Sei sulla pagina 1di 66


Mahatma Gandhi


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 2 October 1869 Porbandar, Kathiawar Agency, British Indian Empire[1] 30 January 1948 (aged 78) New Delhi, India Assassination by shooting Cremated at Rajghat, Delhi 28.6415N 77.2483E Mahatma Gandhi, Bapu, Gandhiji Gujarati Alfred High School, Rajkot, Samaldas College, Bhavnagar, University College, London (UCL) Leadership of Indian independence movement, philosophy of Satyagraha, Ahimsa or nonviolence. pacifism Hinduism, with Jain influences Kasturba Gandhi Putlibai Gandhi (Mother) Karamchand Gandhi (Father)

Died Cause of death Resting place Other names Ethnicity Alma mater

Known for

Religion Spouse(s) Parents


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on the 2nd Oct., 1869 at Porbander. His father was Dewan in the state of Rajkot. He was married to Kasturba when he was only a school student. After completing his schooling he went to England to study law and returned to India as a barrister in 1891. He started his legal practice at Bombay. But in connection with a case of an Indian firm he had to go to South Africa. It was in South Africa that Gandhiji started his political career. He was shocked to see that the Indian settlers there were humiliated and insulted. Gandhiji decided to fight against this injustice. He knew very well that he would not be able to achieve his objective by violence or force, so he invented a novel method of struggle for truth, justice and right which is popularly known as Satyagraha or non-violent resistance. Gandhiji had great faith in Satyagraha. During the course of his non-violent struggle, many a time he was insulted and even manhandled but he continued his fight relentlessly and ultimately he won the battle and was successful in securing the rights for the Indians in South Africa.Gandhiji returned to India from South Africa in 1915. He enrolled himself as a member of the Indian National Congress and devoted his energy to Indias struggle fo r independence. After the death of LokmanyaTilak in 1920, Gandhiji became the topmost leader of this party and guided the course of struggle for freedom of India.The experiment of Satyagraha had already stood the acid test in South Africa. Gandhiji decided to adopt the same method for the purpose of achieving independence for India. Under the banner of the Congress he started the Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements in India. These movements proved very successful and thousands of Indians from all walks of life participated in these movements and courted arrest. Gandhiji himself was arrested and imprisoned several times. He organizedthe Quit Movement in August 1942. To his countrymen he gave call Do or die. Along with other prominent leader-Congress and thousands of persons, Gandhiji was arrested i sent to jail. Like a brave soldier, he continued to fitter. Hardships could not deter him from the right path of justice and non-violence.

Ultimately this unique method struggle succeeded and India achieved her Independence the 15th August, 1947. The struggle which Gandhiji on was long, tiring and full of difficulties and hardships, but won freedom for India without blood-shed.

Gandhiji was a saint. He was a staunch believer in violence and Hindu-Muslim unity. He was deeply to by the Hindu-Muslim riots in the country that followed partition of India in 1947. Gandhiji went from place place and pacified the angry mobs with his message of and peace. It was he who brought about peace in N and Calcutta in Bengal, Bihar and Delhi, and esta communal harmony. On the 30th January 1948, he was dead by a fanatic while he was going to his prayer meetiEf Birla House in New Delhi. The whole world was plungoi grief and mourning at the death of this noble soul apostle of peace. Next day his body was cremateRajghat. Since then every foreign King, President. I Minister or dignitary, who visits India, goes to Ri to pay homage to him and lays a wreath at his samadhi.

Gandhiji was a great leader, a saint and a great reformer. He was pious, truthful and religious. He be1 in simple living and high thinking. Everybody who in contact with him was deeply influenced by his person

Even in politics Gandhiji behaved like a saint. His weapon was Ahimsa or non-violence. He believed noble end cannot be achieved by ignoble means. He great passion for Harijan uplift. He used to stay at colony in New Delhi. He hated the practice of unto and worked with great zeal for the removal of ability and strongly advocated temple-entry for the

Gandhijis ideal was Ram Raj, wherein there wol complete peace, justice and happiness. According to ha imprisoned several times. He organized the Quit Movement in August 1942. To his countrymen he ga call Do or die. Along with other prominent leaders c Congress and thousands of persons, Gandhiji was arrestee sent to jail. Like a brave soldier, he continued to Hardships could not deter him from the right path of justice and non-violence. Ultimately this unique method struggle succeeded and India achieved her Independence the 15th August, 1947. The struggle which Gandhiji on was long, tiring and full of difficulties and hardships, btti won freedom for India without blood-shed.

Gandhiji was a saint. He was a staunch believer ii violence and Hindu-Muslim unity. He was deeply by the Hindu-Muslim riots in the country that followed partition of India in 1947. Gandhiji went from place place and pacified the angry mobs with his message of and peace. It was he who brought about peace in No and Calcutta in Bengal, Bihar and Delhi, and estat communal harmony. On the 30th January 1948, he wa dead by a fanatic while he was going to his prayer at Birla House in New Delhi. The whole world was plun grief and mourning at the death of this noble sou apostle of peace. Next day his body was cremalRajghat. Since then every foreign King, President. Minister or dignitary, who visits India, goes to to pay homage to him and lays a wreath at his samadhi.

Gandhiji was a great leader, a saint and a great reformer. He was pious, truthful and religious. He in simple living and high thinking. Everybody who in contact with him was deeply influenced by his per

Even in politics Gandhiji behaved like a saint. His | weapon was Ahimsa or non-violence. He believed nob le end cannot be achieved by ignoble means, great passion for Harijan uplift. He used to stay at colony in New Delhi. He hated the practice of untou and worked with great zeal for the removal of una ability and strongly advocated temple-entry for the Harp

Gandhijis ideal was Ram Raj, wherein there wt complete peace, justice and happiness. According to ethical society free from conflicts and tensions, coercive apparatus of the state and based on harmonious relations between various interests and classes of society would be established under Ram Raj. He was a champion of democracy, and was deadly opposed to dictatorial rule. Gandhiji showed India and the world the path of truth and non-violence. He believed that it is truly alone that prevails in the end.

Gandhiji believed that real India lived in more than five lakh villages, and therefore, he worked for village uplift. According to him Indias real emancipation depended on swadeshi i.e., boycott of foreign goods, use of khaddar, and encouragement to village and cottage industries.

Mahatma Gandhi is known as the Father of the Nation, because it was he who won freedom for us. He was the maker of modern India. India would not have been a free country but for Gandhiji. He was the light of the Nation and the architect of Indias freedom. The spiritual and moral force of Gandhijis miraculous weapon of non-violence shook the foundations of the mighty British Empire over which the sun never set.

Gandhiji was a true believer in simple living and high thinking. He used to put on only a loin-cloth. He taught that true greatness did not lie in pomp and show but in service, love, truth and labour. It has rightly been said about Gandhiji that he was the greatest of the great. He is our guiding star.

Gandhiji was a great thinker and he expressed his views on a very wide range of subjects. In so far as religion was concerned, he believed in the equality and unity of all religions. According to him all religions were different paths to the same goal, and their aim was to make their followers better persons. In his view no religion taught hatred to others ; all religions taught love for all religions. Gandhiji had full and firm faith in God, and for him God and religion were inseparable.

For him religion and politics could not be separated from each other, because they were like the body and the soul. In its own words, Politics bereft of religion is a death trap, because it kills the soul. Gandhijis supreme moral force found expression in Satyagraha, which was a means to convert, not to annihilate ones adversary. Satyagraha mean non -violent resistance and a plea for self-suffering for a right, just and noble cause.

For Gandhiji means were as important as ends. Ifthe ends were noble, they could not be achieved by ignoble means. The axiom ends justify the means was not approved by him. He believed in the use of right means for realizing right ends. According to him the connection between the means and the ends was the same as between the seed any the tree.

Gandhiji was a staunch believer in Ahimsa, which m not a weapon of the weak but a manifestation of invincibir strength. The high degree of selfrestraint, of which the cute of Ahimsa was born, was impossible for the fainthearted Ahimsa was a feature of large-heartedness that had no ptaar for hatred, ill-will and anger for the opponent. He would resort to violence against anybody even under the great provocation. So much so that he said, Freedom won violent means was of no use to me.

For Gandhiji education did not mean literacy. Lite was only an aid to education. He held that true educa was that which was capable of achieving the objective ol round development of man. Man constitutes, the body, mind and the spirit. Education was aimed at bringing aa balanced and harmonious development of the three. E lopment of any one or two of the three meant a lo development. According to him training of the body essential part of education, because no mental devel was possible without adequate physical training. The r ship between the body and the mind was so interwov their development was impossible independent of each Similarly no intellectual attainment was worthwhile spiritual education. He, therefore, advocated a sy education which took care of the body, the mind and simultaneously. Gandhiji was of the opinion that education should be closely related to the needs of the : and the country. The education of a child should stan a useful craft hilosophy of the Gita, that every living being was a part of the Supreme Being that exists in the soul of all. God was the creator of all and he created all men equal. To him nobody was high or low ; superior or inferior. The practice of untouchability was an anathema to him. He considered it a social evil that had sapped the vitality of our society. He was deeply distressed at the inhuman treatment meted out to nearly one-fifth of our population, who had been

reduced to the level of serfs and were being denied all human rights. To him the practice of untouchability was immoral and irreligious, unjust, inhuman and against the principle of human equality.

It was unjust and inhuman, because it perpetrated cruelty on a section of people for no fault of theirs. It was immoral because no law of morality permits subjugation of other people. It was against the principle of human equality, because it denied some unfortunate people even the basic human rights. He started a mass campaign for the removal of all sorts of disabilities attached to the Harijans.

