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INDEX

1,1,1-trichloroethane:

in airplane environments, 68.12 in residential and commercial buildings, 66.13 sources, 5.12 1,3 butadiene, 68.8 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 62.12 2-hydroxymethylpiperazine gas chromatography method, 32.18 30/30 filter (Farr) efficiency, 7.4 4-phenylcyclohexane (4-PC) CRI emissions criteria, 62.12 half-life, 33.10 95 percent DOP filter efficiency, 9.15

A effect (pulmonary air flow alterations), 23.7, 23.37, 23.38, 23.40 A-weighted decibel curve, 19.1, 19.3–19.4 Absolute humidity (see Dew point) Access rating, in asbestos hazard assessments, 37.15 Accident rates, and thermal comfort, 16.2–16.3, 16.7 Accuracy, in measurements, 51.5–51.6 (See also Precision; Uncertainty) Acetaldehyde, 32.2 adverse health effects, 32.11–32.12 sampling techniques, 32.17 sources, exposure levels, 5.12, 32.7, 32.10–32.11, 51.2 uses for, 32.10 Acetate esters:

chemosensory detection threshold, 20.7, 20.9 potency estimates, 23.34 sources, exposure levels, 5.12 ACGIH (see American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) Acoustic environment:

and building-related illness, 54.18 HVAC systems, 19.4–19.8 and indoor air quality, 60.8–60.9 infrasound, 19.8–19.11 loudness, 19.2 noise, 19.11–19.13 power/intensity/pressure levels, 19.4–19.5 sound level measurement, 19.1, 19.15–19.19 sound levels, acceptable, 19.14–19.15 wave frequency and velocity, 19.2 Acrolein, 32.2, 32.12–32.13 adverse health effects, 32.13 sampling techniques, 32.17 sources, exposure levels, 32.7, 32.12–32.13 uses for, 32.12

Activated carbon:

activating, 10.2–10.3 ASTM standards, 10.3–10.5 chemical-impregnated, 10.14–10.16 effect of water vapor on, 10.8–10.9 handling of mixtures, 10.9–10.10 maintenance requirements, 10.13–10.14 measuring adsorption capacity, 10.5–10.7 measuring adsorption efficiency, 10.7–10.8 (See also Adsorption beds) Activated charcoal VOC sampling, 33.2–33.3 Active noise, 19.7–19.8 Activity, and metabolic rates, 15.7 Actuators (HVAC system), 12.2 Acute toxicity tests, 70.10

Adaptive model of thermal comfort, 15.11–15.14,

22.8

Addiction, and multiple chemical intolerance,

27.15

Adhesives, VOC emissions from, 33.8, 33.10, 60.10, 62.12–62.13 Adsorption beds, 10.2–10.3 activated carbon requirements, 10.3–10.7 cleaning/maintenance requirements, 10.13–10.14 designing, 10.10–10.12 handling of mixtures, 10.9–10.10 installing, 10.11, 10.13 measuring capacity of, 10.5–10.7 measuring efficiency of, 10.7–10.8 Adverse reproductive effects (see Reproductive problems) Aerosol photometer filter scan test method (Cold DOP test), 9.16 Aerosols:

aerosolized medicine exposure, 65.9–65.10 characteristics of, 9.1–9.3 infectious agents:

in building-related illness (BRI), 3.3 collecting in air filters, 9.23 controlling, 11.3–11.7 in hospital environments, 65.5–65.6 particle bounce, 9.5 particle size, 9.2–9.3, 9.5 test dusts, 9.12–9.14 Aflatoxins, 46.6 (See also Fungus exposure) Agar plates, 64.10 Age, and sensory discomfort, 17.3–17.4 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), exposure limits, 51.4

I.1

I.3

I.4

INDEX

Agricultural environments, gram-negative bacteria in, 42.3 AHU (see Air-handling unit) Air change rate, 52.3–52.4 air changes per hour (ACH), 6.7–6.8 calculating, 52.4 occupancy -related, 52.18–52.19 outdoor air, 52.19 whole building rates, 52.17–52.18 in ice arenas, 67.3 Air circulation (see Airflow, ambient) Air cleaners, 9.24–9.25 Air cleaning devices:

and asthma/allergic disease, 4.15 cleaning/maintenance requirements, 9.24–9.25 criteria for choosing:

costs, 9.17 design considerations, 9.21 cyclones, 9.8–9.9 design considerations, 60.6 effectiveness of, 4.13, 9.12–9.19 electronic air cleaners, 9.7–9.8 filters, 9.4–9.7, 9.10–9.12 handling of biological particles, 9.23 inertial separators, 9.8–9.9 ion generators, 9.26 louvers, 9.8–9.9 portable, 9.25 scrubbers, 9.10 upgrading/improving, 9.23–9.24 Air conditioning:

ASHRAE classifications, 5.16 need for, 2.7 numbers and types of units, 6.5–6.7, 6.9 and respiratory disease, 4.6 (See also Cooling system) Air diffusion:

in HVAC systems, 8.5–8.6, 8.8–8.9 performance index (ADPI), 8.8–8.9 (See also Airflow) Air disinfection:

filtration for, 11.7–11.8 history of, 11.1–11.2 ventilation systems, 11.4–11.10 Air exchange rate (see Ventilation rate) Air, expired, VOCs in, 33.4 Air filters/filtration, 9.6 activated carbon adsorption beds, 10.2–10.14 airflow rate variability, 9.25–9.26 ASHRAE standards for, 7.4 biological particles, 9.23 cleaning/maintenance requirements, 9.23–9.25 controlling airborne infection using, 4.4–4.5,

11.7–11.8

criteria for choosing, 9.17 design considerations, 60.6, 60.8, 63.4–63.5 effects on pressurization, 9.4 efficiency, 7.4 monitoring approaches, 9.12–9.17 particle size and, 9.4–9.6

