Eav ia

Bearing

Nia

Stator Case

DC Machine Structure

Small DC machine

DC Machine Structure

Permanent Magnet DC machine

DC Machine Structure

Cross sectional illustration

The

DC Machine Structure

Stator

The DC machine housing supports

the stator, brushes, and bearings. stator contains main poles excited by DC current to produce the magnetic fields. These poles are mounted on an iron core that provides a closed magnetic circuit. On the surface of main poles, there are slots to hold the compensation windings, which are connect in series with the armature winding to reduce the effect of armature reaction. In the middle between main poles or the neutral zone, commutating/inter poles, which are connected in series with the armature winding, are placed to reduce sparks on the commutator.

DC Machine Structure

Rotor or armature

The rotor has a ring-shaped

DC Machine Structure

Commutator and brushes

The commutator consists of insulated

laminated iron core with slots. Coils with multiple turns are placed in the slots. The distance between the coil sides is about 180o electrical. The coils are connected in series through the commutator segments.

copper segments mounted on an insulated tube. The ends of each coil are connected to two commutator segments. Brushes of positive and negative polarities are pressed to the commutator to permit current flow. These brushes are placed in the neutral zone, where the magnetic field and hence the induce emf are close to zero, to reduce arcing. The commutator and brushes switch the current from one rotor coil to the adjacent coil.

Rotation

Ir_dc/2

Shaft

Brush

Ir_dc

Ir_dc/2

Pole winding

| 1 8 2 3 6 5 4

Ir_dc

Copper segment

DC Machine Structure

Armature windings

According to the pattern how the coils are connected, the

DC Machine Structure

Armature windings

Lap winding: a = p, where

armature windings can be classified as (a) Lap winding and (b) Wave winding. These two different connections result in different numbers of the parallel paths of the armature winding between the positive and negative brushes, a.

DC Machine Structure

Armature windings

Wave winding: a = 2

Rated quantities

Rated Power Prated (W or kW) The output power under the

rated operating conditions. For a generator, it is the electrical power output at the terminals, whereas for a motor, the mechanical power output at the shaft. Rated voltage Vrated (V) The voltage at the electrical terminals when the machine is operated under the rated conditions. Rated current Irated (A) The current at the electrical terminals when the machine is run with rated voltage and output power. Rated speed rrated (rev/min) The rotor speed when the machine is operated with rated voltage and output power. Rated excitation current Ifrated (A) The field winding current when the machine is run with rated voltage, current and speed. Rated efficiency rated (%) The percentage ratio between the output and input power when the machine is in rated conditions.

Magnetic Fields

Stator, rotor and combined field distribution

Stator field Armature field Resultant field

Magnetic Fields

Armature field in airgap

Cut and unroll of a 2 pole DCM Armature mmf

perpendicular to each other, because of the effect of commutator. The resultant field is distorted by the armature field with the neutral zone shifts towards the rotating direction in the case of a generator, or away from the rotating direction in a motor.

Magnetic Fields

Resultant airgap field and armature reaction

Stator airgap field and mmf Resultant field

Magnetic Fields

Armature field compensation and commutation

The armature reaction can cause serious commutation difficulty

heavy sparks.

Three methods to improve commutation: (a) Interpoles,

Armature reaction: Shift the neutral zone for an angle Reduce the total flux because of the magnetic saturation

C=# of coils in rotor Z=# of conductors on rotor N=# of turns per coil a=# of current paths in the rotor

Assume a real DC machine has p poles, Ca conductors in the

The induced emf and electromagnetic torque of a single coil in

armature, and a parallel paths between the positive and negative brushes. The total number of coils, which has N turns each, is Ca/(2N), and the number of coils in each path is Ca/(2Na). Previously, it was calculated that the induced emf and electromagnetic torque in an elementary single coil two pole DC machine are

Eav = 2

Tcoil = av a = Nia and r The total armature emf and electromagnetic torque can then be calculated by multiplying the emf and torque of a single coil by the number of coils in a parallel path and the total number of coils respectively as

Ecoil = Ea = Ca C p pCa Ecoil = a r N = r 2 Na 2 Na 2a C C p pCa T = a Tcoil = a Nia = I a 2N 2N 2a p

r N

E i

r N

and

Tav =

Eav ia

Nia

The real machine however has p poles. Once the coil rotates for

a complete cycle of NSN poles, or 2 electrical radians, mechanically it only rotates for 4/p mechanical radians, or =(p/2)m, and r=dm/dt, where m is the angular position in mechanical radians. Therefore, we obtain

(t ) =

p (r t + m 0 ) 2

and or

Ea = K a r pC a Ka = 2a

and

T = K a I a

and

d p = r dt 2

Symbol

The DC machine symbol shown below on the right hand side

Excitation connections

There are four types of connections: (a) Separate excitation, (b)

resembles its cross section on the left hand side. The field winding produces a flux when excited by a DC current, and across the brushes, an emf is produced when the armature or rotor rotates.