Leadership Lessons Mahatma Gandhi

Lesson # 1 : Continuous learning and improvement Gandhi always told his followers that if two of his sentences contradict each other and if they thought he was sane at that time (!), please ignore the first one and accept the second one. This reflects his learning and growth mindset, as well as anticipation of his followers needs. As an added corollary, rigid consistency was not one of his traits! Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever. Lesson # 2 : Looking at each person just as a human being Be quick, be brief, be gone! Personal meetings with Gandhi were very short, generally lasting a couple of minutes. However, in those minutes people felt that Gandhi made them feel as if they were the only person in the world that Gandhi would have liked to talk at that time. I look only to the good qualities of men. Not being faultless myself, I won't presume to probe into the faults of others. Lesson # 3 : Being an excellent listener Gandhi was not a very skilled public speaker; generally he was believed to be quite average. On the other hand, he was an exceptional listener of both the articulated and the unsaid. He seemed to be practicing seeing with your ears. It is unwise to be too sure of one's own wisdom. It is healthy to be reminded that the strongest might weaken and the wisest might err. Lesson # 4 : Proactively identifying barriers to make change sustainable In the 1920s an American journalist asked Gandhi what the biggest problem was that India faced at the time. The journalist expected Gandhi to say that the problems were slavery and British rule or pervasive poverty. But Gandhi said the biggest challenge facing the country was callousness of intellectuals. He

was not just thinking about getting independence but about building a sustainable society. You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty. Lesson # 5 : Being the conscience keeper on-cooperation was one of the key political movements that Gandhi initiated and led. Gandhi aborted the movement saying a key tenet of the movement, non-violence, was violated, and that in his opinion we are not ready for self -rule. A related trait for Gandhi was his belief that the end did not justify the means. He was insistent about purity of path in order to achieve desired goal. Non-violence is the greatest force at the disposal of mankind. It is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction devised by the ingenuity of man. Lesson # 6 : Heavy emphasis on self-awareness and discipline As you grow in self-awareness, you will better understand why you feel what you feel and why you behave as you behave. Self-discipline is the training of your mind to control, perceived harmful, urges, and to continue to control these urges until a satisfactory resolution has been sought. Self-discipline is a skill and once you get to grips with it, it can alter your life. Always aim at complete harmony of thought and word and deed. Always aim at purifying your thoughts and everything will be well. Lesson # 7 : Balancing value-driven vision and execution efficiency a leader with vision has a clear, vivid picture of where to go, as well as a firm grasp on what success looks like and how to achieve it. But its not enough to have a vision; leaders must also share it and act upon it. A leader must be able to communicate his or her vision in terms that cause followers to buy into it. He or she must communicate clearly and passionately, as passion is contagious.


You must be the change you wish to see in the world. Lesson # 8 : Emphasis on path and result Mahatma Gandhi was the great leader. He had chosen a path of non-violence for himself and his followers. All his life he fought against the imperial powers only with the weapon of nonviolence. This gave us straight to fight without weapons. And due to this we are here and ready to face any problem. Its also necessary to be clear as to what are the outcomes of effective leadership. A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes. Lesson # 9 : Adopting holistic perspective in every endeavor In his ideal society, there is no room for weapons other than nails of a woman. Security has nothing to do with weapons of any sort in the Gandhian arrangement of things Gandhi is in favor of a nonviolent and more civilized life style. Gandhis approach had always been holistic as human life is a synthetic whole, which cannot be divided into watertight compartments of social , religious, political life etc. "The world will live in peace , only when the individuals composing itmake up their minds to do so". Lesson # 10 : Be open-minded Always keep things in perspective. Do not dismiss others or anything big or small without giving a try. We never know where the next cool or useful idea may come from.


Inspirational Quotes from Gandhi

The future depends on what we do in the present. Whenever you are confronted with an opponent, conquer him with love. To see the all-pervading Spirit of Truth, one must be able to love the meanest of all creation as oneself. It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold or silver. Prayer is not an old womans idle amusement. Properly understood and applied, it is the most potent instrument of action. First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win. A man is but the product of his thoughts, what he thinks, he becomes. A religion that takes no account of practical affairs and does not help to solve them is no religion. There is more to life than increasing its speed. They cannot take away our self-respect if we do not give it to them. My life is my message. A Western journalist asked, Mr. Gandhi, you have been working fifteen hours a day for fifty years. Dont you think you should take a vacation? Gandhi smiled and replied, I am always on vacation. As human beings, our greatness lies not so much in being able to remake the world that is the myth of the atomic age as in being able to remake ourselves.


You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty. The difference between what we do and what we are capable of doing would suffice to solve most of the worlds problem. If I had no sense of humor, I would long ago have committed suicide. As human beings, our greatness lies not so much in being able to remake the world that is the myth of the atomic age as in being able to remake ourselves. Nobody can hurt me without my permission. The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong. An eye for eye only ends up making the whole world blind. An ounce of practice is worth more than tons of preaching. I do not want to foresee the future. I am concerned with taking care of the present. God has given me no control over the moment following. I claim to be a simple individual liable to err like any other fellow mortal. I own, however, that I have humility enough to confess my errors and to retrace my steps. It is unwise to be too sure of ones own wisdom. It is healthy to be reminded that the strongest might weaken and the wisest might err. I look only to the good qualities of men. Not being faultless myself, I wont presume to probe into the faults of others. Man becomes great exactly in the degree in which he works for the welfare of his fellow-men.


I suppose leadership at one time meant muscles; but today it means getting along with people. Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony. Always aim at complete harmony of thought and word and deed. Always aim at purifying your thoughts and everything will be well. Constant development is the law of life, and a man who always tries to maintain his dogmas in order to appear consistent drives himself into a false position. As human beings, our greatness lies not so much in being able to remake the world but in being able to remake ourselves. The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others. In the attitude of silence the soul finds the path in a clearer light, and what is elusive and deceptive resolves itself into crystal clearness. Our life is a long and arduous quest after Truth.




Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, M.C.

Mother Teresa at a pro-life meeting in 1986 in Bonn, West Germany Religion Roman Catholic Sisters of Loreto (19281948) Order Missionaries of Charity (19501997) Personal Ottoman (1910-12) Serbian (1912-15) Nationality Bulgarian (1915-18) Yugoslav (1918-48) Indian (1948-1997) AnjezGonxheBojaxhiu 26 August 1910 Born skp, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
(modern Skopje, Republic of Macedonia)


Title Period in office Successor Signature

5 September 1997 (aged 87) Calcutta, West Bengal, India Senior posting Superior General 19501997 Sister Nirmala Joshi, M.C.


Agnes GonxhaBojaxhiu, the future Mother Teresa, was born on 26 August 1910, in Skopje, Macedonia, to Albanian heritage. Her father, a wellrespected local businessman, died when she was eight years old, leaving her mother, a devoutly religious woman, to open an embroidery and cloth business to support the family. After spending her adolescence deeply involved in parish activities, Agnes left home in September 1928, for the Loreto Convent in Rathfarnam (Dublin), Ireland, where she was admitted as a postulant on October 12 and received the name of Teresa, after her patroness, St. Therese of Lisieux. Agnes was sent by the Loreto order to India and arrived in Calcutta on 6 January 1929. Upon her arrival, she joined the Loreto novitiate in Darjeeling. She made her final profession as a Loreto nun on 24 May 1937, and hereafter was called Mother Teresa. While living in Calcutta during the 1930s and '40s, she taught in St. Mary's Bengali Medium School. On 10 September 1946, on a train journey from Calcutta to Darjeeling, Mother Teresa received what she termed the "call within a call," which was to give rise to the Missionaries of Charity family of Sisters, Brothers, Fathers, and CoWorkers. The content of this inspiration is revealed in the aim and mission she would give to her new institute: "to quench the infinite thirst of Jesus on the cross for love and souls" by "labouring at the salvation and sanctification of the poorest of the poor." On October 7, 1950, the new congregation of the Missionaries of Charity was officially erected as a religious institute for the Archdiocese of Calcutta. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, Mother Teresa expanded the work of the Missionaries of Charity both within Calcutta and throughout India. On 1 February 1965, Pope Paul VI granted the Decree of Praise to the Congregation, raising it to pontifical right. The first foundation outside India opened in Cocorote, Venezuela, in 1965. The Society expanded to Europe (the Tor Fiscale suburb of Rome) and Africa (Tabora, Tanzania) in 1968. From the late 1960s until 1980, the Missionaries of Charity expanded both in their reach across the globe and in their number of members. Mother Teresa opened houses in Australia, the Middle East, and North America, and the first novitiate outside Calcutta in London. In 1979 Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. By that same year there were 158 Missionaries of Charity foundations.


