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UNIT 28 COMMUNICATION

UNIT 28 COMMUNICATION 28.0 Objectives 28.1 Introduction 28.2 Meaning and Definition 2 8 . 3
UNIT 28 COMMUNICATION 28.0 Objectives 28.1 Introduction 28.2 Meaning and Definition 2 8 . 3

28.0

Objectives

28.1

Introduction

28.2

Meaning and Definition

28.3

Elements of a Communication System

28.3

Essentials of Communication

28.5

'Types of Comn~unication

28.6

Media of Communication

28.7

Factors Inhibiting Communication

28.8

Let Us Sum Up

28.9

Key Words

28.10')~omeUseful Books Useful Books

28.11 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises

-28.0 OBJECTIVES

Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises -28.0 OBJECTIVES After studying the unit you will be able

After studying the unit you will be able to:

describe the meaning and importance of communication in administrationOBJECTIVES After studying the unit you will be able to: identify tlie main elements and essentials

identify tlie main elements and essentials of communication tlie main elements and essentials of communication

diflirentiate between different types of communication between different types of communication

discuss different media of conlmunication; and conlmunication; and

analyse the factors that inhibit effective communication. the factors that inhibit effective communication.

analyse the factors that inhibit effective communication. 28.1 INTRODUCTION In administrative theory and

28.1 INTRODUCTION

that inhibit effective communication. 28.1 INTRODUCTION In administrative theory and organisation, communication is

In administrative theory and organisation, communication is one of the most widely discussed but l6ss clearly analys~dtopics. According to Fred Lurhans "some estimates of the extent of its use go up to about three fourths of an active human beings life, and even higher proportions of a typical manager's time". Ineffective communicatinn has been identified as the root cause of many problems in the world. Hicks and Gullett have suggested that the heart of all the world's problerns - at least of men with each other- is man's inability to communicate as well as he thinks he is communica'ti~~~.The concept of communication is interrelated with concepts such as motivation, coordination, leadership, structure; and decision making in organisations. In this unit we will study communication, its importance, types, media, as well as the factors that inhibit proper communications.

as well as the factors that inhibit proper communications. A 28.2 MEANING AND DEFINITION I Communication
as well as the factors that inhibit proper communications. A 28.2 MEANING AND DEFINITION I Communication
as well as the factors that inhibit proper communications. A 28.2 MEANING AND DEFINITION I Communication
A 28.2 MEANING AND DEFINITION I

A

28.2 MEANING AND DEFINITION

I

Communication is one of the main principles of organisation. It has been considered as an effective tool for achieving the goals of an organisation. All organisations, may be small or big, simple or complex, general or technical, have the necessity of communication network. It plays a vital role, as functioning of all other important principles of the organisation depends upon its availability and effectivity. Moreover, communication is the only means for inspiring a person's enthusiastic and cooperative contacts.

Pfiffner considers

describes it as the " blood stream of an administrative organisation" , Writing about communication, Ordway Tead has declared that the underlyirrg aim of communication has been defined as that process whereby one person makes his ideas and feelings known to another. Peter Drucker has defined communication as "the ability of the various

the communication as " the heart of management" , while Millet

Concepts in Organisntion -11 functiond groups within the enterprise to understand each other and concerns'"

Concepts in Organisntion -11

Concepts in Organisntion -11 functiond groups within the enterprise to understand each other and concerns'"

functiond groups within the enterprise to understand each other groups within the enterprise to understand each other

and concerns'" Cornmunio,~tionis difficult to achieve, if the top management does not possess the ilrlaginatiorl and the kllnwledge to understand the behaviour of personnel working at the lower rungs. The fol!owing are sorne of fhhe definitions:

" Communication is the process of effecting an inter-change of understand betweer1 two or more people".

and each other's functions

two or more people". and each other's functions "Con~munication is the mutual inter-change of ideas by

two or more people". and each other's functions "Con~munication is the mutual inter-change of ideas by

"Con~municationis the

mutual inter-change of

ideas by any effective means" .

"

or signs".

"Communication is the arrangement of environmental stimuli to produce certain desired behnviour on the part of the organism".