Separately excited DC generator

Complete

Separately excited DC generator

Corresponding to the steady state equivalent circuit of a

vt = va = ea Ra ia La

v f = Rf if + Lf di f dt d r dt

separately excited DC generator shown below, the circuit and torque equations are:

Va = Ea Ra I a

Vf = Rf I f

dia dt

Tshaft Tloss T = J

Separately excited DC motor

Complete dynamic equivalent circuit of a

Separately excited DC motor

Corresponding to the steady state equivalent circuit of a

vt = va = ea + Ra ia + La v f = Rf if + Lf di f dt d r dt dia dt

separately excited DC motor shown below, the circuit and torque equations are:

Va = Ea + Ra I a

Vf = Rf I f

and

T = Tload + Tloss

T Tloss Tshaft = J

Shunt DC machines

Series DC machines

Ia Ra Is Rs Vs Ea Va Vt It

T+Tloss

r

Tshaft

Va = Ea + Ra I a

Va = Ea Ra I a

Va = Ea + Ra I a

Va = Ea Ra I a

Vf = Rf I f It = I a + I f

Vf = Rf I f Ia = It + I f

Vs = Rs I s It = I a = I s

Vs = Rs I s It = I a = I s

Vt = V f = Va

Vt = V f = Va

Vt = Vs + Va

Vt = Va Vs

Compound DC machines

Parameter determination

The DC machine steady state equivalent circuit parameters to be

Va = Ea + Ra I a

Va = Ea Ra I a

determined are the field winding resistance, armature circuit resistance (winding resistance plus brush-commutator contact resistance), and emf or torque constant. The resistances can be measured by V/A method. It should be noted that the shunt field winding has a large resistance while the armature circuit and series field winding have small resistances. Therefore, the Ammeter should be connect in series with the shunt field winding first and then in parallel with the Voltmeter, where for the latter test, the Voltmeter should be connected in parallel with the armature circuit or series field winding and then in series with the Ammeter.

Vf = Rf I f

Vf = Rf I f

Vs = Rs I s It = I s + I f

Vt = Vs + Va = V f Is = Ia

Vs = Rs I s It = I s I f

Vt = Va Vs = V f Is = Ia

and

T = Tload + Tloss

Parameter determination

The emf or torque constant can

DC Generator Performance

Shunt generator self excitation

Set up and connect the DC

machine as a separately excited generator with the armature open circuited; Drive it at the rated speed; Adjust If from zero to the rated value, and measure the terminal voltage or emf; Ka = Ea/r

Ea(If) is known as the

build-up:

There must be residual

magnetisation curve

When magnetic saturation is

magnetism If not, use a battery to given an initial excitation; The connection of the field circuit to the armature circuit must be correct such that the excitation field aids the residual magnetism If not, swap the terminals; The Re + Rf line must be lower than the airgap line such that the rated voltage can be established.

DC Generator Performance

External characteristic

The relationship between the terminal voltage and current, Vt vs. It, of

DC Generator Performance

External characteristic

a DC generator excited by the rated field current and driven at the rated speed is defined as the external characteristic. It can be determined experimentally by measuring the terminal voltage at different load currents when the generator is operated at the defined condition. It can also be calculated by the equivalent circuit model. For example, for a separately excited generator, it can be calculated by

Vt = Va = Ea Ra I a

when r = rrated and I f = I frated The discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical results is due to the armature reaction.

Theoretical

DC Generator Performance

Voltage regulation

The voltage regulation of a DC generator is defined as the percentage

DC Generator Performance

Efficiency

The efficiency of a DC generator is defined as the percent ratio

VR = Vt , NL Vt , FL Vt ,rated = Ea Vt ,rated Vt ,rated

between the output power and input power, and can be expressed as

=

Pout Vt I t = 2 Pin V f I f + I a Ra + Vs I s + Vt I t + Tlossr

VR = Ra I a ,rated Vt ,rated = Ra RL ,rated

Ra (I t ,rated + I f ) Vt ,rated

For the separately excited DC generator, for example, one has Vt I t Va I a Va I a = = = 2 V f I f + Tshaftr V f I f + (T + Tloss )r V f I f + I a Ra + Va I a + Tlossr

VR = Ra I a ,rated Vt ,rated =

where Tloss is the retarding torque corresponding to the total of core and mechanical power losses, which is approximately equal to the no load power.