The Missionaries of Charity reached Communist countries in 1979 with a house in Zagreb, Craotia, and in 1980 with a house in East Berlin, and continued to expand through the 1980s and 1990s with houses in almost all Communist nations, including 15 foundations in the former Soviet Union. Despite repeated efforts, however, Mother Teresa was never able to open a foundation in China. Mother Teresa spoke at the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations General Assembly in October 1985. On Christmas Eve of that year, Mother Teresa opened "Gift of Love" in New York, her first house for AIDS patients. In the coming years, this home would be followed by others, in the United States and elsewhere, devoted specifically for those with AIDS. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, despite increasing health problems, Mother Teresa travelled across the world for the profession of novices, opening of new houses, and service to the poor and disaster-stricken. New communities were founded in South Africa, Albania, Cuba, and war-torn Iraq. By 1997, the Sisters numbered nearly 4,000 members, and were established in almost 600 foundations in 123 countries of the world. After a summer of travelling to Rome, New York, and Washington, in a weak state of health, Mother Teresa returned to Calcutta in July 1997. At 9:30 PM, on 5 September, Mother Teresa died at the Motherhouse. Her body was transferred to St Thomas's Church, next to the Loreto convent where she had first arrived nearly 69 years earlier. Hundreds of thousands of people from all classes and all religions, from India and abroad, paid their respects. She received a state funeral on 13 September, her body being taken in procession - on a gun carriage that had also borne the bodies of Mohandas K. Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru - through the streets of Calcutta. Presidents, prime ministers, queens, and special envoys were present on behalf of countries from all over the world.


key lessons from mother Teresa

Take up a great cause Mother Teresa spent over 60 years of her life in the slums of Calcutta and devoted all of her life to service of the poor, especially lepers, the sick, the dying and the abandoned. It took a lot of resolve, determination and faith to keep going in the face of incredible difficulties and challenges. She put herself through a lot of hardships or what would seem like hardships to me and perhaps you too. Now I am not saying that you too should devote your life to those living in slums and give up your current life of relative comforts. You just have to find your own small or grand cause. Learn to feel the fear and change the world anyway. I for one do like my world comforts and I am sure you do too. And you know what, thats perfectly fine. Dont let anyone tell you otherwise. Just dont be wasteful. Start with your home and those around you You dont need to go to a remote place to make a difference. S tart with your own home and community. Also, you dont need to make huge sacrifices or give money. Learn to contribute from the heart and not just the pocket. If nothing else, just spend a bit of time with those are lonely and alone. And of course, start in your own home:It is easy to love the people far away. It is not always easy to love those close to us. It is easier to give a cup of rice to relieve hunger than to relieve the loneliness and pain of someone unloved in our own home. Bring love into your home for this is where our love for each other must start Mother Teresa Finally remember that peace in the world begins with you, your home and your children:Everybody today seems to be in such a terrible rush, anxious for greater developments and greater riches and so on, so that children have very little time for their parents.

Parents have very little time for each other, and in the home begins the disruption of peace of the world Mother Teresa Have a solid personal foundation Mother Teresa had a solid foundation that kept her going through all the turmoil and challenges in her life her strong faith. It has been well documented how throughout her life she faced personal doubts about her faith and how she ran her missions. But her core values of love and wanting to serve others kept her going. In your life, you too need a strong personal foundation to build your life on. In this life we cannot do great things. We can only do small things with great love Mother Teresa What are your core beliefs and values? What will you never compromise on? And if you were to follow the path set by Mother Teresa, just what would you do?

Create a tribe Once you are aligned to a great cause and you have a core foundation, you would do well to create a following or as its more fashionably described nowadays, a tribe. I guess we have Seth Godin to thank for that. Mother Teresa was lucky in that she had the backing and resources of a vast and powerful organisation, her church. On the back of that she created Missionaries of Charity a group of devoted sisters who carried out work and spread her message of love and compassion around Calcutta in India, and then ultimately around the world. A lot of work focussed on looking after the poor and unwanted. Being unwanted, unloved, uncared for, forgotten by everybody, I think that is a much greater hunger, a much greater poverty than the person who has nothing to eat. Mother Teresa Part of creating a tribe is to be media savvy and Mother Teresa always capitalised on any opportunity to promote her cause and to raise funds. Just think what she would have done with all the social media tools at her behest!


Ride through controversy When you take on a big challenge or commit to any cause, you often run into controversy and conflict. Mother Teresa went through a lot of controversy and criticism about her style and method of helping. But she rode through them and remained committed to her faith and work. In your own life, you too may face some challenges to your authority and integrity. Learn to look through peoples hidden agendas and remain true to your cause. If need be, take time out for yourself and reaffirm that you are truly on your chosen path. Its also okay to change course if it feels like the right thing to do so.

Keep smiling and loving Mother Teresas most endearing and enduring qualities were her ability to keep smiling and loving, even faced with the harshest of challenges. If you come from a place of love and with a mindset of helping, then somehow you will find the ability and internal resources to do so. Somehow things will just work out for you. Let us always meet each other with smile, for the smile is the beginning of love. Mother Teresa Indeed, the key message of Mother Teresas life really was abou t love. As she said so eloquently:If we want a love message to be heard, it has got to be sent out. To keep a lamp burning, we have to keep putting oil in it.

Do what you love Agnes felt that God was calling her to the sisterhood to serve the poor. She consulted experts and the priests at her church to help understand her feelings. If you are happy with the idea that God calls you to serve him and your neighbor, Agnes recalled being told by a priest, this will be the proof of your vocation. Profound joy of the heart is like a magnet that indicates the path of life.


Read constantly Reading helped Agnes understand the plight of Indias poor. Her constant efforts to learn gave her greater depth and wisdom.

Accept no limitations for your life Sister Teresa had a desire to serve the poor more fully than the Catholic Church would permit. It seems certain she would have left the Church had she not been granted the privilege of exclaustration and per-mission to form a new order. I again experienced a call to renounce everything and to follow Christ into the slums, to serve the poorest of the poor, she wrote. I understood that God wanted something from methe message was quite clear: I was to leave the convent and help the poor whilst living among them. It was an order. I knew where I belonged.

Dont be afraid to ask for what you need. Starting alone, Mother Teresa built the Missionaries of Charity into a worldwide organization through organization through persistent fund-raising efforts. She boldly asked for money and medical supplies to help the poor.

Clearly define what you want to accomplish Mother Teresa added a fourth vow to be taken by the Missionaries of Charity: To give wholehearted and free service to the poorest of the poor. . . . If you dont have the zeal to help the poor, to take good care of the lepers, then [you] should pack up and go home. . . . no need to stay.

Set an example The most effective way to lead is by example. Mother Teresa asked her sisters to take their vow of poverty farther than those in the convent to help them understand the poorest of the poor. She said: If we really want to know the poor, we must know what poverty is. . . . It is why in our society, poverty is our freedom and our strength.


Be cheerful even if you dont feel like it Even if you have problems in your life that make you unhappy, present a cheerful demeanor to the outside world. That doesnt mean you are ignoring your prob-lems. Rather, you are putting yourself in the best pos-sible frame of mind to solve them. One of Mother Teresas conditions in accepting a prospective sister into her order was that she have a cheerful disposition. Mother Teresa said, A cheerful giver is a great giver. Mother Teresa was known for her warm greeting and powerful smile that conveyed her great love and caring. Let us always greet each other with a smile, for a smile is the beginning of love, she said.

Care about those in need Mother Teresa became, in the words of United Nations General Secretary Javier Perez de Cuellar, the most powerful woman in the world, because she cared for those in need. The biggest disease today is not leprosy or cancer or tuberculosis, Mother Teresa said, but rather the feeling of being unwanted, uncared for, deserted by everybody. The greatest evil is the lack of love and charity, the terrible indifference towards ones neighbor.

Learn by experience Mother Teresa said to her helpers and volunteers: Discover through direct contact. Go to Kalighat, the Home for the Dying, and learn your lessons, not out of a book, but in the rough and tumble of life, among real people.

Write letters Written communications, especially thank-you notes, are a powerful way to make a lasting impres-sion. Florence Nightingale, Clara Barton, Eleanor Roosevelt and Margaret Thatcher were all great letter writers. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said: I have always believed in the impact of a personal handwrit-ten lettereven from someone you barely know.

Dont let age slow you down Mother Teresa had suffered three serious heart attacks by the time she was eighty-five and had a pacemaker, but she refused to slow down. Ive never


said no to Jesus, she said, and Im not going to begin now. Every day you have to say yes.

Speak from your heart I make a little cross on my lips with my thumb; then I look straight forward above the audience and deliver my message, Mother Teresa told Father Le Joly about her speaking style.

Stay humble A world figure and the recipient of a Nobel Peace Prize, Mother Teresa didnt get carried away with her-self. She credited God and Jesus for what she and the Missionaries of Charity accomplished, and saw herself as Gods vessel. I am surer of this than of my own life, she said.


Mother Teresa Quotes

A life not lived for others is not a life.

Allow your soul the freedom to sing, dance, praise, and love.

Cassius from bondage will deliver Cassius.

God made the world for the delight of human beings-- if we could see His goodness everywhere, His concern for us, His awareness of our needs: the phone call we've waited for, the ride we are offered, the letter in the mail, just the little things He does for us throughout the day. As we remember and notice His love for us, we just begin to fall in love with Him because He is so busy with us -- you just can't resist Him. I believe there's no such thing as luck in life, it's God's love, it's His.

Good works are links that form a chain of love.

He who is faultless does not care for the opinion of others.

I alone cannot change the world, but I can cast a stone across the waters to create many ripples.

I have found the paradox that if I love until it hurts, then there is not hurt, but only more love. (These are the words of Daphne Rae)

I know God will not give me anything I can't handle. I just wish that He didn't trust me so much.

I think it is very good when people suffer. To me that is like the kiss of Jesus.

I will carry my cross but not alone!!!!

It is a kingly act to assist the fallen.

It is Christmas every time you let God love others through you . . . yes, it is Christmas every time you smile at your brother and offer him your hand.

Just show up and things will happen.

Kind words can be short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless.

