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Estabilidad Absoluta

La atmosfera es
absolutamente stable
cuando el gradiente del
entorno (en) es menor
que el gradiente humedo
(hum)
en < hum < seco

Las inversiones son estables

Inestabilidad Absoluta
La atmosfera es
absolutamente
inestable cuando el
entorno es mayor que
el seco
entorno > seco > hum

Inestabilidad Condicional
La atmosfera es
condicionalmente
inestable cuando el
entorno es mayor que el
pero menor que el seco
hum < entorno < seco
Una parcela sin
saturar ser ms fria y
si asciende vuelve a
bajar
Una parcela saturada
ser ms caliente y si
asciende continuar
su ascenso

Anlisis Emagrama y estabilidad


Sondeo en Del Rio,
Texas
P (HPa) T(C)
Td(C)
980
940
910
880
850
820
800
780
760
730
700
650
615
550
500
400
375
350
315
300
250
200
150
100

22
19
15,9
17
15
12,4
11,6
12
12,6
12
9,2
4
-3,6
-11
-16
-26
-28
-33
-38
-39,5
-46
-56
-62
-70

17
15
14,1
15,1
13,8
11,2
10
7
-4
-8,5
-10,5
-13
-16
-20
-16
-40
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

P (hPa)

T(C)

Td(C)

HR

w(g/g)

Tvirt(C)

THITAvirt(K)

THITAPE(K)

TNCA(K)

P(NCA)

980

22

17

0,71968567

0,01231085

24,1898794

299,1131642

301,035505

288,6982863

906,355938

940

19

15

0,76862461

0,01137312

21,0043718

299,4570595

301,110868

287,098748

883,698432

910

15,9

14,1

0,88832407

0,01115848

17,8460931

299,0032684

300,594096

286,8369927

885,265103

880

17

15,1

0,88249913

0,0123174

19,1539197

303,2402715

305,203831

287,7901785

854,632913

850

15

13,8

0,92409003

0,01174057

17,0400636

304,0489779

305,846724

286,6980294

834,564919

820

12,4

11,2

0,92409003

0,01025246

14,1680163

304,1498932

305,536192

284,1312288

805,310642

800

11,6

10

0,90008954

0,00970164

13,2692524

305,3474366

306,601372

282,859266

781,053173

780

12

0,71968567

0,00814886

13,4062139

307,7134969

308,620468

279,2216388

724,197293

760

12,6

-4

0,33551681

0,00402935

13,2996499

309,8927445

310,129058

266,9860303

598,826004

730

12

-8,5

0,25958866

0,0031155

12,5403272

312,6519917

312,797769

262,5150379

546,214236

700

9,2

-10,5

0,27361686

0,00284042

9,68791617

313,2682328

313,390546

261,0205498

531,452264

650

-13

0,32680276

0,00255358

4,43069006

314,0322512

314,132196

259,3213005

514,759907

615

-3,6

-16

0,4422973

0,00210437

-3,25465055

310,2112665

310,278874

257,1395966

521,169968

550

-11

-20

0,55316812

0,00166172

-10,7346628

311,4068968

311,449971

253,620052

489,575328

500

-16

-16

0,00220206

-15,655273

314,0127204

314,087796

257,2

500

400

-26

-40

0,39810717

0,00045802

-25,930966

321,35168

321,35539

235,922733

339,740315

375

-28

350

-33

315

-38

300

-39,5

250

-46

200

-56

150

-62

100

-70

Indices Inestabilidad

Significant level indices

e.g. UW sounding site

WB0: Wet bulb zero, Tw = 0C ideally 7-9,000ft MSL, yet well below the FL

PWAT: Precipitable water (mm) the higher the better

LCL: Lifting condensation level (mb, from surface data) the lower the better

TOTAL: Total totals index =T 850 +Td 850 - 2T 500 (C) the higher the better,
thunderstorms probable when TOTL>50

KINX: K index =T 850 + Td 850 -T 500 -(T-Td)700 (C) the higher the better

SWET: Sweat index or severe weather threat - the higher the better, for severe
storms, SW>300
SWET= 12*Td850 +20*(TOTL-49) + 2*U850 +U500 +125*(0.2+sinf)
where f= [wind direction 500 - wind direction 850 ]
U is expressed in kts and TOTL-49 is set to 0 if TOTL<49

PARCEL indices
Lifted index uses:
Actual sfc temp
or
Estimated max sfc temp
or
Mean mixed-layer temp
(note: always use virtual
temp!)

Showalter index
SI=T500-Tp,850

PARCEL indices

LIFT: Lifted index (C) must be negative


LI = T500 T parcel,near-sfc [a 50 mb deep mixed layer is often used]
LFTV: lifted index, but Tv is used.
SHOW: Showalter index (C, as LI but starts from 850mb) must be negative
SHOW = T500 T parcel,850
CAPE: Convective available potential energy - should be over 500J/kg
CAPV: CAPE using Tv
CINS: Convective inhibition (external energy) - ideally 100-300 J/kg
CINV: CIN using Tv
CAP: Cap strength (C) Tenv Tparcel @LCL - should be <5C
LFC: Level free convection (LFCT and LFCT) (mb) - should be close to the LCL
EQL: Equilibrium level or level of neutral buoyancy (EQLT and EQLV)(mb) - should be high
MPL: Maximum parcel buoyancy level (mb) - level where buoyancy (Tp-Tenv) is maximum