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ELECTROCHEMISTRY

1. A direct current of 1.25A was passed trou! 2"" #$ of ".25M %e


2
&SO
'
(
)
so$ution for a
period of 1.1 our. Te resu$tin! so$ution in catod ca#*er was ana$+sed *+ titratin!
a!ainst acidic so$ution of 25 #$ ,MnO
'
was re-uired to reac te end point. .at is te
#o$arit+ of ,MnO
'
so$ution
"2. Conducti/it+ of a saturated so$ution of ( )
5 1
1.20 1" .
1
2
1
]

Cu Fe CN is S cm If te
/a$ue of so$u*i$it+ product of ( )
2
1
1
]
Cu Fe CN
is
)
2 1" ) 2

x
te /a$ue of 3 is & use
te fo$$owin! data in
2 1
S cm mol ( ) ( )
( )
( )
21"2 )""2 42"
1
' 2 ' '
1
1
]
1
]

CuSO K SO K Fe CN
m m m
A5S65
"0. '.1 !#s of a non radioacti/e nuc$ide
2)"
& ( X present in a sa#p$e of sa$t2 is #i3ed wit a /er+
s#a$$ -uantit+ of radioacti/e nuc$ide
220
& ( X and an a-ueous so$ution is prepared. Te wo$e
e$e#ent is re#o/ed as precipitate and we !et 25 #$ of a sa#p$e of a-ueous so$ution wit an
acti/it+
5
1"

ti#es of its initia$ acti/it+ ten its #o$ar conducti/it+


& (
M

is
2 2
1" y ten +7 8
&specific conducti/it+
5 1 1
2 1" cm


( &A5S95(
":. How $on! &in sec( a current of :.15 a#pere *e passed trou! 0"#$ of a ".1M NaCl
so$ution in order to #a;e its
12 pH
2 assu#in! no /o$u#e can!e8 &Ans90(
11. Te e-ui$i*riu# constant for te fo$$owin! reaction is
2
1"
x
. Te /a$ue of < < x is
=======.
( )
2 2 )
2:0 In Cu In Cu at K
+ + + +
+ +
" " "
".15 > ".'2 > ".'"
2 ) 2
? ? ?
Given E V E V E V
Cu Cu In In In In
1
1
]
+
+ + + + + +
&A5S95(
12. Te standard reduction potentia$ of a si$/er c$oride e$ectrode is ".2 @ and tat of a si$/er
e$ectrode is ".4: @. Te nu#*er of #i$$i#o$es of A!C$ tat can disso$/e in 1"
1
L of a ".1 M
A!5O
)
so$ution is
1). Te e#f of te ce$$ M?Meta$ nitrate &"."1 M(??Meta$ nitrate &".1 M(?M is found to *e
"."5:1 @ at 2:0 ,. Te /a$enc+ of #eta$ is &Ans91(
25. Te standard e#f of te ce$$2
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 ) 2 "
2 25 Zn Zn Fe Fe Pt at C
s aq aq aq
+ + +
is 1.5) @ and at
"
5" C is 1.55 @. Te /a$ue of
"
S for te o/era$$ reaction is

)1
A A(
1
15'.' K

B(
1
15'.' K


C(
1
15'.' K K


C(
1
44.2 K

21.
Curin! e$ectro$+sis under suita*$e conditions2 "."15 #o$ of cro#iu# is deposited on te
catode wen ".":" #o$ of e$ectrons is passed trou! a cro#iu# containin! e$ectro$+te.
.ic of te fo$$owin! su*stances cou$d a/e *een te e$ectro$+te8
A)
2
C!Cl
*B)
4 2 2
Na C! O
C)
5
C!F
D)
)
C!Cl
D.5o )95
Chiufen2 te o$d #inin! town $ocated witin te i$$s in te nort9east
Taiwan2 is a p$ace were +ou can rea$$+ e3perience TaiwanEs istorica$ $e!ac+. It
was te site of one of te $ar!est !o$d #ines in Asia. Accordin!$+2 Chiufen is often
referred to as !o$d capita$ of Asia. Te co#pound ,C5 is traditiona$$+ used to
e3tract !o$d fro# ore. Fo$d disso$/es in c+anide so$utions in te presence of air to
for#
9
2
Au&C5(
2 wic is sta*$e in a-ueous so$ution.

9 9 9
&s( &a-( 2&!( 2 &$( 2 &a-( &a-(
Au GC5 GO GH O Au&C5( GOH

). How #an+ !ra#s2 appro3i#ate$+2 of ,C5 are needed to e3tract 2"! of !o$d
fro# ore8 &Au 7 1:4(
A. 2"! B. 1.5! C. 1)! C. 0!
A-uare!ia2 a )61 #i3ture &*+ /o$u#e( of conc. HC$ and H5O
)
was de/e$oped
*+ te a$ce#ists as a #eans to disso$/e !o$d. Te process is actua$$+ a redo3
reaction.

9 9 9
&s( ) &a-( &a-( ' &a-( 2&!(
Au G 5O GC$ AuC$ G5O
Fo$d is too no*$e to react wit nitric acid. Howe/er2 !o$d does react wit
a-uare!ia *ecause te co#p$e3 AuC$
'
9
for#s.

G) 9 "
&a-( &s(
9 9 9 "
' &a-( &s( &a-(
Au G)e Au E 71.5@
AuC$ G)e Au G'C$ E 71@


'. Ca$cu$ate te for#ation constant2 appro3i#ate$+2 of AuC$
'
9
at 25
"
C.
A. 1"
5
B. 1"
25
C. 1"
12
C. 1"
'2
5. Te function of HC$ is to pro/ide C$
9
. .at is te purpose of te C$
9
in te a*o/e
reaction. Se$ect +our coice fro# te fo$$owin!
A. it is an o3idisin! a!ent B. it is a reducin! a!ent
C2 it is a co#p$e3in! a!ent C. it is a cata$+st
D.5o 190

)2
Te specific conducti/it+ &H( of a ".1 M 5aOH so$ution is "."221 S c#
IJ
. On
addition of an e-ua$ /o$u#e &@( of ".1 M HC$ so$ution2 te /a$ue of H fa$$s to
".""51 S c#
I J
. On furter addition of te sa#e /o$u#e @ of ".1M HC$2 te /a$ue of
H rises to "."14" S c#
91
.
1. Ca$cu$ate te e-ui/a$ent conducti/it+ & ( for 5aOH
A. 112 S c#
2
#o$
91
B. 221 S c#
2
#o$
91

