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real life picturesprovideus a fair imageof, and what social effect commercial picturing has upon the life that is purportedly pictured a limitation also of the purposely pictures selected displayed here. {2) Since there is little constrainton what | lect to identify as a theme (a "genderism"),or which picturesI bring togetherin order to displaywhat is thus identified, or on the way I order the stillswithin a givenseries, it could be taken that anythingcould be depictedthat I can manage to suggestthrough what appearsto be common to a few pictures.Success here requiresnothing more than a small amount of prversity and wit and a largebatchof pictures to from. The larger choose the initial collection, the more surely the analystcan find confirmingexamples of what he thinks s o m ec o m m e r c i i ls t i l l pictur i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e he has found R e p r o d u c e d in one or would in any caselike to I sh u m a ns u b j e c t s ds featuring I. n a d d i t i o n , depict a caseof representativeness declining asthe data base I photographa "actual" persons, that is, someuseis madeof newsshotsof increases. So effectivedepictionof a themecannot in itself l\4y proveanythingabout what is found in pictures or, of course, of modelswho are beingpicturedin their own capacity. in media is that anyone whose picture appears in the world. Indeed,somethinglike the mthod I use is assumption print has almost certainly cooperatedin the processand employedby artful compilers of photographic funny books, camera pranksterswho match gesticulatorypictures of therefore-like a professionalmodel has placed this appearance in the publicdomain,foregoing the protectionfrom famous citizens against animals and plants apparently postures, or who that persons, at leastliving ones,canstrongly socialanalysis engaged in similarly characterizable pictures takenfor homeconsumption. claimregarding superimposeballooned thoughts and statements,these The pictures reproducedwere selectedat will from formulated to define the situationas it neverwas in actual newspapers and current popularmagazines easyto hand-at life, committing the protagonists to responses of a wildly the pictures eachset kind. So, too, the texts accompanying leastto my hand.t They werechosen to fit into sets, scurrilous nceme nt delineating, or mocking up of a are cast in the style of generalization-by-pronou to allow the displaying, femalegender, found in the writings of freelancebody linguists, strayed discretetheme bearingon gender, especially journalists. ethologists, and arranged with malice within each set to the sameend. and lesser (3) The particularmattersI want to consider Each set of pictures is accompanied informally by some raisethree questionsthat should verbal text. distinct and generalmethodological presentation, and proof. Only not be confused:discovery, the first two will here be at issue, thesetwo allowingme to f i r s t c o n c e r n i nh go w p i c t u r e s c a na n d investment the very special exploit without a maj'orresearch I I S o m ec o m m e n t q l\4y cldim i5 that the in analysis. social of working with photographs, which advantages I I can't be u:ed advantages themesthat can be delineated throughpictureshavea very argasfollows: (ii There is a class practices-what as mixed ontological statusand that any attemptto legislat of behavioral might be "small behaviors"-whose physicalforms are fairly to the order of fact represented in thesethemesis likely to called be optimistic. or meaning well codifiedeventhoughthe socialimplications (1) The student of commercial pictures can draw a of the actsmay havevagueelements, and which are realized particularissue, from a magazine's or from a randomsample in their entirety,from beginning to nd, in a brief periodof or from a specified list of magazines, time and a small soace.These behavioraleventscan be definedperiod of issue, and disciaim characterizingother issues, periods, or maderetrievable by means of audio recorded and their image even more so other sources of pictures, suchas magazines, and video tapesand camera.(Tape and film, unlike a still, providenot only a recoverable newsprint, postcards,and the like, not even to mention image of an actualinstance of representativeness, actuallife itself,Specifiable then,is a way the activity in question, but alsoan appreciable collection of that a collectionof picturescould qualifyz and a way the l\4ore theserecords, important,audioand videorecordings of picturesabout to be analyzed do not. (Of course, findings very smallbhaviors facilitatemicro-functional study,that is, an examination in the stream basedon a systematic samplevery often get their wight of the role of a bit of behavior which precedes, can be trustedto generalize the co-occurs, and follows.)The coincidence of from the fact that the reader statistical warrantfor a subiect matter and a recording technology places the findings beyond their stateduniverse, which would requireanotherstudy, which, if done,would studentin an entirely novel relationto his data,forming the practical basis for microanalysis. rgeneralization, and so on, but that This special research inducea still broaderove is another matter.) Observe that this sort of repre- situationshould not be confusedwith the useof recording to picturesas such and doesn'ttell us technologyto documenta news story, provide a feel for a sentativeness Dertains of community,limn in the contoursof a relationship, depictthe what we very often want to know, namely, what aspects history of a nation, or any other matter whosemeaningis form which can be realized not linked to a fixed ohvsical in l and time. A n d t o t h a t o f a f e l l o w s t u d e n t , l \ 4 i c h il s h i d a . the round in a recordable space 2 (ii) Pictures F o r a r e c e n t e x a m p l e ,s e e R o b j n s o n ( 1 9 7 6 ) . from any source are now cheapand easyto


allowsfor easy in uniform slideform. A collection reproduce a searchand mock-up,trial and arranging and rearranging, error luggling,somethingbetweencryptographyand doing jigsawpuzzles, patterns a remarkable aid both to uncovering illustrations actual finding examples, whether mere or and instance records. (iii) The student can exploit the vast socialcompetency consensus sustained by viewers. of the eye and the impressive Behavioral configurations which he has insufficientliterary skill to summon up through words alone, he can yet unambiguouslyintroduce into consideration.His verbal glosses to direct the eyeto what is to be can serveasa means seen, insteadof havingto serve as a full renditionof what is "merely response" can The notion of a subjective at issue. upgraded; for clearlypart of what one then be academically is through from studyingbecause the only approach refrains verbal vagarieshas a specific nature and is precisely perceived, of one's literary the vagarybeinga characteristic incapacity, not one'sdata.3 (iv) A set of pictorialexamples (whetherillustrations or more than a instance records) of a common themeprovides devicefor making sure that the pattern in questionwill be Often one or two examples would suffice clearto the viewer. for that. Nor doesthe sizeof the set relateto the traditional of a notion of showinghow prevalentwere cases sampling particular kind in the sample and (by extension)in the sampled universe.Something else is involved. Different pictorial examplesof a single theme bring different conuntold into the same array,highlighting textual backgrounds even while exhibiting the is the disparities which depth and breadth of these contextual differences of a single somehowprovide a senseof structure,a sense which organizationunderlying mere surface differences, simply by reference to the numerical sense is not generated Whereas in sizeof the set relativeto the sizeof the sample. between itemsthat are to traditionalmethodsth differences of the samething are an embarrassbe countedas instances of their difference, in pictorial mnt, and are so in the degree patternanalysis together the oppositeis the case, the casting is all being what the analysis of theseapparentdifferences about. Indeed, somthingis to be learnedeven when an that is, advrtiserin effect performs analysisbackwards, starts with the same modelsand th samesalesDitch and for as vehicles then searches out different possiblescenes them and it all this in the hopeof buildingproductinterest through a mixture of repetition and novelty. For in

