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3

Motion in One Dimension

Introductory Exercise 3.1

1. Suppose

a

particle

is

moving

with

constant velocity v (along the axis of x).

Displacement of particle in time t Displacement of particle in time t

1

=

vt

1

2

=

vt

2

Displacement of the particle in the time

interval t (= t

2

t )

1

= vt

2

= v(t

2

vt

1

t )

1

Average velocity in the time interval

t ′ =

v

(

t

2

t

1

)

(

t

2

t

1

)

= v Now, as the particle is moving with constant velocity (i.e., with constant speed in a given direction) its velocity and speed at any instant will obviously be v. Ans. True.

2. As the stone would be free to acceleration under earth’s gravity it acceleration will be g.

3. A second hand takes 1 min i.e., 60s to complete one rotation (i.e., rotation by an angle of 2π rad).

Angular speed of second hand

=

= 2

60 s

s 1

Linear speed of its tip = radius × angular speed

=

=

2.0cm

π

15

cms

×

1

π

30

1

As the tip would be moving with constant speed.

Average speed =

π

15

cms

1

In 15 s the second hand would rotate through 90° i.e., the displacement of its tip

will be r

Modulus of average velocity of the tip of second hand in 15 s.

2.

2

= r

15

=

cms

15

1

4. (a) Yes. By changing direction of motion, there will be change in velocity and so acceleration. (b) (i) No. In curved path there will always be acceleration. (As explained in the previous answer no. 3) (ii) Yes. In projectile motion the path of

while

acceleration of the particle remains constant. (iii) Yes. In curved path the acceleration

will always be there. Even if the path is circular with constant speed the direction of the acceleration of the particle would every time be changing.

the

particle

is

a

curved

one

Motion in One Dimension | 15

5. (a) Time speed = Circumference Speed

π
× 4
cm
= 2
= 8π = 25.13 s
1 cm/ s
(b) As particle is moving with constant
speed of 1 cm/s, its average speed in
any time interval will be 1 cm/s.
2
|
Average velocity = r
T / 4
|
4
r 2
2
2
=
speed
= 
2 πr
π
 speed 
2
2
= cms −1

|

π

=

0.9 cms 1

2

Average acceleration = v T / 4

|

(where v = speed)

 = 4 v 2 2 π r v = 2 2 2 v π r = 2 2 2 ( 1 ) π 4 = 0.23 cm s − 2

6. Distance = Speed × time

D

1

D

2

=

=

v t

1 1

v t

2

2

Average speed =

=

D

1

+

D

2

v t

1 1

+

v t

2

2

=

t

1

(4

+

×

t

2

2)

+

(6

t

1

+

×

3)

t

2

2

+ 3

= 5.2ms

1

Introductory Exercise 3.2

1. Acceleration (due to gravity).
4. v = t 3/4
ds
t 3/4
2. s
u
+
at
− 1
a
is physically correct as it
=
t =
2
dt
gives the displacement of the particle in t th
second (or any time unit).
3 + 1
t
4
3/4
∴ s =
∫ t
dt =
+ c
3
+ 1
s t = Displacement in t seconds
− displacement in (t − 1) seconds
4
4 7/4
or
s =
t
+ c
1 2
1
7
2
=
ut
+
at
 (
u
t
)
+
a t
(
− 1
)
 1
 
2
 
2
i.e.,
s ∝ t 7/4
Differentiating Eq. (i) w.r.t. time t,
1
2
st = u + at –
d s
3
3 − 1
2 a
=
t
4
dt
2 4
Displacement
⇒ a ∝ t −1/4
Velocity
Acceleration
5. Displacement (s) of the particle
Therefore,
the
given
equation
is
s = (40 × 6) +
1 (−
2
10 )
6 2
dimensionally incorrect.

(given)

…(i)

3. Yes. When a particle executing simple harmonic motion returns from maximum amplitude position to its mean position the value of its acceleration decreases while speed increases.