C. ')2 S c#
2
#o$
91
C. 2:5 S c#
2
#o$
91
4. Ca$cu$ate te e-ui/a$ent conducti/it+ & ( for HC$
A. '5" S c#
2
#o$
91
B. ):0 S c#
2
#o$
91
C. 55" S c#
2
#o$
91
C. 112 S c#
2
#o$
91
0. . Ca$cu$ate te e-ui/a$ent conducti/it+ & ( for H
G
and OH
9
to!eter.
A. '5" S c#
2
#o$
91
B. )"4 S c#
2
#o$
91
C. 5"4 S c#
2
#o$
91
C. 112 S c#
2
#o$
91
:. Standard potentia$ of te fo$$owin! reaction can *e e3pressed as

9 9
2 2
1
H OGe H GOH
2


2 2
1?2
H H
" " "
.
9 9
&p ( &p (
RT RT RT
A. E 7 $n B. E 7 $n C.E 7 $n, C. 5one
% % % OH OH 1 1
] ]
D.5o6 1191)
Redox potential and Gibbs free energy
Te proton2 neutron2 and e$ectron are te tree su*9ato#ic partic$es i#portant in
ce#istr+. Te partic$es occup+ two re!ions. Kroton and neutron occup+ te
centra$ p$ace of te nuc$eus and e$ectron te /ast space outside te nuc$eus.
5eutron transfer does not ta;e p$ace in ordinar+ ce#ica$ reactions. Kroton
transfer constitutes acid9*ase reactions. E$ectron transfer constitutes redo3
reactions. Redo3 reactions are essentia$ for $ife. Kotos+ntesis and respiration are
two pri#e e3a#p$es. Redo3 reactions a$so a$$ow ;e+ ter#od+na#ic -uantities to
*e #easured as de#onstrated in tis pro*$e#.
Fi/en te fo$$owin! infor#ation
))

( )
G 9 "
&s(
9 9 "
&s( &s( &a-(
"
f )&a-(
"
f )
2
&a-(
A! Ge A! E 7".4::1@
A!Br Ge A! GBr E 7"."41)@
LF &5H ( 7921.5",M?#o$
LF A! 5H 7914.12,M?#o$
+

1
]

11. .at is NOE in te a*o/e Lati#er dia!ra# 8
A. 1.1)' @ B. 1.":0 @ C. )."45 @ C. 1.''1 @
12. A !a$/anic ce$$ usin! te standard +dro!en e$ectrode as an anode is
constructed in wic te o/era$$ reaction is

9 G
2&$( 2&!( 2 &$( &a-( ) &a-(
Br GH G2H O 2Br G2H O
Si$/er ions are added unti$ A!Br precipitates at te catode and
G
A! 1
]
reaces "."1
M. Te ce$$ /o$ta!e is #easured to *e 1.421 @. Ca$cu$ate E
"
for te !a$/anic ce$$
appro3i#ate$+. & $o! 0 7 ".:")" (
A. 1.4)' @ B. 2.1: @ C. 1."15 @ C. ".)2 @
1). Psin! te data !i/en in te co#preension and?or in te a*o/e two -uestions
wic of te fo$$owin! can *e ca$cu$ated 8
I. So$u*i$it+ of A!Br in a ".1M a-ueous so$ution of a##onia at 25
"
C.
II.
" G
f &a-(
LF &A! (
III. So$u*i$it+ of Br
2
in water at 25
"
C.
I@. ,
SK
of A!Br
&s(
at 25
"
C.
A. III Q I@ B. I Q I@ C. I2 III2 Q I@ C. I2 II2 III2 Q I@
1'. Consider te fo$$owin! standard reduction potentia$s2
half reaction E
o
,
5i
2G
&a-( G 2e
9
R77S 5i&s( 9".2)
Co
2G
&a-( G 2e
9
R77S Co&s( 9".20
%e
2G
&a-( G 2e
9
R77S %e&s( 9".'1
Cr
)G
&a-( G )e
9
R77S Cr&s( 9".4'
Mn
2G
&a-( G 2e
9
R77S Mn&s( 91.")
wic of te fo$$owin! #eta$s cou$d *e used successfu$$+ to !a$/aniTe stee$8
A. 5i on$+ B. 5i and Co d

)'
9 9
) &a-( 2&a-( &a-(
G1.':1@ G1.50'@
O
BrO HOBr Br Br
G1.''1@
C. %e on$+ C. Mn and Cr
15. Consider te fo$$owin! reduction9o3idation reaction2
Un&s( G Cu
2G
&a-( 99S Cu&s( G Un
2G
&a-(2 E
o
7 G1.1" @
.en te co#ponents of te two a$f9reactions in/o$/ed in tis reaction are
correct$+ separated2 tis reaction can *e used to do e$ectrica$ wor; and te can!e
in interna$ ener!+ of te s+ste# decreases. .ic of te fo$$owin! state#ents *est
descri*es wat wi$$ appen if Un&s( is added to a so$ution containin! Cu
2G
&a-( in an
insu$ated container at constant /o$u#e at 25
o
C8
A. Te reaction wi$$ occur and te te#perature of te so$ution wi$$ increase.
B. Te reaction wi$$ occur and te te#perature of te so$ution wi$$ decrease.
C. Te reaction wi$$ occur and te te#perature of te so$ution wi$$ re#ain te
sa#e.
C Te reaction wi$$ not occur and te te#perature of te so$ution wi$$ re#ain te
sa#e.
!roble" #$ Acidified water is electrolysed using an inert electrode. The volume of gases
liberated at STP is 0.168L. The uantity of charge !assed through the acidified
water would be
"a# $6%&00' "b# $%6&0'
"c# $6&' "d# 168'
%olution$ &c) 2H
2
O 2H
2&!(
G O
2&!(
23 3
)3 7 ".110
3 7 "."51L
2
H
@
7 23 7 ".112L2
2
O
@
7 3 7 "."51L
11.2L of H
2
at STK 1%
".112L of H
2
at STK "."1%
"."51L of O
2
at STK 7 "."1%
Te a#ount of e$ectricit+ passed 7 "."1% 7 :15C
!roble" '($ Standard electrode !otential data are useful for understanding the suitability of
an o(idant in a redo( titration. Some half cell reactions and their standard
!otentials are given below )
'
MnO & ( aq

* 8+
*
"a# * &e

,n
-*
"a# * .+
-
/ "l#0 1
0
2 1.&1 3
'r
-
2
4
O

"a# * 1.+
*
"a# * 6e

-'r
4*
"a# * 5+
-
/ "l#0 1
0
2 1.443
6e
4*
"a# * e

6e
-*
"a#0 1
0
2 0.55 3
'l
-
"g# * -e

-'l

"a#0 1
0
2 1..0 3
7dentify the only correct statement regarding the uantitative estimation of
aueous 6e"8/
4
#
-

)5
"a# ,n
'
O

can be used in aeous +'l


"b# 'r
-
2
4
O

can be used in aueous +'l
"c#
'
MnO

can be used in aueous +


-
S/
.

