Sei sulla pagina 1di 58


The purpose of a course in the syntax of the English language is to identify and present the main patterns and structures of expression in contemporary English. The educated speaker of English must not only be aware of the complex meaning of the sentences and structures he comes across while reading or researching, but also be able to express complex thoughts in a way that can best render the meaning of what he conveys. Accuracy is a condition that will best be found in the awareness of using the correct rules governing the structures of a language. I.Definition and ole of !yntax Syntax is that branch of linguistics which describes the phenomena of the contemporary language in point of relations between words and their correct arrangement in units of expression apt to reflect logical units and patterns. It actually consists of a whole set of principles and rules which help govern communication, whether written or oral. That"s why its structure and terms are related to logics. egarded in its most important functions, it describes the situations and contexts themselves, the relations between words. #efore being expressed in the form of communication, thoughts are described by logic as sentences or propositions. $hen they are expressed in speech or writing, these propositions or sentences are analysed by syntax again as sentences or clauses. The main part of the sentence will be described as the sub%ect and the predicate in both logic and linguistics. Thoughts, therefore, communicated or not, constitute themselves as logical units, materiali&ed in a written or oral form, having specific rules, and grammar analyses them as syntactic units. As basic syntactic units are called sentences, the syntactic subunits are necessarily called parts of the simple sentence 'or clauses in the case of compound or complex (

sentences). The parts of the simple sentence will be divided into main*principal 'the subject and the predicate) and secondary 'the attribute + which gravitates around the sub%ect or, less fre,uently round the predicate etc. + the direct, indirect and prepositional objects and the adverbial modifiers + connected with the predicate). The parts of the sentence can take the form of words or combinations of words, words - prepositions or other particles, all these being called phrases '.locuiuni). According to their role in the sentence, i.e. to the word they substitute for, these phrases are called attributive, adverbial, predicative etc. !yntax is concerned with the analysis of the complete logical units mainly, therefore with syntactic units or sense*semantic units, which can be classified in various ways. Thus, the surface structures of the communication may appear in the form of declarative, an 'apparently) interrogative sentence, as an imperative or as an exclamation. The attitude of the speaker*writer may also vary in point of modality. The means of expressing modality are ample and diverse. /orphology studies most forms of modality + moods and modal verbs, but some of them are studied by syntax + types of sentences and clauses, modal phrases etc. Intonation too can express modality and so can punctuation or emphasis. II.0lassification of !entences Articulate thoughts find expression in sentences or propositions and take the oral form of utterances. 1anguage and its component elements 'phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases, grammatical rules, structures, patterns etc.) are the materials and means employed by human beings in order to embody their thoughts. 1inguistic expressions and thoughts could be differentiated and classified in point of content and form in the following ways2 (. 0lassification in point of trend or purpose of communication* in point of modality* manner or the speakers attitude 'therefore a matter of content)3 4. 0lassification in point of structure 'of the communication)*of composition 'therefore a matter of form)3

5. 0lassification in point of status or grammatical dependence. All types or subtypes of sentences identified in any of the three classifications can be subdivided into positive and negative, without special mention being made of it. (. 6rom the point of view of trend, sentences are normally divided into 2 (.(.Declarative sentences (.4.Interrogative sentences (.5.Imperative sentences (.7.Exclamatory sentences (.( Declarative sentences 'also called statements) + are used to affirm, declare or state something 'positive or negative), usually without emotional implication, or affective participation. They normally end in a period or full stop and are uttered in the 8Tone of 6inality* Decision9. e.g. The ,uestion you asked has already been answered* was answered only a couple of minutes ago, so we can go straight to the next ,uestion , if you all agree. As such sentences can be either positive or negative, the arrangement of words will differ accordingly. (.4 Interrogative sentences + are expressions of the speaker:s* writer:s curiosity. There are certain re,uirements in point of word order and the tones adopted depend on their subdivision2 (.4.(. general uestions 3 (.4.4. special!particular uestions3 (.4.5. alternative uestions" (.4.7. dis#unctive uestions. All of them normally end in a ,uestion mark. (.4.(. $eneral uestions + refer to the truth of the entire sentence, and so the answer may be %ust ;E! or <=, or a corresponding gesture> 'They are fre,uently called YES/NO questions). They are the typical reflection of genuine*pure curiosity and are also called 8straightforward uestions9. Their tone is generally that of genuine curiosity ' high rise). e.g. Is it raining? /ust you really go? @ave you finished? 5

$ord order in general uestions involves partial grammatical inversion, in concrete words, an inversion of place between the sub%ect and the auxiliary*modal verb. (.4.4. Special!particular uestions + refer only to one*to a specific part of the sentence*statement, so that they expect a definite answer. The fact that they begin with an interrogative pronoun or adverb %ustifies their familiar designation as WHquestions. e.g. When did he leave? Why have they left? The intonation of these ,uestions usually goes down, so we have 8fall tune9, like in all languages. (.4.5. %lternative uestions + are based on the presence of several possibilities or alternatives and are subdivided into2

limited* finite 'which give 4 or more possibilities)3 e.g. Do they speak English or omanian? open* unlimited 'when the possibilities are more than those listed)3

e.g. $hat will you have, my dear, coffee, tea or a glass of wine? 'or something else?) (.4.5.7. Dis#unctive uestions A are statements followed by a ,uestion, the ,uestion having the opposite direction than the statement2 A a positive statement followed by an interrogative + negative ,uestion3 e.g. !ue is your younger sister, isnt she? A a negative statement followed by an interrogative ,uestion proper. e.g. It hasn"t rained, has it? /ost such ,uestions are merely rhetorical, however the intonation differentiates them in point of modality. $hen the intonation falls, the speaker expects the interlocutor to merely confirm what was already known 'i.e. what is asserted in the basic statement). e.g. It hasn"t rained, has it? '<o, it hasn"t + of course.) $hen we have rising intonation, either an affirmative or a negative answer can be expected, i.e. we actually re,uest information. 7

e.g. The trip starts on /onday, doesn"t it? ';es, it does. * <o, it doesn"t.) (.5. Imperative sentences + include commands proper, re uests, invitations. They usually end in an exclamation mark. e.g. 0ome> #ring them tonight 'please)> Don"t forget me> !peak a little louder, will you? In English, the most polite invitations, re,uests or suggestions are formulated as ,uestions. e.g. $ould you mind turning off your cellAphone? !hall we discuss it later? $on"t you wait for me? (.7. &xclamatory sentences + are more clearly connected with our emotions. They may denote attitudes + positive or superlative 'admiration, %oy, surprise, happiness, etc.) or negative 'horror, disgust, regret, disappointment, etc.). $ord order remains the same, but exclamatory sentences usually begin with adverbs, pronouns, etc., inversion is fre,uent and sometimes they include the analytic form of the sub%unctive with should. In written form, they end in an exclamation mark. '. 6rom the point of view of their structure*composition*form, three main types of sentences can be distinguished 2 '.(. '.'. The simple sentence A expressing %ust one thought at a time, by means of one predicate. The compound sentence + a thought which includes more units than one, placed on an e,ual footing '. fra)a compus* prin coordonare), i.e. a sentence made up of two or more clauses '. propo)iii coordonate), which discharge the same function and are connected between them with or without coordinating con%unctions. '.+. The complex sentence + '. fra)a compus* prin subordonare), that is a unit of thinking made up of one or more main *principal clauses '. propo)iii principale) and one or more subordinate clauses '.propo)iii secundare!subordonate).

In both speech and writing we sometimes use compound , complex sentences, i.e. situations in which both coordination and subordination are used in the same syntactic unit, or complex , compound sentences, accordingly. 5. 6rom the point of view of their status 'of dependence or independence) or, in other words, of grammatical dependence, sentences can be classified into2 5.(. Independent sentences 'isolated)3 5.4. Independent clauses 'as part of a compound sentence)3 5.5. -ain ! principal ! head clauses 'in complex sentences)3 5.7. .egent clauses 'as part of a complex sentence, in case there are two degrees* three levels of subordination)3 5.B. Subordinate! secondary clauses 'again as part of complex sentences). 5.(. Independent sentences + are simple sentences, their name differing only function of the angle form which they are viewed2 in this case not structure*composition, but relative status*condition*situation . e.g. It is C o"clock. ;ou will have to rush to school. If linked by con%unctions, independent sentences become independent clauses. e.g. It is C o"clock and you will have to rush to school. If they are placed in a hierarchy, they turn into main clauses, subordinate clauses proper or regent clauses. e.g. It is C o"clock so you will have to rush to school, unless you want to be late again. 5.4. Independent clauses + are the complete elements or units which are brought together in a closer connection as part of the speech chain, without being dependent upon each other or upon anything else 'in point of meaning or grammatical relationship). In their case, commas or con%unctions can be replaced by fullAstops, without altering their meaning in this way. e.g. The class has ended and now we can leave. The class has ended. <ow we can leave. 5.5 -ain clauses 'principal!head clauses) + are the elements that rank first in the hierarchy established as part of a complex sentence, i.e. they have in their subordination both secondary *subordinate clauses and regent clauses + in case the latter are present. 'They are usually statements, although ,uestions, imperatives or exclamations). D

5.7. .egent clauses + have the intermediate position, i.e. they have ambivalent*twofold*hybrid nature of governed and governing at the same time. They behave as subordinates to the main clause's) while governing the subordinate clause's) proper. 5.B. Subordinate!secondary clauses A are indispensable elements of complex sentences. @ere is an e,uivalence of terms between omanian and English, which summari&es the classification dealt with before2 E Eropo&iFie independentG*simplG independent*simple sentence propo&iFie independentG coordonatG 'Hn cadrul unei fra&e compuse prin coordonare) propo&iFie principalG 'Hn cadrul unei fra&e compuse prin subordonare) propo&iFie secundarG*subordonatG 'idem) propo&iFie regentG 'idem) fra&G 'compusG) prin coordonare fra&G 'compusG) prin subordonare locuFiune gramaticalG expresie =r, viceAversa2 I coordinated independent clause 'as part of a compound sentence) main*principal*head clause 'as part of a complex sentence) subordinate*secondary clause 'idem) regent clause 'idem) compound sentence complex sentence grammatical phrase idiom, idiomatic phrase

E !entence2


A propo&iFie independentG*simplG

0ompound'two or more independent clauses)

A fra&G compusG prin coordonare

0omplex 'one main clause or more - one or more subordinated clauses).

