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Hi Structures Class:

I have taken Amandas assignment as an example solution to the terminology assignment. I have added some notes and some corrections to her assignment to give you all the best information possible. y interventions are printed in bold
Italic. I have included a few images as well. !ood luck"

#ieter Si$pkes Assignment %: &erminology in Structures #rofessor Si$pkes 'ue on the ()th September* %))+ Student ,ame: Amanda Smith Student ,umber: %-)./)(01. Steel. (Steel is a iron alloy with very low carbon content, often with some other metals included such as chrome and vanadium; it is made on an industrial scale since 1856 , when Bessemer patented his Bessemer process! "t revolutioni#ed en$ineerin$ and architecture by its hi$h stren$th in both tension and compression, by its elasticityand by its relatively low price! %ater on in the 1&th century it made the invention of reinforced concrete possible' a composite material that also played a revolutionary role in en$ineerin$ and architecture ( Steel is mainly made of iron which, in turn, makes it brittle, although it remains stronger and harder than pure iron. Unlike concrete which is better in compression, steel responds in the same way whether it be in compression of tension. This is why it is a widely used material in bridges, which, as we have seen, have components which are in tension and others in compression. In compression, the plasticity of steel augments, a property which engineers often take advantage of since this is especially useful in areas where earth!uakes and other such events are fre!uent. ". Wrought iron. ()rou$ht iron is an a$e old product, made since about 15** B+ in small ,uantities by mi-in$ iron ore and charcoal! .he temperatures reached with charcoal as fuel did not allow the iron to melt, it would /ust turn to a spon$y mass that could be 0wrou$ht1 (hammered( and folded many times to s,uee#e out the sla$! .he product was relatively resistant to rust because of the inclusion of sla$ particles and it was tou$h because of the layerin$ resultin$ from the foldin$ and hammerin$( #rought iron was the precursor to steel. It is a very pure form of iron with only very little carbon in it $the amount of carbon in iron determines its level of purity%. It is very tough, malleable, and ductile and resists corrosion. &urthermore, these characteristics and the fact that the wrought iron melts at high temperatures make it all the more interesting for welding purposes. In the bridges visited, it was mainly used for rivets, bolts or other 'oints, however it is also possible to use as the main or core material for

the bridge. To sum up( wrought iron has a low compressive strength as well as a high tensile strength. ). Cast Iron! (+ast iron came into use in 2n$land around 135* when 4braham 5arby found a way to ma6e iron usin$ coal instead of charcoal! (the charcoal industry had denuded most forests( .he use of coal allowed hi$her temperatures to be achieved in a blast furnace, and the iron would become li,uid in the process; it could thus be easily poured into molds! 7owever the proces mi-ed in a hi$h percenta$e of carbon into the iron, which rendered the iron very hard, but also very brittle! "t also was resistant to rustin$( *arious types of cast iron e+ist, the most commonly used being grey cast iron. In general, cast iron is made up of pig iron along with various other remelted pieces of steel $which tend to affect the strength of the material%. The fact that cast iron has a lower melting temperature than pure iron also makes it a more brittle type of iron. ,ust as wrought iron, cast iron is also resistant to corrosion. -s well as this, the high thermal conductivity allows the material to damp mechanical vibrations $source( In the case of a bridge, the vibrations caused by heavy vehicles or trains would be lessened. This also allows for sound to be dampened. Its ability to concentrate stress is both a pro and a con( it allows to make repairs more easily $in the case of a bridge%, yet reduces shock resistance, tensile strength $ma+imum amount of stress before it breaks%and the ability to weld it. To sum up in two words( high compressive strength and low tensile strength. .. Cast concrete. /ast concrete is made by combining cement, water and rock. If the structure that is cast is too big or the temperature varies then cracking can occur. &urthermore, concrete is much sturdier than concrete (" $uess stone is meant here% and less e+pensive to make $since it is a combination of elements%. 0ortland cement $versus asphalt cement for e+ample% is used for bridges as we saw during the field trip. The water to cement ratio determines the strength and workability of the final concrete mi+ture $so too for the various percentage of the lime, alumina and silica contained in it that is, the aggregate%. There is very little maintenance and it can be cast into any shape or si1e as well as concrete is very fire resistant and watertight. /oncrete is a material which is very good in compression. 2. Pre-cast concrete. 0re cast concrete is often more desirable as a construction material as the number of environmental elements $temperature, humidity, craftsmanship% which might affect the concrete can be avoided. &urthermore, in the case of bridges, installation time and cost is decreased( the pre cast concrete can simply be put in place with a crane rather than have to be poured into a cast on site $which involves more labor and thus more e+pense to the builder%. Unlike cast in place concrete, there is no need for reinforcing steel for installation. (the steel reinforcin$ is cast into the precast elements when they are bein$ cast in the factory thou$h!!( 3. Pin joints. - pin 'oint allows the attached arms to move and rotate however, the force can only push or pull in the direction of the member. Unfortunately, the holes made in the materials in order to put in the pins weaken the materials. 0in 'oints are usually used for truss structures. (pin /oints cannot transmit moments% 4. igid joints. 5igid 'oints do not allow $restrict% movement $unlike pin 'oints%. They neither allow translation nor rotation $movements%. They are usually used for the frame of the structure as they provide more stability in the structure! (8i$id /oints deform and do transmit moments(