purposelysetting out to ring changes on a set theme, the advertiser must nonetheless satisfyscne-production requirements such as propriety, understandability, and so forth, thereby necessarily demonstrating that, and how, different ingredients can be choreographed to "express" the same theme. Here, certainly, it is entirely an artifact of how advertisements areassembled that a setof them will exhibit a common underlyingpattern, and here the student is only uncovering what waspurposely implantedto this end in thd first place. But how the advertisersucceeds in finding differentguises for his stereotypes still inst(ucts in the matter of how the materialsof real scenes can be selectedand shaped to providea desired reading. (4) The picturesI haveun-randomly collected of genderof relevant behavior can be used to iog one's consideration three matters:the genderbehavioral styleJfound in actual life, the ways in which advertisements might present a view thereof,and the scene-production slanted rulesspecific to the photographic frame. Although my primary interestis by actual gender behavior,th pictursare accompanied questions textualglosses that raise of any order that might be stimulatd by the pictures.In any case,what will mostly be shownand discussed is advertisrs' viewsof how womencan generalizations be profitably pictured. My unsubstantiated grace havethe slightsaving that they mostly referto the way gendr is pictured,not the way it is actuallypeformed. (5) By and large, I did not look for pictures that exhibited what seemedto me to be common to the two whetherjust in pictures or in realityas well. Nor for sexes, picturesthat dealtwith sexdifferences were which I assumed The vast amount of what is-at widely and well-understood. is thus vastly least to me unremarkable in advertisements (Somethingof the same bias actually underrepresented. from one'sown it is differences informseveryethnography; Bat world and unexpected similaritiesthat get recorded.) given these limitations, once o genderism wos identified as one worth mocking-up, olmost all sex role exceptions ond reversolsI came acrosswere selected, lt is to be added that business is locused(in rhe U.S.A.)in althoughthe advertising are New York, and although models and photographers populationinded, their productis drawn from a very special by viewers, something treatedas nothing-out-of-the-ordinary "only natural." In brief, although the picturesshown here of genderbehavior in real cannot be taken as representative of advertisements in generalor life or even representative particular publicationsources in particular, one canprobably negative statement about them, namely, make a significant pictures they are not perceived as peculiar and that 0s 3Th" "", ", well as the eye provides an impressive competency, unnatural.AIso, in the caseof each still, by imagining the (and lately thoseinterested in conversational and here phoneticians of what results, sexes switchd and imagining the appearance have made an exemplaryeffort to formulate notation analysis) By keeping into awareness of stereotypes. one can jar oneself of that can be printed on paperyet avoid the limitations systems his own can generate sounds and this switchingtask in mind, the reader ordinary orthography, thus providinga bridgebetween publications. The problem is that although trained studentscan glosses merit of min. and obtaina cue to the possible produce the same transcription of a given spate of sound, the (6) A further caveat. and Advertisements overwhelmingly which formulationthey producewill equally apply to expressions presentmake-believe or figures candidly scenes, the subiects different.Givena recording to listen they would hearas signjficantly models depictedbeing quite differentfrom the professional means can serveas a very adequate of to, a linguistt transcription soundand with that the the ear'sattentionto a particular directing who pose the action. Obviously,then, a statementabout, But written exploited, full competency of the earcanbe academically in ads is to be taken as a say, how nursesare presented do not solvethe problem. transcriptions without recordings {Nor, I like nurses and shorthand way of sayinghow modelsdressed a tape in the iacketofabook, believe, doesit help much to package pictured. (A fee a mock-up of a medical scene are set in printing analysis.) The of of do-it-yourself alongwith encouragement presents problems. or could persuade a real nurseto posein an ad about nursing still greater theanalysis of videotape records



"caught" photograph but of her in actionto be used, allow a in a real a real nurse find that agencies ordinarilyadvertising h e r k i n d . )I w i l l o n o c c a : i o n pifies ly h o s p i t du l n s a t i 5 f a c t o r li y of the subjectsof a employ this simplification,speaking namely,recorded pictureas thoughthey wereinstantiations, for is that posing The complication real thing. of the images an ad almost invariablyinvolvesa carryoverof sex,female models appearingas female figures, and male models as males. (So, too, there is a carryoverof broad rangesof of of the treatment lt follows that any discussion age-grade.) is to be found genderin ads happens to strike wherea sense sb o u t i n w h i c h m o d e l a n d s u b j e c ta r e o n e . I n s t a l e m e n ta then, there is specialwarrant for falling sex-stereotyping, contrived An advertiser's back upon simplified reference. "nurse" does not present us with a scene featuring a that is, an actualpictureof a photographic recordof a nurse, presents us with one of a real real nurse, but nonetheless "real."" meaningof sense in the common woman, at least is overJthe model doesnot go on After the studio session "nurse," but shedoescontinueto be a "woman." beinga of picturesin (7) Finally, a word about the arrangement general, matter subject In details. each seriesand other to proceeds from childrento aduttsand from actualpictures ones. (An implicationis thus overtly contrivedcommercial found in a implanted that ritualized behavioralpractices in a to be employed Iife come in real of contexts variety " form in adsfeaturing "hvoer-rituatized women.)Depictions arguedhere,i.e.,depictions the arrangements disconfirming are placedat the very endsof the series of sex role reversals, to which they belong and are marked off with a special females in a shouldalso be noted that throughout "feminine" stance will be seen to take up this position relative to another womanr not merely relative to a man, lhat Senderstercolypesat led(l photostrongly :uggesting graphicones involvea two'slot format, the important issue not subjects, being to fill the slots with role differentiated identity. sexual of opposing with subjects necessarily in black haveall beenreproduced The picturesthemselves of cost. Although it would havebeen and white for reasons somewhatmore accurateto reproducethe color ones in color, I feel that not much has beenlost. Eachpicture has lo tho:e a n d t h e n u m b e r sc o t r e s p o n d been numbered, appearingbefore the rlevantverbal text; the text itself o w h i c hi t o f i l l u s t r a t i o nts he series i m m e d i a t e lp v r e c e d ets and been footnoted, text have refers. Picturesas well as piLlure\ a s w e l l a \ t e x l a p p e airn i o o t n o l e sI. h e p h o l o g r a p h \ "read" from top to bottom, have been arrangedto be , c r o s tsh e P a g e . c o l u m nt o c o l u m n a

The implicationis that if you buy the one, you are on the way to realizing the other and you should want to. young lady is likely to be in the picture InterestinglyJ a classy of the product and herself to its her approval adding whether the product be floor mops, inscticides, ambience, credit cards,vacuum orthopedic chairs,roofing materials, and has pumps,or Learjets.But all of this is only advertising goes of these critical view So the actual life. little to do with failingto appreciate arts.Whichview is itselfnaive, exploitive what actuallife hasto do with. wantsto makeabout his Whatever Doint a Drintadvertiser of his medium in the constraints he must suffer oroduct. making it. He must present something that will be easilyso, yet all he hasspaceto work with will meaningful, be type and one or two still photographs,typically whose words (if any seem to be containing protagonists And although textual material spoken) are unavailable. outside of the picture bracketswill provide a readingof "what is happening," this is commonly a somewhat to tell its duplicatedversion;the picture itself is designed little story without much textualassastance. How can stills present the world when in the world persons of action,in doinSsthrough are engaged in courses posturings), (not where sound is almost as frozen time important as sight, and smell and touch figure as well? before Moreover, in the world, we can know the individuals us personally,something unlikely of pictures used in advertising, Some of the solutionsto this problem are obvious.A in those are captured in which figures scene can be simulated from acts which stereotypicallyepitomize the sequence are because these acts are taken-presumably which they identified as happening only in the course of, and momentarilyduring, an extendedaction. Thus viewersare time from the and forwardin sequence led to read backward moment of vision.5Another solution is to draw on scenes silent and static in real life: sleeping, that are thmselves pensive poses, window shopping, and, importantly, the fixed looks throughwhich we are taken to convey off-angle our overall alignment to what another person one not or doing.Anothr solutionis lookingat us directly-is saying icallyso in the picturem icroecolog to position the characters relativeto one anotherwill providean that their placement soclalposition relative index of mappingof their presumed and And, of course, thereis the useof scenes to one another. identified characters which have come to be sterotypically with a particularkind of activity by the widest rangeof recognizability.Inviewrs, thus ensuring instantaneous cidentally, advertisers overwhelmingly select positive, approved typifications (perhapsso their product will be to beingdissociated with a goodworld asopposed associated characters what we see are idealized so that from a bad one). o I w h y m y s e l e c t i o n rea5on5 | | | Having considered course, ends-while, of ideal facilities to realize using ideal I p i c t u r e s t d k e n s e r i o u s l y , n e e d n o t b e c o m m e r c i a l lll arranged to index ideal relationships. microecologically why they should. somereasons want to consider for although asmodels, canusecelebrities viewers Finally,advertisers is to favorablydispose The task of the advertiser personally ar known personages known they not are these product, to show a sparkling by and large, his means, to his events. about. versionof that product in th context of glamorous
5A point suggested to me someyearsagoby DavidSudnow(see 1972). Sudnow