= 240 180 = 60m (in the upward direction) Distance covered (D) by the particle Time to attain maximum height

16 | Mechanics-1

=

40

10

= 4s < 6 s

It implies that particle has come back after attaining maximum height (h) given by

h =

u

2

=

2 g

(40)

2

2

×

10

= 80 m

 ∴ D = 80 + (80 − 60) = 100 m 6. v = 40 − 10t ∴ dx = 40 − 10t dt or dx = (40 − 10t) dt or x = ∫ (40 − 10 ) t dt

or

x As at t = 0 the value of x is zero.

= 40t 5t

2

+ c

c = 0

x = 40t For x to be 60 m.

=

60

5t 2

40

t

5

t

2

 or t 2 − 8 t + 12 = 0 ∴ t = 2s or 6 s

Average velocity = Displacementin time t
7.

t

=

ut +

1

2

at

2

t

= u +

1

2

at

8. v

2

=

v

1

+

2 v

at

1

at = v

Average velocity = Displacementin time t

t

=

v t +

1

1

2

at

2

t

1

v

=

=

v

1

1

= v

1

+

v

+

+ v

2

2

at

v

1

2

2

2

9.

10.

11.

Ans. True.

125

=

0

t +

1

2

t =

Average velocity = 125 5 s

25 s

m

= 25 m/s

v = 10 + 5t t 2

gt

2

(downwards)

(downwards)

…(i

 ) ∴ a = dv = 5 − 2t dt At t = 2 s a = 5 − 2 × 2

= 1 m/s 2

From Eq. (i),

or

dx

=

dt

x =

10 + 5t t 2

x

(10

= 10

t

+

5

+

5 t

2

t t t

2

)

3

2

3

dt

+ c

As, at

t = 0 the value of x is zero

c = 0

3
5
2 t
∴ x
= 10
t
+
t
2
3
Thus, at
t = 3 s
3
5
2 3
x = (10 × 3) +
(
3 )
2
3
=
30 + 22.5 − 9
=
43.5 m
u
=
2
^ i m/s
^
^
→ = (
a
2
cos
60
°
i
+
2
sin
60
°
j
) m/s 2
^
^
= (
1 i
+
3 j
) m/s 2
y
2
a = 2 m/s
60°
x
u = 2 m/s
v
=
u
+
a
t
^
^
^
= 2 i +
(
1 i +
3 j 2
)
^
^
= 4 i + 2
3 j

Motion in One Dimension | 17

|v|
=
4
2 + 12 = 2
7 m/s
1
2
s
=
u
t
+
a
t
2
1
^
^
^
=
(
2
i
)
2
+
(
1
i
+
3
j
)
2
^
^
^
=
4 i + 2 i + 2
3 j
^
^
= 6 i + 2
3 j
∴ |s|
=
36 + 12
=
4
3 m
^
^
12. Part I
v
= (
2
i
+
2t
j ) m/s
→
dv
= 2 ^ j
dt
a
= 2 ^ j m/s 2

From Eq. (i),

d s

dt

s

s

^

= ( 2 i

=

(

= 2

t

2

^

i

+

^

i

+

2 t

^

j

+

t

2t

2

^

j

)

^

j

+

)

dt

c

2 2

…(i)

Taking initial displacement to be zero.

s (at t = 1 s) = (

^

2 i

+

^

)

j m

Part II Yes. As explained below.

13.

v

the particle is 2 ^ i m/s 2 and the acceleration

is 2 j m/s 2

2

= 2

^

i

+ 2 t

^

j implies that initial velocity of

^

i

×

1

) +

1

2

(

^

2 j

)

1 2

s

(at t = 1 s) = (

=

(

^

2 i

+

^

j

) m

x = 2t and y = t 2

y = 

x

 

2

y

2

or,

(The above is the equation to trajectory)

x = 2t

= 2 i.e., v

x

2 = 4

dx

dt

x 2 ^

=

i

y = t 2

Thus,

dy

dt

v

= 2t i.e., v

=

v

x

+

v

y

y

+ 2 t

^

j

=

(

^

2 i

→

dv

dt

= 2 ^ j m/s 2

a =

+

^

2t j

) m/s

Introductory Exercise 3.3

1. t = t 1
At
s
θ
0
t 1
t 2
φ
t
As
At
v = tan θ
θ < 90°, v t 1 is + ive.
t = t 2

v t 2 = tan φ

As φ > 90°, v t 2 is ive. Corresponding v-t graph will be

v
α
β
t 2
β
t
t
1

Acceleration at t = t 1 :

a t 1 = tan α As α < 90°, a t 1 is + ive constant.