"d# 'r
-
2
4
O

can be used in aueous +
-
S/
.

%olution$ &b, c, d)
@ )rite*up +
O3idation9reduction titrations are i#portant in ana$+tica$ ce#istr+ and a discussion of
te# pro/ides considera*$e insi!t into te operation of !a$/anic ce$$s as we$$ as te use
of te 5ernst e-uation.
%or 5ernst e-uation ca$cu$ation we wi$$ use ceric ion2 Ce
'G
2 *ecause it is a one e$ectron
o3idisin! a!ent2 and consider te titration of 5" #$ of ".2M %e
2G
*+ a /o$u#e @&#$( of
".2M Ce
'G
. Te reaction is
%e
2G
G Ce
'G
%e
)G
G Ce
)G
Te ceric ion is added fro# *urret to a ri!t9and *ea;er containin! te ferrous ion. Into
tis *ea;er are p$aced a sa$t *rid!e and a p$atinu# wire2 so tat te ri!t *rea;er #a+ *e
operated as a a$f9ce$$ a!ainst te standard +dro!en e$ectrode. In te ri!t *ea;er eiter
of te two a$f9reactions2
Ce
'G
G e
V



Ce
)G
%e
)G
G e
V



%e
2G
can ta;e p$ace.
1. After addition of so#e a#ount of Ce
'G
suc tat an e-ui$i*riu# is esta*$ised
*etween %e
)G
2 %e
2G
2 Ce
'G
and Ce
)G
2 wic a#on! te fo$$owin! can *e re!arded as
a$f ce$$6
&a( %e
)G
V %e
2G
a$f ce$$ &*( Ce
'G
V Ce
)G
a$f ce$$
&c( %e
)G
V Ce
)G
a$f ce$$ &d( eiter of &a( or &*( can *e ta;en
2. .en ce#ica$ e-ui$i*riu# e3ists *etween te ions ten wic is true for
e-ui$i*riu# a$f ce$$ potentia$ &E
ce$$
( of tis so$ution6
&a( ) 2 ' )
ce$$
%e ? %e Ce ? Ce
E E E
+ + + +

&*( ' ) ) 2
ce$$
Ce ? Ce %e ? %e
E E E
+ + + +

&c( ' ) ) ? 2
ce$$
Ce ? Ce %e
E E E
+ + + +

&d( none of tese
). .ic a#on! te fo$$owin! e3pression indicates e-ui/a$ence point of a*o/e
titration. &E
ep
E#f at e-ui/a$ence point of ri!t a$f ce$$(.
&a( ) 2 ' )
o o
ep
%e ? %e Ce ? Ce
E E E
+ + + +
+
&*(
) 2 ' )
o o
%e ? %e Ce ? Ce
ep
E E
E
2
+ + + +
+

&c( ) 2 ' )
o o
ep
%e ? %e Ce Ce
E 2&E E (
+ + + +
+
&d( none of tese
%olution $
1. &d)
2. &d) At e-ui$i*riu# ' ) ) 2
ce$$
Ce ? Ce %e ? %e
E E E
+ + + +


)1
). &b) At e-ui/a$ence point
2 )
" "
ep %e Ce ) '
W%e XWCe X
2E E E ."5:1$o!
W%e XWCe X
+ +
+ +
+ 2 were ) 2 ' )
" " " "
%e
%e ? %e Ce Ce ? Ce
E E 2 E E
+ + + +
1
]
" "
%e Ce
E E ."5:1$o!1 +
or
" "
%e Ce
ep
E E
E
2
+

@ )rite*up ++
Te E
"
/a$ues for te can!es !i/en *e$ow are #easured a!ainst 5HE at 24
"
C.
Cu
2G
G e Cu
G
> E
"
7 G".15 @
Cu
G
G e Cu > E
"
7 G".5" @
Un
2G
G 2e Un > E
"
7 9".41 @
Te te#perature coefficient of e#f a ce$$ desi!ned as UnY Un
2G
Y Y Cu
2G
Y Cu is V1.' 1"
9'
@
1M ".1M
per de!ree. %or a ce$$ reaction in e-ui$i*riu# F 7 " and F
"
7 92.)") RT $o!
1"
,
C
.
Te eat of reaction and entrop+ can!e durin! te reaction are re$ated *+ F 7 H 9
TS.
1. Te eat of reaction for te can!e
Un G Cu
2G



Un
2G
G Cu at 24
"
C is6
".1M 1 M
&a( V2.110 1"
5
M &*( V2.1:4 1"
5
M
&c( V2.2)4 1"
5
M &d( V1.010 1"
5
M
2. Can!e in entrop+ for te reaction6
Un G Cu
2G



Un
2G
G Cu at 24
"
C is6
".1M 1 M
&a( 1' M &*( 24 M
&c( V1'M &d( V24 M
). Te e-ui$i*riu# constant for te disproportionation of Cu
G
is6
&a( 0.5 1"
95
&*( 0.5 1"
5
&c( 0.5 1"
9'
&d( 0.5 1"
1
%olution $
1. &a)
p
E
H nF " E
"

1
_

1

, 1
]
7 2 :15"" W)"" &91.' 1"
9'
( V 1."555
7 92.110 1"5 M
)4
2. &d) F 7 H 9 T S
92.")4 1"
5
7 92.110 1"
5
V )"" S
S 7 924 M
). &b)
"
"."5:
$o!
1
c
E K
or ".)5 7
"."5:
$o!
1
c
K
,
c
7 0.5 1"
5
%ub,ecti-e
!roble" '$ Ca$cu$ate te so$u*i$it+ product and so$u*i$it+ of A!C$ in te fo$$owin! ce$$ wic
as an e#f of ".'55 /o$ts at 25ZC.
A!?A!C$ in ".1 M ,C$ Y ".1 M A!5O
)
Y A!
a
1
7 8 a
2
%olution$ A!
+
1
a
Ag
G e
V
2
a
A!
+
G e
V
A!
VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
2
a
A!
+

1
a
A!
+
E 7
1
2
"."5:1 a
$o!
1 a

7 "."5:1 $o!
2
1
a
a
7 "."5: $o!
1
".1
a
7 ".'55
1
".1 ".'55
$o!
a "."5:

7 4.41
1
".1
anti $o!
a

4.41 7 5.12: 1"
4
a
1
7
4
".1
WA! X
5.12: 1"
+

7 1.:5 1"
V:
WC$
V
X 7 1"
V1
So$u*i$it+ product of A!C$ 7 WA!
G
X WC$
V
X
7 1.:5 1"
V:
1"
V1
7 1.:5 1"
V1"
So$u*i$it+ of A!C$ 7 WA!
G
X 7 WC$
V
X 7
1"
1.:5 1"

7 1.):1 1"
V5
#o$es?$itre
!roble" .$ %or te !a$/anic ce$$
A! Y A!C$
&s(
,C$ &".2M( YY ,Br &".""1 M( A!Br
&s(
Y A!