"real woman"arepresented 4Qualificalions the phrase regarding 4:284-285), in coffman \191


lnterestingly, it is not merelycommercial advertisers who haverecourse to theseDictorialmethods. Governments and nonprofitorganizations employ the samedevices in orderto posters, conveya message through pages, and billboards; so do radical groups and so do private persons with photography as a hobby or a calling.(lt is ratherwrong,alas, to say that only advertisers advertise.Indeed,even those concerned to opDose commercial versions of the world must pictorialize their arguments through images which are selectedaccordingto much the same principlesas those employed by the enemy.) I want to argue now that the iob the advertiser has of dramalizing the valueof his product is not unlike the iob a societyhas of infusing its socialsituations with ceremonial and with ritual signs facilitating the orientation of participantsto one another.Both must use the limited "visual" resources available in socialsituationsto tell a storv: both must transform otherwise opaque goings-oninto easily readable form. And both rely on the same basicdevices: intention displays, microecological mappingof socialstructure, approved typifications, and the gestural externalization (Thus,just as a of what can be taken to be inner response. Coca-Cola ad might feature a welldressed, happy looking family at a posh beachresort,so a real family of modest meansand plain dress might step up their levelof spending during ten days of summer vacation, indeed, confirmingthat a self-realizing display is involved by making sure to photographthemselves onstage as a well-dressed family at a poshsummerresort.)This is not to deny,of course, that the prsented displays in stills are not a specialselection from displaysin general.Advertisers, by and large,must limit themselves to soundless, scentless appearances and one-shot moments of time, whereas actualritual neednot be restricted in these Darticular wavs. "socialsituations," Whichraises the issue definingthese of as arrangements in which persons are physicallypresentto one another. Stills may, and often do, contain a solitary figure, ostensiblynot in a socialsituationat all. But if the must give scene is to be read by the viewer,then the subiect and engage in doingsthat are informative, and appearances these informingsare just what we employ in actual social situationsin order to establishour own storiesand learn by others. Solitary or not, about the stories established to us, the figures in stills implicitly addressthemselves viewers, locatingus closeat hand throughour beingallowed a social to see what we can see of them, thus generating situation in effect. And indeed, the photographer often to simulate a clinchesmattersby requiringsolitarysubjects

gestural response to a phantomhoveringnear the camera, a forciblereminder of the placewe the viewers are supposed to inhabit.Observe, the solitarysubject not only "externalizes" give informationthat will us an understanding of what it is that can be taken to be going on, but also quite fails to exhibit taboo and unflatteringselfsystematically involving behavior, eventhoughthese arejust the sort of acts that are likely to occur whenthe actor is assured he is alone. (So perhaps a byproduct of commerciat realism will be the reinforcement of censored versions of solitarvconduct.) When one looks, then, at the presentation of genderin advertisements, attention should be directednot merely to uncovering advertisers'stereotypesconcerning the differences betweenthe sexes significant as thesestereotypes might be. Nor only examinethesestereotypes for what they patterns prevalent might tell us aboutth gender in our society at large.Rather one should,at leastin part, attend to how thosewho compose(and posefor) pictures canchoreograph the materials available in socialsituations in orderto achieve their end, namely, the presentationof a scene that is meaningful,whose meaningcan be read at a flash. For behind theseartful efforts one may be able to discernhow mutuallypresent bodies, alongwith nonhuman materials, can b shaped into expression. And in seeing what picture-makers can make of situational materials, one can beginto seewhat we ourselves might be engaging in doing. Behind infinitely varied scenicconfigurations, one might be able to discerna singleritual idiom; behinda multitudeof surface differences, a smallnumberof structural forms. Let me admit that thesearguments about the relationof ritual to commercialpicturesmight seem to be a way of makingthe bestof a bad thing,namely, usingeasilyavailable ads to talk about actual gender behavior.But I am not interested here in behaviorin general, only in the displays that individuals manage to inject into socialsituations, and surely this is part of what advertisers try to iniect into the scenes they compose around the product and then photograph. picturesare in the main entirely Commercial posed,"mere pictures,"at best "realistic." But, of course, the reality they presumably reflect distortedly is itself, in important ways, artificial. For the actualityhere at issueis how socialsituations are employedasthe scenic resource for portraits of constructingvisually accessible, instantaneous pictures our claimedhumannature.Posed can therefore turn out to be more substantial than one might have thought, being for students of a community'sritual idiom something like what a written text is for students of its spoken language.



Size Relative

1 - 4 O n e w a y i n w h i c h\ o c i a lw e i S h l powera , u l h o r i l vr,a n k ,o f f i c e , renown is il n expressive y\ o c i a l( i t u d l i o n \i 5 echoed through relativesize, espciallyheight. is somewhatfacilitated This congruence occupational selecthrough males among tion favoringsize a form of circularity, since selection often occurs in social wheresizecan be an influence. situations parents of interaction between In the case b i o l o g yi t s e l f a n d t h e i r y o u n gc h i l d r e n , that socialweight will be indexed assures kl i n d . b y t h ep h y s i c a ln social interaction between the s e x e s ,b i o l o g i c a ld i m o r p h i s mu n d e r l i e s t h e p r o b a b i l i t yt h a t t h e m a l e ' s u s u a l of statusover the femalewill superiority in his greater girth and be expressible height. Selectivemating then enters to ensurethat very nearlyevery couplewill in lhe e\pecle \ h i b i t a h e i g h ld i f f e r e n c e ed direction, transformingwhat would tendencyinto a otherwise be a statistical near certitude.Even in the caseof mere maintaining talk, vartof persons clusters l, ssociational, o u s f o r m s o f o c c u p a t i o n aa mar(edly ina n d 5 i l u , r r i o n as l election g r o u n d e dp o ' s i c r e , r ( er h e b i o l o g i c a l l v t ill be w b i l i t y t h a t e v e r ym a l ep a r t i c i p a n bigger than everyfemaleparticipanl. Now it seemsthat what biology and , i c l u r ep o \ i n g ) o c i d l\ e l e c t i o nf a c i l i l , l t ep completes: rigorously

that lndeed,so thoroughly is it assirmed differencesin size will correlate with differences in socialweight that relative of size can be routinelyusedas a means ensuring that the picture's s t o r yw i l l b e understandab alte a glance:

5-7 And here exceptions seem prove the rule. For on the very w occasion sh e nw o m e na r ep i c t u r e d than men,the men seem almostalways in socialcl be not only subordinated status,but also thoroughlycostumed craft-bound servitors who it m appear can be safely treated totally the circumscribed terms of their trade:

ile said:

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The theme of relative size is employedas a basisfor symthat is, designinga picture every detail speaksto a s i n g l e

The Feminine Toucho

12-26 Women, more than men, are pictured using their fingersand handsto trace the outlines of an object or to cradleit or to caress its surface (the latter sometimes under the guiseof guidingit), or to effect a "just barely touching,'of the kind that might be significanrbe_ tween two electricallychargedbodies. This rituaiistic touching is to be distinguished from the utilitarian kind that grasps, manipulates, or holds:


6Here a n d e l s e w h e r ei n c o n n e c t i o n w t t h t h e role of lingers (see pjcrurej 295 J201. r oraw d i r e c t l yo n o b s e r v a r i o nm s a d e b y l r 4 i c h l;s h i d a , to whom i give thanks.






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Because nothing very prehensile in theseritualistictouchings, face canbe usedinstead of a hand:

29-36 Self-touchingcan also be invblved,readable as conveying a sense of o n e ' sb o d y b e i n g a delicate a n dp r e c i o u s thing;

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In our societywhen a man and a woman collaborate face-to-face in an undertaking,the man-it would seem is likely to perform the executiverole, providing only that one can be fashioned.This seems widely represented in arrangement advertisements, in part, no doubt, to facilitate interpretability at a glance.

37-44 This hierarchyof functions is picturedwithin an occupational frame:?

?The irony has been noted that an appreciable amount of the advertising aimed at selling 5upplies for women's holsehold work employs males in the depicted role of instrucfing professionals or employs a male celebrity to tout the efficacy of the product (see Komisar 1912t3o71.



I t i s a l s o p i c t u r e doutside of ionas l pecialization:

The Faces of Virginia


"Chalfen (1975:94) reports that in his Amerjcan sample: "The male had of househ o l d u s e d t h e c a m e r am o s t o f t h e t i m e . l n a f e w c a s e s ,a t e e n a g e s o n , w h o w a s l e a r n i n g a b o u t c a m e r a sa n d f i l r n m a k i n g , t o a k o v e r t h j s r e s p o n sibility."




