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Al-Anjal National Schools (American Division) 2nd Term Science Study Guide Chapter 16.

Circulation

Section 1. The Bodys Transport System


Key Terms: students should know the spelling and the meaning of each word:

1. Cardiovascular system: The body system that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood; also called the circulatory system. 2. Heart: A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body. 3. Atrium: Each of the two upper chambers of the heart that receives blood that comes into the heart. 4. Pacemaker: A group of cells located in the right atrium that sends out signals that make the heart muscle contract and that regulates heart rate. 5. Ventricle: Each of the two lower chambers of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart. 6. Valve: A flap of tissue in the heart or a vein that prevents blood from flowing backward. 7. Artery: A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. 8. Capillary: A tiny blood vessel where substances are exchanged between the blood and the body cells. 7. Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart. 8. Aorta: The largest artery in the body; receives blood from the left ventricle. 9. Coronary artery: An artery that supplies blood to the heart itself.

Key Concepts:
-What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?
- What

is the structure and function of the heart? - What path does blood take through the cardiovascular system? - What are the functions and structures of arteries, capillaries, and veins?

Parts of the circulatory system 1. The Heart 2. The Blood 3. The Blood Vessels
(tubes that carry blood through the body).

- Its called the circulatory system because its function is to transport materials all over the body.

The blood carrying white blood cells, oxygen, messages from the brain, food to the body cells, and wastes away from the body cells.

- It is also called the cardiovascular system because it consists of the heart and blood vessels. Cardio means heart and vascular means tubes, or blood vessels in this case.

carries needed substances to cells


Fuctions of the cardiovascular system:

carries waste products away from cells blood contains cells that fight disease
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Carries needed
substances to cells.

Carries waste products away from cells.

Blood contains cells that fight disease.

Each time the heart beats, it pushes blood through the blood vessels of the cardiovascular system. The heart has a right side and a left side. The right side of the heart is completely separated from the left side by a wall of tissue. Each side has two chambers.

Each upper chamber, or atrium, receives blood that comes into the heart. Located in the right atrium is the pacemaker, a group of cells that send out signals that make the heart muscle contract. Each lower chamber, or ventricle, pumps blood out of the heart.

Blood Vessels
1. Arteries: carry blood away from the heart to our body. 2. Veins: bring blood back from the body to the heart. Veins have valves. Valves are flaps that keep the blood flowing in one direction. 3. Capillaries: smallest blood vessels. Oxygen passes through its walls to reach into the cells. Carbon dioxide and some wastes move from cells into capillaries.
- In the capillaries, materials are exchanged
between the blood and the bodys cells. Capillary walls are only one cell thick. One way in which materials are exchanged is by diffusion.

The overall pattern of the bodys blood flow consists of two loops.

In the first loop, blood travels from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart.

Blood comes back from all the parts of the body oxygen poor and filled with carbon dioxide in chamber 1 (right atrium). It falls in chamber 2 (right ventricle) to be pumped to the lungs to take oxygen and release the carbon dioxide.

Blood comes back oxygen rich from the lungs in chamber 3 (left atrium). It falls in chamber 4 (left ventricle) to be pumped to all the parts of the body.

In the second loop, blood is pumped from the heart through the body and then returns again to the heart. When blood leaves the heart, it travels through arteries.

Section 2. Blood & Lymph


Key Terms: students should know the spelling and the meaning of each word:

1. Plasma: The liquid part of blood. 2. Red blood cell: A cell in the blood that takes up oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to cells elsewhere in the body. 3. White blood cell: A blood cell that fights disease. 4. Platelet: A cell fragment that plays an important part in forming blood clots. 5. Lymphatic system: A network of veinlike vessels that returns the fluid that leaks out of blood vessels to the bloodstream. 6. Lymph: The fluid that the lymphatic system collects and returns to the bloodstream. 7. Lymph node: A small knob of tissue in the lymphatic system that filters lymph, trapping bacteria and other microorganisms that cause disease.

Key Concepts:
- What are the components of blood? - What determines the type of blood that a person can receive in a transfusion? - What are the structures and functions of the lymphatic system?

Blood consists of:


2. Red blood cells 3. White blood cells

1. Plasma

4. Platelets

- Plasma is the liquid part of blood. Plasma is mostly water, but 10 percent is made of dissolved materials. Plasma carries nutrients, such as glucose, fats, vitamins, and minerals. - Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells. - White blood cells are the bodys disease fighters. - Platelets are cell fragments that help form blood clots. They collect and stick to any site where a blood vessel is cut. Platelets then release chemicals that cause the production of the chemical fibrin. Fibrin weaves a net of fibers across the wound. The net traps blood cells and a clot is formed.
Blood type A: can receive transfusions of blood that does not have a B marker (anti-A): type A or O blood.

The four major types of blood

Blood type B: can receive transfusions of blood that does not have an A marker (Anti-B): type B or O.

AB blood type: have no clumping proteins. They can receive all blood types. (universal receiver) O blood type: have both anti-A and anti-B clumping proteins. They can only receive type O blood. (universal donor --> they can give blood to all people with different blood types)

In the capillaries, some fluid moves out of the cardiovascular system and into the surrounding tissues. The fluid moves into the bodys drainage system, called the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of vein like vessels that returns the fluid to the bloodstream. When the fluid enters the lymphatic system, it is called lymph Lymph nodes are small knobs of tissue that filter the lymph as it passes through, trap bacteria and other microorganisms that cause disease.

Section 3. Cardiovascular Health


Key Terms: students should know the spelling and the meaning of each word:

1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the buildup of fatty materials. 2. Heart attack: A condition in which blood flow to part of the heart muscle is blocked, causing heart cells to die 3. Hypertension: A disorder in which a persons blood pressure is consistently higher than normal; also called high blood pressure. Key Concepts:

- What are some diseases of the cardiovascular system? - What behaviors can help maintain cardiovascular health?

Hey! Whatsup! Wanna keep your heart healthy? - To help maintain cardiovascular health, people can exercise regularly; eat a diet that is low in saturated fats cholesterol, and sodium; and avoid smoking.

Atherosclerosis is a condition in which an artery wall thickens due to the buildup of fatty materials. One of these materials is a waxy, fatlike substance called cholesterol. Atherosclerosis restricts the flow of blood in the affected arteries.

If atherosclerosis develops in the coronary arteries that supply the heart, the heart muscle receives less blood. This condition may lead to a heart attack. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow to part of the heart muscle is blocked. Cells die in the part of the heart that does not receive blood. This permanently damages the heart.

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