ENT 162
Analog Electronics
Chapter 2 Diodes and Applications
Chapter Outline
1. 
Diode Operation 
2. 
VI Characteristics 
3. 
Diode Models 
4. 
Rectifiers 
5. 
Power Supply Filters 
6. 
Limiters and Clampers 
7. 
Voltage Multipliers 
2
Diode Operation
• A diode is a semiconductor device with a
single pn junction and metal connections to
leads. It has the ability to pass current in only one direction.
Depletion
region
Diode Operation
• Typical diode packages
K
Biasing a Diode
Forward Bias
• Biasing voltage refers to a fixed dc voltage that sets the operating conditions for the semiconductor devices.
• Forward bias or ‘on condition’ establish by applying the negative voltage
source terminal to n region (Cathode terminal) and positive voltage source to p region (Anode terminal).
• V _{B}_{I}_{A}_{S} must be greater than the barrier potential, V _{B} .
^{R} limit
Depletion region
A diode connected for forward bias
5
Biasing a Diode
Forward Bias
• When forward bias, the negative side pushes free electrons in n toward pn junction.
• As electron leave the n region, more electrons flow in from negative side of the source. Thus, current through n region is formed by the movement of electrons to junction. This flow of free electrons is called electron current.
• When the external bias voltage is sufficient to overcome the V _{B} , electrons have enough energy to penetrate the depletion region and cross the pn
junction.
• In the p region, these electrons have lost enough energy to immediately combine with holes in the valence band (become valence electrons).
• The positive side of the biasvoltage source attracts the valence electrons
towards the left end of the region p.
6
Biasing a Diode
Forward Bias
• Then, they move as valence electron from hole to hole toward
positive anode connection. Thus, current in p region is formed
by the movement of holes toward the junction (hole current).
• The direction of current flow is opposite to the electrons flow from the positive terminal to negative terminal.
• As more electrons and holes flow into the depletion region,
the number of positive ions and the number of negative ions are reduced respectively.
• This reduction in positive and negative ions during forward
bias causes the depletion region to narrow.
7
Biasing a Diode
Reverse Bias
• Reverse bias is the condition that essentially prevent current
through the diode.
• Reverse bias establish by applying the negative voltage source terminal to p region (Cathode terminal) and positive voltage source to n region (Anode terminal).
Depletion region
A diode connected for reverse bias
8
Biasing a Diode
Reverse Bias
• In the n region, the positive side of the biasvoltage source
‘pulls’ the free electrons away from the pn junction.
• As the electrons flow toward the positive side of the voltage source, additional positive ion are created.
• This result in a widening of the depletion region.
• In the p region, electrons from the negative side of the
voltage source enter as valence electron and move from hole to hole toward the depletion region where they create additional negative ions.
• This also result in a widening of the depletion region.
9
Biasing a Diode
Reverse Bias
• As the depletion region widen, the availability of majority
carriers decreases.
• As more of the p and n regions become depleted of majority carriers, the electric field between the positive and negative ions increases in strength until the potential across the depletion region equals the bias voltage, V _{B}_{I}_{A}_{S} .
• At this point, the transition current essentially ceases except for a very small reverse current that can usually be neglected.
10
Biasing a Diode
Reverse Current
• Reverse current, I _{R} is the extremely small current that exists in reverse bias after the transition current dies out is caused by
the minority carriers in the n and p regions that are produced by thermally generated electronhole pairs.
• Minority electrons in p region are “pushed” towards the pn
junction by the negative bias voltage.
• When these electrons reach the wide depletion region, they combine with the minority holes in the n region as valence electrons and flow toward the positive bias voltage, creating a small hole current.
11
Biasing a Diode
Reverse Breakdown
• Reverse current is so small so that it can be neglected.
• However, if the external reversebias voltage is increased to a
value called the breakdown voltage, the reverse current will drastically increase.
12
VoltageCurrent Characteristic of A
Diode
Forward Bias
• When apply 0 V across the diode, there is no I _{F}
• When a forward bias voltage (V _{B}_{I}_{A}_{S} ) is applied across the diode, the I _{F} and voltage across the diode gradually increase.
• A portion of the forward bias voltage is dropped across the limiting resistor.
• When V _{B}_{I}_{A}_{S} is increased to a value where the voltage across the diode reaches approximately 0.7V (barrier potential, V _{B} ), I _{F} begin to increase rapidly.