A fra&G compusG prin subordonare



A propo&iFie independentG 'as part of a 8fra&G compusG prin coordonare9)


A propo&iFie principalG 'as part of a 8fra&G compusG prin subordonare9)

A subordinate

A propo&iFie secundarG*subordonatG 'idem)

A regent Ehrase2

A propo&iFie regentG 'idem)

locuFiune gramaticalG 'ad%ectivalG, prepo&iFionalG, con%unctivalG etc.)

The Syntax of the Simple Sentence

A simple sentence, although assumed by many people to be made up of a sub%ect and a predicate only, consists of both main parts 'sub%ect and predicate) and, most often, secondary parts, too. !imple sentences are subdivided into2 (. Simple unextended sentences '. propo)iii simple nede)voltate) + made up of sub%ect and predicate. e.g. @e has arrived. !he is asleep. /ary wouldn"t understand. Joe was walking. 4. Simple extended sentences '. propo)iii simple de)voltate) + made up of main parts 'sub%ect and predicate) - the direct* indirect * prepositional ob%ect, adverbial modifier's) etc. e.g. <ot very long ago he went there almost weekly. At four o"clock yesterday, the man with his wife went to the doctor"s by car. 5. &lliptical simple sentences '. propo)iii simple eliptice) + which miss a part of the sentence that is considered otherwise essential 'sub%ect or predicate). e.g. 0are for a walk? '. Krei sG ne plimbam? + misses auxiliary do and sub%ect you) <ice to see you> 'missing the sub%ect it and the linking vb. to be). !uch sentences are peculiar to collo,uial English, or stage directions 'e.g. 8Loes to table 1.9). 7. /ne0member sentences '. propo)iii monomembre) include %ust one element to convey the gist of an idea, the essential. <ominal elements usually prevail in such sentences, that"s why they are also called 8nominal sentences9 '.propo)iii nominale). e.g. I went in. Darkness. !ilence. !moke. In literature, such sentences occur ,uite fre,uently in Dickens: works2 e.g. !ilence between them. The deadly statistically clock very hollow. The distant smoke very black and heavy. 'Hard Times, 0h MK). N

The Parts of the Sentence ! The Subject In grammar, roughly speaking, the sub%ect is the element under discussion, while the predicate is the element which says something about it. Erofessor 1eon 1eviFchi pointed out the fact that the role of the sub%ect is usually anaphoric, that is limited to reminding one about the topic of the discussion, while the role of the predicate is more important + bringing new elements concerning the problem discussed, i.e. epiphoric. In concrete terms, the sub%ect is the element which is known to the speaker in most cases, and thus, logically, English sentences begin with it. If it is unknown, we notice that the English people too leave it to the end of the sentence, where most of the emphasis falls. In such cases, a temporary substitute is used for introducing it. The sub%ect is however, always expressed in English, except in the following two situations. (.(.In imperative sentences 2 e.g. Take it back> Don"t wait for me> (.4. In elliptical speech2 e.g. <eed some help? To conclude, it is important not only to take care that the sub%ect is expressed in an English sentence, but also, when translating from English into omanian, be careful not to translate every sub%ect pronoun, because the effects can change the meaning 'unwanted emphasis and a clumsy text in which pronouns are in excess). DE6I<ITI=<2 The subject is that principal part of the sentence which shows who!what performs the action expressed by the predicate or to whom!to what a feature or characteristic expressed by the predicative is ascribed. The sub%ect answers the ,uestions2 who? or what? $ays of expressing the sub%ect2 a. by a noun in the nominative case 2 e.g. The little boy was ill in bed. '.a noun phrase) The accused were charged with theft. '.an indefinite participle) (O

Martin saw us. '.a proper name) The Prince and the Pau er is a story by /. Twain. 'a group of words indicating a title*an institution). b. by a pronoun 2 e.g. Do you know her? '.a personal pronoun) This book is yours, mine is at home. '.a possessive pronoun) Is this your car? '.a demonstrative pronoun) Who will come with me? '.an interrogative pronoun) This is the house !hich burnt last year. '.a relative pronoun) What will be will be. '.a con%unctive + relative pronoun) "ll is not gold that glitters. '.an indefinite pronoun) E#erybody speaks English here. '.a generic absolute pronoun) They say he is a poet. '.a generic limited pronoun) Nothin$ succeeds like success. '.a negative pronoun) %i#e 'of them) were present. '.a numeral pronoun) c. by a numeral 2 e.g. $here one is wise, t!o are happy. '.cardinal) The second arrived late. '.ordinal) d. by an infinitive 2 e.g. To romise and $i#e nothin$ is comfort to a fool. e. by a gerundial construction 2 e.g. &eadin$ is easier than writing. f. a substantivised part of speech 2 e.g. Yesterday will not be called again. g. by a group of words whose nature may differ 2 e.g. Not a soul did he meet on his way. h. by a subordinate sub%ect clause 2 ((

e.g. What is !orth doin$ is worth doing well.

"lassification of Subjects A. 6rom the point of view of their semantic content *value 'i.e. the amount of meaning which they carry)2 (. $rammatical sub#ects 'formal*apparent sub%ects)3

are directly connected with the predicate and determining agreement between the latter and the sub%ect 2

e.g. ' know the children don"t like it. 4. 1ogical!real sub#ects, pointing to the agent, the real doer of the action3 The logical sub%ect is not identical to the grammatical sub%ect in the following situations2 a. in passive constructions 3 b. in introductory constructions. a. 2assive constructions 2 e.g. <ew pri&es have been won by the famous artist. In this sentence, the grammatical sub%ect does not point to the doer of the action. The logical sub%ect is what we call in English a prepositional ob#ect of agent. In English it is either the direct or the indirect ob%ect that may become sub%ect of the passive construction. e.g. @e .eal S. gave pred . me i.o. this 'brilliant) idea. d.o. to me i.o. by him. optional prep.ob#. of agent 4real ! logical sub#ect this idea retained by him. optional of agent (4

(. This brilliant idea gram. sub#. 3attribute. 4. I was given passive

was given passive pred.



4 real!logical sub#ect

b. 5onstructions with introductory elements 'it, there, here)3 A can be classified as2 (. %nticipatory + have syntactic function, the emphasis being on the predicative, as more important for the meaning of the sentence 2 e.g. 't is nice of him to have said that. The constructions with there lay emphasis on the existence or absence of the real sub%ect. Kerbs other than 8to be9 can be used with there, to lay emphasis either on the existence or on the semantic content of these verbs3 e.g. There came nothing out of the sack but what was in it.'prov.) 4. %nnouncing or exclamatory + which are supposed to emphasi&e the coming of the real sub%ect2 e.g. Here*There he is. Here*There he comes. '.IatGAl cG vine.) 5. &mphatic constructions + are used to emphasi&e various parts of the sentence, as follows2 a. the real sub%ect 2 e.g. It is he who broke the window. It is I who said it. b. the direct ob%ect 2 e.g. It was a book that I brought as a present. c. the indirect ob%ect 2 e.g. It is to her that I owe everything. d. the prepositional ob%ect 2 e.g. It is about .omania that I was talking, not the P.!.A. e. the adverbial modifier of manner 2 e.g. It is but reluctantly that he answered my ,uestions. f. the adverbial modifier of manner 2 e.g. It was by a frightful storm that they arrived. (5

g. the adverbial modifier of place 2 e.g. It was at the office that I had found him. h. the adverbial modifier of time 2 e.g. It is a decade ago that he last came here. 7. Impersonal sub#ects + do not refer to a definite person or thing. They may refer to 2 a. time 'when they refer to hours, days, parts of the day, etc.) e.g. It was midnight. b. lapse of time e.g. It is a year since we last met. c. weather e.g. It is cold. d. natural phenomena e.g. It is raining e. distance e.g. It"s ten miles to the nearest town. d. the state of things in general e.g. It"s wonderful*awful. #. 6rom the point of view of their form!structure!composition2 (. Simple sub#ects + expressed by one word 'noun *pronoun) sometimes accompanied by an attribute. e.g. Susan left the room . S ea(in$ English is obligatory. 4. 5ompound sub#ects + two or three elements representing one person*thing. e.g. Ham and e$$s is very popular with the Americans. My sister and )riend is here to help me. 5. 5oordinated sub#ects + two or more elements referring to several notions %oined by coordinated con%unctions. Agreement is usually in the plural. e.g. She and her dau$hter have come back.


7. 5omplex sub#ects + made up of heterogeneous elements, inseparable because only together they give the meaning of the sub%ect. They may be made up of 2 a. a for0 to phrase e.g. %or me to understand this is difficult. b. a nominative - infinitive e.g. She was heard to unloc( the door. c. a nominative - an indefinite participle e.g. She was heard unloc(in$ the door. d. a subordinate sub%ect clause e.g. That she can mana$e is beyond hope. Ho! he succeeded I cannot understand. B. Double sub#ect + made up of both a 'proper) noun and a pronoun often present in the literary 'absolute use)3 e.g. 8The land it is the landlord"s Q9 'Ernest 0harles Jones)

The Place of the Subject

In declarative, affirmative and negative sentences, the sub%ect usually stays at the beginning of the sentence. It can be preceded by its ad%ectival attributes, with which it forms the sub%ect *group *unit, or by adverbial modifiers of manner, of attendant circumstances, of definite time and, rarely, of place. In interrogative and interrogative + negative sentences the sub%ect is preceded by the auxiliary*modal verb. Eeculiarities of English Pse Pnlike omanian, English re,uires an expressed sub%ect. The omission of the sub%ect is, however, possible with coordinated predicates and in set phrases. The sub%ect is not repeated in an enumeration of predicates2 (B

e.g. @e came, saw and con,uered. The sub%ect is generally omitted in constructions beginning with as2 e.g. As is usual*As is normal*As is but natural*As was to be expected *As was shown elsewhere, ...