The term communication is, generally applied in the sense of imparting knowledge or transmitting information, however, in its wider connotation, it includes inter-change of thoughts, partaking of ideas and a sense of participating and sharing. Thus, the essence of colnmunication is, not information but understanding. In sotne organisations it may be internal, external and interpersonal. In the former aspect, communication connects the organisation with its employees while the second aspect deals with the relationship of the organisation with the public and is called " public relations". The last one is concerned with the relationship among the organisation's employees. In brief comn~unicationmeans "shared understanding of a shared purpose".

the

imparting

or inter-change of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing,

28.3 ELEMENTS OF A COMMUNICATIONSYSTEM
28.3 ELEMENTS OF A COMMUNICATIONSYSTEM

There are five main elements of a communication system. The first among these is a communicator, he may be called as the speaker or sender. In some government agencies, the management comprising the administrator and his subordinates is the communicator. All the orders and instn~ctionsare issued in the name of the Chief Executive. He himself does not prepare them but these are generally prepared and issued by the staff assisting him. This practice preserves singleness of purpose and direction to avoid conflicting instructions.

of purpose and direction to avoid conflicting instructions. Transmission procedure is the second element. There may

Transmission procedure is the second element. There may be certain media of communication, such as teletype, wire, radio and mail in an organisation for communicating messages. It is the responsibility of transmission centre to ensure proper delivery and distribution of messages in the

Form of the communication is the third element and it may be an order, regulation, manual, letter, report, ruling, circular, etc. Usually, Forms of communication fall into three prinliry types: rules and regulations governing relationship of an organisation with its clientele, these must be known to all the employees of the organisation, so that these should be properly carried out; operating instructions of administration including various orders, circulars, manuals and official letters prescribing internal organisation and procedures and certain informational media such as the house journal the training hand book, the periodic report, and other methods to convey the general tone of management. ,

Recipient is the fourth element and for this, an organisation should ensure that the information and instruction being obtained by persons arc determined by the organisilfion. Every communication should reach to all those who are tobe involved in effecting their behaviour.

Desired response is recognised as the fifth and last element of coinmunication. Under it, the higher authority requires evidence of compliance with instructions through formal replies and reports to determine whether the information or instruction has influenced the administrative behaviour of the recipients or not. It is possible through upward flow of requisite information in an organisation.

flow of requisite information in a n organisation. 28.4 ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION It is worthwhile to
flow of requisite information in a n organisation. 28.4 ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION It is worthwhile to
flow of requisite information in a n organisation. 28.4 ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION It is worthwhile to
flow of requisite information in a n organisation. 28.4 ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION It is worthwhile to
flow of requisite information in a n organisation. 28.4 ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION It is worthwhile to
flow of requisite information in a n organisation. 28.4 ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION It is worthwhile to

28.4 ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION

It is worthwhile to mention the essentials of effective communication. According to Teny

the eight factors essential to make communicatio~leffective are (a) Inform yourself f~tlly:

(b) Establish a mutual trust in each other; (c) find a common ground of experience; (d) Use mutual known words; (e) Have regard to context; (f)Secure and hold the receiver's attention; (g) Employ examples and use visual aids; and (h) Practice delaying reactions. But Richards and Nielander opine that il should reflect the policies, programmes and practices of management. Millet has given %evenfacrcjrs viz., co~lmunicationshould be clear, consistent with the expectation of the recipient, adequate, timely, uniform, flexible and acceptable.

It is essential for the management to clarify ideas before co~nmunicatingthem. To convey precise information to the recipients it is desired that they should be clearly communicated the course of the decision, mode of action and the time elenlent etc. Such a clarity will help establishing effective communication.

Secondly, the communicator should examine within himself as to why is he communicating and what is the main objective of this communication.

Thirdly, communication must convey adequate information to stimulate the expected response from the recipients. Prior assessment should be made of the total physical and human setting which are to he involved. Voluminous and repetitive communicalion should be avoided.

Fourthly, communication must be timely to provide sufficient time to the recipient to act upon it.

Fifthly, uniformity%should be maintained in the nature of communication in such cases where the recipients are expected to behave or act'in a similar way.

Sixthly, communication should permit flexibility. "Top management usually learns that it

is preferable to communicate broad purpose 'and general intent to subordinates and to leave

good deal of

they are not too exacting in their detail and allow for adaptability to peculiar circumstances."

Finaily; communications should stimulate acceptance by referring to previous agreements or understandings or by calling attention to the new circumstances requiring new action.