• If V _{B}_{I}_{A}_{S} > V _{B} , I _{F} continue to increase very rapidly but the voltage across the diode (V _{B} ) increases only gradually about 0.7V.
13
VI Characteristic
Forward Bias
Barrier potential (0.7V)
V F
Relationship of voltage and current in a forward biased diode.
• Point A corresponds to a zero bias condition.
• Point B corresponds to the V _{B}_{I}_{A}_{S} is less than V _{B} .
• Point C corresponds to the forward voltage approximately equals the
barrier potential.
14
VI Characteristic
Forward Bias
• The resistance of the forwardbiased diode is not constant over the entire curve.
• Because the resistance changes as you move along the VI curve, it is
called dynamic or ac resistance.
• The dynamic resistance of a diode is designated r’ _{d} .
• Below the knee, the resistance is greatest, therefore the current increases
very little.
• Then, the resistance begins to decrease in the region of the knee and become smallest above the knee where there is a large change in current for a given change in voltage.
15
VI Characteristic
Reverse Bias
• When apply 0 V across the diode, there is no I _{R}
• When a reverse bias voltage (V _{B}_{I}_{A}_{S} ) is applied across the diode, there is very small I _{R} (μA or nA) and the voltage across the diode increases.
• When the applied bias voltage is increase to a value where the reverse voltage across the diode (V _{R} ) reaches the breakdown value (V _{B}_{R} ), the I _{R} begins to increase rapidly.
• As continue to increase the bias voltage, the current continues to increase very rapidly, but the voltage across the diode increases very little above
V BR .
• The most widely used diode has a breakdown voltage of greater than 50V.
16
VI Characteristic
Reverse Bias
Breakdown voltage, V _{B}_{R}
V R
Relationship of voltage and current in a reverse biased diode.
17
VI Characteristic
No Bias, Reverse Bias, and Forward Bias
18
Diode Models  Diode Approximation
Ideal Diode Model (Forward Bias)
R
V F
^{V} BIAS
Forward bias connection showing
the diode symbol
Ideal diode model
R
^{V} BIAS
The ideal diode model
• The forward current, I _{F} is from anode to cathode.
• The forward voltage drop (V _{F} ) due to the barrier potential is from positive at anode to negative at cathode.
• When the diode is forwardbiased, it ideally acts like a closed (on) switch (short circuit).
19
Diode Models  Diode Approximation
R
Ideal Diode Model (Reverse Bias)
^{V}
BIAS
^{V}
BIAS
^{V} BIAS
R
Reverse bias connection showing
the diode symbol
The ideal diode model
• The reverse current, I _{R} is extremely small and can be considered to be zero.
• The entire bias voltage (V _{B}_{I}_{A}_{S} ) appears across the diode.
• When the diode is reversebiased, it ideally acts like an open (off) switch (open circuit).
20
Diode Models  Diode Approximation
Ideal Diode Model
Ideal VI Characteristic Curve
21
Diode Approximations
The Ideal Diode Model
• The diode is assume to have zero voltage across it when forwardbiased. V _{F} = 0 V
• The forward current is determined by the bias voltage and the limiting resistor, R _{L}_{I}_{M}_{I}_{T} using Ohm’s law.
^{I} F ^{=} ^{V} BIAS ^{/}^{R} LIMIT
• The reverse current is neglected, its value is assumed to be zero. I _{R} = 0 A
• The reverse voltage equals the bias voltage.
^{V} R ^{=} ^{V} BIAS
22
Diode Approximations
The Practical Diode Model
23
Diode Approximations
The Practical Diode Model
• The practical model includes barrier potential.
• When diode is forward biased, it is equivalent to a closed switch in series with a small equivalent voltage source (V _{F} ) equal to barrier potential. V _{F} = 0.7 V
• The forward current is determined by applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law.