Air filters/filtration (Cont.):

filter types/methods, 9.4–9.7, 9.10–9.12 UL class 1 and class 2, 9.16 improving, cost-benefit analysis, 4.28–4.29 self-charging filters, 9.26 water treatment using, 8.30 (See also Air cleaning devices) Air Filtration and Ventilation Centre, 51.12

Air fresheners/deodorants, VOC emissions from,

33.10

Air grilles, in mechanical ventilation systems, 13.13 Air-handling unit (AHU), 7.1–7.2 good design practices, 63.4 negative pressurization problems, 7.3 reverse airflow measurement, 12.10–12.11 Air, historical views of, 2.2–2.5 (See also Indoor air quality) Air infiltration (see Infiltration rates; Outdoor air) Air inlet (intake), 13.13 (See also HVAC systems) Air leakage:

and indoor air monitoring, 51.27–51.29 measuring, 52.4 Air pollution (see Aerosols) Air purifiers, ozone-generating by, 10.18 Air quality reservoir, 13.5 Air sampling (see Sampling and assessment methods) Air Sampling Instruments (ACGIH), 51.11 Air speed, 15.7 Air-tight construction (see Closed buildings) Air velocity, 59.2 infectious aerosol particle transport, 11.3 (See also Airflow, ambient) Air vents, 13.6 Airborne infection:

causes of, 11.2–11.3 controlling, 11.4–11.8 and eye irritation, 17.11 Pontiac fever, 3.3, 48.2–48.3 Airflow, ambient:

airflow rate calculations:

in ducts, 52.7 flow hood measurements, 52.15–52.16 hot-wire traverses, 52.14–52.15 inlet, outlet rates, 52.7–52.8 outdoor flow rate measurement, 12.9 Pitot tube traverses, 52.13–52.14 at supply outlets, exhaust inlets, 52.7–52.8 tracer gas measurements, 52.15 vane anemometer measurements, 52.15–52.16 ventilation rates, 52.3–52.4 during atrium fires:

exhaust calculations, 14.8–14.10 filling calculations, 14.11–14.12 minimum smoke depth layer, 14.12–14.13 natural ventilation, 14.12 computer modeling, 14.3–14.4 controlling, 12.9 in day care centers, 69.6–69.8

INDEX

I.5

Airflow, ambient (Cont.):

in diffusion-based systems, 8.5–8.6, 8.8–8.12 dynamic nature of, 59.2 effect on gasoline emission levels, 68.9–68.10 effects of air filtration on, 9.23–9.26 effects of heat exchangers on, 8.24–8.28 effects of ventilation system on, 52.5 evaluating during IAQ investigations, 49.11–49.12, 51.27 monitoring studies, 12.4–12.5, 51.26–51.27 and natural ventilation, 13.5 and outdoor air sources, 52.4–52.5 pattern studies:

pressure differences, 52.8–52.9 smoke tubes for, 52.8 tracer gas for, 52.8, 52.9–52.10 and pollutant movement, 52.5 reverse rate measurement, 12.10 stack effect, 52.5 supply air in plenums/ducts, 8.6–8.9 through cooling towers, 8.34 ultrafine particle distribution, 50.2 unducted, 5.8 Airflow, pulmonary:

in animal bioassays (A effect), 23.7, 23.37, 23.38 in automated bioassays, 24.2–24.3 Airplane environments, 69.12–69.13 Airs, Waters, Places (Hippocrates), 2.2 Alcohols, aliphatic, chemosensory detection threshold, 20.5–20.8 Aldehydes, 5.12, 32.1–32.2 acetaldehyde, 32.10–32.12 acrolein, 32.12–32.13 adverse health effects, 32.19 chemosensory detection threshold, 20.9, 20.12 glutaraldehyde, 32.13–32.15 occupational exposure standards (table), 32.11 preventing infiltration of, 60.7 RD50 values, 32.3 reactions with nitric oxides, 32.18 reactions with ozone, 32.18 removal methods, 10.14 sampling methods, 51.25 sources, 65.7 Alkylbenzenes, 5.12 chemosensory detection threshold, 20.8, 20.11 Alkylphenols:

adverse health effects, 34.21 sources and levels, 34.15–34.18 Allergens, 43.1–43.3 aerodynamic particle diameter, 9.2–9.3 airborne rubber proteins, 41.1–41.6 in airplane environments, 68.13 from animals, 28.9 in bus, train and subway environments, 68.12 in cleaning service chemicals, 5.10 in day care center environments, 69.11 dust mites, 43.3–43.6 evaluating during IAQ investigations, 49.16–49.17 German cockroach, 43.6–43.7

Allergens (Cont.):

in library environments, 67.11–67.12 protein purification methods, 43.2–43.3 and sick building syndrome, 53.6 skin reactions to, 28.7–28.9 skin testing, 43.1, 43.3

Allergic alveolitis (see Hypersensitivity pneumonitis) Allergic dermatitis, and pollen exposure, 44.14 Allergic fungal sinusitis, 45.14–45.15 Allergic (hypersensitivity) disease, 3.3, 4.11–4.15,

54.13

allergic fungal sinusitis, 54.15 allergic rhinitis, 54.14–54.15 controlling, 4.15–4.17 and fiber exposure, 37.16–37.17 and fungus exposure, 45.14–45.15 and microbial contaminants, 49.6 versus multiple chemical intolerance, 27.4 prevalence of, 5.3 productivity costs, 4.15, 4.16 skin disorders, 28.7–28.9 (See also Allergens; Asthma; Multiple chemical intolerance) Allergic rhinitis, and pollen exposure, 44.14 Alpha particles, 40.2 (See also Radon) Alternative building/furnishing materials (see Low- polluting materials) Alumina, potassium permanganate-impregnated,

