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WRITING SYNOPSIS FOR A Ph.D.

RESEARCH PROJECT
Whereas it is essential to encourage and expand Ph.D. research to make it a more active part of the academic life of the University of the Punjab, it is also important to ensure that a reasonable standard of research is maintained. The University regulates through its bodies like the oard of !tudies and "dvanced !tudies and #esearch oard that the Ph.D. research programs are properly planned and executed to maintain the standards. " research proposal for Ph.D. registration, $hether the area of study belongs to natural sciences, social sciences, languages, medicine or engineering, should include certain basic components, in $hich a number of %uestions need to be addressed. Why research on the proposed topic should be undertaken and $hat gains are likely to be achieved& What has been done previously in this or related areas& What are the objectives of this study and ho$ these $ill be achieved& "re the facilities re%uired for doing the proposed research available& "n extensive initial exercise should help in designing a sound research project, $hich is likely to make a significant contribution in successful completion of Ph.D. research. 'omponents of a !ynopsis The follo$ing components should be provided in a synopsis of a Ph.D. research project. The details may, ho$ever, vary according to the field of study. "ny alteration to the follo$ing format may be made in a specific discipline only $ith good justification. (. Title Page

" title page of the synopsis should include title of the research project, name of the student )$ith %ualifications*, name of the supervisor)s*, place of $ork and date )month and year* of submission.
+. Topic

The topic for research should be selected carefully. ,t should be specific and $orded to sho$ the nature of $ork involved as far as possible.
-. .. ,ntroduction ,t should provide a brief description to introduce the area of the proposed research $ork. #evie$ of /iterature

0.

" revie$ of the relevant literature sho$ing the $ork done previously in the area of proposed research is essential to plan further research effectively. The information given in the revie$ should be supported by references. 1ustification and /ikely enefits ,t is important to provide justification for undertaking the proposed research, perhaps in the light of previous $ork done. ,t should be possible in most cases to anticipate the specific and general benefits likely to be achieved as a result of completion of the proposed research.
3bjectives

2.

road objectives as visuali4ed to be achieved should be clearly outlined and these should be itemi4ed. These objectives $ill indicate the major aspects of the study to be undertaken.

5.

Plan of Work and 6ethodology

" plan of $ork describing the various aspects of the study in a logical se%uence along $ith the methodologies to be employed, are the most important aspects of any research plan. !ufficient details to demonstrate that the researcher has a fairly good idea about the nature of $ork likely to be involved should be provided. ,n the case of experimental sciences, e.g., $hich e%uipments and experimental procedures $ill be used to obtain the results7 in the case of social sciences $hat resource materials $ill be used7 $hether the re%uired information $ill be obtained from primary or secondary sources, etc. " time schedule for the various aspects of the proposed research may be provided $herever possible.
8. Place of Work and 9acilities "vailable

,n order to complete the proposed research some speciali4ed facilities may be re%uired. 9or example in case of experimental sciences different e%uipments may be involved or in the case of, may be, a study on a scholar, the relevant literature may be available in a foreign country. Therefore it is important to identify the place $here the research $ork $ill be undertaken and $hether the resources and facilities re%uired for doing the research are available.
:. #eferences and ibliography

!ynopsis should contain at the end a list of references, and a bibliography if re%uired. These should be $ritten on a standard pattern. ,t $ill be difficult to define an overall length for a synopsis for Ph.D. research in such varied fields of study. Whereas it should be concise as far as possible and avoid repetitions, it should also provide sufficient details on the various aspects mentioned above to sho$ that the research involved has been $ell understood and planned, and it is of an acceptable academic merit. The total length of a synopsis may run from (,0;; to a fe$ thousand $ords.

PH.D./ M.Phil THESIS PATTERN


"ll theses presented in typescript for the degree of Ph.D should comply $ith the follo$ing specifications unless permission to do other$ise is obtained from the relevant authority < body SIZE OF PAPER ". si4e be used, no restriction is placed on dra$ings and maps. PAPER SPECIFICATION !ix copies on good %uality paper )minimum 8; gsm* be submitted. METHOD OF PRODUCTION The text must be type$ritten in acceptable type face and the original typescript )or copy of e%ual %uality* must normally be submitted as the first copy. The second and subse%uent copies may be produced by means of other acceptable copying methods. LAYOUT OF SCRIPT Typescript should appear on one side only, lines7 at least one=and=a=half spaced. 9ootnotes, %uotations, references and photographic captions may be single spaced. Where appropriate, these should contain lists giving the locations of figures and illustrations. FONT SIZE Title Page (8=++ >eadings < subheadings (.=+; Text (;=(+ 9ootnotes 9ootnotes be given on the same page $here reference is %uoted TYPE STYLE Times ?e$ #oman < "rial < 'ourier ?e$ < Univers MARGINS. "t least (@ =(A inches )-.(5=-.8(cm* on the left=hand side, -<. = ( inch )+ =+.0.cm* at the top and bottom of the page, and about A = ;.50 inches )(.+5 = (.:;cm* at the outer edge. The best position for the page number is at top=centre or top right A inch )(.+5 cm* belo$ the edge. Pages containing figures and illustration should be suitable paginated.

8=(;

FOLLOWING IS THE PREFERABLE LAYOUT OF THE THESIS o Title Page o "bstract < !ummery o "ckno$ledgements o "bbreviations not described in the text o 'ontents o /ist of Tables )$here applicable* o /ist of 9igures )$here applicable* o ,ntroduction )including literature revie$* or ,ntroduction #evie$ of /iterature "s separate chapters as per re%uisite of the subject o 6aterial and 6ethods o #esults 6ay comprised of one chapter or a number of chapters depending upon the subject matter< re%uirements o Discussion )including 'onclusion<s, #ecommendation<s $here applicable* o #eferences < ibliography < /iterature 'ited o "ppendices )$here applicable* o "ny other information specific to the respective discipline TITLE PAGE. "ll theses must contain a title page giving the title of the thesis, the authorBs name, the name of the degree for $hich it is presented, the department in $hich the author has $orked or the 9aculty to $hich the $ork is being presented, and the month and year of submission. PUBLISH WORK Published $ork from the theses be included as appendix )#eprints< proof < preprint*.

BINDING "ll final theses and published $ork presented for higher degrees must be bound in a permanent form or in a temporary )hard binding $ill be provided after defense of the thesis* form approved by the "dvanced !tudies and #esearch oard7 $here printed pamphlets or off=prints are submitted in support of a thesis, they must be bound in $ith the thesis, or bound in such manner as inderies may advise. 9ront cover should give title of the thesis, name of the candidate and the name of the ,nstitute< Department< 'entre< 'ollege through $hich submitted, in the same order from top to bottom. The lettering may be in boldface and properly spaced. Their si4es should beC title +. pt., name of the candidate (8 pt. and the name of the department< institute< centre< college (8 pt. The colour of binding for different degrees in the !cience subjects and !ocial !ciences is as follo$sC Ph.D. 6.Phil SCIENCE SUBJECTS Dark 6aroon< Dark Dray Dark green< lack SOCIAL SCIENCES /ight 6aroon< /ight Dray /ight Dreen< lack

!pine of the thesis should sho$ EPh.D thesisE on top across the $idth of spine, name of the candidate in the middle along the length oiB spine, and the year of submission across the $idth at the bottom. /ettering on spine should be in (8 pt. and may be in boldface.