59-60 Function ranking is also pictured among children,albeit apparently with the understanding that althoughthe ps erlectly li le dctors a r et h e m s e l v e serious, their activity itself is not, being rather something that touchinglystrikes an anticipatorynote. In brief,"cuteness" is involved.e

61 All instruction seemsto some sort of subordination of structedand deference for the Theseexpressive featuresof the situationare reinforced by the lin learning to age-grade throughoutmost of the individual's ing career.In our society,one learningseems especially associated c hi l d s t a t u s , the "kinaesthetic" involving a m o l d i n gp h y s i c a l tween instructor and instructed, seem to be pictured instructing this way more than the reverse:

'A u s e f u l s t u d y o f g e n d e rs t e r e o t y p e si n t h e i i l u s t r a t i o n so f c h i l d r e n ' s b o o k s i s p r o v i d e d b y W e i t z m a ne t o l . \ 1 9 7 2 ) , f o r w h i c h I a m m e r h o d o l o g i c a l l yg r a t e f u l .

r oThe notion of kinaesthetic d e r i v e s f r o m B a t e s o n a n d l \ 4 e a d( 1 9 4 This book b.illiantly pioneered in the pictures for study of what can be pictured. The wofk stimulated a whole a t i o n o f a n t h r o p o l o g i s t st o t a k e p i c t u r e s . e v e r , v r y l i t t l e a n a i y s i sw a s - a n d p e r h a p s be made of what these siudenis Somehow a confusionoccurred between interest and the analytical kind. Dandy and stills were brought home of p e o p l e a n d f a s c i n a t i n ge v e n t s ,b u t t o l i t t l e Much respect and affection was shown n " t i \ e s a n o l i t t l e o f e i t h e rf o r r h e d n d l ) trcal t h a t c a n b e m a d eo f p i c t u r e s .



Whenever an adult receives help or service from a c t i o ni s l i k e l y t o , the resulting collaboration of hands.The re, guidesthe action and/or takes a t i t s t e r m i n a lp h a s e s(.E x a m p l e s : t h e s a l t o r h e l p i n gs o m e o n e on h i sc o a t . )I n t h i s w a y , p r e s u m a b l y , rccipient's sense of autonomy js It is also preserved, of course, acqu iring those skills through he canefficientlytend to his own n e e d sI.n f a n t s a n d c h i l d r e nh , owmust suffer their hands being bywhile a n a d u l tg e t s o n w i t h t h ej o b n ga f t e r t h e m . " l t i su n d e r s t a n d , then, that when adultsare pictured scenes being spodn-fed, they are guyingthe action in someway, so the self proiectedby the beingfed will not be taken as a of the realone.

It appears that womenare morecommonl y p i c t u r e dr e c e i v i n g this kind of help from men than givingit to them,and are not depicted markedly guying their reSponSe:



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A d m i t t e d l yt h e r e i s t h e p o p u l a r n o t i o n members of the aristocratically inclined traditionally engaged personalservants body-connecre cd a r et h a t m e m b e r s of classes would want to provide for ashamdness hre being a support . Of course, (orrelated w rh perw a s t h e n o n - p e r s o nt r e a t m e n t o f k h o p r o ! i d e di t .

36 GENDERADVERTISEMENTS 68-71 Which raisesthe questionsof how males are pictured when in the domainsof the traditionalauthority and of females the kitchen,the competence nursery,and the living room when it is being cleaned. One answer, borrowed from life andpossibl) underrepre)enled. is to picture the male en8agedin no c o n t r i b u t i n gr o l e a t a l l , i n t h i s w a y or contami' eithersubordination avoiding nationwith a "female" task: 72-AO Another answer,I think, is to p r e s e ntth e m a n a s l u d i c r o uo sr c h i l d l i k e , u n r e a l i s t i c a lsl o y ,a s i f p e r h a p isn m a k i n g h i mc a r ' : d i du lv n r e atlh ec o m p e t e n c iy mdge o f r e a lm a l e s c o u l db e p r e s e r v e d .
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81-3n A <ubller technique is to allow male to pursue the alien activity the direct appraising scrutiny of w h o c a n d o t h e d e e d p r o p e r l y ,a s the doing were itself by way of a lark or a dare,a smileon the face t h e d o e r o r l h e w a t c h e ra l l e s l i n g to essentially u nserious essayed charac, 2 of the undertaking.r

The Family

T h e n u c l e a rf a m i l y a s a b a s i cu n i t o f socialorganization is well adapted to the requirements of pictorial representation. Ail of the members of almostany actual family can be contained easilywithin the s a m ec l o s e p i c l u r e .d n d , p r o p c r l yp o s i tioned, a visual representation of the members can nicely serve as a symbolization of the family'ssocialstructure.

85-8 Turning to mocked-upfamilies in advertisements, one finds that the allocation of at leastone girl and at least one boy ensures that a symbolization of the full setof intrafamilyrelations can be effected. For example,devicesare employed to exhibit the presumedspecial bond betweenthe girl and th mother d n d l h e b o v a n d t h ef a t h e r s , o m e t i m ei \n picture: the same

r r C o r r e s p o n d i n S lw v ,h e n f e m a l e sd r e p i r e n g a g e di n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y m a l e t a s k , a may (as it were) parenthesize the activity, o n a p p r a i s i n g l y , c o n d e s c e n d i n g l y ,o r





scenes 89-99 Although in commercial fathers and between a unity is symbolized and daughtrs, mothers between sonsand that differenttypes there is a suggestion o f u n i t y m i g h t b e i n v o l v e dI.n a w o r d , there is a tendency for womn to be pictured as more akin to their daughtrs years) than (and to themselves in younger is the casewith men. BoYs,as it wre, have to push their way into manhood, effort is involved: and problematic

Girtsmerelyhaveto unfold:



(continue )d



100-14n Often the father (or in his absence a, s o n J stands a l i t t l eo u t s i d e the physicalcircle 6f the other members of the family, as if to express a relationship whoseprotectiveness is linked with, perhapsevenrequires, distance:





(con tinu ed)



The Ritualization ol Subordination

115-24 A classic stereotype of deferphysically ence is that of lowering oneself in some form or other of prostration. C o r r e s p o n d i n gh ly o , l d i n gt h e b o d y e r e c t and the head high is stereotypically a mark of unashamedness, superiority, and disdain. Advertisersdraw on (and endorse) the claimed universalityof the theme:

1 0 81 3

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o rtop going up?"

(continue )d

I r A n i n t e r e s t i n gc o n t r a s t i s t o b e f o u n d i n turn-of-the-century portrait poses of couples, wherein the effect was often achieved of d i s p l a y i n gt h e m a n a s t h e c e n l r a l f i g u r e a n d t h e woman as backup support, somewhat in the manner of a chief lieutenant.I cite from Lesy \ 1 9 73 ) :

112n 110n
past Perhaps the contrast between currenl portraits betokenr i chrnge in underlling rocidl o'Sanizdlion than conventiono s f e x p r e s s i o nw i t h i n t h e format.




125-39 Bedsand floors provideplaces i n s o c j as l i t u a t i o nw s h e r ei n c u m b e np t er sons w i l l b e l o w e rt h a na n y o n e sitting on a chair or standjng. Floorsalsoare assoct, d l e d w i l h t h e l e s sc l e a n ,l e s 5p u r e ,I e s s e \ a l l e dp d r t ro f a r o o m l o r e x a m p l et,h e place to keep dogs, basketsof soiled clothes, street footwear, and the like. And a recumbentposition is one from which physical defenseof oneself can leastwell be initiatedand therefore one w h i c hr e n d e r o s n e v e r yd e p e n d e n otn t h e benignness of the surround.(Of course, lying on the floor or on a sofa or oeo seemsalso to be a conven tionalized exp r e s s i oo nf s e x u aa l vailability .) T h ep o i n t here is that it appears that childrenand women are picttlredon floors and oeos more than are men.




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Aithoughless so than in some, seemsto be employed indicin our society,high physical place izing high social place. (Courtprovidean example.) In contrived in advertisements, men tend to be igherthan women,thusallowing :ion to be exploitedas a delineative rce.ta A certainamount of contorm a y b e r e q u i r e dN . o t e , t h i sa r r a n g e is supportedby the understanding our societythat courtesyobliges men favor women with first claim on i s a v a i l a b lb ey w a y o f a s e a t .

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Tohave andto hold... in sickness andin health...