Let nothing perturb you, nothing frighten you. All things pass. God does not change. Patience achieves everything. (These are the words of St. Teresa of Avila)

Life is an opportunity, benefit from it. Life is beauty, admire it. Life is bliss, taste it. Life is a dream, realize it. Life is a challenge, meet it. Life is a duty, complete it. Life is a game, play it. Life is a promise, fulfill it. Life is sorrow, overcome it. Life is a song, sing it. Life is a struggle, accept it. Life is a tragedy, confront it. Life is an adventure, dare it. Life is luck, make it. Life is too precious, do not destroy it. Life is life, fight for it.

Live simply so others may simply live.

Love is the condition in which the happiness of another person is essential to your own.

May God break my heart so completely that the whole world falls in.


May today there be peace within. May you trust that you are exactly where you are meant to be. May you not forget the infinite possibilities that are born of faith in yourself and others. May you use the gifts that you have received, and pass on the love that has been given to you. May you be content with yourself just the way you are. Let this knowledge settle into your bones, and allow your soul the freedom to sing, dance, praise and love. It is there for each and every one of us.

Never travel faster than your guardian angel can fly.

No matter who says what, you should accept it with a smile and do your own work.

Nuclear war would not be an unjust punishment for a nation that promotes abortion.

People are often unreasonable, illogical, and self-centered; Forgive them anyway. If you are kind, People may accuse you of selfish, ulterior motives; Be kind anyway. If you are successful, you will win some false friends and some true enemies; Succeed anyway. If you are honest and frank, People may cheat you; Be honest and frank anyway. What you spend years building, someone could destroy overnight; Build anyway. If you find serenity and happiness, They may be jealous; Be happy anyway. The good you do today, people will often forget tomorrow; Do good anyway. Give the world the best you have, and it may never be enough; Give the world the best you've got anyway. You see, in the final analysis, it is between you and God; It was never between you and them anyway. (This is an adaptation of the Paradoxical Commandments by Dr. Kent M. Keith)

Profound joy of the heart is like a magnet that indicates the path of life.

Reach high, for stars lie hidden in your soul. Dream deep, for every dream precedes the goal.


The so-called right to abortion has pitted mothers against their children and women against men. It has sown violence and discord at the heart of the most intimate human relationships. It has aggravated the derogation of the father's role in an increasingly fatherless society. It has portrayed the greatest of gifts-a child--as a competitor, an intrusion and an inconvenience. It has nominally accorded mothers unfettered dominion over the dependent lives of their physically dependent sons and daughters. And, in granting this unconscionable power, it has exposed many women to unjust and selfish demands from their husbands or other sexual partners.

The thing that makes me saddest is watching people receive Communion in the hand.

To have courage for whatever comes in life everything lies in that.

We, the unwilling, led by the unknowing, are doing the impossible for the ungrateful. We have done so much, for so long, with so little, we are now qualified to do anything with nothing.

Without patience, we will learn less in life. We will see less. We will feel less. We will hear less. Ironically, rush and more usually mean less.





NarendraNathDatta 12 January 1863 Born Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India (now Kolkata, West Bengal, India) 4 July 1902 (aged 39) Died Belur Math, Bengal Presidency, British India (now in West Bengal, India) Nationality Indian Founder of Belur Math, Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission Guru Ramakrishna Philosophy Vedanta Literary Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Jnana Yoga works Swami Ashokananda, Swami Virajananda, Swami Paramananda, Prominent AlasingaPerumal, Swami Abhayananda, Sister Nivedita, Swami Disciple(s) Sadananda Influence on[show] Quotation "Arise, awake, and stop not till the goal is reached" Signature


Swami Vivekananda is an Indian monk who is known in his pre-monastic life as NarendranathDatta. He was born as the son of VishwanathDatta and Bhuvaneshwari Devi on 12 January 1863 in Calcutta. The progressive attitude of his father and his mothers religious consciousness helped him to shape his thoughts and personality. He used to practice meditation and was associated with Brahmo Movement for some time. Narendra acquired rich knowledge of different subjects especially Western philosophy and history by the time he graduated from Calcutta University.

On his search to know the truth about God he had questioned many whether they had seen God. For this straight question he got an unhesitant answer from Sri Ramakrishna, a priest at the temple of Goddess Kali. His answer I see Him as clearly as I see You, only in a much intenser sense, impressed Narendra and later accepted him as his spiritual guru. Young Narendra realized God from his guru and cleared all his doubt from his gurus preaches. Sri Ramakrishna gave Narendra spiritual visions and transformed him into a sage and prophet with authority to teach. Sri Ramakrishna imprinted in the mind of his disciples the spirit of renunciation and brotherly love for each other. With special instructions from his guru Narendra formed the new monastic Order and in 1887 they took the formal vows of sannyasa, thereby taking new names.

Swami-Vivekananda-journalAfter Sri Ramakrishnas death, Vivekananda renounced the world and travelled all over India as a wandering monk. During his travel he came to know about the poverty and backwardness of the masses. He increased faith in these masses by his life-giving, inspiring messages from the principle of the Atman. Vivekananda played significant role in introducing Vedanta to the Western world and also reviving and redefining certain aspect of the religion within India. Vivekananda stressed on different aspects of religion, education, character building as well as social issues pertaining to India. It was during this time that he heard about the Worlds Parliament of Religions to be held in Chicago in 1893 and represented Indian wisdom to the Western world and the speech at Chicago made him famous orator by divine right. Later after three years when he returned to India he was accepted as a hero and t hen he started The Ramakrishna Mission with Western devotees. Urging his nation to spiritual greatness, he awakened India to a new national consciousness. Even Rabindranath Tagore commented about his teachings as, If you want to know India, study Vivekananda. In him everything is positive and nothing negative.


He believed that the base of every thing is basic education and stressed the importance of positive education and quoted as Education is not the amount of information that we put into your brain and runs riot there, undigested, all your life. We must have life building, man making, character making assimilation of ideas. If you have assimilated five ideas and made them your life an... He preached Vedanta and taught that religion is realization it is being and becoming, not hearing or acknowledging; it is the whole soul becoming changed into what it believes.

Some of his famous quotes:-

Comfort is no test of truth; on the contrary, truth is often far from being comfortable. The earth is enjoyed by heroesthis is the unfailing truth. Be a hero. Always say, I have no fear. Arise! Awake! And Sleep not till the goal is reached!

He stressed the importance of National integration, woman hood, character building and stresses the importance of faith in ones self. He died July 4, 1902, and is believed to have attained mahasamadhi. His lectures and writings have been gathered into nine volumes.

Nightingale Paper Products have come up with their inspirational innovative Vivekananda Jounal with swamijis quotes as tippings. For more quotes and thoughts of Vivekananda visit our online store and shop Journals online at and grab your copy of journal.


Management Lessons - Vivekananda

Here are some exerpts from Vivekananda's letter to Swami Brahmanand written on 1st August 1898 from Srinagar-

No job can be learnt without practical experience, theory itself is not sufficient ->we all know how important practical experience is nowadays There should always be backups, if somebody goes away, others should be ready to take his work up ->its a perfect example of risk management Nobody works unless there is interest and motivation. Everybody should be given work which would interest him/her. With interest comes dedication.>This is the cornerstone of Herzberg's theory of motivation which came much later Everybody should have a share in work and property and everybody should get a voice in management -> Again directly related to motivation. It took modern management a long time to realize this. Give everybody a responsible position alternately with an eye to watch and control (monitor). Then only we can get a system driven by process ->Without monitoring accountability does not come Develop a process/machine which works himself, then people can be found for business and work -> we only had Toyota Production System and TQM in the later half of next century, while this thought existed in the mind of this great man a century ago We cannot make a permanent organization because we never like to share power with others and never think of what will come after we have gone -> Isn't it still true of Governments, both democratic and autocratic?


Swami Vivekanandas Quotes

However we may receive blows, and however knocked about we may be, the Soul is there and is never injured. We are that Infinite. There is no help for you outside of yourself; you are the creator of the universe. Like the silkworm you have built a cocoon around yourself. Burst your own cocoon and come out aw the beautiful butterfly, as the free soul. Then alone you will see Truth We are what our thoughts have made us; so take care about what you think. Words are secondary. Thoughts live; they travel far. You have to grow from the inside out. None can teach you, none can make you spiritual. There is no other teacher but your own soul. Our duty is to encourage every one in his struggle to live up to his own highest idea, and strive at the same time to make the ideal as near as possible to the Truth. Even the greatest fool can accomplish a task if it were after his or her heart. But the intelligent ones are those who can convert every work into one that suits their taste. All knowledge that the world has ever received comes from the mind; the infinite library of the universe is in our own mind. All love is expansion, all selfishness is contraction. Love is therefore the only law of life. He who loves lives, he who is selfish is dying. Therefore love for loves sake, because it is law of life, just as you breathe to live. Stand up, be bold, be strong. Take the whole responsibility on your own shoulders, and know that you are the creator of your own destiny. All the strength and succor you want is within yourself. Therefore make your own future. Take up one idea. Make that one idea your life think of it, dream of it, live on idea. Let the brain, muscles, nerves, every part of your body, be full of that idea, and just leave every other idea alone. This is the way to success.