The A#reement bet$een the Predicate and the Subject

In English, the problem of concordance is limited only to the agreement in person and especially in number. ! A#reement in Person The person of the finite verb corresponds to that indicated by the sub%ect. There are, however, cases of difficulty2 one of the them is related to the sub%ects denoting different persons and coordinated by either6or, neither6nor, not only6but also, as well as, no less than7 like, without2 (.( The rule of proximity '.acordul prin atracFie) can be applied here, the predicate agrees with the sub%ect that is closest to it2 e.g. Either you or I am to do it. <either you nor I was at home. /ost grammars recommend avoiding such clumsy constructions and advise us either to repeat the verb2 e.g. Either you are to do it or I am. <either you were at home nor I was. =r to use a verbal form without person distinction2 e.g. Either you or I have to do it. <either you nor I happened to be at home. (.4. !ub%ects denoting different persons and coordinated by the con%unction and take a plural verb but are held to apply a rule of precedence of the first person over the second and the latter over the third. e.g. @elen and I '.we) have known each other for years. (D

@elen and you '.you two) are very much alike. @elen and /ary '.they) have grown up together. %! A#reement in Number The problem of agreement in number is more complicated in English than in omanian. There are many rules and exceptions, several types of agreement in number between the predicate and the sub%ect, either for whole categories of sub%ects or for isolated cases. !ome of the difficulties arise from the great difference between English and omanian in point of the idea of number in nouns. =thers derive from the usage of pronouns 'especially indefinite) and the various categories of sub%ects 'simple, compound, co+ordinated and complex). !ometimes different speakers*writers use them in different ways and even grammar books have different points of view. A couple of situations, however, could have been established2 I. the sub%ect takes a singular verb3 II. a singular or a plural verb is employed, in keeping with the meaning of the sub%ect3 III. a singular or a plural verb is employed, in keeping with the speakerRs*writer"s desire 'optional agreement)3 IK. the sub%ect takes only a plural verb3 K. the verb agrees with one of the several sub%ects in the sentence. @ere is a detailed presentation of each of each of them, in turns2 I. A predicate in the singular follows2 a. An individual noun in the singular2 e.g. The boy was playing in the garden. b. A proper noun*name in the singular2 e.g. #en <evis is #ritain"s highest mountain. c. A proper noun e,uivalent in the singular2 e.g. The moon is the satellite of the earth. d. A noun of material singular in form2 e.g. 0otton has various uses. e. Abstractions 'and abstract nouns seen as uni,ue)2 e.g. Thinking was difficult. (I

Economics is studied in all schools. The news is good. ;our advice is welcome. The information was necessary. As we remember, when focus is laid on the plural meaning of these nouns, a ,uantifier must be used2 a piece of*several pieces of news, information, etc., which allows either a singular or a plural verb to be used, according to meaning. f. A singularia tantum2 e.g. The furniture looks new and modern. The luggage was left on the floor. g. !ingular nouns coAcoordinated by and not, but, like, no less than, as well as2 e.g. Emily, no less than her sister, was a great writer. Anne #rontS, as well as her sisters, is known to have used a pen name. h. A singular verb follows the nouns gallows and money2 e.g. The gallows is a sinister presence in this book. The money is in his pocket. i. !ubstantivised ad%ectives 'and participles) denoting abstractions take a e.g. The evil that men do lives after them. The good is often interred with their bones. '!hakespeare) %. The verb following after it is always singular2 e.g. It is I who did it. k. The interrogative pronoun what 'used as a sub%ect) is followed by a singular verb2 e.g. $hat is going on here? l. /ost indefinite pronouns 'another7 each7 less7 little7 a little7 much7 one) as well as the pronominal compounds of some, any, no and every are followed by a singular verb3 the word none is an exception2 e.g. 1ittle is left to say about it. !omebody is to help him with this pro%ect. m. A singular predicate agrees with compound sub%ects2 e.g. @ere comes my good sister and friend. n. 0ertain types of coordinated sub%ects 'coordinated infinitives) are (C singular predicate2

followed by a singular predicate2 e.g. To promise and to give nothing is to comfort a fool. 'proverb) o. !ingular sub%ects coordinated by either6or, neither6nor. e.g. Either the child or his mother is to be present. <either advice nor experience is enough. p. 0oordinated sub%ects introduced by there and here follow the same rule, if the first is in the singular2 e.g. There is a bottle and a glass on the sideboard. @ere comes my friend and his sons. ,. 0oordinated nouns accompanied by each and every are followed by a singular verb too2 e.g. Every man and woman is given a ,uestionnaire. II. This situation concerns sub%ects whose meaning entails the use of a singular or plural predicate2 (. 5ollective nouns such as people 8. 8popor9), nation, the peasantry, parliament, government, mankind, crew, family, group7 crew7 faculty7 8teaching9 staff7 party7 union7 federation7 leadership7 professoriate7 ma#ority7 minority7 army take a singular verb when their abstract meaning is used and a plural verb when they refer to a number of human beings whose actions, thoughts, gestures are indicated. e.g. /y family has always been called !mith. #ut2 /y family have gone on a holiday. As a most general rule, collective nouns are considered singular and therefore take a singular verb when they are seen as a whole, or when they are considered as abstractions. The same nouns can take a plural verb when the idea of collectiveness or group is implied 'especially for people). 4. Individual nouns of multitude 'which have the same form in the singular and plural) take a singular or plural predicate function of the singular or plural meaning of the noun they denote. e.g. The fish are*is swimming. /ost nouns in this category belong to &oology2 deer, sheep, bison, grouse, moose, fish, carp, trout, cod, salmon, etc. (N

=thers refer to measures and numbers2 one*two brace 'of partridges), one*two gross 'of stockings), couple, do)en, score, head, ton, stone.

4. !ome nouns can get either a singular or a plural verb, but with a different meaning. e.g. # AI<! 0=PE1E, EAI /EA<! !TATI!TI0! !g. creier soFi instrument TtiinFa statisticii El. minte doi, pereche mi%loace, posibilitGFi operaFia Hn sine, documente de statisticG 5. Agreement of the predicate is in the singular or the plural when the nouns bulk, ma#ority, number, part, plenty, proportions, range, series, succession, variety are followed by a plural noun accompanied by the preposition of2 e.g. A variety of answers are possible. The variety of alternatives was too great. It is also to be noted that in the former case the stress falls on answers, rather than their variety, while in the latter, variety is the main focus of the sentence. 7. 0ertain indefinite pronouns are followed by a singular or a plural verb2 that, which, who, all, any, either, some, more2 e.g. It is the boy that won. $hich is*are yours? $ho is*are the next? III. A few sub%ects may be followed by a singular or a plural predicate, according with the speaker"s*writer"s wish. In such cases there are no restrictions imposed. (. The first case is that of plural titles of books, newspapers and maga)ines. e.g. S(etches by *o+ are!is known to be Dickens"s first book. The singular, however, is preferred. 4. Elural names of diseases and games are usually followed by a singular 4O vs. It is the parents that pay for it.

verb 'which is actually predominant), but some speakers prefer the plural. !ome such examples are2 measles, mumps, rickets, hysterics and billiards, draughts, forfeits, marbles, skittles, musical chairs, etc. 5. Elural names of buildings, establishments, offices, etc2 works, head uarters. e.g. The P<= head,uarters is*are in <;. 7. Elural nouns preceded by plural measures, weights, numeratives or ,uantifiers may be followed by a singular verb if they are taken to be units2 e.g. Three fifths of this is*are enough. Three pounds are*is too much. B. A difficult case is provided by the noun wages. It is used in the plural with the plural meaning of 8salarii9 but in connection with the singular meaning of 8salariu9 there is some fluctuation in use. /odern tendencies prefer a singular predicate, for the less complicated form of wage. e.g. And what are its wages? In collocations like minimum wage, average wage, living wage, starvation wage a singular predicate follows. D. This is also illustrated by the situation of the noun contents. In most cases it is used with a singular verb, but occasionally it takes a plural verb, especially when it means table of contents. e.g. The content's) of the book is not very interesting. The contents '. cuprinsul) are usually placed at the beginning of the book. I. The phrase more than 6 followed by a noun may take a singular or a plural verb. e.g. /ore than half the students is*are present. C. Among indefinite pronouns which are used with a singular verb, the word none has a fluctuating usage. e.g. <one is*are in favour of my proposal.


