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ENT 162

Analog Electronics

Chapter 2 Diodes and Applications

Chapter Outline

1.

Diode Operation

2.

V-I Characteristics

3.

Diode Models

4.

Rectifiers

5.

Power Supply Filters

6.

Limiters and Clampers

7.

Voltage Multipliers

Diode Operation

A diode is a semiconductor device with a

single pn junction and metal connections to

leads. It has the ability to pass current in only one direction.

Anode Cathode p n
Anode
Cathode
p
n

Depletion

region

to leads. It has the ability to pass current in only one direction. Anode Cathode p

Diode Operation

Typical diode packages

K A K K A A K K A A K A A K K
K
A
K
K
A
A
K
K
A
A
K
A
A
K
K
K
A
A
K
K
A

K

Biasing a Diode

-Forward Bias-

Biasing voltage refers to a fixed dc voltage that sets the operating conditions for the semiconductor devices.

Forward bias or ‘on condition’ establish by applying the negative voltage

source terminal to n region (Cathode terminal) and positive voltage source to p region (Anode terminal).

V BIAS must be greater than the barrier potential, V B .

R limit

Depletion region

- + n region p region - + - + - + V + BIAS
-
+
n region
p region
-
+
-
+
-
+
V
+
BIAS
-

A diode connected for forward bias

5

Biasing a Diode

-Forward Bias-

When forward bias, the negative side pushes free electrons in n toward pn junction.

As electron leave the n region, more electrons flow in from negative side of the source. Thus, current through n region is formed by the movement of electrons to junction. This flow of free electrons is called electron current.

When the external bias voltage is sufficient to overcome the V B , electrons have enough energy to penetrate the depletion region and cross the pn

junction.

In the p region, these electrons have lost enough energy to immediately combine with holes in the valence band (become valence electrons).

The positive side of the bias-voltage source attracts the valence electrons

towards the left end of the region p.

Biasing a Diode

-Forward Bias-

Then, they move as valence electron from hole to hole toward

positive anode connection. Thus, current in p region is formed

by the movement of holes toward the junction (hole current).

The direction of current flow is opposite to the electrons flow from the positive terminal to negative terminal.

As more electrons and holes flow into the depletion region,

the number of positive ions and the number of negative ions are reduced respectively.

This reduction in positive and negative ions during forward

bias causes the depletion region to narrow.

Biasing a Diode

-Reverse Bias-

Reverse bias is the condition that essentially prevent current

through the diode.

Reverse bias establish by applying the negative voltage source terminal to p region (Cathode terminal) and positive voltage source to n region (Anode terminal).

Depletion region

- + n region p region - + - + - + - + +
- +
n region
p region
- +
- +
- +
-
+
+
-
-
+
V
R limit
-
BIAS
+

Biasing a Diode

-Reverse Bias-

In the n region, the positive side of the bias-voltage source

‘pulls’ the free electrons away from the pn junction.

As the electrons flow toward the positive side of the voltage source, additional positive ion are created.

This result in a widening of the depletion region.

In the p region, electrons from the negative side of the

voltage source enter as valence electron and move from hole to hole toward the depletion region where they create additional negative ions.

This also result in a widening of the depletion region.

Biasing a Diode

-Reverse Bias-

As the depletion region widen, the availability of majority

carriers decreases.

As more of the p and n regions become depleted of majority carriers, the electric field between the positive and negative ions increases in strength until the potential across the depletion region equals the bias voltage, V BIAS .

At this point, the transition current essentially ceases except for a very small reverse current that can usually be neglected.

Biasing a Diode

-Reverse Current-

Reverse current, I R is the extremely small current that exists in reverse bias after the transition current dies out is caused by

the minority carriers in the n and p regions that are produced by thermally generated electron-hole pairs.

Minority electrons in p region are “pushed” towards the pn

junction by the negative bias voltage.

When these electrons reach the wide depletion region, they combine with the minority holes in the n region as valence electrons and flow toward the positive bias voltage, creating a small hole current.

Biasing a Diode

-Reverse Breakdown-

Reverse current is so small so that it can be neglected.

However, if the external reverse-bias voltage is increased to a

value called the breakdown voltage, the reverse current will drastically increase.

Voltage-Current Characteristic of A

Diode

-Forward Bias-

When apply 0 V across the diode, there is no I F

When a forward bias voltage (V BIAS ) is applied across the diode, the I F and voltage across the diode gradually increase.

A portion of the forward bias voltage is dropped across the limiting resistor.

When V BIAS is increased to a value where the voltage across the diode reaches approximately 0.7V (barrier potential, V B ), I F begin to increase rapidly.