(con tinued)






168-72n Womenfrequently,men very infrequently, areposedin a displayof the "ba)hful k n e eb e n d . "W h a l e v ee r lse, the knee bend can be readas a foregoing of full effort to be preparedand on the ready in the current socialsituation,for the positionaddsa momentto any effort to fight or flee. Once againone finos a posture that seemsto presuppose the goodwill of anyonein the surroundwho could offer harm.Observeaswill be seen throughout-that a sex-typedsubject is not so much involvedas a format for constructinga picture. One female In a picture may perform the gesture and another serveas the supportthat allows the performance. So a two-rolformulais at rssue, not necessarily two sexes:




173-86 Having somewhat the same distributionin ads as the knee bend are canting postures. Although a distinctron can be madebetween body cant and head cant, the consequences seemto be much the same. The levelof the headis lowereo relativeto that of others,including,rndirectly, the viewer of the picture.The resulting configurations can be readasan acceptance of subordination, an expression of ingratiation, submissiveness, and appeasement. 173-A Body cant:

173' 6

t 5C o n t r a s t a d i f f e r e n t kind of knee bend:


1 6F r o m D a r w i n ( 1 8 7 2 : 5 3 , fig.





4A GENDERADVERTISEMENTS 147-91 Smiles, it can be argued, often function as ritualisticmollifiers, signaling that nothing agonistic is intended or invited, that the.meaning of the other's act has been understoodand found acceptable,that, indeed,the other is approvedand appreciated. Thosewho warily keep an eye on the movements of a potential aggressor may find themselves automatically smilingshouldtheir gaze be "caught" by its object,who in turn may find little causeto smile back. ln addition, a responding smile(evenmore so an appreciative laugh)followingvery rapidly on the heels of a speaker's sallycan imply that the respondent belongs, by knowledgeability,at least, to the speaker's circle. All of these smiles, then, seem more the offering of an inferior than a superior.In any case,it appears that in cross-sered encounlers in Amerilan society, women smilemore,and more expansively, than men,17 which arrangement appears to be carriedover into advertisem e n t s , p e r h a p sw i r h l i l t l e c o n s c i o u s intent. 192-206 Given the subordindleu indulgedpositionof childrenin regard adults, it would appear that to oneselfin puckishstyling is to the corresponding treatment.How of this guise is found in real life is open question;but found it is in tisements.

r TSee 11913:49).








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2O7-16 fhe note of unseriousness struck by a childlike guiseis struck by another styling of the self, this one perhapsentirely restrictedto advertisethe useof the entirebody ments,namely, device, a sort of as a playful gesticulative b o d yc l o w n i n g :


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217-23 fhe special unseriousness in, volved i n c h i l d l i k eg u i s e s and clowning suggests d re"ldine(s lo be presenf in a socialsituatjon garbed and styled in a mannerto which one isn't deeply or irrevocably committed.Perhaps reflected h e r ei s a r e a d i n e stc o lry out various and to appearat varioustimes in Suises different ones. ln any case,in advertisementsJ at least, there seemsto be an unanticipated difference between men andwomen.l\4en are displayed in formal, business, and informal gear,and although it seems understoodthat the same individual will at different timesappear in all guises, each guiseseems these to afford himsomething he is totally serious about, and deeply identified with, as though w e a r i na g \ k i n , n o t a c o s t u m eL . venin the caseof the cowboy garb that urban malesaffect recreationally, little sense that one's whole appearance is a lark wouldseemto be present. Womenin ads seem to have a different relationship to theirclothing and to the gestures worn with it. Within eachbroad category(formalb , usinesi sn ,formal) t h e r ea r ec h o i c e s which are considerablydifferent one from another,and the senseis that one possibilities may aswell try out various to what comesof it-as thoughlife were see a series of costumeballs.Thus, one can occasionally mock one'sown appearance, for jdentification is not might be argued, then, that the costume-like characterof female garb in advertisements present locates women as less seriously in social situationsthan men, the seif presented through get-upsbeing jtsell in a wayan unserious thing. Observe that the extension of this argumentto real life need not involve a paradox. lt rs a commonview that women spendmuch m o r eo f t h e i r t i m e a n d c o n c e r n in shoppingfor clothes and preparing for appearances than do men, and that women set considerable store on the appreciative or depreciative response they producethereby. But, of course) so doesan actor in a part he will never play again.A concern overcarryingan appearance off doesnot necessarily imply a deep and abiding (This identification with that appearance. argument fits with the fact that women's styles change much more rapidlythan do men's.)


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52 GENDERADVERTISEMENTS 224-43 Adults play mock assault games with children, games such as and grab'and-squeeze chase-and-capture The chiid is playfully treatedlike a prey under attack by a predator.Certainmaterials (pillows, sprays of water, light beach balls) provide missilesthat can sr o s t r i k eb u t n o t h u r t . O t h e rm a t e r i a lp vide a medium into which the captured body can be thrown safely-beds,snow banks,pools,arms.Now it turnsout that men play thesegameswith women, the through a display of latter collaborating and through cries of attemptsto escape a l a r m , l e a r , a n d a p p e a s e m e n(tl.- i g u r e for an institudancingprovidesoccasion who are example, the partners tionalized being men.) Of feet never off their swung this show a man may underneath course, in a deeperone, the sugges" be engaged l i o n o f w h a l h e c o u l dd o i f h e g o t s e t i o u . is mock assault about it. In part because " f u n " a n d m o r e l i k e l y i n h o l i d a ys c e n e s it is much representthan in work scenes, ed in advertisements:

,t .



(continue )d



54 GENDERADVERTISEMENTS 244-6 A male pjctured with a female appears to employ an extendsometimes ed arm, in ffect marking the boundary of his social property and guarding it A suggstion is that encroachment, against this miniatureborder patrol is especially found when the femaleat the sametime her in a pursuit which accords is engaged authority. 247-69 There seem to be four main of pairs of perbehavioral arrangemenls sonswhich providewhat is taken to be a physical expression that the two are a "with"-that is, togetheras a socialunit w i t h r e s p e c r o t h e s o c i a ls i t u a l i o ni n which they are located.(ln all four cases, do note, the work thesedyadic tie-signs betweenfigin defining the relationship uresin a picture would seemto be much the same as the work they do in real socialsituations.) 247-9 lirsr, a matter of microecology: sitting or standingclose and with or without touching. This alongside, arrangement is symmetricalin physical character and social implication, no differentiationof role or rdnL being in itselfconveyed: 250-3 The "arm lock" is the tie-signin Western societies for that a woman is under the custody of the accompanying man though most commonlysustained tween husband and wife, no sexual legalIink is necessarily advertised it: father and grown daughrer, man bestfriend'swife may alsoemployit sign is asymmetricboth in term<of physicalconfigurationand what it cates. However nominally, the showsherself to b receiving support, both the man's handsare free for everinstrumental tasksmay arise:



u s.^






254-60 The "shoulder hold" rs an asymmetrical configuration more or less requiringthat the person holdingbe taller than the personheld, and that the held person accept direction and constraint. Typically the arrangement seemsro be dyadically irreversible. When employed by a cross-sexed adult pair, the signseems to be taken to indicate sexually-poten tial proprietaryship.



' -'".t;-r' il ' iir:1 i^ ri..:-i+l



GENDERAOVERTISEMENTS The directing potential of hand,holding can be madeapparent in ads:

261-9 Finally, hand-holding.When employed betweenadult male and female,hand-holding appears to be takento indicate a sexuallypotential, exclusive relationship.l8 A relativelysymmetrical tie-sign prsumablyexpressingrelative equality. Physicalasymmetry is to be for the male to detected in the tendency hold the femalehand, this allowingth indicationthat he is presumably free to let go quickly shouldan emergency arise and free to guideand direct.The physical fact that the back of his handis likely to be facing what is upcomingcan faintly protectiveness: symbolize


: : .


So also another theme, that of the providing a safetether:

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t 3 T i e - s i g n si n g e n e r a l a n d h a n d - h o l d i n g in particular are considered i n G o f f m a n ( 1 9 7 1 : 188-231).