N. Arithmetical operations are expressed either with the singular or the plural2 e.g. Three and five is*are eight. IK. This situation refers to certain sub%ects which admit only a plural predicate. (. Defective individual nouns 'pluralia tantum)2 e.g. trousers, slacks, bermudas, panties, slips, drawers, py#amas3 pincers, tongs, pliers, twee)ers3 whiskers, bowels3 thanks, auspicies, doings, earnings. 0lothes do not make the man. /ost of these nouns can be ,uantified with a pair of7 two pairs of 'trousers, tongs, etc.) and so become countable. 4. :ouns of multitude, most of them denoting groups of people, take a plural predicate. e.g. A people, folk, militia, police, clergy, the military, etc. A poultry, vermin, cattle + denote groups of other living beings. e.g. The police were chasing the thieves. 5. 2lural names of sciences take a plural verb when they are determined2 e.g. The acoustics of this room are very good. 7. The nouns athletics and gymnastics re,uire plural predicates. e.g. Lymnastics are important for our health. B. A plural verb follows a singular noun if the latter is accompanied by two or several ad%ectives that differentiate it. e.g. 1yrical and epical poetry were both flourishing. D. Abstractions or names of material in the singular may take a plural predicate if they are modified by two coordinated attributes. e.g. @ot and cold water run at the tap. I. As to other parts of speech used as sub%ect, substantivi&ed ad%ectives and participles with a collective meaning 'referring to people) get a plural verb. 44

e.g. The wounded were taken to the hospital. C. A small number of pronouns re,uire this type of agreement, namely both and none of them2 e.g. There are two solutions, but both are unacceptable. N. The phrase one or two re,uires a plural predicate. e.g. =ut of these books, only one or two are interesting. (O. 5oordinated gerunds take a plural verb. e.g. eading and writing are important skills. ((. The rule says that coordinated sub#ects are followed by a plural verb, but we must take care that they are not included among exceptions2 e.g. A fool and his money are soon parted. K. !ituation B2 (. Lenerally speaking, agreement is with the first sub%ect. In case the two sub%ects differ in person, agreement is made with the sub%ect which is closest to the predicate ' the rule of proximity. acordul prin atracie). e.g. <ot only I, but also he sings awfully. @e is angry and so are we. 4. <ouns connected by with or together with are followed by a verb which agrees with the first of them. e.g. The father, together with his children, is expected today. The children, together with their father, are expected today. 5. !ub%ects connected by the con%unction as well as will get a predicate in agreement with the first of them. e.g. The luggage, as well as some of the tickets, was lost. The tickets, as well as the luggage, were lost. !ome grammarians, however, recommend using and and the repetition of the verb. In this way, an apparent clumsiness of sub%ectAverb agreement can be avoided. 45

e.g. #oth the luggage and the tickets were lost. =r2 The luggage was lost and so were the tickets.

The Predicate As it has already been stated, although both the sub%ect and the predicate are considered to be the main parts of the sentence, it is the predicate whose role prevails in a sentence, being actually more important than the sub%ect. It actually carries the essential information about the sub%ect and attracts more attention in the sentence than the sub%ect does. Definition2 % predicate is the principal part of a sentence which shows a9 what the sub#ect does7 b9 what the sub#ect is or c9 what the sub#ect is like. e.g. @e remembered the nurse"s name and face but it was clear that she couldnt have been the same person who was now talking to him. A predicate should necessarily include a verb in a personal mood, either expressed or implied. $hen the verb is expressed it may belong to one of the following categories2 a. Auxiliary, b. /odal or semiAauxiliary of modality, c. !emiAauxiliary of aspect, d. 1inking verb, e. <otional verb, f. =ne in a category difficult to define 'e.g. the verb to have in to have a shower or to have lunch). In cases a, b, and c the predicate also needs a notional verb in a nonAfinite*nonApersonal form. <ormally, parts of the sentence which do not include a verb in a personal mood, but only a nonAfinite*nonApersonal form 'infinitive, gerund or participle) are not considered to be a predicate. 0lassification of Eredicates2


The classification of predicates is made from the point of view of content and structure at the same time 'unlike the sub%ect). $e can thus identify2 I. &erbal predicates2 A !imple verbal predicates2 Asimple proper A phraseological predicates A 0ompound verbal predicates2 A compound modal verbal predicates A compound aspect verbal predicates II. III. Nominal predicates2 A<ominal predicates proper ADouble nominal predicates. 'ixed types of predicates '%oining elements from the first type to others from the second type).

(! &erbal predicates
Kerbal predicates necessarily include at least one personal form of a notional or auxiliary verb A generating simple predicates + or a nonApersonal*nonAfinite form of a notional verb preceded by a semiAauxiliary of modality 'modal verb) or of aspectAgenerating compound verbal predicates. They can be subAdivided into two main types2 (. Simple predicates A which express %ust one verbal idea and merely state the action, and sometimes the time when it is performed. 4. 5ompound verbal predicates 'in contrast with compound nominal predicates) which do not state, show or indicate the action pure and simple, but accompanied by certain special features, either of modality or aspect. (. Simple 2redicates (.( The !imple Eredicate Eroper A merely states an action and the time when it is affected. It is expressed by a verb in a personal mood, in a certain tense, either simple* synthetic 'e.g. the present or past indicative or the imperative) or compound*analytic 'e.g. continuous and perfect tenses, the future, the conditional, all the tenses in the passive voice, etc). e.g. I said that I must have been walking for an hour already. I had been shown the way to the station and yet I didnt find it. ;ave you made up your mind?


(.4 The Ehraseological Eredicate A consists of two phrases which form a whole, indivisible from semantic point of view, sometimes being apt to be replaced by one verb and depending for their meaning on other words in the phrase. e.g. They often take a shower before they have dinner. 4. 5ompound <erbal 2redicates , indicate both the action and the way in which it is performed. e.g. @e would often begin to tell a story and then forget it.

((! Nominal Predicates

<ominal predicates are subdivided into the following categories2 (. :ominal predicate proper A shows the state or ,uality of the sub%ect or the evolution of that state or ,uality. It is made up of a linking verb '. verb copulativ) and a predicative '. nume predicativ). e.g. @e was ready to start. The linking verbs or copulas 'sometimes called semiAauxiliaries) are all intransitive verbs. They indicate the morphological categories of the verb, therefore the formal elements of the predicate 'aspect, voice, tense, mood, person and number). The predicate depends on its meaning on the predicative. There are several categories of 'semiAauxiliary) verbs which can be used as linking verbs2 a. Kerbs of bein# or state2 to be, to stand, to feel. e.g. !he was a very timid girl. b. Kerbs of remainin# or continuin#, like2 to continue, to keep, to remain, to hold, to stay. e.g. This rule holds good for everybody. c. Kerbs of becomin# or of transition from one state to another, like2 to become, to get, to grow, to turn, to fall, to run, to go, to prove, to turn out, etc. e.g. The boy fell asleep soon. This river runs dry in summer. The mountain grew visible in the distance. 4D

d. Kerbs of seemin# or appearin#2 to seem, to appear, to look. e.g. @e appeared sad. The predicative may be expressed by various parts of speech in the sphere of the nomina2 a. a noun in the nominative or genitive2 e.g. !he is an actress. The book is my sisters. b. a predicative adjective2 e.g. It"s nice of you to have come. c. a personal, possessive, indefinite or interrogative pronoun2 e.g. $ho"s there? It"s I*It"s me. This house is mine. d. a noun, a #erund or pronoun $ith a preposition2 e.g. ;ou look like him. e. a cardinal or an ordinal numeral2 e.g. $e are twenty. f. an infinitive or infinitival phrase2 e.g.9 To be or not to be, that is the ,uestion.9 g. a #erundial phrase2 e.g. @is hobby is traveling by ship. h. a predicative clause2 e.g. The truth is I dont like it. 4. Double!5omplex 2redicate A is a form which doesn"t really find proper e,uivalents in other languages. In the sentence 8The moon rose red9, in a double predicative we have to do with the contraction of two sentences or clauses reconstituted as 8The moon was red when it rose.9 or 8The moon rose. It was red.9 In other interpretations, the ad%ectives following the verb are described either as subject complements '.elemente suplimentare pe lUngG subiect) or as predicative adjuncts '.elemente predicative suplimentare).=ther examples2 E.g. The house has long stood empty. The tents lay silent in the moonlight. The sun came out hot. 4I

(((! 'ixed Types of Predicates

0ertain types of predicates may combine together, giving rise to mixed forms, such as phraseological and nominal predicates, or compound modal and phraseological predicates, compound modal plus aspect verbal predicates ' ;e cannot stop doing it.), compound verbal and nominal 'I cant help feeling proud.), or verbal aspect plus compound nominal predicates ' I started being angry with him.), etc. @ere are some examples of mixed predicates2 e.g. ainy days can be unpleasant. 'compound modal verbal plus nominal predicate) To be sure I will give you a call as I pass. 'compound modal verb - phraseological predicate) I began to feel hungry. 'compound aspect verb - nominal predicate)

Synoptic classification of predicates

!imple predicates proper !imple verbal predicates Ehraseological predicates I. Kerbal predicates 0ompound verbal predicates 0ompound aspect verbal predicates 0ompound modal verbal predicates

<ominal predicates proper II. '0ompound) <ominal Eredicates Double*complex nominal predicates


III. /ixed predicates e.g. 2 0ompound modal verbal - nominal predicate 0ompound modal verbal - phraseological predicate 0ompound aspect verbal - nominal predicate 0ompound aspect verbal - phraseological predicate !imple verbal - nominal predicate

Secondary Parts of the Sentence

)bjects* +irect, (ndirect and Prepositional =b%ects are secondary parts of the sentence completing the meaning of a verb or an ad%ective or noun. They are nominal parts of the sentence and can be expressed by the same means as the sub%ect. There are verbs in English which cannot form a meaningful predicate if they are not followed by an ob%ect 'e.g. to wish, to allow). =ther ob%ects are used to round off the meaning of ad%ectives and nouns. e.g. $e are all confident of his success. I am sorry for her. In English, we distinguish the following kinds of ob%ects2 (. +irect objects 'in the accusative or ob%ect case), most of them corresponding to the omanian 8complemente directe9. An exception is the complex ones, which are rendered by phrases or other means. e.g. I saw him in the street. 4. (ndirect objects 'in the dative or ob%ect case), restricted to utili&ation after transitive verbs denoting transmission especially of some ob%ect or abstract notion and usually expressed by a '-human) noun or pronoun. e.g. !he wrote me a letter and asked me to send some money to her. 5. Prepositional objects in the accusative including items that correspond to the omanian complements of agent, relation, means, the sociative and instrumental ones, as well 4N

as any other complement formed of a noun or noun substitute preceded by the preposition A e.g. of relation A apart from the indirect ob%ects. ! The +irect )bject ,e)inition2 The direct ob%ect is a secondary part of the sentence indicating the person7 thing or abstract notion that directly receives7 suffers or attracts the action of a transitive verb 8simple or complex9 as well as of a transitive phrase. The direct ob%ect always stays in the accusative case and it answers the ,uestion $hom- or $hate.g. @ave you had tea yet? I saw her yesterday. =f the three pounds you gave her, she has only two left. They wanted to go to a show. !he began talking loudly. $ays of expressing the direct ob%ect2 (.( a noun 'common or verbal), a proper name2 e.g. I don"t see the #oke. I"ve met 2eter. It saves working. (.4 a pronoun2 e.g. They use it every day. @e didn"t do anything. (.5 a substantivi.ed adjective or past participle2 e.g. @e helped the blind and the wounded. (.7. a numeral2 e.g. I offered him four, but he only took two. (.B an infinitive or an infinitival phrase2 e.g. I want to see the house. @e"ll show you how to do it. (.D. a #erundial phrase2 e.g. I like driving a car. (.I. any part of speech2 e.g. !ay when. !ay half0and0half. 5O

