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OD INTERVENTIONS The role of OD practitioners

OD INTERVENTIONS

The role of OD practitioners

What are interventions?

The intervention is the procedure the OD consultant uses, after diagnosing an organizational situation and providing feedback to management, to

address an organization problem or positive future.

Intervention “To intervene is to enter into an ongoing system of relationships, to come between

Intervention

“To intervene is to enter into an ongoing system of

relationships, to come between or among persons,

groups, or objects for the purpose of helping them”

(Chris Argyris (1970) Intervention theory and method. Reading, MA:

Addison-Wesley)

Intervention

“Intervention is any event, directed toward improving organizational effectiveness, that disrupts an organization‟s normal way of operating” (Smither, R. et al.

(1970) Organization Development: Strategies for Changing Environment. New York,

NY: HarperCollins)

Interventions sometimes involve a consultant from outside the organization, but many times management itself intervenes to make organizational changes.

Deciding on appropriate

OD initiatives

Deciding on appropriate OD initiatives
Deciding on appropriate OD initiatives

OD Interventions

The techniques that OD practitioners use to bring

about change.

Specific activities, resulting from the process of

diagnosis and feedback, that OD practitioners use

to bring about change.

Diagnosis and Intervention for OD

อะไรคือสิ่งที่องค์กรจาเป็นต้องมี

Organization Vision, Mission, Strategies

สมรรถนะที่จาเป็นต้อง มี
สมรรถนะที่จาเป็นต้อง
มี

ระดับสมรรถนะ ปัจจุบันของ องค์การ

ปัจจุบันของ องค์การ GAP Strategy for change

GAP

ปัจจุบันของ องค์การ GAP Strategy for change

Strategy for change

องค์การ GAP Strategy for change
องค์การ GAP Strategy for change
องค์การ GAP Strategy for change

สิ่งที่องค์การมีอยู่ในปัจจุบัน

Intervention Plan โครงการ

Intervention

Plan

Intervention Plan โครงการ โครงการ

โครงการ

โครงการ

โครงการ

โครงการ

A successful OD intervention

Communicate more openly

Collaborate more effectively

Take more responsibility

Maintain a shared vision

Solve problems more effectively

Show more respect and support for others

Interact with each other more effectively

Be more inquisitive

Be more open to experimentation and new

ways of doing things

Source: Porras&Hoffer (1986)

Environment

Organization or Sub-organization Individual Team Process Global Entry Start-up Organization-wide Assessment and
Organization or
Sub-organization
Individual
Team
Process
Global
Entry
Start-up
Organization-wide
Assessment
and Feedback
Action
Implementation
Community and
National
Planning
Evaluation
Adoption
Separation

Source: McLean, G. (2006) Organization Development: Principles, Processes, Performance.

In a larger sense…

Diagnosing and giving feedback are themselves

forms of intervention.

Just the fact that management has recognized a

problem and asked someone skilled in OD to study

the situation and make recommendations is likely to bring about some kind of change.

Chris Argyris

The founder of intervention theory

To intervene is to enter into an ongoing system of relationships to come between or
To intervene is to enter into an
ongoing system of relationships
to come between or among
persons, groups, or objects for
the purpose of helping them.
groups, or objects for the purpose of helping them. Argyris, C. (1970) Intervention theory and method.

Argyris, C. (1970) Intervention theory and method. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

In other words,

Just undertaking the study of system is likely to have

some impact on the way the system operates.

In a sense, intervention is any event, directed

toward improving organizational effectiveness, that

disrupts an organization‟s normal way of operating.

directed toward improving organizational effectiveness , that disrupts an organization‟s normal way of operating .

Who intervene?

Interventions sometimes involve a consultant from

outside the organization,

But many times management itself intervenes to

make organizational changes.

Case study: Euro Disney

Case study: Euro Disney  Management quickly intervened after it became apparent that the resort was

Management quickly intervened after it became apparent that the resort

was losing $1 million a day.

In fall, 1993, Euro Disney‟s CEO, Philippe Bourguignon, invited his 9000 employees – “cast members” in Disney jargon – to suggest ways to improve operations in the park.

Euro Disney employees responded with a surprising number of suggestions.

One of the recommendations being implemented cut the number of souvenir items stocked in the stores from 30000 to 17000.

employees also suggested the stores carry more Mickey and Minnie souvenirs and fewer „artistic‟ items.

Along the same lines, the number of different food items available to visitors was reduced from 5400 to 2000.

The goal of the intervention – which result in Euro Disney‟s first profits in the summer of 1995 is to cut costs by as much as $51 million.

Aside from specific techniques…

Intervention can also be thought of as a process.