)0
Ca$cu$ate te e#f !enerated and assi!n correct po$arit+ to eac e$ectrode for a
spontaneous process after ta;in! into account te ce$$ reaction at 25ZC
W,
sp
&A!C$( 7 2.0 1"
V1"
> ,
sp
&A!Br( 7 ).) 1"
V1)
X
%olution$ Te !i/en ce$$ #a+ *e written as under
A!YA!
G
&C
1
(C$
V
&".2M( YY A!
G
&C
2
(2 Br
V
&".""1 M( Y A!
Te a*o/e ce$$ in a concentration ce$$ wit te ce$$ reaction
WA!
G
X
RHS
WA!
G
X
LHS
and ce$$ potentia$ 7 V "."5:
LHS
RHS
WA! X
$o!
WA! X
+
+
E
ce$$
7 V "."5:1 $o!
sp
sp
W, A!C$X?WC$ X
W, A!BrX?WBr X

7 V "."5:1 $o!
1"
1)
2.0 1" ".""1
".2 ).) 1"

7 V "."5:1$o!
:
1"
1' 1"
)) 1"

1
1

]
7 V "."5:1 $o! '.2'2 7 V "."5:1 ".1241 7 V ".")4": /o$ts
Since ce$$ potentia$ is ne!ati/e2 te ce$$ reaction wi$$ *e spontaneous in te re/erse
direction i.e. A!C$ G Br
V
A!Br G C$
V
wit C$
V
Y A!C$ Y A! ser/in! as catode &G/e ter#ina$( and Br
V
Y A!Br Y A! as
anode & V/e ter#ina$(. Te spontaneit+ is due to te fact tat A!Br is $ess so$u*$e
tan A!C$.
!roble" /$ Ca$cu$ate EM% of te ce$$
Kt2 H
2
&".1 at#( Y so$ution &pH 7 '( YY
M
1""
,C$ so$ution &saturated wit A!C$( Y A!
and e-ui$i*riu# constant of te ce$$ reaction at 25ZC. Fi/en
o
Ag , Ag
E
+ 7 ".0" @
and
,
sp
&A!C$( 7 '.)1 1"
V11
at 25ZC.
%olution$ Cell reaction$
2
1
H
2
0 A!
G
H
G
G A!&s(
D 7
1? 2
2
WH X
WH X WA! X
+
+
7
'
1? 2 :
1"
&".1( &'.)1 1" (

7 2.2: 1"
'.5
&Q pH 7 ' WH
G
X 7 1"
V'
M. WH
2
X 7
2
H
P
7 ".1 at#2 and
,
sp
7 WA!
G
X WC$
V
X2 WA!
G
X 7
sp
,
WC$ X

7
11
2
'.)1 1"
1"

7 '.)1 1"
V:
M(
E
ce$$
7
o
Ce$$
E V "."5: D
7
( ) 1
2 2
o o
A! 2A! H 2 H
E E
+ +

V "."5: $o! D
7 &".0" V "( V "."5: $o! &2.2: 1"
'.5
(
7 ".0" V "."5: &$o! 2.2: G '.5(
7 ".0" V "."5: &".)5:0 G '.5( 7".51'@
):
Alternate "ethod$
A! 2A!
E
+
7
o
A! 2A!
E
+ G "."5: $o! WA!
G
X
7 ".0" G "."5: $o! &'.)1 1"
V:
(
7 ".0" G "."5: &".1':) V :(
7 ".0" G ".")44 V ".5)1 7 ".)"14
1
2 2
H 2 H
E
+
7
2
2
1? 2
H
1
H H
2
K
E "."5: $o!
WH X
+ +
+

7 " V "."5: $o!


1? 2
'
1"
1"

7 V "."5: ).5 7 V ".2"15


E
ce$$
7
2
o
1
A! 2A!
H 2 H
2
E E
+
+

7 ".)"14 G ".2"15 7 ".51)2 @


E 7 E
o
V "."5: $o! D
At e-ui$i*riu#6 E 7 " and D 7 , 7 e-ui$i*riu# constant
So2 E
o
7 "."5: $o! ,
".0" 7 "."5: $o! ,
, 7 ).122 1"
1)
!roble" ($ Construct te ce$$ correspondin! to te reaction6
)Cr
2G
&1M( 2Cr
)G
&1M( G Cr&s(
and predict if te reaction is spontaneous. A$so ca$cu$ate te fo$$owin!
i( H and S of te reaction at 25ZC.
ii( F of te reaction at 25ZC wen Cr
2G
7 ".5 M and Cr
)G
7 ".25 M
Fi/en
o
Cr , Cr
3
E
+ 7 ".5 @2
o
Cr , Cr
2 3
E
+ + 7 V ".'1 @
FZ of te reaction at )5ZC 7 V 24".5" ;M
%olution$ Te ce$$ correspondin! to te !i/en reaction is as fo$$ows.
Kt YCr
2G
&1M(2 Cr
)G
&1M( YY Cr
2G
&1M( Y Cr&s(
I Cr
)G
G )e Cr&s(2
o
Cr , Cr
o
I
3
FE 3 G
+

II Cr
)G
G e Cr
2G
2
o
Cr , Cr
O
II
2 3
FE G
+ +

E-. I V E-. II6 Cr
2G
G 2e Cr&s(2 FZ 7 V ) ".5 % V ".'1 %
7 V 1.:1 %
FZ 7 V 2 2
o
Cr 2Cr
%E
+ 7 V 1.:1 %

o
Cr , Cr
2
E
+ 7
2
91 . 1
7 ".:55 @
2
o o
Ce$$
Cr 2Cr
E E
+

V ) 2
o
Cr 2Cr
E
+ + 7 ".:55 G ".'1 7 1.)15 @
o
cell
E is G/e so FZ is V @e and ence te !i/en reaction is spontaneous
i( FZ 7 V n%
o
cell
E 7 V 2 :15"" 1.)15 M
7 V 21).'' ;M
%ro# Fi**<s V He$#o$tT e-uation

