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Protection Systems & Devices (Relays) 3rd Year


For many years, utilities have used electromechanical relays for power system protection. The result of using electromechanical relays has been an extensive maintenance and design practice. Both the maintenance and design of protection schemes using these relays is expensive and time-consuming. Over the last ten years, static and microprocessor-based relays have come of age. Static and microprocessor-based relays offer many advantages over electromechanical relays. This unit of the course compares a typical transmission line protection scheme in terms of cost, engineering design, and maintenance. The information presented in this unit of the course shows that microprocessor-based relays offer significant savings in cost, engineering design, and maintenance. Static relay is a relay in which the comparison or measurement of electrical uantities is done by stationary networ!, which gives a tripping signal when the threshold condition is passed, "threshold means #on the verge of#, #on the border of#$. %n simple language static relay is one, which has no moving parts except in the slave device. The static relay includes devices the output circuit of which may be electric, semiconductor or even electromagnetic. But the output device does not perform relay measurement, it is essentially a tripping device. The slave relay in output circuit may be electro- magnetic type, or the trip coil may be connected directly in the output circuit.

Fig.&, Bloc! of diagram of a static relay-simplified. Fig. & illustrates the essential components in the static relays. The output of 'T#s or (T#s is rectified in a )ectifier. The rectified output is fed to the measuring unit. The measuring unit comprises comparators, level detectors, filters, logic circuits. The output is initiated when input reaches the threshold value. The output of measuring unit is amplified by *mplifier. The amplified output is given to the output unit which initiates the trip coil only when relay operates.


Protection Systems & Devices (Relays) 3rd Year

%n conventional electromagnetic the measurement is carried out by comparing operating tor ue+force with restraining tor ue+force. The conventional relay operates when operating tor ue+force exceeds the restraining tor ue+force. The pic!-up of relay is obtained by motion of moving element of the relay. ,hereas static relay have static circuits which perform the measurement. * simplified bloc! diagram of a static relay is given in Fig. &. The figure is rather a general figure. %n individual relays there is a wide variation. The entity voltage, current, etc. is rectified and measured. ,hen the uantity to be measured reaches certain well defined value, the output device is triggered. Thereby current flows in the trip circuit of the circuitbrea!er. ,ith the inventions of semi-conductor devices li!e diode, transistor, thyristor, -ener diode etc. there has been a tremendous leap in the field of static relay. The development of integrated circuits has made an impact on static relays. %ntegrated circuits are more reliable and more compact. Furthermore, the digital computers are being increasingly used in power system protection. The static relays and static protection has grown into a special branch in its own right. This chapter covers principles and applications of static relays and static protection systems in brief.

Static Vs. Electromagnetic Relays

a! A"#antages o$ Static Relays
The static relays compared to the corresponding electromagnetic relay have many advantages and a few limitations. "i$ Lo% Po%er Cons&m'tion. Static relays provide less burden on 'T#s and (T#s as compared to conventional relays. %n other words. the power consumption in the measuring circuits of static relays is generally much lower than for their electromechanical e uivalents. The consumption of & milliwatt is uite common in static over-current relay. ,hereas, an e uivalent electromechanical relay can have consumption of about / watts. )educed consumption has the following merits. 'T#s and (T#s of less 0* rating The accuracy of 'T#s and (T#s is increased (roblems arising out of 'T saturation are avoided Overall reduction in cost of 'T#s and (T#s. "ii$ (o )o#ing Contacts. Solid state devices do not have moving contacts. Therefore, there are no problems of contact bounce arcing, contact errosion, etc. in the static relay circuits. There is no effect of gravity on static relays. "iii$ *'erating Times an" Vario&s C+aracteristics. *s the levels increase, rapid fault clearing becomes a must. The static relays do not have moving parts in their measuring circuits, hence relay times of low values can be achieved "& cycle, 1 cycle ,etc $. Such low