Laws of Life What You Need to Keep in Mind By Swami Vivekananda 1. Love Is The Law Of Life: All love is expansion, all selfishness is contraction. Love is therefore the only law of life. He who loves lives, he who is selfish is dying. Therefore, love for love's sake, because it is law of life, just as you breathe to live. 2. It's Your Outlook That Matters: It is our own mental attitude, which makes the world what it is for us. Our thoughts make things beautiful, our thoughts make things ugly. The whole world is in our own minds. Learn to see things in the proper light. 3. Life is Beautiful: First, believe in this world - that there is meaning behind everything. Everything in the world is good, is holy and beautiful. If you see something evil, think that you do not understand it in the right light. Throw the burden on yourselves! 4. It's The Way You Feel: Feel like Christ and you will be a Christ; feel like Buddha and you will be a Buddha. It is feeling that is the life, the strength, the vitality, without which no amount of intellectual activity can reach God. 5. Set Yourself Free: The moment I have realised God sitting in the temple of every human body, the moment I stand in reverence before every human being and see God in him - that moment I am free from bondage, everything that binds vanishes, and I am free. 6. Don't Play The Blame Game: Condemn none: if you can stretch out a helping hand, do so. If you cannot, fold your hands, bless your brothers, and let them go their own way. 7. Help Others: If money helps a man to do good to others, it is of some value; but if not, it is simply a mass of evil, and the sooner it is got rid of, the better. 8. Uphold Your Ideals: Our duty is to encourage every one in his struggle to live up to his own highest idea, and strive at the same time to make the ideal as near as possible to the Truth. 9. Listen To Your Soul: You have to grow from the inside out. None can teach you, none can make you spiritual. There is no other teacher but your own soul. 10. Be Yourself: The greatest religion is to be true to your own nature. Have faith in yourselves!

11. Nothing Is Impossible: Never think there is anything impossible for the soul. It is the greatest heresy to think so. If there is sin, this is the only sin - to say that you are weak, or others are weak. 12. You Have The Power: All the powers in the universe are already ours. It is we who have put our hands before our eyes and cry that it is dark. 13. Learn Everyday: The goal of mankind is knowledge... now this knowledge is inherent in man. No knowledge comes from outside: it is all inside. What we say a man 'knows', should, in strict psychological language, be what he 'discovers' or 'unveils'; what man 'learns' is really what he discovers by taking the cover off his own soul, which is a mine of infinite knowledge. 14. Be Truthful: Everything can be sacrificed for truth, but truth cannot be sacrificed for anything. 15. Think Different: All differences in this world are of degree, and not of kind, because oneness is the secret of everything.




Akbar (I)

3rd Mughal Emperor Reign 11 February 1556 27 October 1605 Coronation 14 February 1556 Predecessor Humayun Successor Jahangir Regent Bairam Khan (15561561) Wives Ruqaiya Sultan Begum Salima Sultan Begum Mariam-uz-Zamani

Issue Hassan Hussain Jahangir Murad Daniyal Aram Banu Begum Shakr-un-Nissa Begum ShahzadiKhanum others Full name Abu'l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar House House of Timur Father Humayun Mother HamidaBanu Begum 14 October 1542 Born Umerkot, Sindh 27 October 1605 (aged 63) Died FatehpurSikri, Agra Burial Sikandra, Agra Religion Islam, Din-e-Illahi


Born on October 15, 1542 in Umarkot, India, and enthroned at age 14, Akbar the Great began his military conquests under the tutelage of a regent before claiming imperial power and expanding the Mughal Empire. Known as much for his inclusive leadership style as for his war mongering, Akbar ushered in an era of religious tolerance and appreciation for the arts. Akbar the Great died in 1605.

Early Life The conditions of Akbar's birth in Umarkot, Sindh, India on October 15, 1542, gave no indication that he would be a great leader. Though Akbar was a direct descendent of GhengisKhan, and his grandfather Babur was the first emperor of the Mughal dynasty, his father, Humayun, had been driven from the throne by Sher Shah Suri. He was impoverished and in exile when Akbar was born.

Humayun managed to regain power in 1555, but ruled only a few months before he died, leaving Akbar to succeed him at just 14 years old. The kingdom Akbar inherited was little more than a collection of frail fiefs. Under the regency of Bairam Khan, however, Akbar achieved relative stability in the region. Most notably, Khan won control of northern India from the Afghans and successfully led the army against the Hindu king Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat. In spite of this loyal service, when Akbar came of age in March of 1560, he dismissed Bairam Khan and took full control of the government.

Expanding the Empire Akbar was a cunning general, and he continued his military expansion throughout his reign. By the time he died, his empire extended to Afghanistan in the north, Sindh in the west, Bengal in the east, and the Godavari River in the south. Akbars success in creating his empire was as much a result of his ability to earn the loyalty of his conquered people as it was of his ability to conquer them. He allied himself with the defeated Rajput rulers, and rather than demanding a high tribute tax and leaving them to rule their territories unsupervised, he created a system of central government, integrating them into his administration. Akbar was known for rewarding talent, loyalty, and intellect, regardless of ethnic background or religious practice. In addition to compiling an able administration, this practice brought stability to his dynasty


by establishing a base of loyalty to Akbar that was greater than that of any one religion.

Beyond military conciliation, he appealed to the Rajput people by ruling in a spirit of cooperation and tolerance. He did not force Indias majority Hindu population to convert to Islam; he accommodated them instead, abolishing the poll tax on non-Muslims, translating Hindu literature and participating in Hindu festivals.

Akbar also formed powerful matrimonial alliances. When he married Hindu princessesincluding JodhaBai, the eldest daughter of the house of Jaipur, as well princesses of Bikaner and Jaisalmertheir fathers and brothers became members of his court and were elevated to the same status as his Muslim fathers- and brothers-in-law. While marrying off the daughters of conquered Hindu leaders to Muslim royalty was not a new practice, it had always been viewed as a humiliation.

By elevating the status of the princesses families, Akbar removed this stigma among all but the most orthodox Hindu sects.

Administration In 1574 Akbar revised his tax system, separating revenue collection from military administration. Each subah, or governor, was responsible for maintaining order in his region, while a separate tax collector collected property taxes and sent them to the capital. This created checks and balances in each region, since the individuals with the money had no troops, and the troops had no money, and all were dependent on the central government. The central government then doled out fixed salaries to both military and civilian personnel according to rank.

Religion Akbar was religiously curious. He regularly participated in the festivals of other faiths, and in 1575 in FatehpurSikria walled city that Akbar had designed in the Persian stylehe built a temple (ibadat-khana) where he frequently hosted scholars from other religions, including Hindus, Zoroastrians, Christians, yogis, and Muslims of other sects. He allowed the Jesuits to

construct a church at Agra, and discouraged the slaughter of cattle out of respect for Hindu custom. Not everyone appreciated these forays into multiculturalism, however, and many called him a heretic.

In 1579, a mazhar, or declaration, was issued that granted Akbar the authority to interpret religious law, superseding the authority of the mullahs. This became known as the Infallibility Decree, and it furthered Akbars ability to create an interreligious and multicultural state. In 1582 he established a new cult, the Din-i-Ilahi (divine faith), which combined elements of many religions, including Islam, Hinduism and Zoroastrianism. The faith centered around Akbar as a prophet or spiritual leader, but it did not procure many converts and died with Akbar.

Patronage of the Arts Unlike his father, Humayun, and grandfather Babur, Akbar was not a poet or diarist, and many have speculated that he was illiterate. Nonetheless, he appreciated the arts, culture and intellectual discourse, and cultivated them throughout the empire. Akbar is known for ushering in the Mughal style of architecture, which combined elements of Islamic, Persian and Hindu design, and sponsored some of the best and brightest minds of the era including poets, musicians, artists, philosophers and engineersin his courts at Delhi, Agra and FatehpurSikri.

Some of Akbar's more well-known courtiers are his navaratna, or "nine gems." They served to both advise and entertain Akbar, and included AbulFazl, Akbar's biographer, who chronicled his reign in the three-volume book "Akbarnama"; AbulFaizi, a poet and scholar as well as AbulFazl's brother; MiyanTansen, a singer and musician; Raja Birbal, the court jester; Raja Todar Mal, Akbar's minister of finance; Raja Man Singh, a celebrated lieutenant; Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana, a poet; and FagirAziao-Din and Mullah Do Piaza, who were both advisors.

Death and Succession Akbar died in 1605. Some sources say Akbar became fatally ill with dysentery, while others cite a possible poisoning, likely traced to Akbar's son Jahangir. Many favored Jahangirs eldest son, Khusrau, to succeed Akbar as emperor, but Jahangir forcefully ascended days after Akbar's death.

Strategic Management By Akbar The Great

The Mughal Emperor Akbar and Strategic Management ? Thinking how it is being co-related ! Let me explain.

Akbar is still honored and remembered till date as one of the greatest emperors of human history. It is because of his bighearted attitude and beliefs towards all religions and respect for the people and his mark on applying strategies in becoming a successful emperor. He is said as one of the top 25 greatest leaders in the world history.

But how did he got such a great fame which made him to have said as Akbar, the Great. Not only that he was a Great leader but he moulded himself into a Brand after his name. Also it is said that because of his Strategic Management which he applied throughout his reign made him one of the greatest sovereigns in both Indian& Human History.

We have been hearing about Strategic Management since about last 2 decades as one of the Management tools of Organizational studies and tactics which are being applied in the IT Organizations, Enterprises and Industries in our day-to-day world. But we should know one thing that we have adopted this from our ancestors who ruled over Strategic Management in their golden era of human history.

I dont want to get much deeper into giving an understanding about Strategic Management because we have lots and lots of online stuff to read about it. So just to give a brief idea, firstly, we will know what a "Strategy" means. In simple words, it is a Plan or a Scheme. And "Strategic Management" is the initiatives taken to achieve the goals and objectives. There are generally three levels of Strategies: Corporate Strategy, Business Strategy and Functional Strategy.