6. ivet joints. 5ivet 'oints are often used in bridges, however they are a costly way of putting bridges together because of the labor needed( the two holes used for the river must be drilled, aligned and then the rivet must be put in place, hammered in etc. -lthough the rivet makes a firm and fi+ hold, the great number needed is also costly $the number of rivets re!uired to hold up a member is proportional to the amount of force or stress put onto it%. 7. !olt connection. The bolt connection is one of the most widely used fasteners in large structures. Unfortunately, when sub'ected to vibrations or impacts, the connections often loosen, or worse yet, fail, and can sometimes cause the collapse of the structure. 8ne of the pro9s of this type of connection versus a welded connection or rivet connection is that it is reversible $which will be an issue in the destruction of the structure and the removal of the materials%. 1:. Welded connection. The types of weld connections depend on the type of load. In the case of a ;lighter load , a fillet weld is used. If the structure is heavier $for e+ample, a bridge% a groove weld is used. In structures, the metals are 'oined by heating them and<or applying pressure to them.$ I dont know what the pressure is for% It is also optional but useful to add argon to the weld which increases drying time and prevents slag. ()eldin$ 0under 4r$on $as1 is sometimes used to 6eep the very hot weldin$ bead from reactin$ with o-y$en in the air! 4 better ,uality weld results( Unfortunately, welding is very energy consuming (" thin6 that the advanta$es outwei$h the ener$y cost by far!!($although various methods can be used they are all high energy methods( laser welding, flame welding, electric arc welding%. &urthermore, welding can sometimes weaken the beams or the structure $an e+ample of this would be welded heat treated steel which weakens after the welding, and can sometimes collapse%. 11. Splice plate. (4 splice plate is a simple method to fi- two flat elements to$ether by usin$ a third flat element, the splice plate!(in sewin$ it is analo$ous to a patch( "t is used in steel construction, but also in wood construction! .he plate lin6s the two parts to$ether by bein$ welded, bolted, riveted or $lued) - splice plate is a plate which 'oins two girders, usually riveted or bolted together. Spliced bridges can span up to "2:9 using four or more splices. -n unspliced bridge is typically under 6:9 long. -ccording to /ontinental company9s design for splice plates( the nuts are tack welded to the inside of the splice plates and the splice plates slide inside the ad'oining tube, bolts are inserted and tightened accordingly . 1". "ot rolled profile steel # this type of steel is made by using e+treme forces to force a solid piece of steel into an I=beam, /=channel or other form. The steel is literally compressed and rolled by a mill. 1). I-beams. I=beams are used in large structures but not in wood structures where rectangular beams are used and are less costly. They are made of two flanges. In general, it is a beam or girder with an I shaped cross section. ()e 59 ma6e wood " beams these days, usin$ hi$h ,uality $lues(:

1.. C-channels. - /hannel is a type of beam $in the shape of a / by profile%. The internal stress is increased in the / channel versus the T channel where it is decreased. (4 crosssection of a typical +channel is shown below(

12. $ngles %even and un-even flanges&. &langes are used in structures for strength. >ven angle flanges ensure increased strength and are usually water resistant depending on the material used.

13. '-sections. T sections are a type of beam $in the shape of a T by profile or cross section). (the ne-t two statements is not necessarily true:( The internal stress is decreased in the t=section unlike the /=/hannel. ?epending on the structure of the bridge, T=sections avoid overloading beams or members.

14. Composite sections. In composite sections there should be a shear transfer between the different materials $steel to concrete for e+ample%. In this case the cross sectional properties can be calculated. This shear transfer can occur through the connections, welds etc. of the structure. - composite section is built of several materials $an e+ample of this was the concrete flat bridge with steel beams undersneath%. In most cases, one material is good in tension whereas the other material is good in compression. /oncrete $good in compression% ()* Steel $good in Tension% 16. +iagonal bracing. ?iagonal bracing is used in structures in order to prevent racking of the structure. It increases the strength of the structure and increases the lateral and overall stability of the structure. 17. 'riangulation. Triangulation is most often used in bridges to make the structure more stable in all situations, that is to say, they are used to increase stability in the structure and avoid tipping, twisting or other likewise movements.