Protection Systems & Devices (Relays) 3rd Year

relay times are impossible with conventional electromechanical relay systems which comprise measuring relays plus auxiliary relays. * variety of characteristics can be obtained with static relays. Thereby selectivity, stability and ade uateness can be achieved. 2easurement of several uantities such as negative phase se uence component, fre uency, harmonics, temperature, impedance, etc. can be performed by static measuring circuits "v$ Remote ,ac- &' an" )onitoring. Static relays resisted by power line carrier can be used for remote bac!-up and networ! monitoring. "vi$ Har"%are an" S'ace Re.&irements Static relays are compact. Furthermore, with use of integrated circuits, complex protection schemes can be installed on a single panel. * typical three-3one step time distance scheme consists of instantaneous tripping elements, two levels of time-delayed tripping elements for phase faults and an instantaneous tripping element, and time overcurrent element for ground faults. For this example, we shall assume that the step time distance scheme uses phase distance and directional ground overcurrent elements. (hase faults are detected using three 3ones of phase distance relays. 4round faults are detected using a directional ground overcurrent relay, which includes a time-overcurrent element and an instantaneous overcurrent element. The protection scheme also includes a single-shot recloser for automatic line restoration after a fault has been cleared. The electromechanical relay scheme uses three-phase distance relays. These relays may cover all fault types on a per-3one basis or all three 3ones on a faulted phase pair basis. This depends upon the manufacturer of the distance relays. 5owever, in either case, three distance relays are re uired. * timer is also re uired for the time-delayed bac!up elements. Typically, the time delay is provided from separate timers, so if one timer fails, the entire step time distance scheme is not lost. * single directional ground overcurrent relay shall be used for ground fault detection. * single-shot reclosing relay shall also be provided for restoring the line. * non-directional overcurrent relay shall be used to supervise the distance relays. The electromechanical relay scheme panel layout is shown in Figure /. 6ote that the electromechanical scheme re uires nearly all of the space contained in an 78-inch by &9inch panel. The microprocessor-based scheme shall consist of a multifunction relay that provides three 3ones of step time distance protection, three levels of instantaneous or definite time directional ground overcurrent protection, a directional ground time-overcurrent function, and three-shot recloser. The microprocessor-based scheme shall also include a single3one microprocessor-based relay as a bac!up in case of failure of the primary multi-3one relay. Figure : shows the panel layout for the microprocessor-based relay scheme. The space re uirement for the microprocessor-based relay scheme is much less than the electromechanical relay scheme.


Protection Systems & Devices (Relays) 3rd Year

Figure /

Figure :

4iven that the cost of all the relays for the electromechanical scheme is & per unit "p.u.$, the cost of the microprocessor-based relay scheme is ;.:< p.u. "vii$ Static Relays can /t+in-/. 'omplex protection schemes employ logic circuits. =#>ogic# means the process of reasoning, induction or deduction.? Suppose, several conditions are imposed on a protective system such that for certain conditions, the relay should operate, and for some other conditions, the relay should remain stable@ in such cases, logic gates can he adopted. "viii$ Re'eate" *'erations Possi0le. Static relays can be designed for repeated operations if necessary. "ix$ E$$ect o$ Vi0rations an" S+oc-s. 2ost of the components in static relays, including the auxiliary relays in the output stage are relatively indifferent to vibrations and shoc!s. The ris! of unwanted tripping is, therefore, less with static relays as compared to the electromechanical relays. This aspect ma!es the static relays uni uely suitable for earth ua!e prone areas, ships, vehicles locomotives, airplanes, etc. "x$ Trans"&cers. Several non-electrical uantities can be converted into electrical uantities and then fed to static relays. *mplifiers are used wherever necessary. (XI) Easy Testing


Protection Systems & Devices (Relays) 3rd Year

Installation Tests %nstallation tests are used to verify that the relays are set correctly and that the scheme is designed correctly for the intended application. )outine tests are performed to ensure that the relays are functioning within established specifications. * scheme designed with electromechanical relays re uires a large number of tests during installation to ensure that the overall scheme is functioning properly. Aach discrete relay must be tested and calibrated. For the step time distance scheme example, at least seven discrete relays must be tested. The testing of each relay re uires that the relay be connected to the test e uipment, the various setting adBustments are made, and the relay is tested per an established test routine. %f the relay test results are outside established guidelines, the relay must be calibrated. The calibration routine can be very timeconsuming. *fter each relay has been tested, the scheme must be Ctrip-chec!edC to ensure that all of the wiring and trip circuits are correct. 2any times, trip-chec!ing an electromechanical scheme is a simple matter of manually closing an output contact. Therefore, the trip-chec!s can be very simple. 5owever, due to the many discrete devices used in the scheme, the trip-chec!s can be very time-consuming and, in case of an incorrect design or wiring error, re uire many hours of trouble shooting when searching for problems. * static or a microprocessor-based relay scheme is very simple to test and verify .* microprocessor-based relay operates using software programming. The operation of the various functions and logic has been fully verified and tested by the relay manufacturer. %n many cases, the utility has also tested the relay to ensure that the relay conforms to the specifications stated by the manufacturer. Once the relay has been fully tested, the software that defines the operating characteristics of the relay has been verified. Therefore, it is not re uired to fully test each relay given that the relays are of the same type and software version. The installation tests for a static or a microprocessor-based relay should be designed to verify that the relay settings have been entered correctly. The test series should be designed to chec! the relay pic!-up at critical points. For example, the distance element should be tested at the angle of maximum tor ue and :; degrees off the angle of maximum tor ue. These test points verify the distance element settings. Overcurrent elements should also be tested using a very simple test routine. Trip chec!s using a static or a microprocessor-based relay are very simple due to the fact that there are fewer contacts to chec! and less wiring to verify .%n many cases, a software command may be used to close specific output contacts. Dsing a software command to close relay outputs is simpler than connecting voltage and current test sources to the relay to perform fault simulations. Ro&tine Tests )outine tests must be performed on electromechanical relays to verify that they are operating within specified guidelines. These tests may be at one to three year intervals for distance relays based upon the specific utility#s practice. The routine tests performed on an electromechanical relay are very similar to those done during the installation process. The 58