Akbar very well aligned his strategies during his reign which graded him as a successful Emperor. Lets see how Akbar applied his ideas in different levels of strategies in achieving his vision for a successful regime.


Akbars Strategic Management:

Corporate Strategy - At the age of 14, he succeeded his father Humayun. He was governed by his most trust worthy guardian Bairam Khan. Akbar then after having bearing with increased authority of BairamKhan, he decides to take back the complete control from Bairam Khan and dismisses Bairam Khan. This was the first strategy applied by Akbar.

But still Akbar had to face many challenges. He was still under the pressure in getting back the complete authority on his kingdom. Adham Khan who was the son of Akbars nursemaid kills one of the trust -worthy advisors of Akbar. This makes Akbar angry and sentences Adham Khan to death. This really changes the vision of Akbar who broadens his mindset in understanding the administration and expansion of his empire across whole India.

As a political consequence between Mughals and Rajputs, it is said that Akbar gets into the matrimonial alliance with Rajput Queen JodhaaBhai (Who was a Hindu). This shows how he managed to set a platform to get the Muslims and Hindus under one roof. This actually helped Akbar to expand his reign towards the most parts of Northern India. But also because Akbar wanted to bring the diverse religions, their beliefs under one roof and since he wanted to gain the trust of both Muslims and Hindus, he decides to marry a Hindu Princess which would build a strong bonding between Hindus and Muslims.

He then appointed many Hindu Rajput advisors into his government giving equal importance to them as was given to Muslim Sovereigns. He succeeded in establishing that unity between two communities who thereby respected each others rights, beliefs and customs. He then lifted the tax on non muslims which made Akbar to be the renowned rulers.

Business Strategy - In order to expand his strength as a continuity, Akbar expanded his military vastly thereby appointing Mansabdars (Military Governors) over the various regions who used to directly report to Akbar. Akbar was always passionate and brave which made him to lead most of the battles.

The revenue department was headed by a wazir, responsible for all finances and management of jagir and inam lands The judiciary was a separate organization headed by a chief qazi, who was also responsible for religious endowments.

He built good foreign relationship with Portuguese, Ottomans, Persians and Europeans in extending his empire towards coastal lines and trading relationships with them.

Functional Strategy - In order to continuity of expansion of his business, he gave that liberty to his people and used to consider their advices and suggestions.

Akbar always showed zeal in art and literature. This actually made him to invite many craftsmen, artisans, entertainers, intellectuals from both communities into his courtyard introducing them as the Nine Courtiers of his Empire called as Navratnas.

Not just that he had passion for art and literature, he very well studied different types of art and formulated plans in getting expert craftsmen to implement his ideas which lead to some beautiful monuments, forts schools, tanks and wells for his people.

People may think that this can be a minor thing but to ensure that his people don't not loose interest in work, Akbar implemented one interesting strategy. Any guesses what it could be ???Keeping the surroundings to be interesting so that people don't feel tiresome.




Vallabhbhai Patel

Deputy Prime Minister of India In office 15 August 1947 15 December 1950 Prime Jawaharlal Nehru Minister Preceded by Position established Succeeded Morarji Desai by Minister of Home Affairs In office 15 August 1947 15 December 1950 Prime Jawaharlal Nehru Minister Preceded by Position established Succeeded Chakravarti Rajagopalachari by Personal details SardarVallabhbhai Patel Born 31 October 1875 Nadiad, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency, British India 15 December 1950 (aged 75) Died Bombay, Bombay State, India Nationality Indian Children Maniben Patel, Dahyabhai Patel Alma mater Middle Temple Profession Lawyer


SardarVallabhbhai Patel the iron-man of India was born on 31st October, 1875, in a small village in Nadiad. His father Jhaverbhai Patel was a simple farmer and mother LaadBai was a simple lady. From his childhood itself, Patel was a very hard-working individual. He used to help his father in farming and studied in a school at N. K. High school, Petlad. He passed his high-school examination in 1896. Throughout school he was a very wise and intelligent student. Inspite of poor financial conditions his father decided to send him to college but Vallabhbhai refused. Around three years he stayed at home, worked hard and prepared for the District Leader's examination, hence passing with very good percentage.

SardarVallabhbhai Patel is a historical figure who moves you to tears. Mostly these are tears of joy, for he achieved a thrilling Indian unity. Yet some are tears of pity, for the Sardar suffered and sacrificed much. Sardar Patel hated to work for anyone especially the Britishers. He was a person of independent nature. He started his own practice of law in a place called Godhara. Soon the practice flourished. He saved money, made financial arrangement for the entire family. He got married to Jhaberaba. In 1904, he got a baby daughter Maniben, and in 1905 his son Dahya was born. He sent his elder brother to England for higher studies in law. In 1908, Vitthabhai returned as barrister and started practising in Bombay. In 1909 his wife became seriously ill and was taken to Bombay for treatment Vallabhbhai had to go for the hearing of an urgent case and his wife died. He was stunned. He admitted his children in St. Mary's school Bombay, and he left for England. He became a barrister and retuned to India in 1913.

He started his practice in Ahmedabad and soon he became aware of the local life, activities and people's problems. He became an extremely popular person and he got elected in the Municipal Corportaion in 1917. Around 1915, he came across Mahatma Gandhi. The Swadeshi Movement was at its peak. Gandhiji gave a lecture at a place in Ahmedabad where Patel heard him and was very impressed and started actively participating in the freedom movement. The British government's atrocities were increasing. The government declared to confiscate all the lands of farmers. He forced the British government to amend the rules. He brought together the farmers and encouraged them and hence got the title of 'Sardar' and thus became famous.

The British government considered him as a threat and his lectures were considered anti-government and he was imprisoned several times. In 1942, he took part in the Quit India Movement under the leadership of Mahatma

Gandhi. He was arrested along with other leaders and was sent to Ahmednagar jail. Inspite of the British Rule, rulers of the small kingdoms were spending a lot of public money, and were having a nice time. SardarVallabhBhai opposed this.

SardarPatelWith great wisdom and political foresight, he consolidated the small kingdoms. The public was with him. He tackled the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Nawab of Junagarh who intially did not want to join India. There were a lot of problems connected with the reunion of the numerous states into India. Sardar Patel's untiring efforts towards the unity of the country brought success. Due to the achievement of this massive task, Sardar Patel got the title of 'Iron Man'. ' He is one of the prestigious leaders of the world who became immmortal by uniting a scattered nation without any bloodshed. His enthusiasm to work for the independent nation got a big jolt when Gandhiji was murdered. Patel was very attached to Gandhiji and considered him, his elder brother and teacher. He was encouraged by Mahatma Gandhi in all his work. Gandhiji's death left him broken. On 15th December, 1950 he died of a cardiac arrest. The news of his death spread all over the world. The entire nation plunged into deep sorrow, everyday life came to a standstill. A grateful nation paid a tearful homage to it's beloved leader. In 1991 the grateful nation conferred upon him

This man of steel learnt early to be tough, for he was born as a middle child in a family of impoverished peasant proprietors. As Vallabhbhai would himself recall, his parents' hopes seemed centered on the eldest two sons, Soma and Narsi, and their affection on the youngest two, Kashi and the only daughter, Dahiba. The ones in the middle, Vallabh and Vithal, were remembered last when clothes or sweets were to be distributed, and at once when a chore had to be done. The rough schools he went to as a boy, and the courts where he defended alleged criminals, also contributed to Vallabhbhai's mental muscle and stern appearance. Yet this tough man smiled at the world and at gloomy moments helped others to laugh. Also, he did not hesitate to step aside for another --for his older brother Vithal when the latter wanted to use his passport and ticket to London, and, years later, for Jawaharlal Nehru, when Mahatma Gandhi desired that Nehru should sit in a chair to which Patel seemed entitled. And this strong man before whom rajas and maharajas trembled, and to whom rich men gave large funds for India's national movement, did not allow a rupee to stick to his fingers, and he saw to it that his children, a son and a daughter, lived simple lives during and after their father's lifetime.


His strength of character, the sharpness of his mind, his organizing skills, and all his energy were offered up for achieving the freedom of India under Gandhi's leadership, and after independence for India's consolidation. We admire a man who rises to a political or financial peak, but are moved by one whose sole purpose in life is the strength and wellbeing of his compatriots. And we are moved even more when we discover that next to the steel in his soul is a tenderness for colleagues and a readiness to accept whatever results God ordains. In successive phases of his life, Vallabhbhai Patel showed the defiance of the oppressed, a trial lawyer's brilliance, the daring to give up a flourishing career, the discipline of a soldier in freedom's battles, the strategies of a General, indifference as a prisoner of the Raj, the generosity of the strong, the firmness of a patriot, and the farsightedness of a statesman. If times are depressing or daunting, Sardar Patel reminds us of India's and Indians' potential. When times are good, we can think of him with glad gratitude.


Lessons from Sardar Patel's life for the BJP and the Congress

First, a mild confession. I have learned largely from Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and haven't thus far spent much time on Vallabhbhai Patel. So why am I thinking of the Sardar now? I developed deeper interest after news came that the Iron Man of India might have the tallest statue erected by man on the planet. Size matters.

The Great Wall of China wouldn't be so if it were a normal wall. The Statue of Liberty wouldn't be what it is if it were in a park. And so on. Patel the Tall commands attention in a manner that Patel the Sardar didn't. Not exemplary, but that's how it is.

The current reason for thoughts on Sardar Patel is the everyday squabbling between the BJP and the Congress over the Sardar's work and legacy. The daily sniping between India's two principal parties is not in any way heartwarming.