":. ,verall stability $swing bridges and lift bridges% a. Swing bridges.

- swing bridge is a cantilever bright which pivots in a hori1ontal plane and opens a passage on each side of the central support $http(<<<@ridgeASwingBbridge% b. Lift bridge Cift bridges cost less to build than lift bridges. The stability is assured by the counterweights contained in the vertical lift. This type of bridge is especially used for heavy railroad use. Dowever, there are disadvantages to this( the height restriction due to the fact that the deck is -@8*> the passageway. (a $ood description of the difference between swin$ brid$es and lift brid$es; .he issue of 0overall stability was brou$ht up because these brid$es <9=2 , and durin$ the move they should not chan$e their $eometry because of twistin$ or sa$$in$, because e-cessive deformation may lead to collapse % "1. -ateral stability $wind bracing%. Cateral stability is usually ensured by using trusses and diagonal braces. The members are therefore sub'ect to tensile and compressive forces. #hile the tension forces pull the member apart, the compression forces push the member together. Should the compression forces become too big, buckling can occur. "". Compression members. /ompression members are usually wider members in the structure. These members are usually sub'ect to a+ial forces. ?epending on the length of the member the result of a failure varies. In the case of a short member, a failure results in a crack $for brittle material% or e+pansion $ductile material%. 8n the other hand, in long members, the compression member tends to buckle when sub'ected to too much force. Eneeling occurs in intermediate9 si1e members. ( " don1t 6now what 6neelin$ means( "). 'ension members. Tension members are most often used for lateral bracing and as trusses in bridges. In truss bridges, these tension members are sub'ect to forces which pull outward at the ends of the member. The various tension members form a truss which in turn allows it to distribute the stress throughout the structure, thus allowing the bridge to carry its own weight. (tension members can be very slender, because they are not sub/ect to buc6lin$( ".. eversible-load members # one of the main problems with reversible load members is that the pin 'oint at the end of each member gives a little when put in tension. If all the members are tensed, then the structure can move a few inches. This is an e+ample of the group 'umping on the bridge, which then moved. (>o; 8eversible load members are members that may be sub/ected to tensile 98 compressive forces! ?or instance in a swin$ brid$e, top members maybe sub/ected to tension and bottom members to compression when the brid$e swin$s over the water, while when it is bac6 in place on its ori$inal foundation the top members have to carry compression and the bottom members tension under loads crossin$ the brid$e! .hese members thus have to be desi$ned for both conditions! 8eversible load conditions also occur when a roof structure is sub/ect to stron$ winds: the roof normally wei$hs down on the structural members supportin$ it, but in cases of hi$h wind the roof may actually tend to lift up and put reverse forces on the structure( "2. Cantilevers. - cantilever is a hori1ontal member which is free to move at one end but fi+ed at the other. /antilevers are most often used in bridges in pairs. The pair

of cantilevers is in turn used to support a central truss. In general, the cantilever carries the load to a strong mounting point where the load is turned into tor!ue. The purpose of a cantilever is to avoid having to use e)ternal bracing %you mean S+4??9%5">@& on long bridges or structures. Unlike suspension bridges, the strength of the bridge comes from the middle of the structure rather than at the end. In order to support the load, the cantilever is in tension in its upper beams whereas it is in compression in the lower beams. The tension is then distributed to the shore or the foundations. Tension $vertical% /ompression $hor%

'he arrows point to the wrong places* 'ension is on the upper edge. and compression on the lower edge* 'he arms are in tension. the sticks and upper bodies of the guys are in compression/ -ook below*

"3. Shear. Shear is a force which acts across a beam or structural unit. This type of force causes the various parts of the structure to move in opposite directions. Shearing forces often lead to cracking $usually .2 degree cracking% in the structure. These cracks are often very costly to fi+ and is therefore preferable to avoid when engineering a bridge.