Protection Systems & Devices (Relays) 3rd Year

relays must be thoroughly tested to verify that all of the E internal components are operating within specified tolerances. )outine tests also confirm that all contacts and external circuits are functioning properly. 2ost static and microprocessor-based relays perform routine self-chec!s to ensure that the critical circuitry in the relay is functioning properly. 2icroprocessor-based relays continuously run the same software routines. Therefore, if the relay is functioning properly, the relay algorithms shall operate correctly. )outine maintenance in a microprocessorbased relay consists of verifying that the inputs, outputs, and data ac uisition system are functioning properly. %f the relay is properly measuring the analog currents and voltages and the self-chec! status show that the relay is healthy, the relay shall function correctly. The only other chec!s necessary are to verify that the output contacts and logic inputs are operating correctly. 4iven the microprocessor-based relay includes sufficient self-chec!ing and a common data ac uisition system is used for relaying as well as metering, routine maintenance can be significantly reduced. 2any utilities have extended the routine maintenance cycle of microprocessor-based relays from one and one-half to three times that used on electromechanical relays. *t+er 1eat&res o$ Static an" )icro'rocessor2,ase" Relays Static and 2icroprocessor-based relays offer many other features that electromechanical relays do not offer such as fault locating, event reporting, advanced metering functions and control capability. Fault locating has become a standard feature in nearly all microprocessor-based relays. The fault locating information reduces patrol time on permanently faulted lines. The fault locating information can also be used to evaluate problem areas on transmission lines. The event record provides data on the internal relay element operation and the currents and voltage waveforms at the time of operation. This is similar to having a fault recorder on every brea!er where a microprocessor-based relay is installed. The event data is an invaluable tool in evaluating relay and system performance. The microprocessor-based relay also provides analog metering uantities such as threephase currents, voltages, megawatts, and megavars. %n many cases, analog transducers are not re uired. The data can also be directly interfaced digitally to the S'*F* )TD .Gou can also send the fault locator information to the system control center for dispatching a patrol crew.

0!Limitations o$ Static Relays

Static relays have certain limitations as compared to their e uivalent electromechanical relays. Furing last seventy five years electromechanical relay technology has been developed to a satisfactory extent. )eliable and economic electromechanical protective systems are being manufactured and used in almost all countries in the world. The users have enough experience about choice, installation, maintenance, testing, etc. of such relays. ,hereas static relays have been developed only during past twenty-years. Their manufacture and use has increased substantially during last twenty years. The cost of static relays is tending to become favorable, especially with the use of integrated circuits which are now used as building bloc!s in static relay. 59