Womenmore than men, it seems,are pitured engaged which in involvements from the removethem psychologically socialsituation at large, leaving them unoriented in it and to it, and presumdependent on the protecably,therefore, tiveness and g$odwill of others who are (ormightcometo be) present. 270-94 When emotional response an individualto losecontrol of his causes posture, facial that is, to "flood out", he by lurning c a np a r l l y c o n c e a l h e l , t p 5 e away from the others present or by covering his face, especially his mouth, with his hands.Ritualization of the kind with the young is involved, for associated ls the act cannotconcealthat something being concealed,and furthermore requires momentary blindness to everything aroundoneself this being a particularly when mpty and maladaptiveresponse to a the withdrawal is itself a response real threat. 270-5 Remorse:

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295-309 Just as covering the mouth with the hand can be an attenuationof coveringthe face, so a finger broughtto the mouth can be an attenuation of coveringit with the hand. But here s e e m sm o r e c o m another ritualization or biting m o n : t h e a t t e n u a t i oo nf s u c k i n g n s g i v e nt h a t t h e f i n g e r .T h e i m p r e s s i o i somehow a stream of anxiety, ruminahas beensplit off from tion, or whatever, of attention a n d i sb e i n g t h e m a i nc o u r s e ,nthinking s u s t a i n e di n a d i s s o c i a t e du fashion. ln any case,the face is partly covered a s t h o u g ho n e c o u l d s e eb u t n o t free to engage be seenand weretherefore hand and face outside the stream of address: face-to-face




I R/ fir Ea pe is N( UI ne ea vil






position ap310-20 Finger-to-finger pearsto carry the samedissociated selfcommunication as is expressed in fingerto-mouth gestures but in a still more attenuated form. Displacementfrom possibility. m o u t hi s a t h i n k a b l e





( c o n t i n u e)d



321-2 Turning one's gazeaway from another's can be seen as having the consequence of withdrawing from the c u r r e n tt h r u s t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a,l l o w ing one's feelings to settle back into protected control while one is somewhat from direct scrutiny. S i n c ef l i g h t i s n o t exhibited in this gaze-aversive behavior, s o m es o r t o f s u b m i s s i otn o a n d t r u s ti n t h e s o u r c eo f s t i m u l u ss e e m s to be imo l i e d .o 2





I eNote the combination of finger-to-finger with body cant and knee bend in this and the next two pictures. 2oThe process receives i t s c a n o n i c al i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o no n a p a g e i n J o y c e ' sP o r t r o i t o f o n Artist os o Young Mon, here cited in full as a r e m i n d e r t h a t t h e n o v e l i s t i cs e x i s m a t t r i b u t e d t o M a i l e rc a n r u n g e n t l y a n d d e e p : A girl stood before him in midstream: alone and still, gazing out to sea. She s e e m e dl i k e o n e w h o m m a g i c h a d c h a n g e d i n t o t h e l i k e n e s so f a s t r a n g ea n d b e a u t i f u l seabird. Her long slender bare legs were d e l i c a t e a s a c r a n e ' sa n d p u r e s a v ew h e r e a n h a d f a s h i o n e di t s e l f emerald trail of seaweed a s a s i g n u p o n t h e f l e s h . H e r t h i g h s ,f u l l e r a n c i s o f t h u e d a s i v o r y , w e r e b a r e da l m o s t t o the hips where the white fringes of her drawers were like featheringof soft white d o w n . H e r s l a t e - b l u es k i r t s w e r e k i l t e d b o l d l y a b o u t h e r w a i s t a n d d o v e t a i l e db e hind her. Her bosom was as a bird's, soft and slight, slight and soft as the breast of s o m e d a r k - p l u m a g e dd o v e . B u t h e r l o n g f a i r h a i r w a s g i r l i s h : a n d g i r l i s h ,a n d t o u c h e d with the wonder of mortal beauty,her face. S h e w a s a l o n e a n d s t i l l , g a z i n go u t t o s e a ; a n d w h e n s h e f e l t h i s p r e s e n c ea n d t h e w o r s h i p o f h i s e y e s h e r e y e st u r n e d t o h i m

in quiet suffrance of his gaze, without s h a m e o r w a n t o n n e s s .L o n g , l o n g s h e s u f f e r ' e d h i s g a z e a n d t h e n q u i e t l y w i t h d r e wh e r e y e s f r o m h i s a n d b e n t t h e m t o w a r d st h e stream, gently stirring the water with her foot hither and thither.The first faint noise of gently moving water broke the silence, faint as the low and faint and whispering, b e l l s o f s l e e p ;h i t h e r a n d t h i t h e r , h i t h e ra n d thither: and a faint flame trembled on her c he ek . - H e a v e n l y G o d ! c r i e d S t e p h e n ' s o u l ,i n an outburst of profane joY.l o u r c ei s C h a n c e( 1 9 6 2 ) . T h e e t h o l o g i c as


aversion. The lower323-38 Head/eye withdraws ing of the head presumably at hand,depenattentionfrom the scene d e n c y e n t a i l e d a n d i n d i c a t e dt h e r e b y . will be T h e g a i n i s t h a t o n e ' sf e e l i n g s of momentarily concealed-although, course,not the fact that one is attemptA s i n h e a dc a n t t. i n g s u c hc o n c e a l m e n ( to a , ontributing i n g , h e i g h t i s r e d u c e dc o f s u b m i s s i v e n e sM s .e ) re symbolization serve of the eyescan apparently aversion similarly:


t3erarrriller L0ngt'.






In real socialsituations and in 339-47 p i c t u r e do n e s , t h e i n d i v i d u a c l an withdraw his gaze from the sceneat large (with the dependency and trust that this implies)and lock it in such a way as to g i v et h e i m p r e s s i oo nf h a v i n g only minor dissociated concern with what is thus evenas his mind haswandered from seen, everythingin the situation;psychologic a l l y ,h e i s " a w a y . " ( D o o d l i n g a n dm i d d l e distancelooks are examples, althoughit s h o u l d b e k e p t i n m i n d t h a t t h e s et w o practicescan also figure in another arrangement, the one in which the indiv i d u a l a u r a l l ya t t e n d st o w h a t i s b e i n g w h i l e m a k i n gi t a p p a r e n t s a i db y a n o t h e r for that nothing he can seeis competing attention.)


L I | - E N S t s DW I T H D R A W A L

objecton which to lock an An interesting 348-72 ln advertisements women are f o c u sn o t a w a yl o o k i s t h e h a n d sf,o r . t h i s shown mentallydrifting from the physionly can convey some sort of selfcal scenearound them (that is, going "away") while in closephysical enclosure b,u t a l s o c a n r e q u i r ea d o w n touch w a r dt u r n i n go f t h e h e a d ,s u b m i s s i v e n e s s w i t h a m a l e , h i sa l i v e n e s a st h o u g h to s the being a possibleconsequent interpretasurround a n d h i s r e a d i n e sts o c o p ew i t h tion: a n y t h i n gt h a t m i g h t p r e s e n ti t s e l f w e r e enoughfor both of them. (At the same time, the male may well wear a wary, monitoring look.) Thus, "anchored p o i n t so f v i s u afl o c u sa r e d r i f t s " .V a r i o u s found. 348-61 Middledistance:






; rYed:-


: f '



td a milrl.r


".8 360


368-72 A twistable part of the male,s cloth ing:

367 (seealso 3351



con3 7 3 - 5 M a i n t a i n i n ga t e l e p h o n e means some withversationnecessarily drawal of attention from the immediate sceneat hand, with attendant lack of for, events orientationto, and readiness t h a t m i g h t o c c u r t h e r e i n .T h i s c a n b e b y l i m i t i n gt h e l e n g t ho f c a l l s controlled a n d o n e ' si n v o l v e m e nitn w h a t i s t a l k e d women are about. In advertisements s h o w n l u x u r i a t i n gi n a c a l l , sometimes t h e m s e l v e is n a d r e a m ya n d immersing p r e s u m a b lp yr o l o n g e d way.

In advertisements, women are 376-8 n o t o n l y p o s e dl y i n go n t h e f l o o r o r i n a b e d , b u t a l s oa t t h e s a m et i m e b e n d i n g their legsas though that part of the body were being employed in a dissociated w a y , a s i n d o o d l i n g ,e x c e p t h e r e t h e dissociated behavior islarge asmight scale, thereforebe the attention it withdraws from the scene at large:

379-95 lt has alreadybeen remarked that in ads women, more than men, from the appearto withdraw themselves a t h a n d t h r o u g hi n v o l v e s o c i a ls i t u a t i o n ments, including emotional response. Significant here are the responses of pleasure, delight, laughter, and glee-states of being Perhaps transported by happiness. t h e i m p l i c a t i o ni s t h a t a w o m a n - l i k ea child with an ice cream cone-can find some sortof final satisfaction in goals that canbe fully realized i n t h e p r e s e n t . 2l ln consequence, a consumatory"flooding o ut " :

'1 la! 13!r.a. ist$ d gd . hd rir f8!a iwill Slilli: h irt 3 dsMN *l dtj.e did tu m, I sd !t! t$ lr* r tw din&r .r!i lry l* I dryd kl l%" ld{ rt rd{ ,t{,, ftlr dy brilt ,$ ?'tor Fi i0r $d rMt Y'for 6rX S&t-$!i tud pry e$ ry m.t d{bbn re, e8. xs. rr ,ha b dhr ,rd sfrisi ndr t &r, !.ry d{ kddibl! ld. I's ikrhl.',