"4. !ending! (Bendin$ happens when a load is put on a beam, or when ri$id /oint is turned! Bendin$ is the result of the <9<2>. caused by these loads! .he $reater the loads, the $reater the moments and the $reater the stresses and deformations that result! .russes are desi$ned to avoid bendin$ by havin$ short members that are pin/ointed, so that no moments can occur! "n normal construction, say of a house, floor /oists are always in bendin$, and lintels over windows are inevitably in bendin$( The risk of bending increases in the middle of beams. To avoid bending, arches are often used. @y doing so, the hori1ontal forces occur in the bearings of the arch. @ending usually leads to a deformation of the steel of concrete depending on the bridge. This leads to unevenness in the bridge and in some cases in the bridge actually breaking. 8f course, it is necessary to avoid bending at all costs $with the e+ception of swing bridges where bending is natural due to gravity% since failure of the bridge due to the bending involves building a new one therefore increasing the cost of the material and design. The risk of bending increases as the span of the bridge increases. The further the span between the vertical members upholding the structure, the more the possibility of bending increases in the hori1ontal member. @ending is due to the moments about the ends of the member. "6. 'orsion. Torsion is defined as the strain produced by twisting. Torsion is the stress which causes one end of an ob'ect to twist while the other end is held still or is twisted in the opposite direction.

"7. !uckling. @uckling usually occurs when the members of a bridge are sub'ected to great amounts of compression. In this case, there are transversal displacements in the bridge. In some cases the buckling is stable and the structure continues to sustain the loads it carries. Unfortunately, in most cases, the buckling becomes unstable and causes the collapse and failure of the bridge which can be both fatal and costly. .wo e-amples of Buc6lin$ that are more common are shown below: .he cause of buc6lin$ failure is pro$ressive deformation and catastrophic collapse of the structure due to forces becomin$ increasin$ly e-centricin an instant !

y. ):. Corrosion of steel constructions. The corrosion of the various members in a steel structure vary but are usually associated to atmospheric conditions $humidity, salt etc%. 8ne of the main causes of corrosion in colder regions is the fact that salt is used to cover the roads over the bridges. In this case, the mi+ture of salt and water causes corrosion. &urthermore, snow, ice and other such weather conditions further the corrosion. To avoid corrosion, the structures are usually painted or coated with a protective coating, which is e+pensive as it involves maintenance. Today, a new material is slowly replacing steel( aluminum. This material is preferable as it does not corrode $it forms a layer of corrosion on the outside but does not continue to corrode% and is much lighter than steel.

)1. Corrosion of precast prestressed beams. /orrosion occurs in precast concret beams when cracking develops and the inner steel strands are e+posed to the e+terior conditions which hasten the corrosion of the materials. This is very costly, maintenance is re!uired and can be very costly. In some cases, this corrosion, if not controlled or repaired, can cause the beam $and thus the structure% to fail. )". Camber. - positive or upward curve which is built to compensate for the vertical loads and which anticipates the future deflection of the structure. In construction, one usually stresses the cables in order to make the camber. )). Steel-concrete-composite construction # in a steel=concrete composite construction, the concrete acts as the compression member whereas the steel acts as the tension member. This therefore creates the e!uilibrium necessary for the structure to maintain itself without swaying or even collapsing. $"t is a very economical way of construction: the concrete top acts as the roadway, doin$ double duty(

).. !o) beam construction. - beam made of metal plates which forms a structure in bo+ shape. The actual shape of the bo+ is a trape1oid so that the wind can pass below the structure $in the case of a bridge%. )2. ,rthotropic beam construction. In the case of orthotropic beam construction bridges, the bridge deck $usually made of steel plates% is supported by ribs underneath. In the case of the bridges we visited, the concrete decks were supported by steel supports. 'he properties of members in one direction are different to the properties of members in the perpendicular direction. This helps avoid twisting or other unwanted distortions in the steel members. It is stiffer in the direction of the span than it is laterally. )3. Precast. pre tensioned beams. Unlike post tensioned beams, the steel rods<strands are stressed as the concrete is setting. 0recast beams are useful in construction since they can easily be transported from the manufacturer to the site where a crane or other device can be used to put it in place. The bridge is basically prefabricated and put together. )4. Precast. post tensioned beams. /oncrete beams which have been precast contain steel strands which are tightened after the concrete has hardened. )6. Cast in place post tensioned structure. /ast in place post tensioned structures do not offer the ease of precast structures. #hereas precast structures are made in factories and manufactured to with great precision and e+actitude, the cast in place structures are often sub'ect to outside phenomena9s whilst drying. -n e+ample of this would be acid rain, which could easily affect the way the concrete sets. (.he post tensionin$ is achieved by includin$ in the concrete carefully placed metal tubes into which, after the concrete has hardened, hi$h stren$ht steel cables are inserted! .hese cables are then stretched by hydraulic /ac6s, and clamped into place so that they cannot slip bac6! .he space left between the tube walls and the cables is then filled (in/ected( with mortar, (called $rout(, to fi- the cables to the concrete and to prevent corrosion! .his method was used e-tensively durin$ the construction of the 9lympic Stadium( )7. 'hin shell concrete construction!(Best studied by loo6in$ at an e$$ shell: very thin, double curved and continuous! .he more curved, the stron$er the thin shell! %oo6 at a car!! all surfaces are doubly curved to prevent $ettin$ a bump ( a bump is local buc6lin$( @uckling is not uncommon in this type of structure as the thickness of the material is much less than the other dimensions of the structure. These structures re!uire structural reinforcements such as steel or wire mesh. The thinner the concrete construction, the more the strength of the structure decreases!(and the more we have to ma6e sure that there is enou$h (double( curvature( Subject to bra0ier buckling 1 local buckling. Therefore must reinforce the thin shell. The material used must be good in compression. The reinforcements should b good in tension. @ulkheads<nodes are used to reinforce. They go around the structure. .:. $rch construction. -rch bridges have incredible strength compared to the many other forms of bridges which e+ist today. -lthough today they are generally made of steel or concrete, they were used by the greeks in their architecture long before us. They are the oldest type of bridges and were originally made of brick or stone, which