(.C. a #roup of $ords'including such constructions as the accusative- infinitive, etc.) e.g. Try some whisky and soda. I thought he would come and say how do you do? (.N. a subordinate object clause2 e.g. =hat will I do if he leaves, I don"t know. I"d like to know what he has against me. Elace of the direct ob%ect2 The direct ob%ect should stay, as a rule, right after its verb, and can only be separated from it in exceptional situations2 e.g. @e made K# his speech D= on the spot.

!yntactic units which can stay between the D= and its K# are2 a. an indirect ob%ect2 e.g. Live her 'I=) my regards 'D=). b. a prepositional ob%ect or an adverbial or a 8predicate of result9, when the direct ob%ect is a long phrase or has an attribute or a relative clause, or when it is an infinitive2 e.g. I know he wrote'K#) to everyone in his office 'prepositional ob%ect) a postcard 'D=) with a few words 'attribute). I put down 'K#) on the table 'predicative of result) the box 'D=) taken from the boy 'attribute). This interference is permitted so as to avoid confusion. c. adverbial particles which are part of complex verbs2 e.g. @e knocked out 'adverb) the ashes 'D=) from his pipe. The 0ognate =b%ect or Accusative !ome intransitive verbs can have a direct ob%ect of the same root with their verb 'sometimes of a different root) and this ob%ect repeats the idea of the verb. This is called a cognate ob%ect or accusative '.9complement intern9) and in this case the verb is considered to be transitive. e.g. I dreamed a lovely dream. !he sang a nice song. @e always goes his own way. 5(

Kerbs with two Direct =b%ects !ome verbs can get two direct ob%ects2 to answer, to entreat, to envy, to forgive, to hear, to re,uest, to save, to strike, to teach, etc. e.g. !he answered me 'D=) many uestions 'D=). !he taught us 'D=) the alphabet 'D=). The difficulty of these verbs for omanian students consists in their often being taken for I= and D= respectively. 0lassification of Direct =b%ects in point of structure*composition (. Simple ob#ects A expressed by a single word, possibly determined and modified by attributes or an attributive clause2 e.g. ead it to me. I received the letter he had sent. 4. 5oordinated ob#ects A two or several nouns or nounAe,uivalents in the accusative discharging an identical syntactic function in relation to a transitive verb or verbal phrase. e.g. @e may bring many arguments7 ob#ections or disbeliefs. 5. 5ompound ob#ects A similar in structure and function to coordinated ob%ects but dissimilar in that the two or several nouns refer to only one person, ob%ect or abstract notion2 e.g. I sometimes hate my friend and adviser for being so frank. 7. Double ob#ects A designate the direct ob%ects connected with the same transitive verb, but answering different ,uestions + $hom- and $hat-.They usually follow a limited number of verbs2 to ask, to answer, to forgive, to envy. e.g. Ask me no uestions. B. 5omplex ob#ects A are ob%ective constructions which complete the meaning of a very long range of transitive verbs. They include two inseparable parts2 a nominal part, an ob%ect proper and another part with which it is linked and which completes it. e.g. As the sentence fell from my lips I could see the relief come, I could see the drawn muscles relax, and the anxiety go out of the 54

face, and rest and peace steal over the featuresQ I heard a man say 2 81ook at his eye9. I thought I would call and make the things perfectly certain. '/ark Twain2 Ho! ' Edited an "$ricultural Pa er) /any authors consider it as a predicative ad%unct '.9element predicativ suplimentar9). 0omplex ob%ects are formed by means of various constructions, the most fre,uent of which being the accusative with the infinitive and the accusative with the participle. a. out of all the constructions through which the complex ob%ect may be expressed the accusative $ith the infinitive is the most important. e.g. I heard him stop. Do you want me to drive? /ost verbs taking a complex ob%ect can be accompanied by an accusative with the long infinitive, the exceptions being some verbs of perception, the verbs to make, to have and to let. b. the accusative $ith the indefinite / present participle is common after verbs denoting perception, mental or emotional activities. e.g. I saw him running. c. the accusative $ith the past participle is used with a resultative meaning after verbs expressing casual or causative relations, coercion, desire, order. /ost of them follow the verbs to have or to get with the meaning of making, asking, causing somebody to do something. e.g. I had a new pair of shoes made. d. the accusative $ith an adjective e.g. They think me stupid, I assume. e. the accusative $ith a noun e.g. They elected him president. f. #erundial constructions2 Athe genitive with the gerund e.g. I appreciate your helping us. Athe accusative with the gerund e.g. I appreciate you coming over. %! The (ndirect )bject


,e)inition2 The indirect ob%ect is that secondary part of the sentence which completes the meaning of a verb7 indicating the person 8or sometimes the thing or abstract notion9 whom 8or which9 the action of the verb affects!influences! reaches indirectly. Therefore it shows the person* 'more rarely) the thing* the concept indirectly receiving the action of the verb benefiting by that action or being destined to receive the ob%ect of the action. It stays in the dative and answers the ,uestions ' to0 $hom- for $hom- of $hom- to $hatThe indirect ob%ect is usually employed together with the direct one2 e.g. I gave Sandy a present. $hy doesn"t she speak to me? The indirect ob%ect can be expressed by a noun or a substitute of a noun 'pronoun, substantivi&ed ad%ective, numeral, substantivi&ed past participle etc.) 6orm and use2 #asically, there are two types of indirect ob%ect in English2 a. the lon#/ prepositional indirect object, preceded by the preposition to or for1 b. the short/ non-prepositional indirect object, extensively used in conversation. a! the lon# indirect object is used2 A when it determines a noun, an ad%ective or a pronoun3 Awhen there is no direct ob%ect in the sentence2 e.g. !he wrote to me every day. A when the indirect ob%ect is at the beginning of the sentence2 e.g. >or her are all the flowers To whom did you speak? A when the indirect ob%ect is preceded by the direct ob%ect2 e.g. !he gave it to me. A with some verbs such as2 to announce, to appear, to belong, to communicate, to deliver, to explain, to introduce, to leave, to listen, to mention, to reply, to speak, to suggest etc. e.g. !he revealed to us the whole story. b. the short indirect object is the most fre,uently used form and it is used when the ob%ect is placed immediately after the verb2 e.g. I will send him a message. Kerbs with two ob%ects A direct and indirect 57

Transitive verbs usually take two ob%ects A a direct and an indirect one. e.g. @e told her*?ane the truth.

%! The Prepositional )bject Erof. Andrei #antaT points out that the English prepositional ob%ect roughly corresponds to some of the omanian complemente2 complement de agent, complement circumstanFial instrumental, complement circumstanFial sociativ, complement circumstanFial de relaFie, complement circumstanFial opo&iFional, complement circumstanFial cumulativ, complement circumstanFial de excepFie etc. ,e)inition@ The prepositional ob%ect is the secondary part of the sentence completing the meaning of the verb in the sentence 8not necessarily the predicate97 of a noun or of an ad#ective and consisting of a noun or of a noun0e uivalent preceded by a preposition. It is identified only by means of a nonAspecific ,uestion 'unlike those for other parts of a sentence), namely a ,uestion made up of a preposition plus an interrogative pronoun2 ABy whomCD7 AThrough whatCD7 AIn whatCD7 ATo whichCD7 A%bout whatCD7 A=ith whomCD7 A%gainst whatCD7 AIn whose favourCD etc. In the sentence2 8@e drank his tea with lemon and with satisfaction.9 'Dickens) the first ob%ect is a prepositional ob%ect '8=ith whatC9), but the other is rather an adverbial modifier of manner, because it refers to the way*manner in which he drank his tea. The prepositional ob%ect is closely connected with verbs taking an obligatory preposition2 to wait for, to dream of, to aim at, to boast of etc. Lenerally speaking, a prepositional ob%ect may follow both transitive and intransitive verbs. It may also follow complex verbs 'verb - adverb combination)2 e.g. I was looking forward to meeting you. . I was eagerly expecting you 'V@ To whatC). Erepositional ob%ects may follow ad%ectives and nouns, particularly those which through their nature are connected with verbs 'verbal ad%ectives, ad%ectivi&ed past participles, verbal nouns). Examples of ad#ectives usually accompanied by prepositional ob%ect2 surprised, satisfied, content, troubled, angry, concerned. 5B