Acceleration at t = t 2

a t 2 = tan β As β < 90°, a t 2 is + ive constant.

2. Let the particle strike ground at time t velocity of particle when it touches ground

18 | Mechanics-1

2
2
Corresponding velocity-time will be
would be gt. KE of particle will be 1 mg t
2
Velocity (m/s)
i.e., KE ∝ t 2 . While going up the velocity
will get − ive but the KE will remain. KE
will reduce to zero at time 2 t when the
particle reaches its initial position.
4
8 t (s)
KE
h
2
4.
=
tan θ
=
(t
2
)
(
2
1
)
2t
h = 2(t − 2)
time
t
=
2h
2
g
a (m/s )
2
2 h
2
2
2
KE = 1 mg
t
= 1 mg
2
2
g
θ (t–2)
= mgh
1
2
θ t
3. Speed of ball (just before making first
collision with floor)
h
=
2gh =
2 × 10 × 80
= 40 m/s
Time taken to reach ground
2h =
2 × 80
=
= 4 s
Particle will attain its initial velocity i.e.,
g
10
Speed of ball (just after first collision with
floor)
net increase in velocity of the particle will
be zero when,
area under a-t graph = 0
(1
+
2)
×
2
(
− h
)(
t
− 2
)
= 40 = 20 m/s
+
= 0
2
2 2
Time to attain maximum height
2
or
3
− (t −
2
)
=
0
20
t = −
= 2 s
or
(t − 2)
2 = 3
− 10
t − 2 = ±
Speed (m/s)
or
or
Ans . At time t = 2 +
3
∴Time for the return journey to floor = 2 s.
t = 2 ±
3
3 s
(t = 2 −
3 not possible).
4
8
t (s)

Introductory Exercise 3.4

1. Relative acceleration of A w.r.t. B

a

AB = (+

g

) (+

v

2. Velocity of A w.r.t. B

=

v

A

g

B

) = 0

Relative displacement (i.e., distance between A and B) would be

s

= (

v

A

v

B

)

t

+ 1

2

a

AB

t

2

Motion in One Dimension | 19

or
s
= (
v
v
)
t
A
B
tan θ = (v
–v
)
A
B
s
θ
0
t

3. In figure, u = speed of boat

v = speed of river flow

B
C
Actual
Boat sailing
direction path of boat
uuu
d = 400
d = 400
d = 400
m
m m
A
v

Time to cross river

AB 
BC
AC
=
=
=
 
u
2
2
v u
+ v
 
400 m
=

10 m/s

 = 40 s BC = v AB u = 2 m/s × ( 400 m) 10 m/s = 80 m 4. Let C be the point along which pilot

North

A

B
θ
Speed
500 km
30°

Drifting due

to wind

=

150 m/s

East

Wind/speed = 20 m/s

Apply sine formula in ABC

5.

sin 30

° =

sin θ

=

sin (

180

° −

30

° + θ

)

150
t
20
t
500
× 10 3
1 sin θ
=
300
20
1
− 1
θ = sin
15
 
15
1
sin (
30 ° +
θ)
Now
=
300 t
500
×
10 3
224
5000
or
= sin
30
°cos θ + cos
30
°sin θ
3 t
5000
1
224
3
1
=
+
3 t
2 15
2 15
5000
or
= 0.5577
3 t
5000
⇒ t =
3
× 0.5577
θ