10.14–10.16

American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), 45.8 American Chemical Society, 51.12 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH):

Air Sampling Instruments, 51.11 bioaerosol standards, 45.20 indoor air quality standards, 5.8 relative limit values (RLVs), endotoxin exposure limits, 42.11 STEL exposure limits, carbon dioxide, 51.2 threshold limit values (TLVs), 32.15, 51.3–51.4 aldehydes, 32.11 carbon dioxide, 51.2–51.3 cellulose, 37.6–37.7 hazard rating using, 62.4–62.6 pesticides, 35.14 American Institute of Architects (AIA):

Building Materials Guide, 62.12 Environmental Resource Guide, 5.8 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM):

Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 51.12 building material testing program, 62.12 guidelines, consensus standards:

activated carbon standards, 10–15 Building Constructions, 51.12 indoor air quality model verification,

58.8–58.11

Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres, 51.12

I.6

INDEX

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (Cont.):

methods:

air leakage (fan pressurization test), 52.4 airborne pesticides, 35.5 ASTM E 981 method automation, 24.1–24.23 carbon monoxide, 51.18–51.20 chlordane/heptachlor, 35.5 complex mixture evaluations, 23.13–23.16 formaldehyde, 51.25 gases and vapors, 51.19–51.20 IAQ model evaluation, 51.27 odor concentration measurement, 20.5–20.6 odor intensity measurement, 21.4–21.6 ozone, 51.19–51.20 tracer gas measurements, 52.8 VOCs, 51.22 mouse bioassay approval, 23.7 American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers (ASHVE), 15.10 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) definitions/classification systems:

mixed ventilation systems, 5.16 synthetic vitreous fibers, 37.4–37.6 ventilation, 5.14–5.19, 52.3 energy use modeling, 57.6–57.7 handbooks:

ASHRAE Applications Handbook, 12.2 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, 16.10 Energy Conservation in New Building Design 90-75, 2.8 Fundamentals, 63.3 methods:

filter testing, 9.14–9.17 test dust, 9.13, 9.15 research laboratory, 2.6 standards, guidelines:

air cleaners, 10.13 air filters, 7.4, 9.14 for building documentation, 63.4 comfort, 15.10–15.11, 15.12, 15.13–15.14 for commissioning HVAC systems, 61.1, 63.4, 63.7 filter efficiency, 50.10 ice arenas and stadiums, 67.3 thermal environment, 2.2, 8.32, 15.8–15.9, 63.3 ventilation systems, 2.1, 2.8–2.9, 5.4, 5.6–5.7,

51.3

thermal sensation scale, 15.8–15.9 American Thoracic Society, sick building syndrome definition, 3.4 Amines, saturated aliphatic, potency estimates, 23.34 Amosite, 38.2 (See also Asbestos) Amphiboles, 38.2 (See also Asbestos) Analogies, in risk communication, 70.30, 70.34 Analysis of Smoke Control System (ASCOS), 14.3 Analytic methods (see Sampling and assessment methods)

Anaphylaxis, latex-sensitivity and, 41.5 Andersen Sampler, 51.15, 51.17 Anemometers, 52.7 Anemophilous pollen, 44.1–44.2 Anesthetic gas exposure, 65.8–65.9 Animal allergens:

adverse health effects, 43.11 in day care centers, 69.5 dust levels and, 43.11 exposure reduction strategies, 43.10–43.11 and skin disorders, 28.9 (See also Cat allergens; Dog allergens; German cockroach allergens) Annoyance, from noise, 19.11–19.12 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 51.12 Annual risk, 70.14 Anosmic research subjects, 20.3–20.4 ANSI/AHAM AC-1, 9.16 Anthophyllite, 38.2 (See also Asbestos) “Anthropotoxin”, 22.2 Antibodies, rubber-specific, testing for, 41.6 Antimicrobial chemicals, 35.9 Antimicrobial coatings, 5.14 Antineoplastic agents, exposure to (see Hospital environments) Appliances, electrical:

effect on indoor environment, 57.2–57.3 PCBs in, 36.6 selecting/locating, 60.11–60.12 washers/dryers, 6.5–6.6, 6.9 Architects, 6.3, 6.4 design services, 60.13 role in healthy building design, 1.14, 60.4 Arizona test dust, 9.13 Aroclors (see Polychlorinated biphenyls) Arousal model of performance effects, 16.10 Arrestance percentage, 7.4, 9.14 Arsenic, 28.6, 60.10 Artificial infrasound, 19.9 As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) standard, 69.13 Asbestos, 5.2, 60.11 background levels, 37.4 exposure assessment, 38.2 degradation, 38.9–38.10 identifying asbestos-containing materials,

37.7–37.11

PCOM measurements, 38.8–38.9 sample analysis, 37.15–37.16 sampling methodology, 37.11 exposure guidelines, 38.5 and “fiber” phobia, 5.3 fiber release factors, 38.7–38.7 legal issues, 71.1 physical characteristics, 37.3, 38.1–38.2 remediation/control:

building inspection process, 38.12–38.15 encapsulation, 38.10 management practices, 38.15 post-removal levels, 38.11–38.13

INDEX

I.7

Asbestos, remediation/control (Cont.):

standards governing, 62.24–62.25, 71.5 risk/hazard assessment, 37.13–37.16, 38.2–38.5 sources, 37.13, 38.5–38.7 Asbestos Hazard Emergency response Act (AHERA), 37.3 Asbestosis, 37.2, 38.3, 54.12 Ascomycetes (see Fungus exposure) Ash, in activated carbon, 10.4 ASHRAE (see American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers) Aspergillus (see Fungus exposure) Assault and battery, indoor air pollution as, 71.4 Assessment methods (see Sampling and assessment methods) Asthma, 4.11–4.15, 54.13–54.14 American Thoracic Society definition,