If V BIAS > V B , I F continue to increase very rapidly but the voltage across the diode (V B ) increases only gradually about 0.7V.

V-I Characteristic

-Forward Bias-

I F (mA) C B Knee A 0 0.7V
I F (mA)
C
B Knee
A
0
0.7V

Barrier potential (0.7V)

V F

Relationship of voltage and current in a forward biased diode.

Point A corresponds to a zero bias condition.

Point B corresponds to the V BIAS is less than V B .

Point C corresponds to the forward voltage approximately equals the

barrier potential.

V-I Characteristic

-Forward Bias-

The resistance of the forward-biased diode is not constant over the entire curve.

Because the resistance changes as you move along the V-I curve, it is

called dynamic or ac resistance.

The dynamic resistance of a diode is designated r’ d .

Below the knee, the resistance is greatest, therefore the current increases

very little.

Then, the resistance begins to decrease in the region of the knee and become smallest above the knee where there is a large change in current for a given change in voltage.

V-I Characteristic

-Reverse Bias-

When apply 0 V across the diode, there is no I R

When a reverse bias voltage (V BIAS ) is applied across the diode, there is very small I R (μA or nA) and the voltage across the diode increases.

When the applied bias voltage is increase to a value where the reverse voltage across the diode (V R ) reaches the breakdown value (V BR ), the I R begins to increase rapidly.

As continue to increase the bias voltage, the current continues to increase very rapidly, but the voltage across the diode increases very little above

V BR .

The most widely used diode has a breakdown voltage of greater than 50V.

V-I Characteristic

-Reverse Bias-

Breakdown voltage, V BR

V R

0 Knee I R (A)
0
Knee
I R (A)

Relationship of voltage and current in a reverse biased diode.

V-I Characteristic

-No Bias, Reverse Bias, and Forward Bias-

V-I Characteristic - No Bias, Reverse Bias, and Forward Bias- 18

Diode Models - Diode Approximation

-Ideal Diode Model (Forward Bias)-

R

V F

+ - I F - +
+
-
I
F
-
+

V BIAS

Forward bias connection showing

the diode symbol

Ideal diode model

R

I F - +
I
F
-
+

V BIAS

The ideal diode model

The forward current, I F is from anode to cathode.

The forward voltage drop (V F ) due to the barrier potential is from positive at anode to negative at cathode.

When the diode is forward-biased, it ideally acts like a closed (on) switch (short circuit).

Diode Models - Diode Approximation

R

-Ideal Diode Model (Reverse Bias)-

V

BIAS

V

BIAS

- + I = 0 + -
-
+
I = 0
+
-

V BIAS

R

I = 0 - + V BIAS
I = 0
- +
V BIAS

Reverse bias connection showing

the diode symbol

The ideal diode model

The reverse current, I R is extremely small and can be considered to be zero.

The entire bias voltage (V BIAS ) appears across the diode.

When the diode is reverse-biased, it ideally acts like an open (off) switch (open circuit).

Diode Models - Diode Approximation

-Ideal Diode Model-

Ideal V-I Characteristic Curve

Diode Models - Diode Approximation -Ideal Diode Model- Ideal V-I Characteristic Curve 21

Diode Approximations

-The Ideal Diode Model-

Diode Approximations -The Ideal Diode Model- • The diode is assume to have zero voltage across

The diode is assume to have zero voltage across it when forward-biased. V F = 0 V

The forward current is determined by the bias voltage and the limiting resistor, R LIMIT using Ohm’s law.

I F = V BIAS /R LIMIT

The reverse current is neglected, its value is assumed to be zero. I R = 0 A

The reverse voltage equals the bias voltage.

V R = V BIAS

Diode Approximations

-The Practical Diode Model-

Diode Approximations -The Practical Diode Model- 23

Diode Approximations

-The Practical Diode Model-

The practical model includes barrier potential.

When diode is forward biased, it is equivalent to a closed switch in series with a small equivalent voltage source (V F ) equal to barrier potential. V F = 0.7 V

The forward current is determined by applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law.

V BIAS V F V RLIMIT = 0 V RLIMIT = I F R LIMIT

Substituting and solving for I F ,

I F = (V BIAS V F ) / R LIMIT

For reverse bias, the diode is assume to have zero reverse current and the reverse voltage equals the bias voltage. I R = 0 A

V R = V BIAS

Diode Approximations

-The Practical Diode Model-

Diode Approximations -The Practical Diode Model- 25

Diode Approximations

-The Complete Diode Model-

Diode Approximations -The Complete Diode Model- 26

Diode Approximations

-The Complete Diode Model-

Is the most accurate approximation (which include barrier potential, small forward dynamic resistance, r’ d and large internal reverse resistance, r’ R ).