Examples of nouns taking prepositional ob%ect2 surprise, reaction, response, attitude, anger, satisfaction, concern, preoccupation e.g. I was surprised*angry*revolted*amused*astonished*'disA) satisfied*shocked*outraged*concerned at his behaviour. There was no end of concern*revolt*surprise*Q* at her abandoning her mother. !ince it may follow a noun, an ad%ective, ad%ectivised participle 'which may be used as a predicative) the prepositional ob%ect is connected with nominal predicates too. e.g. Try not to be cross with her. @e did not look much interested in the matter. $hen active sentences containing a prepositional ob%ect are turned into the passive, the prepositional ob%ect may generate a sub%ect. e.g. They are looking into the matter.W The matter is being looked into. Everybody looks up to him.W ;e is looked up to by everybody. Psually the preposition remains at the end of the sentence or clause. 0lassification of Erepositional =b%ects (.(. Prepositional object of a#ent2 denotes the person performing the action. The performer of the action appears as a logical sub%ect in a passive sentence. e.g. @e was interviewed by a reporter. (.4. Prepositional object of instrument/instrumentality A denotes the instrument*tool* utensil, the machine*apparatus through which an action is performed. e.g. @e always writes with a black pen. (.5. Prepositional object of means A referring to the means of transportation. e.g. @e travels by train or by ship but never by plane. @e came riding on his bike. (.7. Prepositional object of association '!ociative prepositional ob%ect) A denotes the person participating in an action with the speaker*writer. e.g. $e live with the .ussell family. 5D

I went there with my friends. (.B. Prepositional object of relation A includes various kinds of relations, attitudes, feelings etc. e.g. @e was in favour of my idea. @er response to the proposal is the same. /eans of expressing the Erepositional =b%ect Eractically, any of the nomina preceded by a preposition can be used as a prepositional ob%ect2 (. A noun* e.g. The woman thought of her daughter. 4. A pronoun, of any kind2 e.g. The boys were fighting with each other. 5. A #erundial phrase* e.g. @e insisted on doing it himself. 7. An infinitival phrase* e.g. @e seems inclined to agree with everybody. B. A prepositional object clause* e.g. I am very much concerned by what has happened.

The Elace of the Erepositional =b%ect (. $hen both a direct and a prepositional ob%ect are present, the direct ob%ect follows he predicate immediately. e.g. @e informed me of his decision. 4. $hen all three types of ob%ects are present, the order is2 direct ob#ect 'with or without attributes), indirect ob#ect 'if followed by attributes), 'if it is short, it comes before the direct ob%ect), prepositional ob#ect 'with or without attributes). e.g. /y mother sent that wonderful present to my sister through a common friend. 5I

'also2 /other sent my sister that beautiful present by post.) 5. The prepositional ob%ect may be placed at the beginning of a sentence, for special emphasis. e.g. =ith such friends, I will never get on well. 7. If the adverbial modifier is much more closely connected with the predicate 'or another verb), the prepositional ob%ect may be moved after the adverbial modifier. e.g. ;ou are walking too fast for me. The same happens when adverbial modifiers of place are closely bound up with the verb that they form syntagms2 to go to school* to church* to the cinema* to the theatre* to go home etc. e.g. I went to school with my friend.

The Adverbial 'odifiers ,e)inition2 An adverbial modifier is a secondary part of the sentence which modifies or renders more precise a verb 8either predicative or not97 an ad#ective or another verb. Its usual function is connected with the main verb in the sentence, i.e. the predicate, the other cases being less fre,uent. In terms of structure, an adverbial modifier is either an adverb or an adverbial modifier '. 8locuFiune circumstanFialG9). Distinction can be made between2 A. 'odifiers of an adverbial nature + i.e. elements which determine a more or less change in the meaning of the predicate or of another verb in the sentence 'e.g. the adverbial modifier of manner, of attending circumstances). #. +eterminative adverbials A whose function is to render the verb more precise, e.g., the ad%ectivised adverbial phrase 'expressing a ,uality in a certain degree) or the adverbial modifiers of degree, intensity, etc. The 0lassification of Adverbial /odifiers


In keeping the function they discharge in the sentence, adverbial modifiers can be classified as follows2 a. adverbial modifier of place and movement3 b. adverbial modifier of time3 c. adverbial modifier of manner and comparison3 d. adverbial modifier of cause3 e. adverbial modifier of purpose3 f. adverbial modifier of condition or supposition3 g. adverbial modifier of concession3 h. adverbial modifier of result*conse,uence. a. The %dverbial -odifier of 2lace and -ovement A shows the place where the action takes place, its starting point, the direction and limits of an action or state. It answers the ,uestions2 =hereC 7 >rom whereC 7 ;ow farC e.g. @e was in the country. They are going to 1ondon. $e could walk as far as the Eniversity. b. The %dverbial of Time A shows the time when an action takes place or when a state exists. It answers the ,uestions2 =henC7 Since whenC7 Till whenC7 8for9 ;ow longC e.g. @e arrived yesterday. They have been here since -onday. I worked till late last night. c. The %dverbial of -anner and 5omparison A shows the way in which an action is done, a state exists or a characteristic appears. It answers the ,uestions2 ;owC 7 ;ow muchC 7 ;ow many timesC e.g. !he was smiling happily . @e speaks English like an &nglishman. Jim escaped unin%ured by the skin of his teeth. They thanked him very much. @e came here many times.


d. The %dverbial of 5ause A shows the cause of an action or a state and it answers the ,uestion >rom what causeC e.g. !he could hardly speak for tears. I was stiff with cold. @e said nothing because of you. e. The %dverbial of 2urpose A shows the purpose of an action or state and answers the ,uestions2 =hat forC 7 >or what purposeC e.g. @e wrote for fame. I am here to help you. In order to make a good impression, he smiled. f. The %dverbial of 5ondition or Supposition A shows the condition under which an action is done or a state is possible. It answers the ,uestion2 /n what condition? e.g. I can"t go there without asking for permission. !he never writes letters unless compelled by circumstances. =ith luck, I will get there in time. g. The %dverbial of 5oncession A shows an ob%ect or a situation which didn"t manage to prevent the accomplishment of the action of the predicate. It answers the ,uestion2 In spite of what person 8or circumstances9C e.g. @e went into the house in spite of his reluctance. Though tired, she insisted in finishing the pro%ect. =hatever his faults, he is ,uite helpful. h. The %dverbial of .esult! 5onse uence A shows the conse,uence*effect*result of an action. e.g. It"s too much for me to do it at once. As regards the normal wordAorder in declarative sentences, the most fre,uent combination being 'anner, Place and Time, they occur precisely in this order.

The Attribute

The attribute may be defined as the secondary part of a sentence which determines or modifies the sub#ect of the sentence or any other noun or noun e uivalent7 irrespective of the syntactical role it discharges. It can therefore modify or determine the sub%ect, the predicate, the direct*indirect* prepositional ob%ect as well as a noun which is part of a phrase used as an adverbial modifier, etc. That is any nominal part of the sentence may have its attribute. As attributes differ in their nature A denoting ,ualities, age, material, colour, nationality, etc, as well as determinative details such as2 time, place, etc,A the ,uestion answered by attributes are numerous and diverse2 =hatC =hat kind ofC7 =hoseC7 =hichC7 ;ow muchC7 ;ow manyC7 Belonging to whomC etc. In English the discrimination is sometimes difficult or fairly relative between attributes and other parts of the sentence, especially the prepositional ob%ect and some adverbial modifiers. In this case, if it is more closely connected with the action, state or description in the sentence, it must be part of the predicate group A probably an adverbial modifier. If it is linked to the sub%ect or to another noun in the sentence, it should be an attribute. !pecific $ays of Expressing the Attribute (. The typical attribute in any language is the ad%ective. Ad%ectives are of several kinds2 a. A modifying ad%ective2 e.g. beautiful, kind, long etc. b. elative ad%ectives 'referring to material, colour, nature, type, si&e etc.) e.g. a stone wall, brown eyes, etc. c. Ad%ectives derived from the indefinite*present participles 'verbal ad%ectives)2 e.g. interesting, amusing etc. e.g. The interesting fact is that the book is most amusing. d. Ad%ectives derived from the past participle, which seem to originate in an abbreviated clause2 e.g. The book written by himX The book which was written by him. Pnlike most of the other attributes, this category takes mainly postAposition. e. Eossessive ad%ectives are fre,uent2 7(

e.g. -y father is younger than his brother. f. Demonstrative ad%ectives2 e.g. That book is more interesting than this one. g. Indefinite ad%ectives 'any, either, neither, many, few, several, some etc.) e.g. $ill you have some more coffee? There are trees on either side of the street. h. Interrogative ad%ectives 'what, which, whose?) and other combinations with nouns 'what kind of?) e.g. =hat book are you reading? =hat kind of flowers do you prefer? =hich book did you read? 4. <umerals can be used as attributes2 a. ordinal numbers2 e.g. 6rom the first moment I liked him. b. cardinal numbers2 e.g. I can"t type more than +F words a minute. 5. <ouns can be used as attributes in the following situations2 a. In the genitive either expressed*explicit A synthetic, or analytic, or implicit* unmarked2 A 0ommon nouns2 e.g. the womans dress the edge of the table the student hostel A Eroper names2 e.g. ?ims brother is my friend. Encle Toms cabin A In the nominative 'by %uxtaposition)2 e.g. This is a solid gold watch. !he takes &nglish lessons twice a week. A <ouns preceded by prepositions e.g. Live me a glass of water. @e is a man of substance. '. om cu stare) 74

7. A pronoun preceded by a preposition can be an attribute2 e.g. A friend of mine said he would #uy some of them. B. An infinitive and especially an infinitival phrase2 e.g. Theirs is a friendly desire to help 'us in our work). D. A gerundial phrase2 e.g. The idea came to me of taking a nap right there. I. Adverbs2 e.g. The flat downstairs is flooded. The conditions here are good. The now Lovernment is influenced by the agreements signed by the then Eresident. @e was taking the up train '.trenul de 1ondra), while I was taking the down train '.trenul care merge Hn provincie). C. Any word or group of words e.g. =ord for word translations should be avoided. If clauses should be learnt by all students. N. Attributes may be stressed by attributive clauses, introduced in various ways2 which, that, who, whom, whose, when, where, why, how, etc. e.g. The day will come when you will regret it> The place where he went is not known. The man who is at the gate is a policeman.