= 2989 s

= 50 min

1

10 m
A
B
a A = 1 m/s 2 ,
v A = 3 m/s,
a B = 2 m/s 2
v B = 1 m/s

Acceleration of A w.r.t. B = 1 2 = − 1 m/s 2

Velocity of A w.r.t. B = 3 1 = 2 m/s

Initial displacement of A w.r.t. B = − 10 m

At time relative displacement of A w.r.t. B

s = − 10 + 2t +

or

s = − 10 + 2t For s to be minimum ds

= 0

dt

1

2

(

1

)

0.5 t 2

t

2

 or 2 − (0.5 × 2t) = 0 i.e., t = 2 s ∴ s min = − 10 + (2 × 2) − 0.5 × (2) 2

= − 10 + 4 2

= − 8 m

Minimum distance between A and

B = 8 m.

20 | Mechanics-1

AIEEE Corner

Subjective Questions (Level 1)

1.

(a) D = v t

1 1

=

+ v t km

2

2

  60

= 100 km

h

× 1

h  +

80

km

1

×

h

2

(b) Average speed 100 km

=

= 66.67 km/h.

h

  

(b)

Average velocity = Netdisplacement Time taken

= 60m

6.1s

= − 9.8 m/s

= 9.8 m/s

(downwards)

1.5 h
vt
4.
Average velocity = Σ
Σ t
2.
(a)
Displacement in first two seconds
1
vt
+
2
vt
+
3
vT
0
0
= (4)(2) +
(
6
)
2 2
2.5v =
2
t
+
t
+
T
0
0
= 20 m
5 t
3
t
+
3
T
0
0
20
m
Average velocity =
= 10 m/s
or
+ 2.5T =
T = 4t 0
2
s
5. (a) Average acceleration
(b)
Displacement in first four seconds
Final velocity
− initial velocity
=
1
= (4)(4) +
( ) 4 2 = 64 m
6
(4
+ 8) s
2
0 − 0
=
∴ Displacement in the time interval
12
t = 2 s to t = 4 s
=
0 m/s 2
= 64 − 20
v max
(c) a = tan
θ =
= 44 m
4
44 m
∴ Average velocity =
= 22 m/s.
2 s
v
3.
Let the
particle takes t time to reach
v
max
ground.
θ
+20 m/s
h
4s
8s
time
12s
60 m
4 = v max
( a = 4 m/s 2 )
4
i.e.,
2
v max = 16 m/s
∴ − 64 = 20
t +
1 (
2
− 10
) t
Displacement of particle in 12 seconds

i.e.,

t = 6.1 s If the particle goes h meter above tower before coming down

5

t

2

20

t

64

=

0

0

= (

20

)

2

+

2

(

10

) h

h = 20 m

(a) Average speed = Total distance moved

Time taken

= (20 + 20 + 60)

6.1

= 16.4 m/s

Area under v-t graph

=

= 12 ×

v

max

=

=

2

12 × 16

2

96 m

Average velocity

Displacement

( 96

m) at

12 s

 = Time ( 12 s ) = + 8 m/s

Motion in One Dimension | 21

6.

(b) As the particle did not return back distance travelled in 12 s = Displacement at 12 s

Average speed = 8 m/s.

(a) Radius (R) of circle = 21

22 m

Circumference of circle = 2πR

= 2 ×

22

7

= 6 m

×

21

22 m

Speed (v) of particle = 1 m/s Distance moved by particle in 2 s = 2 m Thus, angle through which the particle moved

=

2

6

×

2 π

=

2

π

3

=

120

°

Magnitude of Average velocity

Magnitude of displacement

=

Time (
= 2s)
v
A
A(t = 0 s)
B 120°
O
(t = 2s)
v B
AB
2
R
sin
60
°
=
=
2
2
3
= R
2
21
3 21
3
=
=
m/s
22
2 44

(b) Magnitude of average acceleration

[

=

=

|v

2 vsin

v

B

v

A

°

2s

120

2

A

2

|
= |v
|
= v = 1 m/s)
B
= vsin 60°
3
=
m/s 2

2

7. Position vector at t = 0 s

^

2

Position vector at t = 4 s

4

(a) Displacement from t = 0 s to t = 4 s

1

r

1

= (

i

= (

r i

2

6

^

+

+

^

j

) m

^

j

) m

r )

=

(r

= (

= (

6 i

^

5 i

2

^ ^

1

+

+

4 j

) (

^

2 j

)

m

^

1 i

+

^

2 j

)

Average velocity = (

= ( .