^{V} BIAS ^{–} ^{V} F ^{–}^{V} RLIMIT ^{=} ^{0} ^{V} RLIMIT ^{=} ^{I} F ^{R} LIMIT
• Substituting and solving for I _{F} ,
^{I} F ^{=} ^{(}^{V} BIAS ^{–} ^{V} F ^{)} ^{/} ^{R} LIMIT
• For reverse bias, the diode is assume to have zero reverse current and the reverse voltage equals the bias voltage. I _{R} = 0 A
^{V} R ^{=} ^{V} BIAS
24
Diode Approximations
The Practical Diode Model
25
Diode Approximations
The Complete Diode Model
26
Diode Approximations
The Complete Diode Model
• Is the most accurate approximation (which include barrier potential, small forward dynamic resistance, r’ _{d} and large internal reverse resistance, r’ _{R} ).
• Since the barrier potential and the forward dynamic resistance are
include, the diode is assumed to have a voltage across it when forward biased.
V _{F} = 0.7 V + I _{F} r’ _{d} I _{F} = (V _{B}_{I}_{A}_{S} – 0.7 V)/ (R _{L}_{I}_{M}_{I}_{T} + r’ _{d} )
• When reverse biased, the reverse current is taken into account with the parallel resistance and is indicated by the portion of the curve to the left of the origin.
27
Diode Approximations
The Complete Diode Model
28
Diode Models
Diode Applications
• Rectifiers
• Power supply filters
• Limiters
• Clampers
• Voltage multipliers
30
HalfWave Rectifiers
^{V} in
0
During the positive alternation, the output voltage looks like the positive half of the input voltage. The current path is through ground back to the source.
During the negative alternation, the current is 0, so the output voltage is also 0.
31
HalfWave Rectifiers
Ideal diode model
• A rectifier is an electronic circuit that converts ac into dc.
• When the sinusoidal input voltage (V _{i}_{n} ) positive, the diode is forward biased and conduct current through the load resistor.
• The current produces an output voltage across load, R _{L} which has the same shape as the positive halfcycle of the input voltage.
• When input voltage (V _{i}_{n} ) goes negative (2 ^{n}^{d} half of its cycle), the diode is reverse biased.
• There is no current and the voltage across the R _{L} is 0 V.
• The average value of the halfwave output voltage, V _{A}_{V}_{G} is the value you would measure on a dc voltmeter. V _{p} is the peak value of the voltage.
• V _{A}_{V}_{G} is approximately 31.8% of V _{p} for half wave rectifier
32
HalfWave Rectifiers
Ideal diode model
33
HalfWave Rectifiers
Effect of the Barrier Potential on the HalfWave Rectifier Output
• When practical diode model is considered, the V _{i}_{n} must overcome the barrier potential before diode becomes forward biased (during positive 1 ^{s}^{t} half).
• This result in a half wave output with a peak value that is 0.7 V less than peak value of the input.
^{V} p(out) ^{=} ^{V} p(in) ^{–} ^{0}^{.}^{7} ^{V}
34
HalfWave Rectifiers
Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)
• The peak inverse voltage (PIV) occurs at the peak of each halfcycle of the input voltage when the diode is reverse biased (negative half cycle).
• PIV equal the peak value of the input voltage.
PIV = V p(in)
35
Transformer Coupling
• Advantages : allow the source voltage to be stepped down as needed and the ac source electrically isolated from the rectifier, thus preventing a shock hazard in the second circuit.
^{V} sec ^{/}^{V} pri ^{=} ^{N} sec ^{/}^{N} pri
• The secondary voltage of a transformer equals to turns ratio, n times the primary voltage.
^{V} sec ^{=} ^{n} ^{V} pri
where n = N _{s}_{e}_{c} /N _{p}_{r}_{i}
• The peak secondary voltage, V _{p}_{(}_{s}_{e}_{c}_{)} in a tranformer half wave rectifier is the same as V _{p}_{(}_{i}_{n}_{)} .
^{V} p(out) = ^{V} p(sec) ^{–} ^{0}^{.}^{7}
^{P}^{I}^{V} ^{=} ^{V} p(sec)
36
FullWave Rectifiers
38
FullWave Rectifiers
• A full wave rectifiers allows unidirectional (1 way) current through the load during the entire input cycle.
• The average value for fullwave rectified sinusoidal voltage is twice that of the half wave.
V _{A}_{G} = 2V _{P} /π
• V _{A}_{V}_{G} is approximately 63.7% of V _{p} for full wave rectified voltage.
39
FullWave Rectifiers
The center tapped FullWave Rectifier
• A center tapped rectifier is a type of full wave rectifier that uses two diodes connected to secondary of a center tapped transformer.