'"
F 7 H G T
K
& F(
T

1
1

]
V 21).'' 7 H G 2:0
& 24".5" 21).''(
1"
+
7 H V 2:0 ".4"1
H 7 9 5)."5 ;M
S 7
H F
T

7
5)."5 21).''
2:0
+
7 ".4"1 ;M ,
V1
7 4"1 ;M ,
V1
ii( F 7 FZ G RT $n D2 D 7
) 2 2
2 ) )
WCr X &".25(
WCr X &".5(
+
+
7 ".5
7 V 21).'' G 0.)1' 1"
V)
2:0 2.)") $o! ".5
7 V 21).'' V 5.4"5 .)"1") 7 V 21).'' V 1.414 7 V 21'.414 ;M
!roble" 1$ Consider te ce$$6 K* Y K*SO
'
Y 5a
2
SO
'
1"H
2
O
Te te#perature coefficient of te e#f of a*o/e ce$$ is "."""14'@ de!
V1
and eat
of reaction is V 141.1'1 ;M. Ca$cu$ate e#f of te ce$$.
%olution$ Te ce$$ reaction is
At anode K*
&s(
G SO
'
2V
K*SO
'&s(
G 2e
V
At catode H!
2
SO
'&s(
G 2e
V
2H!
&$(
G SO
'
2V
VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
K*
&s(
G H!
2
SO
'&s(
K*SO
'&s(
G 2H!
&$(
i.e. te nu#*er of e$ectrons in/o$/ed are two2 su*stitutin! te /a$ues of ;nown
ter#s in e-uation &)(
V 1411'1 M 7 V &2( &:15"" M @
V1
( E
"
G &2:0 , ( &:15"" M @
V1
( &2( &".""14' @,
V1
(
E
"
7 ".:1'5@
!roble" 2$ Te so$u*i$it+ product of %e&OH(
)
at 25ZC is 1"
V)1.'
#o$
'
d#
V12
and E
"
&%e
)G
?%e( 7
V ".")1 @. Ca$cu$ate te standard e#f of te reaction %e&OH(
)&s(
%e
)G
G )OH
V
.
%olution$ Te ce$$ can *e for#ed as %eY%e
)G
> OH
V
Y %e&OH(
)&s(
Y %e
Te e$ectrode reactions can *e written as
%e
&s(
%e
)G
G )e
V
%e&OH(
)
&s( G )e
V
%e
&s(
G )OH
V
O/era$$ reaction is i.e.2 *+ addin!
i.e. 2
)
" " "
OH ? %e&OH( ? %e %e ? %e
E E E
+

)
"
OH ? %e&OH( ? %e
E
can *e ca$cu$ated if we ;now E
"
and E
"
can *e ca$cu$ated as fo$$ows
" )1.'
"."5:1
E $o!1"
".)

7
"."5:1 & )1.'(
".45@
)

)
"
OH ? %e&OH( ? %e
E ".45 ".")1 ".401@


'1
!roble" '3$ It is desired to constructed te fo$$owin! /o$taic ce$$ to a/e E
ce$

7 "."01"@. .at
WC$
V
X #ust *e present in te catode a$f ce$$ to acie/e tis resu$t8
A!&s( Y A!
G
&satd. A!I
&a-(
( YY A!
G
&satd. A!C$2 3MC$
V
( A!
G
&s(
,
sp
WA!C$ 7 1.0 [ 1"
V1"
2 A!I 7 0.5 [ 1"
V14
X>
"
A! ? A!
E ".0"@
+

%olution$ At L.H.S. a$f ce$$ A!&s( A!
A
G
&a-( G e
V
"
A! ? A!
E ".0"@
+

At R.HS. a$f ce$$ A!
c
G
&a-( A!&s(
"
A! ? A!
E ".0"@
+

R.H.S.
VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
A!
c
G
&a-( A!
A
G
&a-( E
"
ce$$
7 ".""@
A!
G
&L.H.S.( is fro# A!& &satd. A-(
A!I&s(

A!
G
&a-(
G I
V
&a-(
,
sp
7 WA!
G
X WI
V
X 7 WA!
G
X
2
WA!
G
X
A!I
7 WA!
G
X
A
7
sp
,
7
14 0
0.5 1" ".:22" 1" M


A!
G
&R.H.S.( is fro# A!C$ in presence of WC$
V
X 7 3M
A!C$
&s(


A!
G
&a-(
G C$
V
&a-(
,
sp
7 WA!
G
X WC$
V
X
0
sp
C
,
1.0 1"
WA! X
WC$ X 3


WC$
V
X
" A
ce$$ ce$$
C
WA! X "."5:1
E E $o!
1 WA! X
+
+

"."01" 7 V "."5:1
0
1"
".:22"3 1"
$o!
1.0 1"

"."01"
$o!51.223
"."5:1

V 1.'512 7 $o! 51.22 G $o!3 7 1.4":5 G $o!3
$o!3 7 V ).11'4
3 7 4 [ 1"
V'
M
WC$
V
X 7 4 [ 1"
V'
M
Assi!n#ents &5ew Kattern(
%EC4+56 7 + %ingle Choice 8uestions
9EE9 7 +
1). Te titration cur/e sown in te parentesis represents tat for te6

'2
&a( Titration of HC$ /s 5aOH
&*( Titration of CH
)
COOH /s 5aOH
&c( Titration of HCOOH /s ,OH
&d( Titration of HC$ /s 5H
'
OH

C
o
n
d
u
c
t
a
n
c
e

o
f

a
c
i
d

s
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

m of al!ali added
15. Te fo$$owin! facts are a/ai$a*$e6 2A
V
G B
2
2B
V
G A
2
> 2C
V
G B
2

5o reaction>
2C
V
G A
2
2A
V
G C
2
. .ic of te fo$$owin! state#ent is correct.
&a(
2 2 2 2
" " " "
C ? C B ? B A ? A C ? C
E E E E