23.35–23.36

in day care center environments, 69.8 exposures implicated in:

allergens, 3.3 bioassays for evaluating, 23.35–23.37 cat, dog allergens, 43.7–43.8 chlorinated aerosol exposure, 67.6–67.7 cleaning service chemicals, 5.10 cockroach allergens, 43.7 dust mites, 43.3 endotoxin, 42.5–42.7 environmental tobacco smoke, 30.15–30.16 formaldehyde, 32.8–32.9 fungus, 45.14, 67.11–67.12 latex, 41.4–41.5 nitrogen oxides, 29.16 pollen, 44.14 sulfur dioxide, 29.18 in hospital workers, 65.4 productivity costs, 4.15, 4.16 strategies for reducing, 4.15–4.17 ASTM (see American Society for Testing and Materials) Atomizing humidifiers, 8.29–8.31 Atopy patch testing, 28.9 Atriums, fire and smoke management:

exhaust calculations, 14.8–14.11 filling calculations, 14.11–14.12 minimum smoke depth layer, 14.12–14.13 natural ventilation, 14.12 smoke detector efficiency, 14.13 Attributable risk, 70.14 Audible sound, 19.8 Autobody repair shop emissions, 66.13 Automated design (see Computer programs) Automatic (variable-area) inlets, 13.6 Automobiles:

benzene emissions, 33.12–33.14 PAH emissions, 34.3 VOC emissions, 33.11 (See also Gasoline) Average concentration in the environment equation, 58.3 Average risk, 70.14

Background redness, 26.3–26.5 Bacterial contamination:

endotoxin, 42.1–42.3 Legionella, 48.1–48.2 recommended indoor levels (RIL), 23.33 (See also Endotoxin; Microbial contaminants) Bag/pocket filter, 9.10, 9.12 Bahura v. SEW Investors, 71.5–71.6 Balanced “mixing” ventilation systems, 13.18 Ball pan hardness (activated carbon), 10.4 Ballasts, 18.6 Barnebey-Cheney Odor Index, 10.13 Bars, pub environments, 67.9–67.10 Behavior adaption, 15.12 BEIR risk assessment models, 40.13–40.15 Benzaldehyde, 5.12, 32.2 Benzene:

carcinogenicity, 33.22

exposure assessments:

automobile/vehicles, 33.12–33.14 building materials, 33.14 dietary sources, 33.14

gasoline, diesel fuel, 33.12–33.13, 68.1–68.2 indoor air studies, 33.12 New York State Department of Health studies,

66.13

outdoor air, 33.12–33.13, 33.14 parking garages, 68.16 personal exposure studies, 33.11–33.12 residential levels, 66.3–66.7 wood smoke, 33.14 Benzene Exposure Assessment Model (BEAM), 58.4 Benzo[a]pyrene, 34.3, 34.10 Bioaerosols:

collecting in air filters, 9.23

Olf measurement unit, 22.3, 25.4 sampling/monitoring methods, 51.15 Bioeffluents, 22.2 Biological assays (bioassays):

automation of, 24.1 acquiring/processing data, 24.6–24.12 advantages of automation, 24.19–24.20 airflow measurements, 24.2–24.3 chemical mixtures, assay results, 24.17–24.19 concentration-response analysis, 24.20 data presentation, 24.13 detection limits, 24.14–24.15 exposure system, 24.2 null/low results, 24.21 problems and solutions, 24.21–24.23 quantifying P1 effect, 24.3 single chemicals, assay results, 24.15–24.17 time-response analysis, 24.20–24.21 variables included, 24.12 chronic carcinogenesis bioassay, 70.10 endotoxin analysis, 42.9–42.10 extrapolating to human populations, 70.13 immunoassays:

cat allergens, 43.8 dust mite species, 43.3–43.4 German cockroach, 43.6–43.7

I.8

INDEX

Biological assays (bioassays) (Cont.):

Guinea pigs in, 23.36–23.37 mice in, 23.4 mycotoxin analysis, 46.5 potency estimates:

microbial volatile organic chemicals (MVOCs), 23.33 nonreactive (NRVOCs), 23.17, 23.26–23.33 reactive volatile metabolites (RVOCs),

23.33–23.35

pulmonary effects, 23.37–23.38 in risk assessment, 70.11–70.13 asthma-inducing potential, 23.35–23.38 sensory and pulmonary irritation assays, 23.1–23.2 assay procedure, 23.5 assay validation, 23.5–23.7 (See also Sampling and assessment methods) Biological contaminants, in surgical smoke,

65.7–65.8

(See also Bioaerosols; Microbial contaminants) Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committees, 40.13–40.15 Biological markers (see Biomarkers) Biomarkers, 26.2–26.3 exposure assessment:

clinical applications, 1.16 environmental tobacco smoke, 30.2, 30.6 eye irritation studies, 26.3–26.14 for indoor air pollution field studies,

26.20–26.27

upper respiratory tract irritation studies,

26.19–26.20

(See also Biological assays) BLAST energy calculation program, 2.10 Blinking frequency studies, 26.5–26.6 Blood analysis for VOCs, 33.4, 33.21 Bloomquist v. Wapello County, 71.6 “Blower” ventilation system, 2.5 BM-Dustdetector, 64.10, 64.11 BNL tracer-gas technique, 51.29 Body burden measurement (see Total exposure) Body odor:

in day care centers, 69.5 and indoor air quality, 22.2 (See also Odor and scent problems) BOES (see British Office Environment Survey) Boilers (HVAC system), 7.8 BOMA (see Building Owners and Managers Association) “Braking” “breaking” measurements (TB), 23.3 Breach of contract issues, 71.3–71.4 Breach of warranty issues, 71.4 Breakup time (BUT), 26.6–26.8 Breast cancer, 36.8 (See also Cancer) Breath analysis for VOCs, 33.20–33.21 Breaths/minute (BPM) measurement, 23.3 BRI (see Building-related illness) British Columbia, Code of Practice for ice arena managers, 67.5 British Office Environment Survey, sick building syndrome studies, 3.6–3.7

Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Isotherm, 10.5–10.6 Buckley v. Kruger-Benson-Zimmer, 71.6 Building Assessment Evaluation Survey (BASE),

3.21–3.27

Building construction, 6.3 approaches to, 1.14, 5.9–5.10, 6.4 “green” vs. “healthy”, 5.1–5.2 housekeeping, 6.9–6.10, 64.2 and indoor air quality, 5.9–5.10 composite surface materials, 5.8 factors that undermine, 5.9–5.10 handling chemical mixtures, 5.8–5.9 and multiple chemical intolerance, 27.10–27.11 new units absorption of contaminants in, 5.7 degraded indoor air quality, 5.7 indoor air quality problems, 5.2 residential buildings, 6.4 ventilation system evaluations, 52.2 (See also Healthy building design; Renovations, remodeling) Building design (see Building construction; Healthy building design) Building energy modeling, 57.6–57.8 Building envelopes/shells, 6.15, 52.5, 69.5 Building managers, IAQ-training, 63.2 Building materials, 6.16 acrolein in, 32.12 asbestos in, 38.6, 38.7–38.10 benzene in, 33.14 emission testing, 62.12 impermeable, 2.7 low-polluting, 5.14, 31.12–31.14, 60.5–60.6, 60.9–60.11, 62.12 safety testing, 39.24–39.25 selection criteria, 62.2–62.3 compatibility issues, 62.10 emission rates, 62.10 hazard rating, 62.3–62.6 location effects, 62.6 odor issues, 62.11 sink properties, 62.10 and sick building syndrome, 5.11, 49.7, 53.6 synthetic vitreous fibers, 37.4, 37.16, 39.1 use of impermeable materials, 2.7 VOCs in, 33.8–33.10 Building owners:

as commissioning authority, 61.3–61.4 role in healthy building design, 1.15 Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA), 5.2, 5.6 building maintenance/repair cost estimate, 63.2 Building pressurization (see Pressurization) Building-related disease (BRD) (see Building- related illness) Building-related illness (BRI), 3.3 airborne infection, 3.2–3.3 allergic (hypersensitivity) disease, 3.3 building environment factors, 54.17–54.18 categories of, 54.2–54.4 compared with sick building syndrome, 3.3–3.4,

54.1

INDEX

I.9

Building-related illness (BRI) (Cont.):

dermatitis, 54.17 diagnosis, 54.4–54.5 exposures implicated in, 54.4–54.8 headache, 54.16 infections, 54.16–54.17 management plans, 54.9 mucosal membrane irritation, 54.15–54.16 pulmonary diseases, 54.10–54.14 residential buildings, 54.18–54.19 testing procedures, 54.10 toxic reactions, 3.3 VOC exposure and, 33.9 work stress and, 54.18 (See also Sick building syndrome) Building simulation (see Modeling indoor environments) Building stock, 6.3 (See also Commercial buildings; Residential buildings) Building Symptom Index (BSI), 53.19–53.21

Burge and Macher bioaerosol sampling method,

51.15

Buses, exposures associated with, 68.10–68.13

Business machines, ultrafine particle generation,

50.2

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) from carpet cushions, 33.10 from flooring materials, 62.12 Bypass dampers (HVAC system), 7.4

Cal-ERDA energy calculation program, 2.10 Calculations (see Equations and calculations) California:

Healthy Buildings Study, 3.16–3.17 indoor air quality regulations, 5.6 Proposition 65, 33.10–33.11 Ribavirin exposure limits, 65.9 California Population Indoor Exposure Model (CPIEM), 58.4, 58.5 Canada Occupational Safety and Health (COSH) commissioning regulations, 63.7 illuminance selection procedure, 18.9 lighting regulations, 18.1, 18.7 Canadian Housing and Mortgage Corporation (CHMC), 27.2 Cancer:

and acetaldehyde exposure, 32.11–32.12 and acrolein exposure, 32.13 and asbestos exposure, 37.3, 37.3–37.5 and cellulose exposure, 37.6 in children, 30.14 and formaldehyde exposure, 32.9–32.10 and ingested aflatoxin exposure, 46.6 and PAH exposure, 34.18–34.20 and pesticide exposure, 35.14–35.15 prevalence of, 5.3 and radon exposure, 40.2–40.4, 40.8–40.12 and synthetic vitreous fiber exposure, 37.5, 39.23 and VOC exposure, 33.21–33.22 (See also Carcinogenicity assessment) Candelas (illuminance) measurement, 18.9

Canister sampling:

New York State Department of Health studies,

66.6

VOC assessments, 51.22 Capacitive sensor, 12.5 Capacitors, PCB exposure from, 36.5

Capillary absorption tube samplers (CATs), 51.29 Car exhaust (see Gasoline) Carbon adsorption water treatment, 8.30 Carbon dioxide, 22.2 in airplane environments, 68.12 calculating air change rates using, 52.18–52.19 in day care centers, 69.5, 69.6 exposure limits, 51.2–51.4 as indicator of occupancy, 12.12–12.14, 49.6 monitoring IAQ using, 7.16, 7.18, 51.15–51.19 in demand-controlled ventilation systems,