125

5

^

i

+

2

^

)

j m

4 s

^

i

+

^

05 j ) m/s

.

(b) Average acceleration

Final velocity Initial velocity

 = 4 s ^ ^ ^ ^ = ( 2 i + 10 j ) − ( 4 i + 6 j ) 4 ^ ^ −2 i + 4 j = 4 ^ ^ ) m/s 2 = (− 05 i . + j

(c) We cannot find the average speed as the actual path followed by the particle is not known.

Uniform acceleration (a) One dimensional motion

8. If at time t the vertical displacement

between A and B is 10 m

)

1

2

gt

2

1

2

g(t

1

2

=

10

or

or

or

t

2

t

(

2

t

2

(

t

2

1)

2

t

+ 1)

= 2

= 2

2t = 3 t = 1.5 s

9. The two bodies will meet if Displacement of

Displacement of

first after attaining = highest point

second before

attaining highest

point

22 | Mechanics-1

10.

or

or

or

v t

0

1

2

gt

2

=

v

0

0 = − v t

0

0

(

t

1

2

t

0

)

g(t

2

0

1

2

(

g t

2

t 0 t)

5

 1 2 gt t 0 = 2 1 gt 0 + 0 t = 2 gt 0 + v 0 g = t 0 + v 0 2 g = 1 2 gt 2

v t

0

t = 1s

t

0

)

2

Time interval
5m
T
A
1 s
O
25
m
t second for A
H
W
B
u = 0
E
(t–1) second for B
R
A
B
For A
1
2
H = 0 t +
.
gt
2
1
or
H
=
gt 2
…(i)
2

For B

or

H 25 =

1

2

(

g t 1

1 gt

2

2

1

2

g(t

)

2

1

)

2

=

25

…(ii)

[Substituting value of H from Eq. (i)]

1 g[t
2

2

t

2

(

(t

1

)

2

] =

25

t

2t 1 = 5

2

2

t

+ 1) = 5

t = 3 s

Substituting t = 3 s in Eq. (i)

11.

1
2
at
0
2

s =

v = at 0

H =

1

2

×

10

×

3

2

=

45 m

Forward motion

Backward motion

1
2
− s = (at )t +
(−a)t
0
2
1
1
2
2
at
(at )t
at
0 =
0
2
2
2
2
or
−t
2
0 =
0
2
or
t
2 − 2
t t
t t − t
t
= 0
0
0
2
2
2
t
±
(
−2
t
)
− 41 −
(
t
)
0
0
0
t
=
2
2
t
± 2
t
2
0
0
=
2
=
t
2
(−
ive
sign
0 + t 0
absurd)
=
(1 +
2) t
0
= 2141
.
t
0

being

From the begining of the motion the point

 after time 3 . 141 t 0 . 12. ⇒ 2 5 = u 2 + 2 u 2 = 325 (− ) 10 15 v = 0 H 15m u 5 m/s (a) For H 0 2 = u 2 + 2 (− 10 ) H i.e., 20H = 325 or H = 16.25 m (b) For t 0 = 325 + (−10) t ∴ 325 t = 10 = 1.8 s a u a 15 m/s 13. At rest x 60 m 6.0 s (a) 15 2 = u 2 + 2 a × 60 …(i) and 15 = u + a × 6 …(ii)

Substituting the value of 6a from Eq. (ii) in Eq. (i)

225

= u

2

+

20 15

(

u)

Motion in One Dimension | 23

 i.e., u (u − 15)(u − 5) = 0 + 75 = 0 u 2 − 20 ∴ u = 5 m/s

(15 m/s being not possible)

(b) Using Eq. (ii)

(c)

i.e., x

u

2

a = 5 m / s 2

3

= 0

=

2

2

+ 2

u

2

ax

5

(

)