> > >
&*(
2 2 2 2
" " " "
C ? C B ? B A ? A C ? C
E E E E

< < <
&c(
2 2 2 2
" " " "
C ? C B ? B A ? A C ? C
E E E E

< > >
&d(
2 2 2 2
" " " "
C ? C B ? B A ? A C ? C
E E E E

> < <
11. Standard e$ectrode potentia$ data are usefu$ for understandin! te suita*i$it+ of an o3idant
in a redo3 titration. So#e a$f ce$$ reactions and teir standard potentia$s are !i/en
*e$ow6
2
' 2
MnO &a-(. 0H &a-.( 5e Mn &a-.( 'H O&$(
+ +
+ + + EZ 7 1.51 @
2 )
2 4 2
Cr O &a-.( 1'H &a-.( 1e 2Cr &a-.( 4H O&$(
+ +
+ + + EZ 7 1.)0 @
) 2
%e &a-.( e %e &a-.(
+ +
+ EZ 7 ".44 @
2
C$ &!( 2e 2C$ &a-.(

+ EZ 7 1.'" @
Identif+ te on$+ incorrect state#ent re!ardin! te -uantitati/e esti#ation of a-ueous
%e&5O
)
(
2
&a(
'
MnO

can *e used in a-ueous HC$ &*(


2
2 4
Cr O

can *e used in a-ueous HC$
&c(
'
MnO

can *e used in a-ueous H


2
SO
'
&d(
2
2 4
Cr O

can *e used in a-ueous H
2
SO
'
'. Cu
2G
G 2e
V
Cu> $o!WCu
2G
X /s E
red
!rap is of te t+pe sown in fi!ure were OA 7
".)'@2 ten e$ectrode potentia$ of te a$f ce$$ of Cu?Cu
2G
&".1 M( wi$$ *e

E
red

A
O
$o!WCu
2G
X
&a( V ".)' G
"."5:
2
@ &*( ".)' G "."5:@
&c( ".)' @ &d( 5one
')
5. .ic of te fo$$owin! state#ents is &are( not correct8
&a( Meta$$ic conduction is due to te #o/e#ent of e$ectrons wereas te e$ectro$+tic
conduction is due to te #o/e#ent of ions.
&*( Bot #eta$$ic and e$ectro$+tic conductions in/o$/e transfer of #atter
&c( E$ectro$+tic conduction decreases wit rise in te#perature
&d( Meta$$ic conduction in/o$/es no ce#ica$ can!e
1. .ic a#on! te fo$$owin! state#ent&s( is?are correct8
&a( If n
"
A ? A
E
+ is ne!ati/e2 H
G
wi$$ *e reduced to H
2
*+ te e$e#ent NAE
&*( Co#pounds of &Un2 5a2 M!( are reduced *+ +dro!en &H
2
( wereas tose of no*$e
#eta$s &Cu2 A!2 Au( are not reduci*$e.
&c( If n
"
A ? A
E
+ is positi/e2 A
nG
wi$$ *e reduced to A *+ H
2
&d( M Y M
nG
YY H
G
Y H
2
&Kt( wi$$ *e spontaneous if n
"
M ? M
E
+ is ne!ati/e
4. E$ectrote potentia$ data are !i/en *e$ow
) 2 o
%e &a-( e %e &a-(> E ".44@
+ +
+ +
) o
A$ &a-( )e A$&s(> E 1.11@
+
+
o
2
Br &a-( 2e Br &a-(> E 1."0@

+ +
Based on te !i/en data wic state#ent?s is?are true 8
&a( %e
2G
is stron!er reducin! a!ent tan Br

&*( %e
2G
is stron!er reducin! a!ent tan A$
&c( A$ is stron!er reducin! a!ent tan %e
2G
&d( Br

is stron!er reducin! a!ent tan A$


0. Te standard e#f of te ce$$2
2
".1M
Cd&s(Y CdC$ &a-( YY A!C$&s( Y A!&s(
in wic te ce$$
reaction is ".11:5 @ at "ZC and ".145) @ at 25Z C. Te /a$ue of H of te reaction at
25ZC is
&a( 114.21 ;M?#o$ &*( 114.21 ;M?#o$
&c( '" ,?#o$ &d( '" ,ca$?#o$
:. Te standard e$ectrode potentia$s2
2 2
o o
I ? I Br ? Br
E 2 E
and 2
o
%e? %e
E
+ are respecti/e$+ G ".5'
@2 1.": @ and ".''@ as te *asis of !i/en data wic of fo$$owin! is?are spontaneous
&a(
2 2
Br 2I 2Br I

+ + &*(
2
2
%e Br %e 2Br
+
+ +
&c(
2
2
%e I %e 2I
+
+ + &d(
2 2
I 2Br 2I Br

+ +
1". .e o*ser/e *$ue co$our if 6
&a( Cu e$ectrode is p$aced in te A!5O
)
so$ution
&*( Cu e$ectrode is p$aced in te UnSO
'

&c( Cu e$ectrode is p$aced in te di$ H5O
)
&d( Cu e$ectrode is p$aced in te 5iSO
'


1. Matc co$u#n I wit co$u#n II se$ect te correct answer usin! te codes !i/en *e$ow te
$ists.

''
Colu"n 7 + Colu"n 7 ++
&a( E$ectrode re/ersi*$e wit respect to
cation
&p( Kt?%e
2G
2 %e
)G
&*( E$ectrode re/ersi*$e wit respect to
anion
&-( Kt2 H
2
&1 at#(?H
G
&a 7 1(
&c( Redo3 e$ectrode &r( A!?A!C$
&s(
2 HC$ &a-(
&d( Reference e$ectrode &s( A!?A!5O
)