( c o n t i n u e)d
2 r A s i m i l a r a r g u m e n t i s s u g g e s t e db y K o m i s a r ( 1 9 7 2 | 3 0 6 - 3 0 1| | lf television commercials are to be be' lieved,most American women go into un' at the sight and smell controllable ecstasies o f t a b l e s a n d c a b i n e t st h a t h a v e b e e n l o v i n g ' l y c a r e s s e d w i t h l o n g - l a s t i n g ,s a t i n - f i n i s h , f u r n i t u r ep o l i s h . Ot s,p r a y - o n lemon-scented they glow with rapture at the blinding w h i t e n e s so f t h e i r w a s h - a n d t h e g r e e n - e y e d . h e h o u s e w i f ei n e n v y o f t h e i r n e i g h b o r sT the Johnson's Wax commercial hugs the d i n i n g r o o m t a b l e b e c a u s et h e s h i n e i s s o w o n d e r f u l ; t h e n s h e p o l i s h e sh e r s e l fi n t o a c o r n e r a n d h a s t o i u m p o v e r t h e f u r n i t u r et o g e t o u t . B o l d d e t e r g e ns t h o w so n e w o m a n i n d e e o d e o r e s s i o nb e c a u s eh e r w a s h i s n o t a s b r i g h ta s h e r n e i g h b o r ' s . i n s t e a do f o u r Observe that in advertisements, upon b e i n g s h o w n a w o m a n ' sf l o o d o f p l e a s u r e receipt of a present from a man, we may be s h o w n t h e s c e n et h a t m i g h t h a v ei u s t p r e c e d e d "Guess what?" scene, that one, namely, the w h e r e i n t h e m a n h o l d s s o m e t h i n gb e y o n d t h e b y o b l i g i n gh e r v i s i o no f t h e w o m a n ( s o m e t i m e s t o c o v e r h e r e y e s ) a n d t e a s i n g l yi n v i t e s h e r t o g u e s sw h a t h e r l i f e i s a b o u t t o b e e n r i c h e d b y , t h e p r o s p e c t o f w h i c h i s s e e nt o t h r o w h e r i n t o a s t a t e o f i o y o u s t o r m e n t . A n o t h e r v e r s i o nh a s ,n without warningi t h e g i v e rs p r i n gt h e s u r p r i s e c o n s e q u e n co e f w h i c h t h e r e c i p i e n tm o m e n t a r i ly losesall self-control, breaking into a flutter o f p l e a s u r e .T h e s e t e a s i n g u s e s o f i n d u l g e n c e a r e , o f c o u r s e ,c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e db y p a r e n t s i n c o n n e c t i o nw i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n ,a n d a r e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g s i d ea n o t h e r p l a y f u l t h r e a t t o e q u i l i b r i u m , o n e a l r e a d yt o u c h e d o n , n a m e l y , mock assault.



LICENSED WITHDRAWAL69 A corollary is that when a male and female are pictured in a euphoricstate, t h e f e m a l e i s l i k e l y t o b e e x h i b i t i n ga more expansive expression than is the male, which in turn fits with the argument alreadymadeand illustrated that in our society women smile more than men-both in real scenes and in commerc i a l l yc o n t r i v e d ones:






to look in on a 396-437 lt is possible or from socialsituationfrom a distance "participation behinda one-waypanel-a s h i e l d " - a n d b e l i t t l e s e e n o n e s e l f ,i n which caseone can, in effect, partakeof to scrutiny the eventsbut not be exposed o r a d d r e s sA . s p l i t t i n gu p t h u s r e s u l t s betweensome of the gainsand someof interaction. I the costs of face-to-face might note that when one'sparticipation maini s t h u s s h i e l d e d ,s i m u l t a n e o u s side involvements tenanceof dissociated sincethese would seemto be facilitated, o n e s e la f nd between c o u l d h a r d l yi n t r u d e to the othersin the one's availability a v a i l a b la et a l l . not being situation-one




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shielding of participation A ritualization sn e s e l f a i sf o n w h e n o n e p r e s e n to occurs the edge of the situation or otherwise , henin fact f r o m i t p h y s i c a l l yw shielded in it. Still quite to those accessible one is is foundin commerfurtherritualization cial posings.



At the edge:


F r o mb e h i n d obiects:

22Contrast t h i s p i c t u r e o f h e d g e dp a r t i c i p a tion with one that is formally similar but s u g g e s t i nn go p r o t e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n :




animals: F r o mb e h i n d

409-37 From behind a person(with opportunity to overlay the consequent expression, with a differentiating distance , o l l u s i vb e e t r a y ao l f one's i n t h e e x t r e m ec shield):

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430 434



23 l t s h o u l d n o t b e a s s u m e d t h a t m e r e physical placement is involved here. Men are routinely pictured in a rear position in a m a n n e r i m p l y i n g a n y t h i n g b u t c o y n e s sa n d example, pictures dependence (see, for 100-14n and 244-61. As typical in these m a t t e r s , t h e s a m e v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o no f r e l a t i v e " p h y s i c a l " p o s i t i o n c o u l d b e e q u a l l ya p p l i e dt o cover radically different effects. For the effec' tive reading of his text, the-writer depends upon effective viewing by his readers-words h e r e s e r v i n gt o P o i n t , n o t s P e c i f Y .


438-78 Snuggling: among primates the very young turn, or are turned, into their mothers' bodies for comfort and protection, sometimesfurther cut off from the surroundingsituation by enc l o s u r ew i t h i n h e r a r m s . P e r h a p s the suckling position is the prototype, althoughfor a child any adult in a parental role seems qualified as something to into.2aAs the child growsup, the snuggle proinsulation t h i s p r a c t i c eo b j e c t i v e l y vides from the surroundingscene deprogressively; eventually creases the withdrawal achievedthis way can only be ritualistic.Whateverthe biologicalroots practice, of this snuggling it is a resource in the formulating of commercial pictu res. 438-44 Children:

' aAn ethologicalposition o n t h e s ep o s t u r e s i s p r e s e n t e di n E i b l - Ei b e s f ed l t ( 1 9 7 2 : 1 2 0 - 12 4 1 . I a m v e r y g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o rE i b l - E i b e s f e l d t for permission to reprint three pictures (192, 283 and 284) from Love ond Hote,







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an atten479-86 Nuzzling-apparently emuated form of snuggling-involves ployment of the face and especially the or substitute noseas a sort of surrogate f o r t u c k i n gi n t h e w h o l eb o d y . N u z z l i n g , a form of then, would seemto constitute partial withdrawalfrom full availability to the situationat large.What one finds, in picturesat least,is that womennuzzle c h i l d r e n b u t m e n a p p a r e n t l yd o n o t . pictured lndeed, women are sometimes women And, of course, nuzzlingobjects. nuzzling men. a r ep i c t u r e d

liluc slrirtisrrt nlurtituscdtolrc.





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487-96 The process wherebyan individual snuggles into anotherseems anyl ,n d y e t i s ( l f e e l ) t h i n g b u t i m p e r s o n aa related to something that has an impersonal cast, namely,the use of another's body as if it were something that could be used at will, without apparentreferas an objectto lean enceto its possessor, on or rest one's limbs on, in short, as a physicalresource, not a sociallyresponsive one. In many cases,note, such leaning use of another seemsto be an attenuated,very ritualized,form of snugg l i n g .N o t e a l s o t h a t a n o n - s e x u a im l plication is presentin the contact,and that, attsl e a s t w , o m e n( m u c h in advertisemen a s d o c h i l d r e nw i t h r e s p e c tt o a d u l t s ) to use more of a apparentlyhave license way than m a n ' sb o d y i n t h i s u t i l i t a r i a n seems to be The assumption the reverse. that a woman is lesslikelv to havesexual intent than a man,and that her useof his lesssuspect body is therefore than his of hers. (Of course,an addedfactor is the th understandin g a t h e w i l l b e a b l et o b e 4 r t h a ns h eh i s .) h e rw e i g h tm u c hm o r ee a s i l y hereconsidered Note, the configurations n a p e r s o n arle l a t i o n i n v o l v ei n d i v i d u a lis p o t e n t i a lo n e . s h i p , t y p i c a l l ya s e x u a l l y to touch close, the license Among the less follows a different pattern. Men can punctuate their verbal interactionwith women by showing support,protectivegood will, and parent-like affection, ness, through the laying on of the hand, a less available to women license apparently ( a n do t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e isn ) t h e i rd e a l i n g s r v i t hm e n ( s e e Henley 1973).