The American Management Association has given ten commandments of good communication. These are as follows:

commandments of good communication. These are as follows: judgement to the individual; so communiciltors tend to
commandments of good communication. These are as follows: judgement to the individual; so communiciltors tend to
commandments of good communication. These are as follows: judgement to the individual; so communiciltors tend to
commandments of good communication. These are as follows: judgement to the individual; so communiciltors tend to
commandments of good communication. These are as follows: judgement to the individual; so communiciltors tend to

judgement to the individual; so communiciltors tend

judgement to the individual; so communiciltors tend to be more effective if 1) Clarify your ideas

to be more effective if

1) Clarify your ideas before you communicate.

2) Examine within yourself why are you communicating and what is the true purpose of this communication.

3) Before you launch q: con~municationmeasure, consider the total physical and human setting which will get invoived in the process which you want to ignite.

Consult others for planning because your own subjectivity, operates adversely in designing your communication network.

4)

5) Be mindful of the content of human message, because it iS possible that the message may be lost in the context, and the overall configuration of the contents may disfigure the message itself.

6)

Convey other things to help him because a communicatee is not only looking forwal, for a command, but he is curious to seek guidance and assistance.

command, but he is curious to seek guidance and assistance. ' 7) Follow up your communication,

'

7) Follow up your communication, for it being a chain process does not stop at a given point of a letter or the despatch of a message. It needs to be continuously followed and strengthens at every bend of the way. It ensures effectivity and keeps It moving till the attainment of goal.

8) Communicate for today as well as for tomorrow. It means the communicalor should

establish a rapport

commonsense and robust pragmatism. This image makes him a better communicator and even those who do not take him seriously today, will gradually respond to his communications.

and establish his own image as knowledgeable person with sound

today, will gradually respond to his communications. and establish his own image as knowledgeable person with

Concepts in Organisation-111

s i n O r g a n i s a t i o n -

9) Acdon suppons communications. Communication is not merely letter writing. It is desirable that the cornrnunicatee should watch and assess the behaviour of the communicator.

should watch and assess the behaviour of the communicator. 10)Seek to understand before you get understood.

10)Seek to understand before you get understood. Commonly, understanding of situations, requires more brains than imposing one's ideas on helpless subordinates as it is not easy to understand others, if someone is ignorant. These help in achieving a shared understanding of shared purposes. If these essentials are not observed the communicatiorl process may break down.

Chester Barnard was one of the earliest writers who have recognised the importance of communication as a facilitating factor in maintaining authority in organisations. According to him, the following seven elements are very important in maintaining authority in an organisation:

1) The channels of communication should be definitely known.

2)

There shouId be a definite formal channel of communication to every member of an organisation.

3) The line of com~municationshould be as direct and short as possible.

com~munication should be as direct and short as possible. 4) The complete fonnal line of communication
com~munication should be as direct and short as possible. 4) The complete fonnal line of communication
com~munication should be as direct and short as possible. 4) The complete fonnal line of communication
com~munication should be as direct and short as possible. 4) The complete fonnal line of communication

4) The complete fonnal line of communication should normally be ysed.

5) The persons serving as communication centres should be competent.

6) The line of communication should not be interrupted while the organisation is functioning; and

7) Every communication should be authenticated.

I

and 7) Every communication should be authenticated. I Check Your Progress 1 Note: i) Use the

Check Your Progress 1

should be authenticated. I Check Your Progress 1 Note: i) Use the space below for your

Note: i) Use the space below for your ariswers. ii) Check your answers with those given at the end of the unit.

1) Explain the impnrtance of communication in organisations.

unit. 1) Explain the impnrtance of communication in organisations. a 2) What are the main elements
unit. 1) Explain the impnrtance of communication in organisations. a 2) What are the main elements
unit. 1) Explain the impnrtance of communication in organisations. a 2) What are the main elements
unit. 1) Explain the impnrtance of communication in organisations. a 2) What are the main elements

a 2) What are the main elements of communication?

unit. 1) Explain the impnrtance of communication in organisations. a 2) What are the main elements
unit. 1) Explain the impnrtance of communication in organisations. a 2) What are the main elements
unit. 1) Explain the impnrtance of communication in organisations. a 2) What are the main elements
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral,
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral,
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral,
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral,
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral,

3) What factors make communication effective?