2

a

2 ×

5

=

3

(d)

s =

=

1

2

1

2

at

2

×

5

3

= 7.5 m

× t

2

2
= 5 t
…(iii)
6
t(s)
0
1
3
6
9
12
v
(m/s)
0
5/6
7.5
30
67.5
120
120
s (m)
90
60
30
15
t (s)
3 6
9
12
Differentiating Eq. (iii) w.r.t. time t
5
v =
t
3
t(s)
0
3
6
9
12
v
(m/s)
0
5
10
15
20
v (m/s)
20
15
10
5
3
6
9
12
t (s)
14. a = + x
a = –y
Starts
Stops
A
t 1
t 2
B
4
km
B
s 1
s 2
4
min

Journey A to P

and

v

v

max

2

max

= 0 +

= 2

xs

xt

1

1

t 1 =

v

max

x

Journey P to B 0 = v

and

max

ys

2

max

v

2

= 2

max

t 2 =

v

y

+

(

)

y t

2

or

v

max

v

max

+

x y

=

v

max

1

x

+

1

=

y

t

1

4

+

t

2

From Eq. (ii) and Eq. (iv)

or

s

1

+

v

2

max

+

v

2

max

s

2

=

4 =

2

v

x

2

max

1

x

2 y

+

1

y

2

= 4

…(i)

…(ii)

…(iii)

…(iv)

…(v)

…(vi)

Dividing Eq. (vi) by Eq. (v)

v max = 2

Substituting the value of v max in Eq. (v)

1

+

1

= 2

(Proved)

x

y

15. Let acceleration of the particle be a using

2m
0
4
t = 0 s
t = 10 s
t = 6 s
v = 0

v = u + at

0 = u + a6

+ive

x-axis

 u ∴ a = − 6 (a) At t = 10 s, s = − 2 m

2 =

u

× 10 +

1

2

a

× 10 2

 or −2 = (−6a) 10 + 50a or −10a = − 2 or a = 0.2 m/s 2

24 | Mechanics-1

(b) v(at t = 10 s) = u + a 10

= − 6a + 10a

= 4a

= 0.8 m/s

(c) Two or three dimensional motion

 → → F 10 N north 16. = a = m 2 kg

= 5 m/s 2 , north

^
=
5 j m/s 2
u
= 10 m/s, east
= 10 ^ i m/s
using v
= +
u
a
t
^
^
v
= i
10
+
(
5
j
× 2
)
^
^
= 10 i + 10 j
|v|
→ = 10
2 m/s
v = 10 2, north-east
→ →
1 →
2
using s
= u
t +
a
t
2
1
^
^
= (
10
i
×
2
) +
(
5 j
)
2 2
2
^
^
= (
20 i
+
10 j
)
m
2
2
|s|
→ =
20
+ 10
= 10
5 m
20
cotθ =
= 2

10

θ = cot 1 2
North
s
^
j
θ
O
^ i East
−1
→ s = 10
5 m at cot
( 2 ) from east to north.
^
^
17. =
s
(2
i
+
4
j
) m
0
a
= 2 ^ m/s 2 (t = 0 s to t = 2 s) t 1 = 2s
i
1

18.

u

=

0 m/s

a

2

= − 4 ^

j m/s 2 (t = 2 s to t = 4 s) t 2 = 2s

(a)

 Velocity → → → v 1 = + u = → 0 + a 1 t ( 2 ^ i) 1 2 ^ = 4 i → → → → v 2 = v 1 + ( a 1 + a 2 )t 2 ^ ^ ^ = 4 i + ( 2 i − 4 j ) → ^ ^ v 2 = (8 i − 8 j ) m/s

2

or

(b) Co-ordinate of particle

s

1 =

s

0 +

u

t 1

+

1

2

a

1

t 1 2

= (

2

^

i

+

4

^

j

) + ( )( ) +

0

2

1

2

(

^

^

^

= 2 i + 4 j + 4 i

2

^

i

)

2 2

^

^