unfortunately did not allow for a great span. The use of steel has allowed us to build bridges with a greater span. The load of the arch is carried outward along the curve of the arch to the ends of the arch. 'he weight lies at the ends of the arch $versus pushing downwards in other bridges%. $.he @ree6s are $iven too much credit here and the 8omans too little! .he @ree6s 6new the arch but hardly used it in their buildin$s; they persisted in usin$ very restrictive post and beam construction, as in the Aarthenon! "t was the 8omans who e-ploited the arch in many wondrous ways by repetition( a,ueducts( slidin$ hori#ontally (as in barrel vaults in their hu$e Bath structures (and by turnin$ around an a-is as in the Aantheon, which with BC meters held the record of the bi$$est span for over D**o years;(

.1. !ailey bridges. @ailey bridges are portable and prefabricated truss bridge which use reversible 'oints rather than non reversible 'oints. ?uring the second world war, this was an effective method used in order to save time and energy( instead of building an entirely new bridge, with new material $thus more cost%, the soldiers would simply dismount the bridge piece by piece and rebuilt it. &urthermore, one could easily double its length, width or height by taking all of the parts apart and putting them in a different order.

.". 2odularity $stackability, doubling=up%. *ery few bridges are modifiable. Unfortunately, when designed or built the engineers often forget that the materials should be easy to dismantle, so that when the structure is no longer needed, one can easily do so. @ailey bridges and bridges solely made of bolt or reversible connections are the only kind of bridges which can be modified, doubled in length, height etc. .). eversible joints vs. non-reversible joints $pro9s and cons%. -lthough reversible 'oints are good for dismantling the structure, they often cause sag in the structure as these 'oints are not as rigid as non=reversible 'oints. In other words, non F reversible 'oints are more sustainable than reversible 'oint structures. $non Freversible 'oints like rivets, welding and gluing are more rigid, can sustain more load, you probably mean%

... +etail-rich versus detail-poor construction $labor versus material cost, estheticsG%. -s we saw, in several structures, the cost and labor of the structure were reduced by designing the structure so that the handrail is also the cross beam of the structure. &urthermore, there are attempts to reduce the area e+posed to the e+terior. This is to avoid corrosion but also to avoid having to use more paint( the less area e+posed to the e+terior, the less are to paint, the less the cost of the structure is. -s for labor and material cost, the bridges built with rivet 'oints and welds are the most e+pensive and labor intensive. 5ivets re!uire alignment, drilling and are often very difficult to do as they are around corners or in awkward places. #elding is very effective but very energy consuming. >sthetics are often intertwined with the structure( although in many bridges, the actual structure is visible, it has a certain elegance , the trusses, triangles, arches all form a beautiful sustainable structure. In some cases, where the materials are not so elegant $concrete vs. steel%, the concrete or steel is painted. Digh /orrosiveG melting temperatureG Steel Digh Digh Digh Hes /oncrete Cow Digh *ariable Io /ast Iron Cow Digh Digh Io #rought Iron Digh Cow *ery Digh Io -luminum Digh Cow Cow Io 5etail rich versus detail poor can also be a desi$n decision! 4rchitects can often choose between a method that allows lots of details, such as bolts or rivets or mortar /oints, or little recesses between bric6s, and a method that has a smooth featureless surface, ( such as stucco, or $lass(! .he =ictorians were very much into detail'rich architecture (/ust wal6 around the <c@ill @hetto(, while the modern movement was promotin$ the beauty of 0slee6ness1, of smooth machine made $lass and metal surfaces! Tensile Strength /ompressive Strength