@ )rite*up +
A acidic so$ution of Cu
G2
sa$t containin! ".'!# of Cu
G2
is e$ectro$+sed unti$ a$$ te
copper is deposited. Te e$ectro$+sis is continued for se/en #ore #inutes wit te
/o$u#es of so$ution ;ept at 1"" #$ and te current at 1.2 a#p.
1. In te *e!innin! of te e$ectro$+sis te su*stances e/o$/ed at catode and anode are
respecti/e$+
&a( Cu and O
2
&*( H
2
and O
2
&c( Cu and H
2
&d( H
2
and Cu
2. Curin! anoter se/en #inutes of e$ectro$+sis te su*stances e/o$/ed at catode and anode
are respecti/e$+
&a( Cu and O
2
&*( H
2
and O
2
&c( Cu and H
2
&d( On$+ O
2
is e/o$/ed at catode
). Te tota$ /o$u#e of !ases e/o$/ed at STK at catode durin! te entire e$ectro$+sis
&a( 50.' #$ &*( '0.2) #$
&c( 1".)5 #$ d( )5.50 #$
'. Te tota$ /o$u#e of !ases e/o$/ed at STK at anode durin! te entire e$ectro$+sis
&a( 50.:' #$ &*( 4".'' #$
&c( 2:.20 #$ &d( ::.10#$
1. In refinin! of si$/er *+ e$ectro$+tic #etod2 wat wi$$ *e te wei!t of 1"" !# of A! anode
if 5A current is passed for 2 our. Te purit+ of si$/er anode is :5\ *+ wei!t.
2. A current of 1.4"] is passed trou! )"" #$ of ".11" M so$ution of UnSO
'
for 2)"9 sec
wit current efficienc+ of :"\. %ind te #o$arit+ of Un
2G
after te deposition of Un.
Assu#e te /o$u#e of so$ution re#ains constant durin! e$ectro$+sis.
). Ceter#ine te standard potentia$ of a ce$$ in wic te reaction
Co
)G
&a-( G )C$
V
&a-( G )A!&s( )A!C$&s( G Co&s( fro# te standard potentia$s of
te coup$es A!?A!C$2 C$ &G".22@(2 Co
)G
?Co
2G
&G1.01@( and Co
2G
?Co&V".20@(.
'5
'. A current of 2 a#peres is passed for 11 ours trou! 5"" #L of 2M so$ution of
5i&5O
)
(
2
usin! p$atinu# e$ectrodes. .at wi$$ *e te #o$arit+ of te so$ution at te end
of te e$ectro$+sis 8
5. A current of ".1:) a#p is passed trou! 1"" #$ of ".2M 5aC$ for an our. Ca$cu$ate pH
of so$ution after e$ectro$+sis if current efficienc+ is :"\. Assu#e no /o$u#e can!e.
1. Ca$cu$ate te EM% of te ce$$
M!
&s(
Y M!
2G
&".1 M( YY A!
G
&1 [ 1"
V'
M( Y A!
2 2G
" "
A! ? A! M! ? M!
E ".0@2 E 2.)4@
+

.at wi$$ *e te effect on EM% if concentration of A!
G
is increased to 1 [ 1"
V)
M8
4. If
"
A! ? A!
E
+ and ,
sp
of A!C$ is !i/en2 find te a$f ce$$ potentia$ of C$
V
&3(?A!C$?A!
e$ectrode.
0. Si$/er is e$ectrodeposited on a #eta$$ic /esse$ of surface area 0"" c#
2
*+ passin! a
current of ".2" a#pere for )." ours. Ca$cu$ate te tic;ness of si$/er deposited2 !i/en its
densit+ is 1".'4!?cc WAto#ic wei!t of A! 7 1"4.:2X
:. How #an+ cou$o#*s are re-uired to reduce :.'0 !
'
,MnO
to
2
Mn
+
ions8
&At. Masses of , 7 ):2 Mn 7 552 O 7 11 a#u(
1". .en a current of 1.5 A was passed for )" #inutes trou! a so$ution of a sa$t of a
tri/a$ent #eta$2 1."41 ! of te #eta$ were deposited at te catode. Ca$cu$ate te ato#ic
#ass of te #eta$.
9EE9 7 ++
1. Te Edison stora!e ce$$ is represented as
%e&s( Y %eO&s( Y ,OH
&a-(
Y 5i
2
O
)
&s( Y 5i&s(
Te a$f ce$$ reactions are
5i
2
O
)&s(
G H
2
O
&$(
G 2e 25iO
&s(
G 2OH
V
&a-(
E
"
7 ".'" @
%eO
&s(
G H
2
O
&$(
G 2e %e
&s(
%e
&s(
G 2OH
V
E
"
7 V".04@
i( .at is te ce$$ reaction8
ii( .at is e#f of te ce$$8 How does it depend on te concentration of ,OH8
iii( .at is te #a3i#u# a#ount of e$ectrica$ ener!+ tat can *e o*tained fro# one #o$
of 5i
2
O
)
.
2. Ca$cu$ate te e-ui$i*riu# constant for te reaction 2%e
2G
G )I
V


2%e
2G
G I
)
V
. Te
standard reduction potentia$s in acidic conditions are ".44 and ".5' @ respecti/e$+ for
%e
)G
?%e
2G
and I
)
V
?I
V
.
). In a fue$ ce$$ H
2
and O
2
react to produce e$ectricit+2. In te process H
2
!as is o3idised at
te anode and O
2
at catode. If 14.2 $itre of H
2
at STK reacts in 15 #inutes. .at is te
a/era!e current produced8 If te entire current is used for e$ectro deposition of Cu fro#
Cu
G2
2 ow #an+ !ra#s of Cu are deposited.

'1
'. ".11 %arada+ is re-uired to reduce an a-ueous so$ution containin! "."2 #o$ of a #i3ture
of
'
,MnO
and
2 2 4
, Cr O
to
2
Mn
+
and
)
Cr
+
respecti/e$+. Ca$cu$ate te a#ount of eac
in te so$ution. &At. Masses of , 7 ):2 Mn 7 552 Cr 7 52( 7 11(
5. Fi/en te ce$$
Cd Y Cd&OH(
2
&s( Y 5aOH &"."1 #o$ ;!
91
( Y H
2
&1 at#( Y Kt
.it E
ce$$

7 "." @ at 2:0 ,. If
Cd " Cd
#
2
E
+ 7 V ".'" @2 Ca$cu$ate ,
sp
for Cd&OH(
2
1. Te densit+ of copper is 1.:' ! #L
V1
. %ind te nu#*er of cou$o#* needed to p$ate an
area of 1" 1" c#
2
to a tic;ness of 1"
V2
c# usin! CuSO
'
so$ution as an e$ectro$+te.
Ato#ic wei!t of Cu is 1).5.
4. Te standard o3idation potentia$ of 5i?5i
2G
e$ectrode is ".2)1 @. If tis is co#*ined wit
a +dro!en e$ectrode in acid so$ution2 at wat pH of te so$ution wi$$ te #easured e.#.f.
*e Tero at 25ZC8 Assu#e W5i
2G
X 7 1M and
2
H
K 1at#
.
0. If we want te !a$/anic ce$$ Cu&s( Y
2 V
1 2
Cu &M ( Y Y C$ &".1M( Y Y Kt &C$ (
+
1 at#. to a/e an
EM% of 1.1)1 @ at 25ZC2 wat /a$ue sou$d *e used for
1
M
2 te concentration of
2
Cu
+

ion 8 &
"
ce$$
E 1."10 @(
:. a( Ca$cu$ate te e-ui$i*riu# constant for te fo$$owin! reaction at 25ZC8
2 2
Sn&s( K* &a-( Sn &a-( K*&s(
+ +