1 1 = Ra + R R f + Re L ,rated

DC Motor Performance

Efficiency

The efficiency of a DC motor is defined as the percent ratio between

DC Motor Performance

Torque/Speed curves

The external characteristic of a DC

the output power and input power, and can be expressed as (T Tloss )r P Toutr = out = =

Pin Va I a + V f I f Va I a + V f I f

For a separately excited DC motor,

one has

r =

where Tloss is the retarding torque corresponding to the total of core and mechanical power losses, which is approximately equal to the no load power, and Tout = TL.

or

Ea V Ra I a = a Ka Ka Va Ra r = T K a (K a )2

DC Motor Performance

Torque/Speed curves

For a shunt DC motor, the torque/speed

DC Motor Performance

Torque/Speed curves

The torque/speed curve of a typical

r =

Vt Ra T K a (K a )2

2 T = K a I a = K a K s I a

T Ka Ks

Therefore, we have

r =

Ea V ( Ra + Rs ) I a Vt ( Ra + Rs ) I a = t = Ka Ka Ka Ks Ia

or

r =

Vt R + Rs a Ka Ks K a K sT

series DC motor is plotted on the right hand side. Because the torque of a series DC motor is proportional to the square of armature current, for the same value of armature current, the series motor can produce much higher torque, and as the load torque increase, the speed drops very fast. Therefore, the series DC motors are suitable for electrical vehicle drive. It should be noted that series DC motors must not be operated at no load. As the armature current changes its direction, the magnetic field alters its direction accordingly, and hence series motors can also be operated by AC current universal motors.

T=

(Ra + Rs )2

K a K sVt 2

r =

Ra + Rs KaKs

DC Motor Performance

Torque/Speed curves

In a compound DC motor, the series excitation is employed to

DC Motor Performance

Speed control

There are two methods to control

compensate the field weakening effect of armature reaction such that the total flux remains constant. The torque/speed curve can be derived as

r =

= Ea V (Ra + Rs )I a = t K a ( f + s ) K a ( f + s ) Vt R + Rs a T K a (K a )

If Vf Rf Ia Ra Is Rs Vs Ea Va Vt It

the speed of a separately excited DC motor: (a) Varying armature terminal voltage, and (b) Flux weakening.

r =

Va Ra T K a (K a )2

T

r

TL+Tloss

no load speed varies accordingly, but the gradient is kept constant. Therefore, the torque/speed curves are in parallel. Note that Va must < Va,rated. When Vf is reduced while Va = Va,rated, both the no load speed and gradient increase. For a normal load torque, the operating speed increases.

DC Motor Performance

Speed control

There are also two methods to control the

DC Motor Performance

Speed control

There are also two method to control the

r

TL

T=

speed of a shunt DC motor: (a) Varying armature circuit resistance, and (b) Flux weakening, while the terminal voltage is kept constant.

r =

Va R + Rea a T K a (K a )2

speed of a series DC motor: (a) Varying the terminal voltage, and (b) Varying the armature circuit resistance.

r =

Vt R + Rs + Rea a Ka Ks K a K sT

P1 0

(Ra + Rs )2

2 K a K sVt1

K a K sVt 2 2

T=

(Ra + Rs )2

T

R + Rs r = a Ka Ks

no load speed does not vary, but the gradient increases. Therefore, for a given load, the speed reduces. When the field circuit resistance increases, both the no load speed and gradient increase. For a normal load torque, the operating speed increases.

the rated value, the intersection of the torque/speed curve and the T axis moves towards the origin and the operating speed is reduced. When the armature circuit resistance is increased while the terminal voltage is kept constant, the lower bound of the torque/speed curve moves down, and the operating speed is reduced.

TL

T=

K a K sVt 2

K a K sVt 2

P P1 0

T=

T

R + Rs r = a Ka Ks

r =

Ra + Rs + Rea KaKs

DC Motor Performance

Speed control

Since the series excitation is

DC Motor Performance

Speed control systems

Multi stage starting (DCM_MultiStage_Starting.mdl). One quadrant chopper 5HP DC motor drive system

used to compensate the field weakening effect of the armature reaction, the torque/speed curves of a compound DC motor are the same as those of a shunt motor, and therefore the speed control methods are the same as those for a shunt DC motor. The speed control methods are often employed to limit the starting current of DC motors. The diagram on the right hand side illustrates the three step starting of a shunt DC motor to limit the armature current below I2=T2/(Ka).

Two quadrant three phase rectifier 200HP DC motor drive system

(dc3_example.mdl)

Note that Ka = LafIf, where Laf is the mutual inductance between

field and armature windings (a parameter used in the Simulink DC machine model). More examples can be found in Matlab/Simulink help Contents and Demo.

P

Rea = 0 Rea = R1 Rea = R1+R2 Rea = R1+R2+R3

ro

T1

T2

DC Motor Performance

Speed control systems

Example: One quadrant chopper 5HP DC motor drive system

Reading

Textbook:

Chapter 4. Introduction to Rotating Machines Chapter 7. DC Machines Exercises: Textbook Section 7.12, Problems 7.1 7.27

(power_dcdrive.mdl).

(TL+Tloss)/(Ka) = (5+0.02x120)/1.23 = 6.016 (A), and Va= Kar + RaIa = 1.23x120 + 0.5x6.016 = 150.608 (V)

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