13.21

eye irritation studies, 26.11 IAQ investigations, 49.11 sources, 29.3 Carbon monoxide:

adverse health effects, 3.3, 29.8–29.10 in airplane environments, 68.12 in bars and restaurants, 67.9 and building-related illness, 54.17 controlling, 60.7, 67.3–67.4 exposure limits, 51.2–51.4 in ice arenas, 5.8, 67.2 monitoring:

in HVAC systems, 7.15 during remodeling and renovation, 62.30 in parking garages, 68.16 sampling/monitoring techniques, 51.15–51.19 sources and exposure levels, 29.6–29.9, 49.6 boiler additives, 7.8 charcoal burning, 2.2–2.3 environmental tobacco smoke, 30.2 gasoline exhaust, 68.3–68.4, 68.9–68.10 indoor vehicular events, 67.5–67.6 toxicology, 29.8 Carbon tetrachloride:

evaluating activated carbon systems, 10.4 residential exposure levels, 66.2–66.7 sources, 5.12 Carbonic acid, 2.3 Carbonyls, 32.1 (See also Aldehydes) Carboxyhemoglobin levels, 29.8–29.9 as marker of multiple chemical exposure, 29.10 (See also Carbon monoxide)

Carboxylic acids, chemosensory detection threshold, 20.10, 20.13 Carcinogenicity assessment, 70.6–70.7 PAHs, 34.18–34.20 PCBs, 36.22 threshold calculations, 70.10 VOCs, 33.21–33.22 “weight-of’-evidence” approach, 70.6 (See also Cancer; Risk assessment) Cardiovascular system, carbon monoxide effects,

29.10

I.10

INDEX

Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) emissions standards, 62.11–62.12 Carpeting:

dust sampling, 64.11–64.13 emissions standards (CRI), 62.11–62.12 VOC emissions, 33.10 Carpettester, 64.11–64.13 Cat allergens, 43.1–43.2 adverse health effects, 43.7–43.8 airborne levels, 43.8–43.9 in day care center environments, 69.11 extraction/sampling methodologies, 43.3, 43.8 CAV systems (see Constant air volume systems) Cellulose:

adverse health effects, 37.6–37.7 exposure assessment, 37.16–37.18 indoor ambient levels, 37.7 Cement-based products, asbestos in, 37.9 Central air conditioning, 6.7 (See also Air conditioning; Cooling system) Central nervous system irritation:

and formaldehyde exposure, 32.7 in sick building syndrome, 3.4 (See also Sensory irritation) Centralized ducted extract systems, 13.14 CFD (see Computational fluid dynamics) Chalkley point array, in asbestos sampling, 37.11 Change orders, effects on IAQ, 5.9 Charcoal, 2.2–2.3 (See also Activated carbon) Chemesthesis (see Mucosal membrane irritation) Chemical assays (see Sampling and assessment methods) Chemical contaminants (see Contaminants, indoor air; Multiple chemical intolerance) Chemical intolerance (see Allergic (hypersensitivity) disease; Individual susceptibility/variability; Multiple chemical intolerance) Chemical mixtures:

with activated carbon adsorption beds, 10.9–10.10 chemosensory detection threshold, 20.16–20.18 methods for investigating, 23.13–23.15 and multiple chemical intolerance, 27.11 research needs, 1.9–1.10 sensory irritation field studies, 23.28–23.29,

23.31–23.33

(See also Environmental tobacco smoke; Gasoline; Smoke) Chemical storage facility, IAQ investigation, 50.17 Chemical water treatment, 8.30 Chemisorption, 10.14–10.16 Chemosensory detection threshold, 20.11, 20.15 acetate esters, 20.7, 20.9 alcohols, 20.5–20.8 aldehydes, 20.9, 20.12, 32.18 alkylbenzenes, 20.8, 20.11 carboxylic acids, 20.10, 20.13 chemical mixtures, 20.16–20.18 ketones, 20.7–20.8, 20.10 predicting, 20.11

Chemosensory detection threshold (Cont.):

predictive models for, 20.13–20.16 terpenes, 20.10–20.11, 20.13, 20.14 VOCs, 22.3 Chicken pox, 3.3 Children:

adverse health effects:

environmental tobacco smoke exposure,

30.10–30.17

formaldehyde exposure, 32.9 nitrogen oxide exposure, 29.13–29.16 exposure levels:

environmental tobacco smoke, 30.5, 30.6–30.9 pesticide exposure guidelines, 35.16 (See also Asthma; Day care center environments; Individual susceptibility/variability) Chillers (HVAC system), 7.8 Chimney design, 2.2, 2.7 Chloracne (see Skin irritation/disorders) Chloramines, sources for, 67.6 Chlordane/heptachlor, 35.5 Chlorinated contaminants, 5.10 Chlorine gas:

sources and exposure levels, 69.5 in swimming pool environments, 67.6, 67.7–67.8 Chloroform:

dermal absorption, 33.20 sources and exposure levels, 5.12 food and beverages, 33.19 swimming pool environments, 67.7, 67.8 volatilized drinking water, 33.19

Chlorpyrifos (Dursban), EPA regulations on, 35.2 Cholak-Schafer vitreous fiber sampling method,

39.9

Chronic carcinogenesis bioassay, 70.10

Chronic fatigue syndrome, 27.9 Chronic toxicity tests, 70.10 Chrysolite, 37.3 (See also Asbestos)

CIE (see Commission Internationale de L’E clairage)