The BJP and the Congress diminish in stature each time they use Sardar Patel to wound the other. They haven't let go even on the Sardar's birth anniversary today [31 October]. There are enough lessons from the Sardar's life that the BJP and the Congress can jointly take to the people of India. Here are five.

1. Sacrifice strengthens character From early teens, perhaps pre-teens, Sardar Patel began to fast two days a month. He might have begun this as a religious ritual in Hinduism as in other religions there are days when people abstain from food and water. But he soon figured out that fasting helped him get tough physically, emotionally and spiritually. Some of this strength may have helped him later when a clerical error created a situation with his elder brother. Both brothers were keen on law and both had made plans to study in England. The documents meant for the Sardar arrived at the house of the Sardar's elder brother [both apparently used the same initials VJ].


The elder brother was upset and Sardar Patel let him go in his place. The BJP and the Congress today operate largely by a sort of me-first culture. Perhaps a study of the Sardar might help. 2. Age does not define Sardar Patel passed his matriculation at the age of 22, seven years later than most people. It made him look like he lacked ambition. Apparently the elders in the Sardar's family thought he would end up as nobody struggling with the everyday problems of a common man. But the Sardar kept at it. He may have had a private to do list and he quietly went about ticking the boxes. He became a lawyer, organised mass action, joined politics, became an important figure in the Congress party, and did a great job as India's first home minister. Teenagers rush to kill themselves in today's world if they don't make the grade by, say, 15. The BJP and the Congress could conduct a campaign among youngsters that they have all the time in the world to make it. The Sardar would approve, if they did so.

3. Self-made is best made Sardar Patel, from all accounts, did not rely on his family of birth to get by. He spent long years away from home. He saved from what he earned, bought books from his savings and on occasion borrowed books from friends. Two years of this and the Sardar passed the law exams. He took his wife with him and set up home on Godhra [now infamous after the 2002 train burning incident]. He started practice as a lawyer and provided for his family. This is a world away from the current culture in the BJP, the Congress, and several other parties where children cling to parents for a career. The BJP and the Congress could incorporate in their respective constitutions that they would limit posts to one member from a family. They could conduct a joint campaign to cleanse Indian politics of nepotism. It would be true celebration of the Sardar. 4. Above all, wisdom Wisdom may simply be understood as knowing what to do next. The Sardar seemed to possess this in bulk and he had the skill to do what he knew he had to. For instance, his wife was taken to Bombay [now Mumbai] in 1909 for cancer treatment.


She didn't recover; she died one day when Sardar Patel was at work in court. It is said that a note on his wife's death was passed to the Sardar when he was in the midst of questioning a witness. The story goes that he read the note, put it in his pocket and continued his grilling. When his work was done for the day, Patel told a few friends that his wife had died. It is said that the Sardar won the case he was fighting the day his wife died. We don't hear of such stories about today's politicians. It might help the BJP and the Congress to learn from the Sardar. 5. Stay grateful Until the end, the Sardar stayed true to Mahatma Gandhi. He had chosen Gandhi as his mentor and he abided by everything the Mahatma asked him to do. Sardar Patel, as is well documented, did not stake claim to the Congress presidency around the time of Independence although he had majority support in the party. Jawaharlal Nehru took the post instead and became India's first prime minister. Gandhi wanted it this way and the Sardar agreed. Sardar Patel was the last man to meet Gandhi before the Mahatma was assassinated. Sardar wanted to quit the Nehru government; Gandhi said no. The Sardar stayed on. Weeks after Gandhi was assassinated, the Sardar had a huge heart attack. Rajmohan Gandhi's book says the Sardar said the attack was caused by the grief he had repressed at Gandhi's death. The Sardar never discussed private matters in public, however angry the quarrel. Seniors in the BJP and the Congress demean the Sardar when they fight over him. It might make more sense to read about the Sardar. Learn from his life. Stay calm. Be generous. Avoid trying to master India. Let India be the master. For then, the Sardar would genuinely stand tall. No statue can match the stature of a man who lives on in the hearts of his people. If he didn't, even a statue reaching for the sky would make no difference.


Leadership lessons we can learn from Sardar Patel

We do have a number of lessons we can learn from history and great leaders. A key leader, known as the Iron man of India, is one such great leader, from whom all aspiring leaders can learn key lessons, some of which are stated below.

Conflict resolution and a firm direction

All companies, organizations and even homes do have conflict. However, it is then that the conflict resolution skills come into focus. One should have a clear focus on resolving the issue and not give up.

Sardar Patel was one of the most influential freedom fighter and social leaders of India during Indian freedom movement. He is always appreciated for accomplishing the integration of princely states of India.

This is really a great achievement, as he ensured that there was least conflict while remaining firm. In fact, we need to know that being firm is one of the key attributes of a leader. How would you respect your boss if he kept changing his mind ? Surely, if he dilly-dallies, there is no clear mission or vision

Organisational skills

Vallabhbhai Patel was a self-educated, forceful and successful Gujarati lawyer, when he was inspired by the work and philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi. He organized the peasants of Kheda and Bardoli in Gujarat in the non-violent mass civil disobedience against the oppressive tax policies imposed by the British Raj becoming the one of the most influential leaders in Gujarat. He rose to the national leadership of the Indian National Congress andat the forefront of rebellions and political events organizing the party for elections in 1934 and 1937, and helping lead Indians into the Quit India Movement. Patel was known amongst nationalists as Gandhis lieutenant, and he enjoyed considerable support and respect in the Congress for his decisive and straightforward leadership.

Becoming the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India, Patel organized relief and rehabilitation efforts in the riot-struck Punjab and Delhi, and leading efforts to restore peace and security.

Tactful Diplomacy

Patel took charge of the task to forge a united India from a plethora of semiindependent princely states, colonial provinces and possessions. Patel employed an iron fist in a velvet glove diplomacy dash; frank political negotiations backed with the option (and the use) of military action to weld a nation that could emancipate its people without the prospect of divisions or civil conflict. His leadership obtained the peaceful and swift integration of all 565 princely states into the Republic of India. Patels initiatives spread democracy extensively across India, and re-organized the states to help transform India into a modern federal republic.

New initiatives

When a delegation of Gujarati farmers came to him citing their inability to send their milk production to the markets without being fleeced by middlemen, Patel exhorted them to organise the processing and sale of milk by themselves, and guided them to create the Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers Union Limited, which preceded the Amul milk products brand.


SardarVallabhbhai Patel Quotes

Every human being is worthy of respect, as much as it should have respect above should not be afraid of him falling down!

Everything in life do not go one day!

Complain is the work of cowards! Braves took over the task of preparing the way!

Eager enthusiasm should not have expected to yield big results!

We must learn to endure humiliation!

No one would die of starvation in independent India. Its grain would not be exported. Cloth would not be imported by it. Its leaders would neither use a foreign language nor rule from a remote place 7,000 feet above sea level. Its military expenditure would not be heavy. Its army would not subjugate its own people or other lands. Its best-paid officials would not earn a great deal more than its lowest-paid servants. And finding justice in it would be neither costly nor difficult.

The Governor of Burma boasts in London that they left Burma only after reducing everything to dust. So you promise the same thing to India? You refer in your radio broadcasts and newspapers to the government established in Burma by Japan as a puppet government? What sort of government do you have in Delhi now?When France fell before the Nazi ons laught, in the midst of total war, Mr. Churchill offered union with England to the French. That was indeed a stroke of inspired statesmanship. But when it comes to India? Oh no! Constitutional changes in the midst of a war? Absolutely unthinkable The object this time is to free India before the Japanese can come and be ready to fight them if they come. They will round up the leaders, round up all. Then it will be the duty of every Indian to put forth his utmost effort within nonviolence. No source is to be left untapped; no weapon untried. This is going to be the opportunity of a lifetime.



Nelson Mandela

Born Died Resting place Nationality Political party Other political affiliations

Mandela in Johannesburg, on 13 May 2008 Rolihlahla Mandela 18 July 1918 Mvezo, Cape Province, Union of South Africa 5 December 2013 (aged 95) Johannesburg, South Africa Mandela Graveyard Qunu, Eastern Cape 314821.8S 283652.7E South African African National Congress South African Communist Party Evelyn NtokoMase (m. 19441957; divorced) Winnie Madikizela (m. 19581996; divorced) GraaMachel (m. 19982013; his death) Methodist[1][2] Anti-Apartheid Movement Bharat Ratna (1990) Nobel Peace Prize (1993)


Religion Known for Awards


Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was the son of one of South Africa's leading dignitaries, Chief Henry Mandela of the Tembu Tribe, and it was as a young law student that he became involved in political opposition to the white minority regime. Joining the African National Congress (ANC) in 1942, he cofounded its more dynamic Youth League two years later.

The 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated National Party led to the apartheid system of racial segregation becoming law. Mandela rose to prominence in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People, whose adoption of the Freedom Charter provided the fundamental programme of the anti-apartheid cause.

Initially committed to non-violent mass struggle and acquitted in the marathon Treason Trial of 1956-1961, Mandela and his colleagues accepted the case for armed action after the shooting of unarmed protesters at Sharpeville in March 1960 and the banning of anti-apartheid groups.

In 1961, he became the commander of the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe. In August of the following year, he was arrested and jailed for five years. In June 1964, he was sentenced again, this time to life imprisonment, for his involvement in planning armed action.