3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral, based
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral, based
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral, based
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral, based
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral, based
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral, based
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral, based
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral, based
3) What factors make communication effective? There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral, based

There are three types via., downward, upward and lateral, based on the direction of

! communication

flow.

It would be woi-thwhile for us to briefly discuss fhese types. These

woi-thwhile for us to briefly discuss fhese types. These fonnal types are also supplemented by informal

fonnal types are also supplemented by informal types like the 'grapevine'.

Downward Communication

*
*

Downward communication refers to the instructions and other official messages originating with the top personnel of an organisation. These are transmitted from top to down through hierarchical set up and reach the lowest ranking official in the chain. The top level for downward communication makes use of devices, such as, directives, written or verbal orders or instructions, manuals, staff conferences, budget sanctions, other authorisations to inform the lower rungs about its attitude and ideas as well as to direct, guide and advise. 'In large organisations, downward communication is difficult enough to begin with, because orders must descend through numerous intermediate levels before the point of execution is reached. Miisunderstandings can easily occur when instructions pass through so many people. If little upward communication exists, the difficulties are multiplied, because the orders themselves are apt to be unrealistic and are likely to meet with worker's resistance.'

and are likely to meet with worker's resistance.' In upward communication, messages are passed by the
and are likely to meet with worker's resistance.' In upward communication, messages are passed by the

In upward communication, messages are passed by the lower levels in the hierarchy up to those heading the organisation. This includes whatever information is passed up through methods, such as written and verbal reports pertaining to performance and progress, statistical and accounting reports related to work, written and verbal requests for seeking guidance s~~ggestionand discussions. The upward reporting system is often of very limited

use or value in finding fault. in the agency's operation because some tirnes the

agency may appear to be unbelievably blirrd as to what is really going on in his agency; yet based on the reports he gets everything is fine: these reports simply do not present hi~n with all the facts.

Lateral Communication

head of [he

with all the facts. Lateral Communication head of [he Lateral calmmunication may take place arnong officials

Lateral calmmunicationmay take place arnong officials of the same level in the hierarchy or among the officials who are out of su~erior-subordinaterelationship. We may call it

I Contepts in Orgatllsation--I1
I
Contepts in Orgatllsation--I1

acrohs communication. l'he methods viz., written or verbal iriformation and reports, formal and informal as well as personal contacts, staff meetings and coordination comnzittees, are used in this type of communicatiort. This type is helpful in bringing together the related but different parts of the organisation. Assuring coordination of organisational objectives, ihe officials of the organisation should communicate their plans and interactiorls to one another clearly.

their plans and interactiorls to one another clearly. Informal Communication Tile rigidity of formal channels
their plans and interactiorls to one another clearly. Informal Communication Tile rigidity of formal channels
their plans and interactiorls to one another clearly. Informal Communication Tile rigidity of formal channels

Informal Communication

Tile rigidity of formal channels gives rise to informal channels of conmunication. They

supplement formal ones. Such channels of communication, often called 'grapevinc' are branded as dangerous and mischievious to organisational functioning. They damage the organisational interebls by carrying gossip and False information. But oftcn they play a very constructive role. For example, take Lhe case of a person in an organisation who is worried over a particular matter, but has no access to such information which will relieve hirn of

his tension. In such circumstances, the informal channels which'have an

information will help the employees by furnishing the information or by informing to

higher ups about his genuine concern over the matter.

Informal communication flows througi.1 friendship circles and other small groups in the organisition. They may even be uilorthodox channels like espionage networks. One positive feature of these cliannels is that it removes some of the problems in upward - cornrnu~rica~ion.They also facilitate downward and lateral communication.

also facilitate downward and lateral communication. access to that The greatest danger of infor~nalchannels is

access to that

downward and lateral communication. access to that The greatest danger of infor~nalchannels is that they can.
The greatest danger of infor~nalchannels is that they can. distort the information. If the aclministrators
The greatest danger of infor~nalchannels is that they can. distort the information. If the
aclministrators know what type of infornlal channels are working in the organisation anti
what sort of infornlation is circulated, it helps them in coordinating the affairs. Excessive
dependence of the employees on informal channels is an indicator of weak coordination in
the organisation. Some times infornzal channels work to sabotage the organisational
purpose. To counter this danger, organisatiotls have to develop openness in infornlalion
sharing and socialisation practices.
,
I
28.6 'MEDIAOF COMMUNICATION
It wol~ldbe possible to classify the communication media int~three main groups: Audial,
Visu,il and Audio-Visual.