40
FullWave Rectifiers
The center tapped FullWave Rectifier
41
FullWave Rectifiers
The center tapped FullWave Rectifier
• For a positive half cycle of the input voltage, D _{1} is forward biased, D _{2} is reversed biased.
• The current path is through D _{1} and the load resistor, R _{L} .
• For a negative half cycle of the input voltage, D _{2} is forward biased, D _{1} is reversed biased.
• The current path is through D _{2} and the load resistor, R _{L} .
42
FullWave Rectifiers
The center tapped FullWave Rectifier
Effect of the Turns Ratio on the Output Voltage
• If the transformer ratio is 1, the peak value of the rectified output voltage equals half the peak value of the primary input voltage less the barrier potential.
^{•} ^{V} p(sec) ^{=} ^{V} p(pri)
43
FullWave Rectifiers
The center tapped FullWave Rectifier
• To obtain an output voltage with a peak equal to the input peak (less the diode drop), a step up transformer with a turns ratio of n = 2 must be used (total secondary voltage (V _{s}_{e}_{c} ) is twice the primary voltage (2V _{p}_{r}_{i} ), so the voltage across each half of the secondary is equal to V _{p}_{r}_{i} .
• In any case, the output voltage is always onehalf of the total secondary voltage less the diode drop, no matter what the turns ratio. V _{o}_{u}_{t} = V _{s}_{e}_{c} /2 – 0.7 V
44
FullWave Rectifiers
The center tapped FullWave Rectifier
Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)
• The peak inverse voltage across either diode in a fullwave centertapped
rectifier is
PIV = 2V _{p}_{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)} + 0.7 V
45
FullWave Rectifiers
The Bridge FullWave Rectifier
• The bridge fullwave rectifier uses 4 diodes.
• When the input is positive, D _{1} and D _{2} are forward biased, D _{3} and D _{4} are reversed bias and a voltage is developed across R _{L} .
• When the input is negative, D _{3} and D _{4} are forward biased, D _{1} and D _{2} are reversed bias and a voltage is also developed across R _{L} .
46
FullWave Rectifiers
The Bridge FullWave Rectifier
• During the positive half cycle, the secondary voltage appears across the load resistor (neglecting the diodes dropideal diodes).
^{V} p(out) ^{=} ^{V} p(sec)
• If practical diodes are considered, voltage drops of these diodes are taken into account. Therefore the output voltage is
^{V} p(out) ^{=} ^{V} p(sec) ^{–} ^{1}^{.}^{4} ^{V}
• What happened during the negative half cycle for ideal diodes and
practical diodes ? What is the output voltage?
47
FullWave Rectifiers
The Bridge FullWave Rectifier
48
FullWave Rectifiers
The Bridge FullWave Rectifier
Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)
• Assume D _{1} and D _{2} forward biased (ideal model) and examine reverse voltage across D _{3} and D _{4} . You can see that D _{3} and D _{4} have a peak inverse voltage equal to the peak secondary voltage,
^{P}^{I}^{V} ^{=} ^{V} p(out)
• If the diodes drops are considered, PIV across each reverse bias diode in terms of V _{p}_{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)} is PIV = V _{p}_{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)} + 0.7 V
49
Power Supply Filter
• A power supply filter ideally eliminates the fluctuations in the output voltage of a half wave or full wave rectifier and produces a constantlevel dc voltage.
50
CapacitorInput Filter
51
CapacitorInput Filter
• During the first quartercycle of the input the diode is forward biased, allowing the capacitor to charge to within 0.7 V of the peak.
• When input begin to decrease, the capacitor retains its charge and the diode become reverse biased because the cathode is more positive than anode.
• During the remaining part of the cycle, the capacitor discharge through the load.
• During the first quarter of the next cycle, the diode will again become
forward biased.
52
CapacitorInput Filter
Ripple Voltage
• The variation in the capacitor voltage due to the charging and discharging is called the ripple voltage.
53
CapacitorInput Filter
Ripple Factor
• The ripple factor (r) is an indication of the effectiveness of the filter and is define as
^{r} ^{=}
^{V} r(pp) ^{/}^{V} DC
where V _{r}_{(}_{p}_{p}_{)} = peak to peak ripple voltage and V _{D}_{C} = dc average value of the filter’s output voltage
• V _{r}_{(}_{p}_{p}_{)} and V _{D}_{C} for a full wave rectifiers with capacitor input filter are given in the following equations.