Since the barrier potential and the forward dynamic resistance are

include, the diode is assumed to have a voltage across it when forward biased.

V F = 0.7 V + I F r’ d I F = (V BIAS 0.7 V)/ (R LIMIT + r’ d )

When reverse biased, the reverse current is taken into account with the parallel resistance and is indicated by the portion of the curve to the left of the origin.

Diode Approximations

-The Complete Diode Model-

Diode Approximations -The Complete Diode Model- 28

Diode Models

Ideal Model Practical Model • VF = 0 V • VF = 0.7 V •
Ideal Model
Practical Model
VF = 0 V
VF = 0.7 V
IF = VBIAS / RLIMIT
IF = VBIAS - VF / RLIMIT
IR = 0 A
IR = 0 A
VR = VBIAS
VR = VBIAS
Diode
Complete Model
• VF = 0.7 + IFr’d
• IF =(VBIAS – 0.7) / (RLIMIT + r’d)

Diode Applications

Rectifiers

Power supply filters

Limiters

Clampers

Voltage multipliers

Half-Wave Rectifiers

V in

0

t t t 0 1 2
t
t
t
0
1
2
+ – I + V out R L 0 t t t 0 1 2
+
I
+
V out
R L
0 t
t
t
0
1
2

During the positive alternation, the output voltage looks like the positive half of the input voltage. The current path is through ground back to the source.

V in 0 t t t 0 1 2
V in
0
t
t
t
0
1
2
– + I = 0A – V out 0 R L t t t 0
+
I = 0A
V out
0
R L
t
t
t
0
1
2
+

During the negative alternation, the current is 0, so the output voltage is also 0.

Half-Wave Rectifiers

-Ideal diode model-

A rectifier is an electronic circuit that converts ac into dc.

When the sinusoidal input voltage (V in ) positive, the diode is forward biased and conduct current through the load resistor.

The current produces an output voltage across load, R L which has the same shape as the positive half-cycle of the input voltage.

When input voltage (V in ) goes negative (2 nd half of its cycle), the diode is reverse biased.

There is no current and the voltage across the R L is 0 V.

The average value of the half-wave output voltage, V AVG is the value you would measure on a dc voltmeter. V p is the peak value of the voltage.

V AVG is approximately 31.8% of V p for half wave rectifier

V p is the peak value of the voltage. • V A V G is approximately

32

Half-Wave Rectifiers

-Ideal diode model-

Half-Wave Rectifiers -Ideal diode model- 33

Half-Wave Rectifiers

-Effect of the Barrier Potential on the Half-Wave Rectifier Output-

When practical diode model is considered, the V in must overcome the barrier potential before diode becomes forward biased (during positive 1 st half).

This result in a half wave output with a peak value that is 0.7 V less than peak value of the input.

V p(out) = V p(in) 0.7 V

with a peak value that is 0.7 V less than peak value of the input. V

Half-Wave Rectifiers

-Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)-

The peak inverse voltage (PIV) occurs at the peak of each half-cycle of the input voltage when the diode is reverse biased (negative half cycle).

PIV equal the peak value of the input voltage.

PIV = V p(in)

the diode is reverse biased (negative half cycle). • PIV equal the peak value of the

Transformer Coupling

Advantages : allow the source voltage to be stepped down as needed and the ac source electrically isolated from the rectifier, thus preventing a shock hazard in the second circuit.

V sec /V pri = N sec /N pri

The secondary voltage of a transformer equals to turns ratio, n times the primary voltage.

V sec = n V pri

where n = N sec /N pri

The peak secondary voltage, V p(sec) in a tranformer half wave rectifier is the same as V p(in) .

V p(out) = V p(sec) 0.7

PIV = V p(sec)

rectifier is the same as V p ( i n ) . V p(out) = V

Full-Wave Rectifiers

Full-Wave Rectifiers 38
Full-Wave Rectifiers 38

Full-Wave Rectifiers

A full wave rectifiers allows unidirectional (1 way) current through the load during the entire input cycle.

The average value for full-wave rectified sinusoidal voltage is twice that of the half wave.