The Apposition

,e)inition- The apposition is an element which renders the main noun more precise or definite or serves for identification7 while standing in the same nominative case as the latter. In terms of their structure and punctuation they re,uire, appositions are subdivided into simple and loose, irrespective of their function. (. The simple apposition A is closely connected with the respective noun. It is generally used as one noun without commas, to determine or explain or define names of persons, titles, professions, geographical names etc. e.g. Gueen Eli&abeth is the monarch of P.Y. The &nglish novelist 0harles Dickens is the author of .reat E/ ectationsThe river Thames is not very long, but it is navigable. 4. The 1oose %pposition '.apo&iFie de&voltatG) is separated by commas, even if it does not include more than one word, the reason being that it is considered parenthetical, less important*essential. e.g. /r. 0ameron, the 2rime -inister, visited the camp. /rs. @alls, the rectors wife, is a professor herself. 1oose appositions may follow and determine also a whole clause2 e.g. @is grandparents asked him to spend his holidays with them in the country, which he readily accepted. They asked me to have dinner with them, an invitation which I gladly #umped at.

2omo#eneous and (ndependent 3lements in the Sentence/"lause (. @omogeneous parts of the sentence. A sentence may include several elements of the same kind 'e.g. sub%ects, attributes) which are connected by coAordination 'both by means of coordinating con%unctions A copulative or otherwise A and by %uxtapositions, with or without commas).


These elements which discharge the same role in the sentence are called either 8homogeneous parts of the sentence*clause9 or coordinated sub%ects, attributes, direct ob%ect, etc. e.g. ;e and his brother are my best friends. 'coordinated sub%ects) @e wrote novels7 short stories and poems. 'coordinated direct ob%ects) !he is fond of swimming7 dancing and skiing. 'coordinated prepositional ob%ects) @e usually comes here on Thursdays and Saturdays. 'coordinated adverbial modifiers of definite time) ,e)inition. Several words discharging the same syntactic function and holding the same relations as to the other parts of the sentence7 while appearing in identical or very similar syntagms are called homo$eneous parts of the sentence. In order to be identified as such, they must answer identical or very similar ,uestions. If two or several parts of the sentence seem to fill the same place and to discharge the same roles in the sentence but do not answer the same ,uestions, they are not homogeneous in spite of their appearance. e.g. @e came by train and by surprise. Z by what? 'prepositional ob%ect of means of transportation) @e drank his tea with lemon and with satisfaction. Z Z manner) 4. Independent elements in the sentence. #esides the parts of the sentence which discharge a definite syntactic function, utterance may also include words or groups of words which are classifiable morphologically as adverbs, inter%ections, etc. but are not classifiable syntactically, i.e. they do not have a definite syntactic function. They are called independent elements, both because their role is parenthetical, i.e. inessential or even irrelevant for the gist or the principal meaning of the sentence, and 7B 'prepositional ob%ect) 'adverbial modifier of Z how? 'adverbial modifier of manner)

because they are arranged parenthetically in the sentence, i.e. separated from its body by a comma. A. They usually have the role of ,ualifying the meaning of the sentence as a whole. Independent elements are of various types, the first being provided by inter#ections and exclamations, subdivided as follows2 a. /nomatopoeic inter#ections, imitating sounds in nature3 b. &xclamations proper, expressing feelings, that is modality or the speaker"s attitude. e.g. /utH'. Lo out>) :everH '. I will never do such a thing>) !ome exclamations are integrated within the framework of a sentence, though not sufficiently merged or linked with its meaning. e.g. $ell, I can"t give you the answer on the spot. Lood, than we can go on. All right, we shall drop the water for the moment. =.Y., let"s start. #. Direct address '. formule de adresare) are words used especially at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the English sentence in order to call the listener"s attention. Through their very nature they are bound up with the vocative case. e.g. 1adies and gentlemen, we are resuming the debates. Sir, I"d like to see you at your office however. /y answer, Sir7 is in the affirmative. =r2 /y answer is in the affirmative, Sir. 0. Earenthetical words are not closely connected to the sentence, although their role may be fairly similar either to adverbial modifiers of various kinds or to anaphorical elements. The way in which they condition the sentence is weak and they are sometimes considered as mere expletives '. cuvinte de umpluturG). e.g. =ell7 you see7 as a matter of fact7 I am afraid I am not very sure I really understood what you were driving at. Earenthetical words are of various kinds2 a. $ords which affirm or deny something2 indeed, of course. 7D

b. /odal words, more closely connected with the meaning of the sentence, especially with its main part A the predicate. They refer to probability, condition, concession2 perhaps, maybe, allegedly '.chipurile), presumably, possibly. c. Anaphoric words are elements which establish a connection with what was said before. e.g. nevertheless, however, yet, still'mostly adversative), though 'concessive), therefore, thus, so, then 'conclusive). They are isolated by commas and uttered in a flat tone. d. Explanatory words are used with a nonAsyntactical function, by way of supplementary addition to the sentence, clarifying one or several minor points in it. They refer to the speaker"s attitude or appeal to the interlocutor"s understanding or sympathy. e.g. 2ersonally7 I agree with you. Iou see, I did not really want to do it. /y friend and I7 you know, have had an argument. The show, Im afraid, has been cancelled.

The )rder of Words in the Sentence

$ord order in English seems to play a much more important role than in omanian, given its synthetic character. !ome of the rules are ,uite strict and unshakable, such as the one stating that the direct ob%ect should not, inasmuch as possible, be separated from its governing verb. =ther rules state that the nomina gravitate around the sub%ect and should not be removed from its proximity and the verba around the predicate, while the adverbial modifiers must, as a rule, be found at the end of the sentence. The type of sentence 'i.e. declarative, interrogative, imperative or exclamatory) may alter the order of words but only those in initial position. In the following, we will see what the right word order is for each type of sentence.


A. +eclarative Sentences (. Place ) A named so because it precedes the sub%ect and is optional. It can be held by2 a. Adverbial modifiers of time, either definite or indefinite2 e.g. Iesterday it was much warmer. 'definite) Esually, he is in a hurry. 'indefinite) b. Adverbial modifiers of manner2 e.g. %ctually!2ersonally!Incidentally, I do not know much about it. In this way, he got home in time. /f course I will try to help you. c. Adverbial modifiers of attending*attendant circumstances2 e.g. =ith nothing to do that evening, we stayed at home. In the sunlight, she looked even more beautiful. d. Adverbial modifiers of place2 e.g. In Sibiu, the weather is sometimes cooler. 4! Place ( + is normally held in English by the sub%ect, which is explicit or expressed in the ma%ority of cases. The attributes of the sub%ect accompany it on place I. 5! Place (( A is taken by the predicate. !hort elements, may, however, occur between it and the sub%ect2 Ashort adverbial modifiers of manner, time or fre,uency2 Awhen there is one verbal form in the verbal predicate, it is placed between the sub%ect and the verb2 e.g. @e usually goes there at weekends. 7C

@e recently took a degree in languages. Awhen the predicate includes two verbal forms or when it is a nominal predicate, the adverb comes after the first verb 'auxiliary, modal or linking)2 e.g. They have never come here. I will always remember that. Awhen there are several verbal elements in the predicate, the adverb comes after the first element2 e.g. I would 8most9 gladly have accepted your invitation. 7. Place ((( A is usually taken by the indirect ob%ect when short, or, otherwise, the direct ob%ect, which may be accompanied by its attributes. Thus, there are two types of arrangement2 e.g. I sent him*the boy a message 'continuation2 describing to him*in which I have described all the details of the problems that isQ) and2 I sent a message '-attributes) to my friend who '-attributes). B. Place (& + is the reverse situation of place III2 if place III is taken by the direct ob%ect, place IK will be taken by the indirect ob%ect and viceAversa.

D. Place & +is usually filled by the prepositional ob%ect. As a rule the human prevails over the nonAhuman, but there are exceptions here too. 6or example, we say2 e.g. I usually go to school with Jane.'and not2 I usually go with Jane to school.) 'assuming that phrases like to go to school should not, as a rule, be separated by other semantic units) I. Place &( +inaugurates the se,uence of adverbial modifiers. The ordinary order in English is2 manner, place, time 'alphabetical). C. Place &(( +adverbial modifiers of other types take a final position in the sentence, after all its other parts. If we refer to a complete*an ideal sentence, which includes all possible parts, it would look like this2 7N

@e 'actually) sent me a letter through a friend unexpectedly to my home address I IM II III IK K KI IM 'purpose) KII M 'cause) KIII yesterday ' in order) to express his worry because of my illness. Attributes accompany the nouns in the sentence, which they modify.

a! (nterro#ative Sentences 0hanges affect word order in interrogative sentences mainly in places = and I. (. In general uestions the inversion affects only place =. The formula suggested by Dr. Andrei #anta is2 ASN, i.e.2 Anomalous finite- !ub%ect- <onAfinite form of the verb. Elaces =, I and II may be affected, but the others remain untouched2 e.g. 0an you tell me her name? Is he watching the film? @ave they finished? Did she ring you yesterday? 4. In special!particular uestions an interrogative word is re,uired, which is put at the head of the sentence. e.g. $hy did you come late yesterday? =a =b I II IK InterrogativeAnegative sentences follow either of these two patterns, but include the negation not, between the sub%ect and the notional verb. 5. %lternative uestions, ,uestions asking for repetition, interrogative repetitions follow the patterns for general ,uestions or particular ,uestions. 7. Dis#unctive uestions proper, i.e. what follows the comma after the declarative

sentence, take the pattern of general ,uestions. The pattern can be summari&ed in the formula2 BO

Declarative clause A e.g. @e didn"t like it, did he? ,* ,*

Dis%unctive ,uestion A? ?