Audil.1 cornlnullication media is adopted through cor~ferences,the interviews, the inspection trips, public meetings, broadcasts, telephone calls, etc.

Visual communication media includes written con~municationsviz., circulars, ma~.lurrls, reports, bulletins and hand books and pictorial forms namely pictures, photographs, posters, cartoons, slides, flags, insignia, etc.

Audio-visual media comprises sound motion pictures, television and personal demonstrations.

motion pictures, television and personal demonstrations. Each of these media has its advantages and disadvantiiges

Each of these media has its advantages and disadvantiiges bun it is up to tl~emanagement to decide what media will be used for which purpose.

The conference as method of cbmmunication has gained momentum in attaining marked popularity. This method helps in avoiding delays, minimisllag correspondence and reducing red-tapism. The main uses of the conference method, according to Millett, are: (1) to gain awareness of a problem; (2) to help in problem solving; (3) to gain acceptance and execution of deci'sion; (4) to help/prornote a sense of unity among the officials of the organisation; (5) to help in appraising personnel; and (6) to help in encouraging an exchange of information and informal relationsl~ipamong administrative personnel. Conferences aid ir~dividualsto discharge, their present responsibilities mare effectively, coordinate their warking relationship, and enable them to profit from others experieace, broaden their view point and formalise organisadonal colnmunication.

The conference method possesses the advantage of creating a high degree of interest, full and equal participation by group members, satishction through mutual achievement, acceptance of results by participants inculcating habit of anaiysis and integratiol, of thought, developing group morale and possessin,: an informality.

habit of anaiysis and integratiol, of thought, developing group morale and possessin,: an informality.
habit of anaiysis and integratiol, of thought, developing group morale and possessin,: an informality.
habit of anaiysis and integratiol, of thought, developing group morale and possessin,: an informality.
habit of anaiysis and integratiol, of thought, developing group morale and possessin,: an informality.

There are some limitations of conference method in the views of the Estimate Committee of Government of Ifidia. Its 9th report stales: " The conferences have become so xiany and are sotnetimes so unwieldy that it is impossible for officers participation in them to do frill justice to the subject matter of the discussions and, in prcctice, instead of the meetings, short discussions, noting.,, etc they sometimes lead to protracted correspondence, in as much as different view points which are expressed have to be recorded, corrected and reconciled and delay occurs in framing agreed minutes and sometimes further conferences become necessary as a result of incomplete discussions. sometimes, the same officer has to attend more than one conference the same day and cannot obviously be fully prepared for each conference, consequently, he does nor contribute fully to the discussions. In ihort, the conference system is proving more elaborate than the original procedure of noting on files."

Conferences should be carefully managed so as to make them most useful. h conference must follow or observe preliminary planning, expert services, rules and provide for adequate organisation for effective working. Persons responsible for preliminary planning nlust be given adequate or sufficient time and the qualified persons should be assigned tasks well in advance. The conference room should be well equipped with the provision of aids like black-boards, slides and projectors, recording, seating arrangement, timing, eto. The personality of the Chairman and the procedure adopted may lrelp in niaking the conference successful.

adopted may lrelp in niaking the conference successful. 28.7 FACTORS INI%IBITHNG6110MMIJNHCATIOW There are certain
adopted may lrelp in niaking the conference successful. 28.7 FACTORS INI%IBITHNG6110MMIJNHCATIOW There are certain
adopted may lrelp in niaking the conference successful. 28.7 FACTORS INI%IBITHNG6110MMIJNHCATIOW There are certain
adopted may lrelp in niaking the conference successful. 28.7 FACTORS INI%IBITHNG6110MMIJNHCATIOW There are certain
adopted may lrelp in niaking the conference successful. 28.7 FACTORS INI%IBITHNG6110MMIJNHCATIOW There are certain

28.7 FACTORS INI%IBITHNG6110MMIJNHCATIOW

successful. 28.7 FACTORS INI%IBITHNG6110MMIJNHCATIOW There are certain factors which come in the way of SIIIOO!~