V AG = 2V P /π

V AVG is approximately 63.7% of V p for full wave rectified voltage.

wave. V A G = 2V P / π • V A V G is approximately
wave. V A G = 2V P / π • V A V G is approximately

39

Full-Wave Rectifiers

-The center tapped Full-Wave Rectifier-

A center tapped rectifier is a type of full wave rectifier that uses two diodes connected to secondary of a center tapped transformer.

rectifier is a type of full wave rectifier that uses two diodes connected to secondary of

Full-Wave Rectifiers

-The center tapped Full-Wave Rectifier-

Full-Wave Rectifiers -The center tapped Full-Wave Rectifier- 41

Full-Wave Rectifiers

-The center tapped Full-Wave Rectifier-

For a positive half cycle of the input voltage, D 1 is forward biased, D 2 is reversed biased.

The current path is through D 1 and the load resistor, R L .

For a negative half cycle of the input voltage, D 2 is forward biased, D 1 is reversed biased.

The current path is through D 2 and the load resistor, R L .

Full-Wave Rectifiers

-The center tapped Full-Wave Rectifier-

Effect of the Turns Ratio on the Output Voltage

If the transformer ratio is 1, the peak value of the rectified output voltage equals half the peak value of the primary input voltage less the barrier potential.

V p(sec) = V p(pri)

half the peak value of the primary input voltage less the barrier potential. • V p(sec)

Full-Wave Rectifiers

-The center tapped Full-Wave Rectifier-

To obtain an output voltage with a peak equal to the input peak (less the diode drop), a step up transformer with a turns ratio of n = 2 must be used (total secondary voltage (V sec ) is twice the primary voltage (2V pri ), so the voltage across each half of the secondary is equal to V pri .

In any case, the output voltage is always one-half of the total secondary voltage less the diode drop, no matter what the turns ratio. V out = V sec /2 0.7 V

secondary voltage less the diode drop, no matter what the turns ratio. V o u t

44

Full-Wave Rectifiers

-The center tapped Full-Wave Rectifier-

Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)

The peak inverse voltage across either diode in a full-wave center-tapped

rectifier is

PIV = 2V p(out) + 0.7 V

inverse voltage across either diode in a full-wave center-tapped rectifier is PIV = 2V p (

Full-Wave Rectifiers

-The Bridge Full-Wave Rectifier-

The bridge full-wave rectifier uses 4 diodes.

When the input is positive, D 1 and D 2 are forward biased, D 3 and D 4 are reversed bias and a voltage is developed across R L .

When the input is negative, D 3 and D 4 are forward biased, D 1 and D 2 are reversed bias and a voltage is also developed across R L .

and D 4 are forward biased, D 1 and D 2 are reversed bias and a

Full-Wave Rectifiers

-The Bridge Full-Wave Rectifier-

During the positive half cycle, the secondary voltage appears across the load resistor (neglecting the diodes drop-ideal diodes).

V p(out) = V p(sec)

If practical diodes are considered, voltage drops of these diodes are taken into account. Therefore the output voltage is

V p(out) = V p(sec) 1.4 V

What happened during the negative half cycle for ideal diodes and

practical diodes ? What is the output voltage?

Full-Wave Rectifiers

-The Bridge Full-Wave Rectifier-

Full-Wave Rectifiers -The Bridge Full-Wave Rectifier- 48
Full-Wave Rectifiers -The Bridge Full-Wave Rectifier- 48

Full-Wave Rectifiers

-The Bridge Full-Wave Rectifier-

Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)

Assume D 1 and D 2 forward biased (ideal model) and examine reverse voltage across D 3 and D 4 . You can see that D 3 and D 4 have a peak inverse voltage equal to the peak secondary voltage,

PIV = V p(out)

If the diodes drops are considered, PIV across each reverse bias diode in terms of V p(out) is PIV = V p(out) + 0.7 V

PIV across each reverse bias diode in terms of V p ( o u t )

Power Supply Filter

A power supply filter ideally eliminates the fluctuations in the output voltage of a half wave or full wave rectifier and produces a constant-level dc voltage.

the fluctuations in the output voltage of a half wave or full wave rectifier and produces

Capacitor-Input Filter

Capacitor-Input Filter 51
Capacitor-Input Filter 51

Capacitor-Input Filter

During the first quarter-cycle of the input the diode is forward biased, allowing the capacitor to charge to within 0.7 V of the peak.

When input begin to decrease, the capacitor retains its charge and the diode become reverse biased because the cathode is more positive than anode.

During the remaining part of the cycle, the capacitor discharge through the load.

During the first quarter of the next cycle, the diode will again become

forward biased.

Capacitor-Input Filter

Ripple Voltage

The variation in the capacitor voltage due to the charging and discharging is called the ripple voltage.