+ +

*( If an e3cess of tin #eta$ is added to 1." M


2
K* 2
+
wat is te concentration of
2
K*
+
at
e-ui$i*riu#8
1". How #an+ !ra#s of si$/er cou$d *e p$ated out on a ser/in! tra+ *+ e$ectro$+sis of a
so$ution containin! A!&$( for a period of 0." ours at a current of 0.'1 a#peres8 .at is
te area of te tra+ if te tic;ness of te si$/er p$attin! is ".""25' c#8 Censit+ of si$/er
is 1".5 !?
)
c# .
9EE9 7 +++ &:udge yourself at :EE le-el)
1. Copper su$pate so$ution &25" #$( was e$ectro$+sed usin! a p$atinu# anode and a copper
catode. A constant current of 2 #A was passed for 11 #inute. It was found tat after
e$ectro$+sis2 te a*sor*ance of te so$ution was reduced to 5"\ of its ori!ina$ /a$ue.
Ca$cu$ate te concentration of copper su$pate in te so$ution to *e!in wit.
2. Ca$cu$ate te -uantit+ of e$ectricit+ tat wou$d *e re-uired to reduce 12.)! of
nitro*enTene to ani$ine2 if current efficienc+ is 5"\. If te potentia$ drops across te ce$$
is )." /o$t2 ow #uc ener!+ wi$$ *e consu#ed8
). Te fo$$owin! e$ectroce#ica$ ce$$ as *een set up.
2G ' )G
&I( &II(
Kt Y %e2 %e &a 1( YY Ce 2 Ce &a 1(Kt
+

) 2 'G )
" "
%e ? %e Ce ? Ce
E ".44B and E 1.11@
+ + +

'4
If an a##eter is connected *etween te two p$atinu# e$ectrode2 predict te direction of
f$ow of current. .i$$ te current increase or decrease wit ti#e8
5. Te standard reduction potentia$ for Cu
2G
?Cu is G".)'@. Ca$cu$ate te reduction potentia$
at pH 7 1' for te a*o/e coup$e. ,
sp
of Cu&OH(
2
is 1." [ 1"
V1:
.
1. %ind te so$u*i$it+ product of a saturated so$ution of A!
2
CrO
'
in water at 2:0, if te
e.#.f. of te ce$$ A!
G
YA!
G
&saturated A!
2
CrO
'
so$ution( YY A!
G
&".1M( Y A! is ".11'@
at 2:0,.
4. %or te !a$/anic ce$$
A! Y A!C$
&s(
2 ,C$ YY ,Br2 A!Br
&s(
Y A!
".2M ".""1M
Ca$cu$ate te e.#.f. !enerated and assi!n correct po$arit+ to eac e$ectrode for a
spontaneous process after ta;in! on account of ce$$ reaction at 25ZC.
Fi/en6
A!Br
1" 1)
sp sp
, 2.0 1" > , ).) 1"


0. Te standard reduction potentia$ of A!
G
?A! e$ectrode at 2:0 , is ".4::@. Fi/en tat for
A!I2 ,
sp
7 0.4 [ 1"
V14
2 e/a$uate te potentia$ of A!
G
?A! e$ectrode in a saturated so$ution
of A!I. A$so ca$cu$ate te standard reduction potentia$ of te I
V
?A!I?A! e$ectrode.
:. A ce$$ A! Y A!
G
YY Cu
2G
Y Cu initia$$+ contains 1M A!
G
and 1M Cu
2G
ions. Ca$cu$ate te
can!e in te ce$$ potentia$ after te passa!e of :.15 a#pere of current for 1 our.
1". Cu
2G
G In
2G
^ Cu
G
G In
)G
Ca$cu$ate te e-ui$i*riu# constant. Fi/en tat
2
"
Cu ? Cu
E ".15@
+ +

)
"
In ? In
E ".'2@
+ +

2
"
In ? In
E ".'"@
+ +


'0
Ans;ers to Assign"ents
%EC4+56 * +
9EE9 * +
1. &b) 2. &d) ). &d) '. &c)
5. &c) 1. &a) 4. &b) 0. &b)
:. &a) 1". &a) 11. &c) 12. &b)
1). &d) 1'. &c) 15. &b) 11. &a)
14. &b) 10. &d) 1:. &b) 2". &d)
9EE9 * ++
'< &b) .< &c) =< &b) /< &a)
(< &d) 1< &a) 2< &d) #< &a)
>< &c) '3< &c)
%EC4+56 * ++
1. &a), &d) .. &a), &c) =. &b), &c), &d)
'. &a), &d) (. &b), &c) 1. &a), &c), &d)
4. &a), &c) #. &b), &d) >. &a), &b), &c)
1". &a), &c)
%EC4+56 * +++
'< &d) .< &c) =< &a) /< &b)
(< &a) 1< &d) 2< &b) #< &b)
>< &d) '3< &d) ''< &d) '.< &c)
'=< &a) '/< &a) '(< &a)
%EC4+56 * +
'< &a * s)? &b * r)? &c 7 p)? &d 7 @)
.< &a * s)? &b * r)? &c 7 @)? &d 7 p)

%EC4+56 *
'< &a) .< &b) =< &a) /< &d)
(< &b) 1< &b) 2< &c) #< &a)
>< &b) '3< &b) ''< &a) '.< &c)
':
%EC4+56 * +
9EE9 7 +
1. 54.5: !# 2. ".15'M
). ".2"@ '. 1.14:
5. 12.02 1. 2.:1@2 increases to )."2@
4.
"
A! ? A!
sp
3
E "."5:1$o!
,
+

0. 2.00 [ 1"
V'
c#
:. 2.0:5 [ 1"
'
C 1". 11'.0)
9EE9 7 +++
1. 2.'5 1"
2
;M?#o$ 2. 1.21 1"
4
). 1:".5 ! '. 1.50!#2 2.:'!#
5. ).)1 1"
V15
M
2
1. 24141.:1 co$ou#*
4. ' 0. "."1M
:. &a( 2.102 &*( ".)15M 1". 242.2!2 1."2 1"
'
c#
2

9EE9 7 +++
1. 4.:5 [ 1"
V5
M
2. 1150"" cou$o#*2 )'4.' ;M
). decrease wit ti#e
5. V".22"5@
1. 2.204 [ 1"
V12
#o$
)
$itre
V)
4. Ko$arit+ of te ce$$ sou$d *e re/ersed V ".")\
0. ".)2@2 V".1':@
:. "."1"@
1".
1"
c
; 1" .


5"