There are certain factors which come in the way of SIIIOO!~ l'low of co~i~!~~u~~~c;lfirn process. With the result, the comlnunication becomes inet'l'ective. 'Il~cy;Ire dc\crilxel below.

inet'l'ective. 'Il~cy ;Ire dc\crilxel below. Rigidity In a conversation, the meaning attached to

Rigidity

In a conversation, the meaning attached to viirious words and expressions very from person to person. Soinc people llold stray views on varioa~smatter!;. They hardly lisrcn to other persons, in view of their rigid smrad on certain matters. This leads to ineftkclive communication. People have to tlevelop the skill of listeninE to others. They must have patience to accomtnodate the view points of others. This lead!; to effective co!nrnunication.

Generalisations

This lead!; to effective co!nrnunication. Generalisations Another factor which leads to ineffective colnr-unication

Another factor which leads to ineffective colnr-unication is generalisation. If an aged person has had n bad experience with some youth, he considers all youth as unruly. Similarly, if a person had read an unimpressive poem written by a poet, IP~considers all that is written by that poet as unworthy. Siicll feelings about persons and things in day to day life act as stereotype ideas on one's personality. This leads to ineffective communication.

personality. This leads t o ineffective communication. Extreme Oainions Some people br:tnil everything in this

Extreme Oainions

Some people br:tnil everything in this world as either good or bad. In their day to day life they show rigidity. But, in real life it is difficuh to view things in two simplified cornpartnients. There are so Inany grey nreas which esist. Pedple with extreme opinions behave in such a way, that if a person is good in one area, they consider him gorid in every aspect of life. This happens in the other way also. This leads to ineffective communication.

There is need to overcome some of these limiting factors and make the communications effective. The following suggestions are given for the pul'pose:

a) Communicariori should express the total needs of the organisation.

Communication is effective in a climate of mutual trust and confidence.should express the total needs of the organisation. C) Communication sl~ould be treated as a continuing

C) Communication sl~ouldbe treated as a continuing programme. It should not be equatcd with a brief campaign.

programme. It should not be equatcd with a brief campaign. dl The putpose of com~ni~nication and
dl
dl
It should not be equatcd with a brief campaign. dl The putpose of com~ni~nication and the

The putpose of com~ni~nicationand the person to w!~o~ndirected should be very clear.

with a brief campaign. dl The putpose of com~ni~nication and the person to w!~o~n directed should
with a brief campaign. dl The putpose of com~ni~nication and the person to w!~o~n directed should

,

Concepts in Organisition-JI
Concepts in Organisition-JI
e)
e)

C~mmunicati~~nshould be both ways i.e., upward and downward.

f) The language and line of communication should be very clear.

g) Communication should reflect the policies, programmes and practices of management.

the policies, programmes and practices of management. More important than the above is the need for

More important than the above is the need for mutual understanding and respect and -confidence and trust between communicators. Only this will enable communication of personal feelings and real problems.

Check Your Progress 2

personal feelings and real problems. Check Your Progress 2 Note: i) Use the space below for

Note: i) Use the space below for your answers. ii) Check your answers with those given at the end of the unit.

I) Explain the role of informal communications in an organisation.

the role of informal communications in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3)
the role of informal communications in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3)
the role of informal communications in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3)
the role of informal communications in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3)
the role of informal communications in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3)
the role of informal communications in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3)
the role of informal communications in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3)

2) How conference method helps communication process?

in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3) What factors inhibit communications?
in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3) What factors inhibit communications?
in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3) What factors inhibit communications?
in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3) What factors inhibit communications?
in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3) What factors inhibit communications?
in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3) What factors inhibit communications?
in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3) What factors inhibit communications?
in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3) What factors inhibit communications?
in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3) What factors inhibit communications?

3) What factors inhibit communications?

in an organisation. 2) How conference method helps communication process? 3) What factors inhibit communications?