He started his prison years in the infamous Robben Island Prison, a maximum security facility on a small island off the coast of Cape Town. In April 1984, he was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Cape Town and in December 1988 he was moved to the Victor Verster Prison near Paarl from where he was eventually released.

During his incarceration Mandela taught himself to speak Afrikaans and learned about Afrikaner history. He was able to converse with his guards in their own language, using his charm and intelligence to reason with them and try to understand the way they thought. This caused the authorities to replace the guards around regularly Mandela as it was felt that they could were becoming too lenient in their treatment of their famous prisoner.


While in prison, Mandela rejected offers made by his jailers for remission of sentence in exchange for accepting the Bantustan policy by recognising the independence of the Transkei region and agreeing to settle there. Amongst opponents of apartheid in South Africa and internationally, he became a cultural symbol of freedom and equality.

Mandela remained in prison until February 1990, when sustained ANC campaigning and international pressure led to his release. On 2 February 1990, South African President F.W. de Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid organisations. Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison on 11 February 1990.

He and President de Klerk - who did much to dismantle the institutions of apartheid - shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. In Mandela's 1994 autobiography, 'Long Walk to Freedom', he did not reveal anything about the alleged complicity of de Klerk in the violence of the 1980s and 90s, or the role of his ex-wife Winnie Mandela in that bloodshed. However, he later discussed those issues in 'Mandela: The Authorised Biography'.

After his release, Mandela returned to the leadership of the ANC and, between 1990 and 1994, led the party in the multi-party negotiations that resulted in the country's first multi-racial elections. As the first black president of South Africa (1994 - 1999) he presided over the transition from minority rule and apartheid. He won praise for his leadership during this time, even from his former white opponents in South Africa.

Following his retirement as president in 1999, Mandela went on to become an advocate for a variety of social and human-rights organisations. He used his status as a respected elder statesman to give weight to pertinent issues, declaring the United States "a threat to world peace" in 2002 while calling on then president George W Bush not to launch attacks on Iraq.

Because his health was declining, Mandela chose to retire from public life in 2004 and went on to reduce his number of appearances, although he was too prominent a figure to disappear completely. His name has been used to promote charitable ventures close to his heart such as the Nelson Mandela


Invitational charity golf tournament, which has raised millions of rand for children's charities since its establishment in 2000.

The fight against Aids is one of Mandela's primary concerns and he used his gravitas to raise awareness about the issue on the global stage. Having backed the 46664 Aids fundraising campaign, which was named after his prison number, he went on to call for more openness in discussing the condition. His son Makgatho Mandela died of Aids in 2005 and the statesman used the occasion to tell people that not hiding the condition, but talking about it, is the only way to break the stigma.

In 2007, he brought together elder statesmen, peace activists and human rights advocates including Kofi Annan, Jimmy Carter, Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland and Li Zhaoxing under a non-governmental organisation dubbed The Elders. The aim of the organisation was to combine the elders' collective wisdom and use it to solve some of the world's problems.

Although he spoke out less about issues affecting neighbouring country Zimbabwe in his retirement, Mandela attempted to persuade President Robert Mugabe to vacate office with some dignity in 2007. However, Mr Mugabe ignored him and hung on to power, leading Mandela to slam the "tragic failure of leadership" in June 2008 when Zimbabwe was in crisis following disputed presidential elections.

In November 2009, Mandela's contributions to world freedom were rewarded with a unique gesture by the United Nations General Assembly. The body announced that his birthday, 18 July, would be known as Mandela Day. The recipient of hundreds of awards and honorary recognitions, including the Nobel Peace Prize, Mandela continues to exert influence on the world even without being actively involved in issues.

His last public outing was during the closing ceremony of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in Johannesburg. In January 2011, Mandela was hospitalised, prompting concerns about the health of the 92-year-old statesman. The Nelson Mandela Foundation revealed that he was in Milpark Hospital in Johannesburg, although it said his life was not in jeopardy. He was allowed


home after a couple of days and was transported home, where he leads a quiet retirement.

On 18 July 2012, Mandela's 94th birthday, 12 million schoolchildren across South Africa honoured him with a specially composed song to mark the day. Meanwhile, Mandela celebrated quietly at home with his family.

Mandela has been married three times, including a 38-year marriage to politician Winnie Madikizela, who was his second wife. They wed in 1958 and had daughter Zenani the same year. Their second daughter Zindzi was born in 1960. His youngest daughter was just 18 months old when he was sent to prison.

Nelson and Winnie separated in 1992 and divorced in 1996. His first marriage to Evelyn Mase had also ended in divorce in 1957 due to his devotion to revolutionary agitation.

They had been together for 13 years and had four children together including Thembi, who was born in 1946. He died in a car crash in 1969 at the age of 23 and Mandela was not allowed to go to the funeral as he was in jail. Their first daughter Maki, who was born in 1947, died at just nine months old and the couple named their second daughter in 1953 in her honour. Makgatho was born in 1950.

On his 80th birthday he married GracaMachel, widow of the late Mozambican president SamoraMachel. The couple now live at his home in Qunu.

Mandela spent more time in hospital towards the end of 2012, suffering from a lung infection and gallstones. He was discharged a few days before New Year and started 2013 at home surrounded by his family.

He passed away on 5 December 2013 of a lung infection at his home in Johannesburg. He was 95 years old.


5 Resilience Traits We Can All Learn from Nelson Mandela

Emotion Regulation Mandela's ability to keep his emotions under his control no doubt served him throughout his life. Not that he didn't have emotions or just ignored them; he was human, after all. But he had a stunning "absence of rancor" as Bill Keller described it in the New York Times. If he had let his emotions fester and spoil for all those years in prison, they would have likely gotten the best of him -and he would have left Robben Island a bitter, angry man. Which is not the Nelson Mandela we knew and loved.

Empathy Understanding what makes other people tick, and most importantly, what they need, is critical -- because it's what connects us with others. When you look at a photo of Mandela, you see that ability to feel for others, because he himself had suffered -- defeat, abandonment, loss, injustice. He bore a world of pain on his shoulders -- joyfully and willingly -- and he in turn won the empathy and support of millions.

Empathy also means knowing what people need to heal. And for Mandela, it wasn't more punishment and vengeance. Even in the face of tremendous violence. In her piece on Mandela in Forbes, Susan Adams notes one of Mandela's huge achievements: establishing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, where victims and perpetrators of racial violence could tell their stories. "Though controversial," she writes, "the process was also hailed as a triumph of mercy and a meaningful step toward healing the country's deepest wounds."

Connection His willingness to reach out to and connect with others, to support and love even those who hated and feared him, set him apart. Consider the close relationship Mandela had with his South African jailer, Christo Brand, a man who by any other definition would have been his enemy. But in fact the two reportedly developed a close friendship, Mandela turning this would-be enemy into an ally. Years later, when Mandela was president, and Brand was still a civil servant, he singled him out for recognition and welcomed him with open arms.

Self-Efficacy First and foremost we have to believe in ourselves and our powers to get things done, which is so different than the power to trumpet on our own behalf. Nelson's singular focus on his mission, paired with his soul-deep commitment to what he believed in most, made him capable of enduring through incredible strife.

Authenticity Beyond his powerful connection with people, Mandela was driven always by ideals that he was willing to die for. That perhaps made him the most resilient of all. He was, in that sense, the very embodiment of authentic. I wrote recently about how your defining moments are key to rising above stress -because rather than play whack-a-mole with the small stuff, you gain momentum and focus from being aligned with your core values. There's no question that Mandela did that, through and through.

5 Life Lessons Learned From Nelson Mandela

The life lessons that he taught us are simple but powerful, and if were successful in passing on these on to our kids, were doing well:

1) Anything worth having is worth fighting for Nelson Mandela was committed to seeing justice for the oppressed people of South Africa. In his prolonged fight against Apartheid, including his considerable prison sentence, he showed the world that the strength of our convictions is worth the difficulty that we may have to endure in order to realize our dreams. In other words, it may be a long and difficult road to get to where we want to be, but if its worth having, its worth making the journey.

2) Patience is a virtue If you want to see the epitome of patience, just remember the 27 years in prison that were served by Nelson Mandela, before his eventual release in February, 1990. The strength of this ability alone makes all of our kids demands for things now seem trivial and trite. Remind them of the importance of patience and the ability to wait for things next time they say that they must have something immediately.


3) Remain true to your principles Its often hard for kids to understand the importance of integrity and staying true to ones values. This is particularly the case as kids grow up and pass through their tween and teenage years. In spite of what their peers may tell them, they often know that what theyre being tempted to do is wrong. As Mandela taught us, it may be difficult to stand against the majority but doing so for the sake of your beliefs is worth it in the long run.

4) All people are equal and therefore deserving of basic respect and dignity All people. A tough thing for many of us to remember and even tougher for kids. After all, its often only with maturity and life experience that we gain the empathy, understanding that results in a kinder heart. Remember Mandelas most important lesson and one that he gave up most of his life fighting for: that were all equal and accordingly, should treat each other as such.

5) Forgiveness Its easy to stay angry and much harder to forgive. Nelson Mandela showed us the power of forgiveness and the ability that we all have to extend this courtesy to even our most hurtful opponents. Teaching a child to take the high road and not hold a grudge is a lesson that will fare them well in their lives well beyond their childhood. As Mandela rightly said as he walked out of the prison gates after 27 years of incarceration: As I walked out the door toward the gate that would lead to my freedom, I knew if I didnt leave my bitterness and hatred behind, Id still be in prison. Finding the strength to forgive after even the most difficult of experiences is an ability that will make our children stronger and happier people overall.