^{V} r(pp) ^{=} ^{(}^{1}^{/}^{f}^{R} L ^{C}^{)}^{V} p(rect)
V _{D}_{C} = (1 – 1/2fR _{L} C) V _{p}_{(}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{)}
54
Diode Limiters
55
Diode Limiters
• Diode limiter or clipper limits or clips the positive or negative part of the input voltage.
• For a diode positive limiter, when input voltage positive, the diode forward biased and conduct current .
• Point A is limited to +0.7 V when input voltage exceed this value.
• When voltage input < 0.7 V, the diode reverse biased and appears as an open.
• The output voltage is determined by voltage divider form by R _{1} and R _{L} . V _{o}_{u}_{t} = V _{i}_{n} [R _{L} /(R _{1} + R _{L} )]
• For a diode negative limiter, the diode is forward biased during the
negative input voltage.
• Point A is held at 0.7 V by the diode drop.
• When the input voltage goes above 0.7 V, the diode is no longer forward biased.
• A voltage appears across R _{L} proportional to the input voltage.
56
Diode Clampers
• Clamper adds dc level to ac signal. Also knows as dc restorers.
• When input goes negative, diode is forward biased, capacitor charge to V _{p}_{(}_{i}_{n}_{)} 0.7 V. When past negative peak, diode become reverse bias coz cathode is held near V _{p}_{(}_{i}_{n}_{)} 0.7 V by the capacitor charge.
• Capacitor can only discharge a little through high resistance R _{L} . So capacitor retains charge equal to V _{p}_{(}_{i}_{n}_{)} 0.7 V.
• Capacitor voltage act as a battery in series with input signal.
• If diode is turned around, a negative dc voltage is added to input signal to
produce output signal.
57
Diode Clampers
58
Voltage Multipliers
Voltage Doubler
Half wave voltage doubler
• A voltage doubler is a voltage multipliers with a multiplication of factor of two.
• During the positive half cycle of secondary voltage, D _{1} is forward biased and D _{2} is reversed biased.
• C _{1} is charged to the peak of the secondary voltage (V _{p} ) less the diode drop.
• During the negative half cycle of secondary voltage, D _{2} is forward biased and D _{1} is reversed biased.
• Since C _{1} can’t discharge, the peak voltage on C _{1} adds to the secondary voltage to charge C _{2} to approximately 2V _{p} V _{C}_{2} = 2V _{p}
59
Diode Voltage Multipliers
Voltage Doubler
60
Selected Key Terms
Forward bias
Reverse bias
The condition in which a diode conducts current.
The condition in which a diode prevents current.
61
Selected Key Terms
Rectifier
Filter
Regulator
Ripple Voltage
An electronic circuit that converts ac into pulsating dc; one part of a power supply.
In a power supply, the capacitor used to reduce the variation of the output voltage from a rectifier.
An electronic device or circuit that maintains an essentially constant output voltage for a range of input voltage or load values; one part of a power supply.
The small variation in dc output voltage of a filtered rectifier caused by charging and discharging of the filter capacitor.
Selected Key Terms
Line
Regulation
Limiter
Clamper
The change in output voltage of a regulator for a given change in input voltage, normally
expressed as a percentage.
A diode circuit that clips off or removes part of a waveform above and/or below a specified level.
A circuit that adds a dc level to an ac voltage using a diode and a capacitor.
Test yourself
1. The forward biased knee voltage in a semiconductor diode is
approximately equal to the
a. bias supply voltage
b. breakdown voltage
c. output voltage
barrier potential
64
Test yourself
2. Using the ideal diode model, the current in the circuit shown
c. 0.87 mA
d. 1.2 mA
^{V} BIAS
R
65
Test yourself
3. Using the practical diode model, the current in the circuit
shown is
0.73 mA
b. 0.80 mA
c. 0.87 mA
d. 1.2 mA
^{V} BIAS
R
66
Test yourself
4. The diode model which includes the large reverse resistance is
the
a. ideal model
b. practical model
complete model
d. all of the above
^{V} BIAS
R
67
Test yourself
5. For the circuit shown, the PIV will occur when the input
waveform is at point
a. A
b. B
B




^{R} 



L
68
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