4) What safeguards do you suggest to make comrnunicatiorrs effective?

do you suggest to make comrnunicatiorrs effective? ' 28.8 LET. US 'SUM UP Communication, which is
do you suggest to make comrnunicatiorrs effective? ' 28.8 LET. US 'SUM UP Communication, which is
do you suggest to make comrnunicatiorrs effective? ' 28.8 LET. US 'SUM UP Communication, which is
do you suggest to make comrnunicatiorrs effective? ' 28.8 LET. US 'SUM UP Communication, which is

' 28.8 LET.US 'SUM UP

effective? ' 28.8 LET. US 'SUM UP Communication, which is one of the main principles, is

Communication, which is one of the main principles, is in fact the blood stream of administrative organisation. Communication means shared understanding of a shared purpose. Communicator, t~anslnissionprocedure, form, recipient and desired response are its main elements. The media of communication are viz., audial, visual and audio-visual.

'

Conference method is proved to be the most useful but has some limitations too. Downward, upwards and lateral are the types of communication. Communicationshould reflect the policies, programmes and practices of the management. Informal channels of communication, to some extent give positive results. However, it needs skills to handle ainf6rmal communication. Otherwise, it may even sabotage the organisational purpose. Communication becomes ineffective in case the people iniolved in communication hold rigid attitudes, stereotyped ideas and take extreme positions on people and matters. , Communication will be qffective if people have mutual trust and confidence.

,

28.9

if people have mutual trust and confidence. , 28.9 KEY WO~DS r ' Communicatee: Person who

KEY WO~DS

r

'
'

Communicatee: Person who receives the communication.

Grape Vine: An informal method of communicating information from person to person. House Journal: A periodical publication issued by an organisation business firm to infonh its employees or patronh of news and activities.

Insignia: Badges or distinguishing marks of office, honour or membership.

Pragmatism: A concern for and emphasis on practical matters. Socialisation: To participate in friendly interchange with people.

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28.10 SOME USEFUL BOOKS.

,

i

Avasthi.A. and Maheshwari S.R., 1986. Public' Aclministration; Lakshmi Narayan Aggarwal: Agra. Bamard, Chester I, 1938, The F~inctionsof the Executive; Harvard University Press:

.

,

Cambridge.

1i

Executive; Harvard University Press: . , Cambridge. 1 i Hicks, Herbert G & Ray Gullet C,

Hicks, Herbert G & Ray Gullet C, 1975. Organisations Theory and Behaviour;McGraw-

,

,

Hill Book Company: New York.

Luthans, Fred, 1977. Organisational Behaviou,-;McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York.

Millet John D, York.

1954. Management in Public Services; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New

Book Company: New York. Millet John D, York. 1954. Management in Public Services; McGraw-Hill Book Company:
Book Company: New York. Millet John D, York. 1954. Management in Public Services; McGraw-Hill Book Company:
Book Company: New York. Millet John D, York. 1954. Management in Public Services; McGraw-Hill Book Company:

*.

CQ~C~P@in Organisation-11
CQ~C~P@in Organisation-11

I

Nigro, Felix A. and Nigro Lloyd G, 1973. Modern Public Administration; Harper &

G, 1973. Modern Public Administration; Harper & Publishers: New York. Row Tead Ordway, 1951.The Art
G, 1973. Modern Public Administration; Harper & Publishers: New York. Row Tead Ordway, 1951.The Art

Publishers: New York.

Row

Tead Ordway, 1951.The Art ofAdministration;McGraw-I-iill Book Company: New York. , - 28.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK
Tead Ordway, 1951.The Art ofAdministration;McGraw-I-iill Book Company: New York.
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28.11
ANSWERS TO CHECK UOkTR PROGRESS
EXERCISES
Check Your Progress I
1) See Section 28.2
2) See Section 28.3
3) See section 28.4
Check Your Progress 2
J
1) See Section 28.5
2) See Section 28.6
3) See Section 28.7
4) See Section 28.7
section 28.4 Check Your Progress 2 J 1) See Section 28.5 2) See Section 28.6 3)
section 28.4 Check Your Progress 2 J 1) See Section 28.5 2) See Section 28.6 3)
section 28.4 Check Your Progress 2 J 1) See Section 28.5 2) See Section 28.6 3)
section 28.4 Check Your Progress 2 J 1) See Section 28.5 2) See Section 28.6 3)
section 28.4 Check Your Progress 2 J 1) See Section 28.5 2) See Section 28.6 3)
section 28.4 Check Your Progress 2 J 1) See Section 28.5 2) See Section 28.6 3)