Protection Systems & Devices (Relays) 3rd Year

The disadvantages and limitations of static relays are the following. "i$ A&3iliary Voltage Re.&irement. This disadvantage is not of any importance as auxiliary voltage can he obtained from station battery supply and conveniently stepped down to suit local re uirements. "ii$ Voltage Transients. The static relays are sensitive to voltage spi!es or voltage transients. Such voltage transients caused by operation of brea!er and isolator in the primary circuit of 'T#s and (THs. Serious over voltage are also caused by brea!ing of control circuit, relay contacts, etc. Such voltage spi!es of small duration can damage the semiconductor components and can also cause maloperation of relays. Several relay failures were recorded during &9E;#s due to the above mentioned cause. The measurements showed that the voltage spi!es in secondary circuits can attain an amplitude of /; !0 in rare cases and generally &/ !0. Special measures are ta!en in static relays to overcome this difficulty. These include, use of filter circuits in relays, screening the cable connected to the relays. "iii$ Tem'erat&re De'en"ence o$ Static Relays . . The characteristics of semiconductors are influenced by ambient temperature. For example the amplification factor of a transistor, the forward voltage drop of a diode, etc., change with temperature variation. This was a serious limitation of static relays in the beginning. *ccurate measurement of relay should not be affected by temperature variation. )elays should be accurate over wide range temperatures"-&;o'toI<;o'$. This difficulty is over- come by the following measures. %ndividual component in circuits are used in such a way that change in characteristic of components does not affect the characteristic of the complete relay. Temperature compensation is provided by means of thermistor circuits, digital measuring techni ues, etc. Thus, modern static relays are designed to suit wide o o temperatures "-&; ' to I<; '$.

"vi$ Price. The price of static relays is higher than the e uivalent electromechanical types. %n advanced countries, the difference is gradually reducing now. "v$ %n electromagnetic relays, the pic!-up of relay or reset of relays does not affect the relay characteristic since the operation is based on the comparison between operating tor ues. 5owever, the static relay characteristic is li!ely to be affected by the operation of output device.

Relia0ility o$ Static Relays

)eliability of protective relaying is very important. Alectromechanical relays have high reliability, due to "&$ precision, manufacture "/$ few, reliable components in their construction, ":$ experience gained in, designing, manufacturing, testing, and maintenance. )elays are in early stage and have to prove their reliability. *s the static relays have several discrete components such as resistors, capacitors, semi-conductors in their construction, reliability depends on reliability of these components and reliability of the total assembly.


Protection Systems & Devices (Relays) 3rd Year

Static Relays circ&its

The static relay unit comprises several functional circuits such as . input circuit with main 'T#s, *uxiliary 'T#s rectifiers, smoothing circuits, filters comparator level detector amplifiers timer circuit setting device filter circuit starting relay directional unit output stage, etc. The re uired functional circuits or units are connected in the final assembly. In'&t Stage The input is derived from 'T+(T. The output of 'T+(T is connected to the auxiliary 'T+(T. The input stage of a static relay comprise the following. 'T#s and or (T#s. Summation units. *uxiliary 'T#s or (T#s. Filter. Recti$iers an" Smoot+ing Circ&it %n single actuating uantity relays, the uantities are rectified in a single rectifier bridge. The output of the rectifier is smoothened to remove the ripple. The output is given to the level detector. Single actuating uantity relays include overcurrent relay, under voltage relay etc. %n double actuating uantity rectifier relay there are generally two rectifier bridges. The output of these bridges is compared. The output of the comparator is given to the measuring unit "level detector$ after smoothing. Com'arators 'omparators receive the rectified inputs. *fter comparison the comparator output is given to the measuring unit. There are several types of comparators such as amplitude comparator, phase comparator, hybrid comparators. These are either direct "instantaneous$ or integrating type. Le#el Detector or )eas&ring 4nit


Protection Systems & Devices (Relays) 3rd Year

This unit comprises a multi-stage feedbac!# amplifier. The feedbac! ensure that for values of unit above a certain level, the output power increases in a step. 5ence for input below threshold value, the level detector has no output. For input above threshold value, the output is obtained. The measuring unit comprises logic circuits, amplifiers and level detector circuit. The logic elements determine the conditions of various input uantities for which output is obtained. Am'li$iers The output of level detector is further amplified by amplifier. The amplifier strengthens the wea!er signal. The output of the amplifier is given to the starting relay or output device. Time2"elay Element The time-delay element is introduced between level detector and the amplifier. The timedelay can be adBusted by changing )-' 'ombinations. *&t'&t Stage The output stage of static relay may have one of the following. electromagnetic relay such as permanent magnet moving coil relay. thyristor in series with trip coil and auxiliary switch. The operation of the complete relay is a team-wor! of these functional bloc!s. The manufacturers supply variety of relays of the same type but having certain modifications to suit particular applications by putting together re uired functional bloc!s. For example, a time-delay unit is added to get time delay @ a volt-ratiobox may be added to permit selection of auxiliary supply voltage @output stage may have an electromagnetic relay or a thyristori3ed trip. 5ence, the relay assembly is built up of various bloc!s, each serving certain specific function. Such bloc!s are called functional components of static relays. Studying these functional components first and then the bloc!-diagrams of various relays simplify the study of static relays.