Cigarette smoke (see Environmental tobacco smoke) Circadian cycles, and pollen levels, 44.8 Citric-based solvents, reactions with ozone, 5.10 Cladosporidium (see Fungus exposure) Class 1/2 filters (UL-rated), 9.16 Classroom environments (see School buildings) Clean air (see Indoor air quality) Clean Air Act Amendments (1990), 68.1 Clean air delivery rate (CADR):

monitoring air cleaners using, 9.16 portable room air cleaners, 9.25 Cleaning air (see Air cleaning devices; Air filters/filtration) Cleaning, maintenance practices, 64.4–64.6 adsorption beds, 10.13–10.14 air cleaning devices, 9.24–9.25 and airborne fiber levels, 39.25 and asbestos exposure, 38.11 assessing quality of, 64.9–64.13 cleaning workers, health issues, 64.15–64.16

´

INDEX

I.11

Cleaning, maintenance practices (Cont.):

commissioning for, 63.7 controlling synthetic vitreous fibers, 39.24–39.25 cooling systems, 48.9–48.11 and dust/particulate transport, 64.3–64.5 in laboratories, hospitals, 65.5 in occupied areas, 63.9–63.10 as pollutant source, 33.8, 37.16–37.17, 64.1–64.2, 64.15 preventive maintenance, 63.2–63.3, 63.7–63.8 programs, 64.7 reducing emissions during, 60.11 during remodeling and renovation, 62.19–62.21 research/field studies, 64.13–64.15 Cleaning products, 64.7–64.9 in airplane environments, 68.12 contaminants associated with, 5.10, 5.11, 34.15 in day care centers, 69.5 household disinfectants, 35.9 low-toxicity products, 60.11 Clearance measurements, 38.5 Climate, and pressure differences, 52.5 Clinical ecology, 27.16 Clinical studies, building-related illness (BRI), 54.8 Cloning technologies, allergen assays based on,

43.2–43.3

Closed buildings, 2.7–2.8 air quality in, 5.7 controlled opening of, 2.14 and multiple chemical intolerance, 27.10–27.11 and natural ventilation, 13.5 and respiratory disease, 4.5–4.6 and sound-related adverse health effects,

19.10–19.11

Clothing insulation, 15.7 Co-responsibility, 71.8 Coal miners, radon exposure, 40.8–40.10 Coal smoke, sulfur dioxide in, 29.18 Coanda effect, 8.9 Coarse mode particles, 9.2–9.3 Coarse particulates, 7.4 Cockroach (see German cockroach) Cognitive heuristics, 70.23 Cold DOP test, 9.16 Cold temperatures:

effect on mental acuity, 16.9 effect on manual dexterity, 16.7–16.8 effect on vision, 16.2 (See also Thermal environment) Color:

and fluorescent lighting, 18.6 lighting systems and, 18.10–18.11 Color-rendering index (CRI), 18.11, 18.12 Color televisions, 6.9 Color temperature measurement, 18.10–18.11 Colorimetric tests, 49.11, 51.19 (See also Sampling and assessment methods) Combustion products, 29.1 acetaldehyde, 32.10 acrolein, 32.13 carbon monoxide, 29.6–29.10

Combustion products (Cont.):

nitrogen oxides, 29.10–29.16 in outdoor air, 60.7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),

34.2–34.3

research/field studies, 29.4–29.5 sulfur dioxide, 29.16–29.18 wood smoke, 29.18–29.19 (See also Gasoline) Comfort, 61.5–61.7 adaptive model, 15.12–15.14 air speed, 15.6–15.7 ASHRAE standards for, 2.6, 16.10 defining, 2.2, 22.1 evaluating during IAQ investigations, 49.11–49.12 gender differences, 3.28 and humidification, 22.8 and HVAC system controls, 7.14–7.15 ion generators and, 9.26 measuring, 15.6–15.9 metabolic rate and, 15.7 modeling, 15.11–15.12, 22.6 occupant complaints, investigating, 53.3 perceptions of, 16.10–16.12 personal HVAC control and, 5.5 physiological basis for, 15.8 psychological basis for, 15.8–15.9 relationship to VAV systems, 2.11 relative humidity and, 7.6, 15.7, 49.11 sensory pollution load analysis, 22.5–22.7 thermal environment, 15.6–15.7 in VOC-induced sensory irritation field studies,

25.18–25.20

(See also Thermal environment) COMIS mass balance model, verification, 58.9 Commercial buildings, 30.3 acetaldehyde levels, 32.11 asbestos levels, 37.4, 38.10–38.12 existing stock, 6.9–6.14 individual environment controls, 12.13–12.14 infiltration rates, 52.4–52.5 new construction, 6.15–6.17 occupant complaints, investigating, 49.3–49.15 outdoor air requirements (table), 7.9–7.11 pesticide use, 35.2–35.4 preventive maintenance practices, 63.8–63.10 synthetic vitreous fiber levels, 39.16 VOC levels, 33.2–33.3, 33.8, 66.1–66.2 (See also HVAC system/controls)

´

Commission Internationale de L’E clairage (CIE),

18.1

photometric measurement device calibration,

18.14–18.15

Commission of European Communities, 3.4 Commissioning:

ASHRAE guidelines, 63.4 benefits of, 61.1–61.3 commissioning authority, 61.3–61.5 commissioning process, 61.5–61.7, 63.6–63.7 cost-benefit analysis, 61.7–61.10 defined, 61.1

I.12

INDEX

Commissioning (Cont.):

recommissioning existing buildings, 61.9–61.10 testing, adjusting, balancing (TAB) procedures,

52.2–52.3

Commissioning authority (CA) (see Commissioning) Common chemical sense (CCS), 26.2 Communications equipment, contaminants associated with, 5.11 Community noise, sources, 19.11 Compact fluorescent lamps, 18.6 Comparisons, in risk communication, 70.30 Compendium Method TO-10A (USEPA), pesticide sampling using, 35.5–35.6 Complaint logs, 56.3–56.4 Composite surface materials:

asbestos in, sampling methodology, 37.12 chemical interactivity, 5.8 and indoor air quality, 5.8 Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling,