As an OD practitioner begins the process, he/she bring four sets of attributes to the organizational

settings.

.  As an OD practitioner begins the process, he/she bring four sets of attributes to

OD practitioner and 4 sets of attribute

1. The practitioner bring the set of values that are

the foundation of the OD including

the belief that people are the cornerstone of success

in any organization endeavor, that most workers

desire personal growth and would like their jobs to be

interesting and challenging,

that organizations are systems of interdependent

parts where changes in one area can bring unexpected changes in another.

OD practitioner and 4 sets of attribute

2. The OD specialist has a set of assumption about

the individuals, groups, and organization and how

they operate.

Many times these assumptions are affected by the

theoretical school to which the practitioner belongs.

For example, some OD specialists may interpret organizational behavior from a sociotechnical systems approach, whereas others may be more comfortable using Lewin‟s unfreezing-moving-freezing model.

OD practitioner and 4 sets of attribute

3. The practitioner has goals for him/herself and for

the organization of values.

Particularly after the OD specialist has made a

diagnosis, these goals may differ from the goals

expressed by higher management when they contact the specialist.

In the process of planning the intervention, however,

the OD consultant and management work to make certain they are in agreement about their goals.

OD practitioner and 4 sets of attribute

4. The OD practitioner knows a variety of structured

activities and techniques to use in reaching those goals. These specific structured activities and techniques are interventions.

Although certain interventions are used more frequently

than others, the number and variety of interventions are always expanding. As new situations arise, and as the environments in which organizations operate change, new

interventions are developed to address organization

problems.

For example, virtually no interventions for diversity training existed even ten years ago, but diversity is now a major

area of activity for OD practitioners.

OD interventions

Individual level

Team/Group

Process

Global

Organization-wide Community and National

Source: McLean, G. (2006) Organization Development: Principles, Processes, Performance. CA: San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Individual interventions

Laboratory Training Group (T-Groups) Coaching

Mentoring

Self-Awareness Tools

Reflection

Training, Education and

Development

Leadership Development

Multirater (360-Degree) Feedback Job Design

Job Descriptions

Responsibility Charting

Policies Manual

Values Clarification and

Value Integration

Conflict Management

Action Learning

Source: McLean, G. (2006) Organization Development: Principles, Processes, Performance. CA: San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, pp.109-12.

Team/ Work Group interventions

Dialogue Sessions

Team Building

Team Development/ Effectiveness

Meeting Facilitation

Conflict Management/ Confrontation Meeting

Fishbowls

Strategic Alignment

Assessment

Source: McLean, G. (2006) Organization Development: Principles, Processes, Performance. CA: San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, pp.109-12.

Process interventions

Six Sigma

Continuous Process Improvement/TQM

Process Reengineering

Benchmarking

Sociotechnical Systems (STS)

Source: McLean, G. (2006) Organization Development: Principles, Processes, Performance. CA: San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, pp.109-12.

Organizational interventions

Organization Design

Company-wide Survey

Learning

Organization/Organizational

Learning

Culture Change

Accountability and Reward Systems

Succession Planning

Valuing Differences/Diversity

Strategic Planning, including Environmental Scanning and

Scenario Planning

Mission, Vision, and Values Development

Large-Scale Interactive Events

(LSIEs)

Open Systems Mapping

Future Search

Open Space Technology

Meetings

Source: McLean, G. (2006) Organization Development: Principles, Processes, Performance. CA: San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, pp.117-21.

Global interventions

Virtual teams and Virtual Teams Building

Cross cultural Teams and Cross-cultural Team Building

Cultural Self-Awareness

Cross-cultural Training

Storytelling/Sharing

Joint ventures International Diversity

Job Assignments

Blending

Source: McLean, G. (2006) Organization Development: Principles, Processes, Performance. CA: San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, pp.114-15.

COPs Open space Appreciative inquiry Knowledge café

COPs

COPs Open space Appreciative inquiry Knowledge café

Open space

COPs Open space Appreciative inquiry Knowledge café

Appreciative inquiry

COPs Open space Appreciative inquiry Knowledge café

Knowledge café

Knowing „Consultants‟ is important

It is also important to recognize that…

consultant whether internal or external has a particular area of expertise,

And that he or she often relies on that particular expertise to solve organizational problems. For example, some consultants specialize in teambuilding, some in personnel selection, some in

strategic planning, and so forth.

some consultants specialize in teambuilding, some in personnel selection, some in strategic planning, and so forth.

One lesson…

One of the critical aspects of making an intervention successful is being certain the person responsible for implementing change has a good

knowledge of intervention appropriate to the

situation.

the person responsible for implementing change has a good knowledge of intervention appropriate to the situation