Voltage • The variation in the capacitor voltage due to the charging and discharging is called
Voltage • The variation in the capacitor voltage due to the charging and discharging is called
Voltage • The variation in the capacitor voltage due to the charging and discharging is called

Capacitor-Input Filter

Ripple Factor

The ripple factor (r) is an indication of the effectiveness of the filter and is define as

r =

V r(pp) /V DC

where V r(pp) = peak to peak ripple voltage and V DC = dc average value of the filter’s output voltage

V r(pp) and V DC for a full wave rectifiers with capacitor input filter are given in the following equations.

V r(pp) = (1/fR L C)V p(rect)

V DC = (1 1/2fR L C) V p(rect)

Diode Limiters

Diode Limiters 55

Diode Limiters

Diode limiter or clipper limits or clips the positive or negative part of the input voltage.

For a diode positive limiter, when input voltage positive, the diode forward biased and conduct current .

Point A is limited to +0.7 V when input voltage exceed this value.

When voltage input < 0.7 V, the diode reverse biased and appears as an open.

The output voltage is determined by voltage divider form by R 1 and R L . V out = V in [R L /(R 1 + R L )]

For a diode negative limiter, the diode is forward biased during the

negative input voltage.

Point A is held at -0.7 V by the diode drop.

When the input voltage goes above -0.7 V, the diode is no longer forward biased.

A voltage appears across R L proportional to the input voltage.

Diode Clampers

Clamper adds dc level to ac signal. Also knows as dc restorers.

When input goes negative, diode is forward biased, capacitor charge to V p(in) -0.7 V. When past negative peak, diode become reverse bias coz cathode is held near V p(in) -0.7 V by the capacitor charge.

Capacitor can only discharge a little through high resistance R L . So capacitor retains charge equal to V p(in) -0.7 V.

Capacitor voltage act as a battery in series with input signal.

If diode is turned around, a negative dc voltage is added to input signal to

produce output signal.

Diode Clampers

Diode Clampers 58
Diode Clampers 58

Voltage Multipliers

-Voltage Doubler-

Half wave voltage doubler

A voltage doubler is a voltage multipliers with a multiplication of factor of two.

During the positive half cycle of secondary voltage, D 1 is forward biased and D 2 is reversed biased.

C 1 is charged to the peak of the secondary voltage (V p ) less the diode drop.

During the negative half cycle of secondary voltage, D 2 is forward biased and D 1 is reversed biased.

Since C 1 can’t discharge, the peak voltage on C 1 adds to the secondary voltage to charge C 2 to approximately 2V p V C2 = 2V p

Diode Voltage Multipliers

-Voltage Doubler-

Diode Voltage Multipliers - Voltage Doubler- 60

Selected Key Terms

Forward bias

Reverse bias

The condition in which a diode conducts current.

The condition in which a diode prevents current.

Selected Key Terms

Rectifier

Filter

Regulator

Ripple Voltage

An electronic circuit that converts ac into pulsating dc; one part of a power supply.

In a power supply, the capacitor used to reduce the variation of the output voltage from a rectifier.

An electronic device or circuit that maintains an essentially constant output voltage for a range of input voltage or load values; one part of a power supply.

The small variation in dc output voltage of a filtered rectifier caused by charging and discharging of the filter capacitor.

Selected Key Terms

Line

Regulation

Limiter

Clamper

The change in output voltage of a regulator for a given change in input voltage, normally

expressed as a percentage.

A diode circuit that clips off or removes part of a waveform above and/or below a specified level.

A circuit that adds a dc level to an ac voltage using a diode and a capacitor.

Test yourself

1. The forward biased knee voltage in a semiconductor diode is

approximately equal to the

a. bias supply voltage

b. breakdown voltage

c. output voltage

d.
d.

barrier potential

Test yourself

2. Using the ideal diode model, the current in the circuit shown

is a. 0.73 mA b. 0.80 mA
is
a.
0.73 mA
b.
0.80 mA

c. 0.87 mA

d. 1.2 mA

V BIAS

R

10 k W + 8.0 V –
10 k W
+
8.0 V

Test yourself

3. Using the practical diode model, the current in the circuit

shown is

a.
a.

0.73 mA

b. 0.80 mA

c. 0.87 mA

d. 1.2 mA

V BIAS

R

10 k W + 8.0 V –
10 k W
+
8.0 V

Test yourself

4. The diode model which includes the large reverse resistance is

the

a. ideal model

b. practical model

c.
c.

complete model

d. all of the above

V BIAS

R

10 k W + 8.0 V –
10 k W
+
8.0 V

Test yourself

5. For the circuit shown, the PIV will occur when the input

waveform is at point

a. A

b. B

B

C V in A D
C
V in
A
D
R  
R  
R
R

R

 
 
 

L

c. C d. D
c. C
d.
D

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