LICENSED WITHDRAWAL 81 '/.ni: 7;4 >t:,""..:

497-500 A very standardizedtwoperson asymmetricalconfiguration obin real life and often in pictures servable " ll combinations i s t h e " g r i e f e m b r a c e .A except, of sex are found in the two roles, that women are not pictured apparently, providing t h i s s o r t o f c o m f o r tt o m e n . 2 5 one is W h e t h e ri n l i f e o r i n p i c t u r e s , p r o v i d e dh e r e w i t h a n i c e e x a m p l eo f of multiple reduction formalization-the to a rather set ritualistic configurations manoeuvre:



( c o n t i n u e)d


' 5 T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o ni s n o t . I t h i n k , t h e b a s i c o n e i n o u r s o c i e t y .F o r t h e r e a r e m a n y r i t u a l p r a c t i c e so f a s u p p o r t i v e ,b o n d i n g k i n d t h a t w o m e n c a n e x t e n dt o w o m e n o r m e n , t h a t m e n can extend to women, but that men can't e x t e n d t o m e n . K i s s i n ga n d t e r m s o f e n d e a r m e n t "honey","dear", "love" areexamples. such as I n d e e d , a w i d e r a n g e o f s u p p o r t i v ep r a c t i c e s may have a common, natural social history, b e g i n n i n ga s s o m e t h i n ga d u l t s e x t e n d t o c h i l d r e n a n d t h e n m o v i n go n t h r o u g h t h e f o l l o w i n g sequence of accretions: women-to-women, , en-to-men. w o m e n - t o - m e nm , e n - t o - w o m e nm




501-8 The grief embraceappearsto hypermanifest itself in an attenuated, r i t u a l i z e df o r m , n a m e l y , a r m s u p p o r t given as evidence of some sort of como r m o r a l a p p r o v a lA . g a i n ,i n mendation pictures, womendo not seem commercial t o b e s h o w ng i v i n gt h i s s u p p o r t o m e n .

But yqr'vetoldhimdenty.






" n a t u r a l " e x p r e s s i o no By and large, advertisers do not create the ritualized sf g e n d e r U n d e r d i s p l a yh a v e b e e n they employ; they seemto draw upon the same in commercial advertising expressions insofaras thesecan be represented the same ritual idiom, that is the resource corpusof displays, behavioral style. I believethat through visually accessible and to the turn out to be illustra- of all of us who participatein socialsituations, upon examinationtheseexpressions g l i m p s e d portray s a m e e n d : r e n d e r i n g o f t h e a c t i o n r e a d a b l el.f which an ideal bits of behavior of ritual-like tions rs onventionalio ze ur conventionst ,ylize , d v e r t i s ec relationship a n y t h i n ga and their structural of the two sexes conception a s t y l i z a t i o nm , a k ef r i v o l o u s u s eo f w h a t i s again w h a t i s a l r e a d y this in part by indicating, 1o eachother, accomplishing yut off from contextual a l r e a d ys o m e t h i n gc o n s i d e r a b l c l ituation. t f t h e a c t o ri n t h e s o c i as i d e a l l yt,h e a l i g n m e no h y p e h y p e r r i t u a lization. photographs, c o n t r o l s T . h e i r i s carefully of course, involve Commercial performed poses presentedin the style of being "only R E F E R E N C EC SI T E D are natural." But it is arguedthat actualgenderexpressions poses, too. artful B a t e s o n ,G r e g o r y , a n d M a r g a r e tM e a d of ritual, then, what is the differFrom the perspective 1 9 4 2 T h e B a l i n e s eC h a r a c t e r .N e w Y o r k : N e w Y o r k A c a d e m v o f and encelbetween the scenesdepicted in advertisements Science. "hyper'ritual- C h a l f e n , R i c h a r d from actuallife? One answermight be scenbs 1 9 7 5 C i n 6 m a N a i v e t 6 :A S t u d y o f H o m e M o v i e m a k i n g as Visual exaggeration, and simplifiizatiion." The standardization, Communication. Studies in the Anthropology of Visual rituals in generalare in commercial cation that characterize C o m m un i c a t i o n 2 : 8 7- 10 3 . posingsfound to an extended degree,often rekeyed as Chance, M. R. A. '1962 mockery, and other forms of unseriousness. babyishness, A n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S o m e A g o n i s t i c P o s t u r e s :T h e R o l e o f " C u t - O f f " A c t s a n d P o s t u r e s .S y m p o s i u m o f t h e Z o o l o g i c a l process editing. A the of found in is answer Another S o c i e t yo f L o n d o n 8 : 7 1 - 8 9 . photograph with of socialideals is a ritualization commercial D a r w i n ,C h a r l e s all the occasionsand sensesin which the ideal is not of the Emotions in Man and Animals. 1872 On the Expression exhibitedhavingbeencut away,editedout of what is made London: JohnMurray. In ordinary life we conspireto providethe same E i b l - E i b e s f e l d t ,I r e n a u s available. 1 9 7 2 L o v e a n d H a t e . G e o f f r e y S t r a c h a n ,t r a n s . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , su , t we can only do thisby k i n d o f " n a t u r a l " e x p r e s s i o nb R i n e h a r ta n d W i n s t o n . junctures in our style or at particular meansof behavioral Goffman, Erving for course of activity-moments of ceremony,occasions i n P u b l i c .N e w Y o r k : B a s i cB o o k s . 1971 Relations "1974 giving sympathy, sudden accessto friends, and similar F r a m e A n a l y s i s .N e w Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d R o w . junctures H e n l e y ,N a n c y ee d y a s c h e d u lw i n t h e d a i l y r o u n d ,a sd e t e r m i n e b . hil Brown, 1 9 7 3 T h e P o l i t i c so f T o u c h . l n R a d i c a lP s y c h o l o g y P and life know little about as yet. So both in advertisements e d . P p . 4 2 1 - 4 3 3 .N e w Y o r k : H a r p e ra n d R o w . poses, but in in externalization; we are interested in colorful K o m i s a r ,L u c y le m o u n to f s t u c kw i t h a c o n s i d e r a ba l i f e w e a r e ,i n a d d i t i o n , 1972 The lmage of Woman in Advertising./, Woman in Sexist Society. Vivian Gornick and Barbara K. Moran, eds. New whetherwe posefor a pictureor dull footage.Nonetheless, Y o r k : N e w A m e r i c a nL i b r a r y . is a executean actual ritual action, what we are presenting L e s y ,M i c h a e l under the auspices of its an idealrepresentation commercial, D e a t hT r i o . N e w Y o r k : P a n t h e o n . 1973 Wisconsin the way things really are. When a man in real characterizing Robinson, Dwight E. for a woman,the presupposition is that life lightsa cigarette 1 9 7 6 F a s h i o n si n S h a v i n ga n d T r i m m i n g o f t h e B e a r d : T h e M e n of the lllustroted London News,1842-1972. American Journal limited in someway, femalesare worthy objects,physically of Sociology 8l (5):1131-'114 .1 t r a n s i t i o n s . a n d t h a t t h e y s h o u l db e h e l p e do u t i n a l l t h e i r S u d n o w ,D a v i d " of the relation betweenthe But this "natural expression 1972 Temporal Parameters of Interpersonal Observation. /n ritual, may be no more an sexes,this little interpersonal S t u d i e si n S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n .D a v i d S u d n o w , e d . P p . 2 5 9 - 2 7 9 . New York: The Free Press. between the sexes than is of the relationship actualreflection , aomi the cou'ple pictured in the cigarettead a representative W e i s s t e i nN 1973 Why We Aren't Laughing Any More.MS 2:49-90. performedto are commercials couple. Natural expressions Weitzman, Lenore J., Deborah Eifler, Elizabeth Hokada, and s e l l a v e r s i o n o f t h e w o r l d u n d e r c o n d i t i o n sn o l e s s C a t h e r i n eR o s s questionable than the onesthat advertisers and treacherous 1972 Sex-Role Socialization in Picture Books for Preschool 150. C h i l d r e n .A m e r i c a nJ o u r n a lo f S o c i o l o g y7 7 ( 6 ) : 1 1 2 5 - 1 face.