5.26

advantages/disadvantages, 59.13–59.19 analyzing indoor air dynamics, 57.5, 57.9–57.10,

59.4–59.5

direct numerical simulation (DNS), 59.8 emissions modeling, 58.22–58.23 experimental validation, 59.10–59.13 fire and smoke management simulation,

14.15–14.16

flexibility, 59.8 large eddy simulation (LES), 59.8–59.10 Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes method (RANS), 59.10 subvolumes, defining, 59.5 underlying physics, 59.5–59.7 ventilation simulations, 5.20, 5.20–5.25

Computational models (see Modeling) Computer-aided design (see Computer programs; Simulations) Computer programs:

automated bioassays, 24.1–24.23 CAD/CAM design, 6.16 CONTAM96 VOC prediction model, 31.15 energy analysis, 57.7–57.8 energy need calculations, 2.10 Risk V1.0 VOC prediction model, 31.15 for sound measurements, 19.16 (See also Computational fluid dynamics) Concentration difficulties:

noise-associated, 19.14 VOC-exposure related, 25.21 Condensate drain pans (HVAC system), 7.5 Condensation particle counter (CPC), 50.2–50.4 interpreting results from, 50.5 limitations, 50.3–50.4 testing air filter efficiency using, 50.9–50.10 tracking ultrafine particles using, 50.2 Congeners, PCB, 36.2–36.5 carcinogenicity assessments, 36.12 dioxin-like congeners, 36.8–36.10 importance of assessing, 36.8 (See also Polychlorinated biphenyls)

Congenital malformations, 30.11 Conjunctiva (see Eye irritation) Conjunctival injection, 26.4–26.5 Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center (CCCRC), 20.4 Conservation of energy, 59.6 Conservation of mass, 59.6 Conservation of momentum, 59.6 Constant air volume (CAV) systems, 2.9–2.10, 7.13 shift away from, 5.7 temperature control features, 12.7 Construction (see Building construction) Construction materials (see Building materials) Construction supervisors, IAQ-training, 62.21–62.22 Consumer product emissions, 33.10–33.11 CONTAM IAQ computer model, 14.3 CONTAM96 VOC prediction model, 31.15 Contaminants, indoor air (see specific contaminants and environments) Continuous flow condensation particle counter (see Condensation particle counter) Contractors, 6.3, 6.4 as commissioning authority, 61.4 role in healthy building design, 1.14 Control and prevention strategies (see Removal/control/prevention strategies) Control error, 12.6 Control samples/sites, 49.14, 51.32 Controllers (HVAC system):

actuators, 12.2 air flow, 12.9 direct digital control (DDC), 2.11 energy management systems (EMS), 2.10–2.11 humidity, 12.8 integrating, 6.16 lighting, 12.14 pressure, 12.8 sensors, 12.3–12.6 temperature, 12.7–12.8 temperature controls, 7.14 terminology for, 12.6–12.7 ventilation, 12.9–12.13 Convection, 2.4 and indoor air dynamics, 57.4 Cooking, residential:

energy requirements, 6.8 open fires for, 2.2 (See also Combustion products) Cooling coil (HVAC system), 7.4–7.5 biological contamination, 48.1 maintaining dryness using, 8.33–8.36 Cooling system:

biological contamination, 48.4–48.5 commercial buildings, 6.13 energy requirements, 6.14 good design practices, 63.5 maintenance and cleaning, 48.9–48.11 residential buildings, 6.8 (See also Cooling coil; Cooling tower) Cooling tower (HVAC system), 7.8, 8.33–8.36 design and siting, 48.11–48.12

INDEX

I.13

Cooling tower (HVAC system) (Cont.):

disinfecting, CDC guidelines, 48.8–48.9 Legionella contamination, 5.2, 5.11, 48.5 Coping mechanisms (see Cognitive heuristics) Cornea, 17.2 Corneal lipid layer thickness studies, 26.11 Coronary heart disease, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure, 30.19–30.20 COSH (see Canada Occupational Safety and Health)

Cosmetics, toiletries, allergic reactions, 28.8 Cost-benefit analysis (CBA):

air filtration/filters, 9.18–9.19 commissioning, 61.7–61.9 IAQ complaint investigations, 56.17–56.18 IAQ improvements, 4.26–4.29, 16.1 during risk management, 70.20 Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), 70.20 Cotinine (ETS exposure marker), 30.6 Cough:

70. 20 Cotinine (ETS exposure marker), 30. 6 Cough: and formaldehyde exposure, 32. 7 and indoor

and formaldehyde exposure, 32.7 and indoor air quality complaints, 23.40 in VOC-induced sensory irritation field studies,

25.17–25.18

sensory irritation field studies, 25. 17– 25. 18 County of DuPage v. Hellmuth , 71. 6

County of DuPage v. Hellmuth, 71.6 CPC (see Condensation particle counter) Crocidolite, 38.2 (See also Asbestos) Crocidolyte, 37.3 Cross-flow ventilation, 13.7, 13.8 Cross-sectional studies, limitations of, 3.28 Crotonaldehyde, 32.2 Crowd poison, 2.5 Cultural factors, and risk perception, 70.28 Cyclone air cleaner, 9.8–9.9

Dadenoviron infection, 3.3 Dampers (HVAC system):

9. 9 Dadenoviron infection, 3. 3 Dampers (HVAC system): Day care center environments, health problems (
9. 9 Dadenoviron infection, 3. 3 Dampers (HVAC system): Day care center environments, health problems (

Day care center environments, health problems (Cont.):

from dust mites, 69.10–69.11 and low ventilation rates, 69.6–69.8 modeling causes, 69.3–69.4 from moisture and mold, 69.10–69.11 respiratory infections, 69.1–69.3, 69.