!he looks wonderful, doesn"t she? <=TE2 All restrictive adverbs should be treated as negatives. e.g. There is hardly any hope, is there?

b! (mperative Sentences In !tandard English, imperative sentences proper '4nd person singular and plural) are formed without a sub%ect. They are, however, sometimes, preceded by a vocative, for reason of stress or to call attention. e.g. /adam, excuse me. Tom, come here. %s a rule7 word order in imperative sentences is changed only through the ellipsis of the sub#ect which naturally affects merely place I in the sentence. e.g. Try to do better next time. ead a bit louder, please. The imperative for the first and third person singular and plural '8imperative e,uivalents9) has the following pattern2 1ET- A00P!ATIKE- !@= T I<6I<ITIKE 'The sub%ect in this case is not in the nominative, but in the accusative). e.g. 1et me tell you something. 1et /ary come here. B(

c! 3xclamatory Sentences /ore substantial changes in word order can be found in emphatic inversions2 e.g. <ever have I seen such an interesting play>

Although word order in contemporary English follows more disciplined rules than in other languages, there are a number of sentences in which it is altered, and inversion is needed for either stylistic or idiomatic usage. In general, inversion is what we understand by a deviation from the set rules included in the notion of word order. $henever a part of the sentence is placed in a different position in the sentence, we could speak of inversion. @owever, not all such fluctuations and variations are given this name. /ost changes in the word order which are labelled as inversions, refer to the position of the sub%ect and the predicate or a part of the latter. To put it briefly, we could say that what is governed by rules 0 i.e. cases of obligatory or recommended inversion 0 should be named $rammatical in#ersion. =hat is sub#ect to variations 0 #ustified either by some general factors7 possibly ob#ective7 or7 more fre uently7 by individual7 sub#ective desires or intentions 8therefore covered by the comprehensive notion of modality9 is usually called stylistic in#ersion. 0hanges affecting merely relatively the position of the sub%ect and of the anomalous finite are considered cases of partial inversion, whereas more substantial changes, affecting other parts of the sentence as well are called total inversions. #y and large, partial inversion corresponds to grammatical inversion, while total inversion covers the cases of stylistic inversion 'which are connected with modality). As the cases are ,uite varied, it"s difficult to make an elo,uent distinction between grammatical and stylistic inversion. B4

The inversion, which affects %ust the beginning of a sentence, is usually called partial.

A! 5rammatical (nversion I. In declarative sentences, grammatical inversion appears in the following situations2 (. !entences or clauses resuming an antecedent either in the affirmative 'with the help of so) or in the negative 'with the help of neither or nor)2 e.g. 8I am exhausted>9 8!o am I.9 8@e hasn"t left yet.9 8<or have his parents.9 8;ou didn"t say hello to her.9 8<either did you.9 As to answers, here is a model of systemati&ation2 a. answers confirming the parallelism of sub%ects in doing similar actions or the same action, or being in a similar, or the same state, follow the pattern with inversion * 7 verb 8no$adays only an anomalous finite0 7 subject92 e.g. 8!he will graduate in July.9 8!o will I*!o did I last year.9 8I can drive well.9 8!o can I.9 b. answers confirming the same kind of parallelism in the negative usually follow the pattern with inversion2 6neither 7 verb 8only an anomalous finite0 7 subject9* e.g. 8I don"t smoke.9 8<either did I in my youth* <either do I* <either does my daughter.9 c. when the parallelism does not refer to the sub%ect but to some other element in the sentence, the usual pattern is2 6 nor 7anomalous finite 7 subject 7notional verb9* e.g. 8@e doesn"t like dancing.9 8<or does he like parties.9 8!he can"t sing.9 8<or can she speak a foreign language.9 <=TE2 nor alternates with neither and neither is often decomposed to 8notQ- either92 e.g. 8@e doesn"t like her.9 8<or *<either do I.9 8The weather is not very cold.9 8#ut it is not warm either.9 d. =n the other hand, there is a different type of confirmation, A of the action or state itself, which does not imply any opposition or contrast, but merely reasserts something contested by the first speaker9 e.g. 8;ou said you"d bring the book.9 8!o I did, but I forgot to.9 B5 6so

In such cases, the same words are employed, yet without inversion, and the pattern is2 6so 7 subject 7 anomalous finite92 $hen the statement is negative, the confirmation follows a different pattern 'still without inversion)2 6no 7 subject7 ne#ative predicate92 e.g. 8;ou shouldn"t speak to her like that.9 8<o, of course I shouldn"t, but she upset me.9

4. The constructions of there is!are type. !ome grammarians do not admit the sub%ect function of the word there, while others consider it a 8false sub%ect9 or 8half sub%ect9. Any construction of this type in declarative sentences is considered a case of inversion. e.g. =ne day, there came a rumour that they would surrender. In stage directions there may be omitted2 e.g. =n a sofa lies an open book. 5. The same principles apply to sentences starting with the introductory sub%ect here. e.g. @ere comes the king> @owever, when the sub%ect is a pronoun, the inversion no longer takes place2 e.g. @ere he is> There he goes> 7. In conditional clauses, formal language, when if is omitted, after the verbs should, were, had, could, only as anomalous verbs2 e.g. Should he drop by, tell him to wait. =ere I taller, I could play basketball. ;ad I seen it, I would have told you. =ere I to have the time, I"d read the book. II. In interrogative and interrogativeAnegative sentences A both general and special ,uestions2 e.g. Is* Isn"t it late? $hat would*wouldn"t you do? (.Leneral ,uestions B7

a. The anomalous finite takes place =, in front of the sub%ect9 e.g. $ill*Does*0an */ay*Did*$ould*!hould he do it? b. The same applies to interrogativeAnegative sentences, but the general ,uestion is interrogativeAnegative, the contracted negative form of the finite precedes the sub%ect2 e.g. $on"t you %oin us? Aren"t you going to do it? @aven"t you already finished? c. In interrogativeAnegative sentences employed a little more formally the negative particle not remains after the sub%ect2 e.g. $hy has she not arrived yet? d. Interrogative sentences including the construction 8there is9 * 8there are9 e.g. Is there nobody in? '$as there any mistake in the text?) 4. !pecial *Earticular Vuestions2 when the interrogative word is different from the sub%ect of the sentence2 e.g. $hen is he supposed to arrive? $hat can I do for you? $hy should I remember your name? !pecial ,uestions whose sub%ect is expressed by the interrogative pronoun who, what and which 'in which of them, which of you, etc.) do not re,uire an inversion2 e.g. $hat is happening here? $ho is coming with me? $hich of them is younger? III. Imperative sentences in the first and third persons singular and plural2 e.g. 1et us go> 1et them come too. IK. Exclamatory sentences expressing wishes '.urGri, dorine), urges, slogans, therefore those using a sub%unctive2 e.g. 1ong may you live> /ay he en%oy a ripe and old age> BB

:! STY;(ST(" (N&34S()N
It is one of the modalities which can create inversion. @ere are the main situations of stylistic inversion2 (.An adverbial modifier placed in initial position2 e.g. In front of me lay a beautiful valley, with many flowers. Pp on the backs of sturdy porters went the luggage. In such cases, which occur mainly with verbs of position or movement, the inversion is direct, without an anomalous verb. They are only used in the present simple and past simple. 4. The direct ob%ect at the beginning of a sentence2 e.g. 8Talent, /r. /icawber has3 money, /r. /icawber has not.9 '0h. Dickens2 ,a#id 0o er)ield). =r in conversational English2 e.g. 8 A horse, my kingdom for a horse>9 '$. !hakespeare2 &ichard ''') 5. The direct ob%ect in front position, when it is expressed by a group of words including 8many aQ9 or 8not aQ9. e.g. /any a city have I seen, but none so beautiful. <ot a penny would he give away to anyone. 7. Adverbial modifiers expressed in the same way2 e.g. /any a time have I told him this. <ot a bit did she care about what I said. B. The predicative is placed at the head of a sentence2 e.g. Eretty she was, and pettier her sister. !uch was the pressure, that I gave in. !o difficult was the ,uestion, that no one could answer correctly. BD

D. =ther adverbial modifiers 'e.g. of place)2 e.g. In so many places had he looked for the book, that he eventually gave it up. I.Adverbial modifiers of place A in fact they show direction A put at the head of a sentence, for emphasis, when its sub%ect is a noun. e.g. In came the boy and out I went. C. <egative, halfAnegative, restrictive adverbial modifiers at the head of the sentence2 e.g. 1ittle did he know what was in store for him. <ot only was she upset, but she also cried bitterly. N. The negative adverb of fre,uency never at the head of the sentence , especially to mark indignation or impatience2 e.g. <ever shall I speak to him again> (O. The restrictive adverbs hardly, scarcely, barely, correlated with when, when they introduce temporal clauses to indicate priority2 e.g. @ardly*!carcely*#arely had they left, when the phone rang. The adverbial phrase no sooner, correlated with the con%unction than, alternates in similar constructions2 e.g. <o sooner had the train arrived, than they got on it. $hen it comes to formal aspects, inversion can be of two main types2 with or without an anomalous verb. There are a couple of phrases which, when used in initial position, should be followed by an inversion with an anomalous verb. @ere are some of them2 in no circumstances least of all hardly ever not infre,uently in no way not otherwise not a single word by no means at no time in no country*town little in vain BI

not only scarcely ever very rarely very seldom still less much less even less only not a word not a soul not till*until neither*nor 'separately)

on no account such so so great to such extremes to such lengths to such a degree in*to such a plight in such a desperate situation to such a point well*with good reason*with every %ustification

e.g. <ot a single word did he say for a whole hour. <ot often do you see snakes in England. In no way am I responsible for it. To such straits was he reduced by his extravagance that he took to begging. $ell may you say that it is too late to do anything now. @e doesn"t like her3 still less is it his intention to marry her. The cases in which the anomalous verb is not needed are more rare and literary and should not be used indiscriminately by foreigners. e.g. #est of all were my mother"s cakes. After the war came the problem of rehabilitation. =ff you go> ound he went. In you get>