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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

NSS UNIT
Women’s College, Agartala

2008
Indraneel Bhowmik,
Asstt. Professor,
Economics

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

WHAT IS LITERACY?

The traditional definition of literacy —


the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and
speak.

In modern contexts- reading and writing at a level adequate for communication, or at a


level that lets one understand and communicate ideas in a literate society, so as to take
part in that society.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO):-


“Literacy is the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute
and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves
a continuum of learning to enable an individual to achieve his or her goals, to develop
his or her knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in the wider society."

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

When is a person considered "literate":


able to sign his/her name
able to read/write a simple sentence describing one's daily activities
able to read and write, by his/her self-report (not based on a test)
able to pass a written test of reading comprehension at a level comparable to
that achieved by an average student at grade 4
able to engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for effective
functioning in his/her community

Alternatively
A person is literate
if s/he can both read and write a short simple statement
describe his/her everyday life.

A person is functionally literate if s/he can engage in all those activities in


which literacy is required for effective functioning of his/her group and
community and also for enabling him/her to continue to use reading, writing,
and calculation for his own and the community's development.
A person is literate if s/he has completed 5 or more years of schooling.

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

LITERACY IN INDIAN POLICY- National Literacy Mission


Functional Literacy should take into account
WRITING NUMERACY
READING •Copying, with understanding, 7 •Reading and writing numerals
•Reading aloud, with normal words a minute. 1-100.
accent, and at a speed of 30 •Taking dictation at 5 words a •Doing simple calculations
words a minute, a simple minute. (without fraction) involving
passage on a topic of interest •Writing with proper spacing addition and subtraction up to 3
to the learner. and alignment. digits, and multiplication and
•Silent reading at 35 words a •Writing independently, short division by 2 digits.
minute, of small paragraphs in letters and applications, and •Working knowledge of metric
simple language. filling in forms of day-to-day units weights, measures
•Reading with understanding use to the learner. currency, distance, area and
the road signs, posters, simple unit of time.
instructions and •Broad idea of proportion and
newspapers/broadsheets interests (not involving
designed for neo-literates. fractions) and their use in
•Ability to follow simple written practical situations.
passages relating to one's
working and living
environment.

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

THE CENSUS DEFINATIONS


Literacy: -
“ A person aged 7 years and above who can both read and write with understanding
in any language has been taken as literate. It is not necessary for a person to have
received any formal education or passed any minimum educational standard for
being treated as literate. People who were blind and could read in Braille are treated
literates. A person who can neither read nor write or can only read but can not write
in any language is treated as illiterate. All children of age of six years or less, even
going to school and have picked up reading and writing are treated as literate.”

Literacy Rate: -
Literacy rate of population is defined as the percentage of literates to the total
population age 7 years and above.

Literacy Rate= (Number of literates/Population above 7 years) X 100

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

Literacy Spread- The World Over

Lowest literacy rates- Burkina Faso(12.8%), Niger (14.4%) & Mali (19%).

Positive (+) correlation between literacy & development

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

Disparity- in India
Highest Lowest
Total
Person Kerala (90.9) Bihar (47.0)
Male Kerala (94.2) Bihar (59.7)
Female Kerala (87.7) Bihar (33.1)
Rural
Person Kerala (90.0) Bihar (43.9)
Male Kerala (93.7) Bihar (57.1)
Female Kerala (86.7) Bihar (29.6)
Urban
Person Mizoram (96.1) Uttar Pradesh (69.8)
Male Mizoram (96.4) Uttar Pradesh (76.8)
Female Mizoram (95.8) Uttar Pradesh (61.7)

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

Gender Gap=
Male Literacy – Female Literacy

Tripura ranks in the middle tier

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

Literacy Situation in the North East India- 2001 Census

States Arunachal Assam Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Sikkim Tripura

Person 54.3 63.3 70.5 62.6 88.8 66.6 68.8 73.2


Male 63.8 71.3 80.3 65.4 90.7 71.2 76 81
Female 43.5 54.6 60.5 59.6 86.7 61.5 60.4 64.9

Gap 20.3 16.7 19.8 5.8 4 9.7 15.6 16.1


Rural
Person 47.8 59.7 67.3 56.3 81.3 62.8 66.8 69.7

Male 57.7 68.2 77.3 59.2 84.9 67.6 74.5 78.4


Female 36.9 50.7 57 53.2 77.3 57.5 58 60.5

Gap 20.8 17.5 20.3 6 7.6 10.1 16.5 17.9


Urban
Person 78.3 85.3 79.3 86.3 96.1 84.7 83.9 89.2

Male 85.2 89.7 88.7 89 96.4 87.4 87.8 93.2


Female 69.5 80.2 70 83.5 95.8 81.4 79.2 85

Gap 15.7 9.5 18.7 5.5 0.6 6 8.6 8.2

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

Literacy Scenario in Tripura

Year Person Male Female Gap


1911 4.76 8.06 0.92 7.14

1921 8.21 14.32 1.12 13.20


90 80
1931 3.43 5.93 0.52 5.41
80 70
1941 7.95 12.74 2.46 10.28
70
Male 60
1951 15.5 22.3 08.0 14.3 60 Female
50
50 Gap
1961 24.3 29.6 10.2 19.4 40
Person
40
1971 31.0 40.2 21.2 19.0 30
30
1981 50.1 61.5 38.0 23.5 20
20

1991 60.4 70.6 49.7 20.9 10 10

0 0
2001 73.7 81.5 65.4 16.1
1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

People need literacy skills-

to read a bus schedule or the daily newspaper,


to calculate the dosage for medication,
to use a computer program, or
to follow and engage in a debate about government policy.

Being able to read, understand, and act on written material and basic numerical
information is fundamental for parents, students, workers, community members, and
citizens.

At the individual level, low literacy skills have an impact on people’s ability to support
themselves and their family. Low income, poor health, and social exclusion are all
associated with low literacy.

At the economic and societal level, low literacy skills can be a barrier to having the
highly skilled productive work force and strong thriving communities that underpin a high
standard of living.

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

International Literacy Day


Nodal Agency--- UNESCO
Declaration on November 17, 1965.
1st celebrations in 1966.
Aim - highlight the importance of literacy to individuals, communities and societies.

Some 774 million adults lack minimum literacy skills;


one in five adults is still not literate and two-thirds of them are women;
72.1 million children are out-of-school and many irregular & finally drops out.

South and West Asia has the lowest regional adult literacy rate (58.6%),
followed by sub-Saharan Africa (59.7%), and the Arab States (62.7%). {UNESCO’s
"Global Monitoring Report on Education for All (2006)" }

Clear connection between illiteracy and poverty,


between illiteracy and prejudice against women.

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

UNESCO’s Four Pillars


Learning to be: the right to self-definition and self-identification
Learning to know: the right to self-knowledge
Learning to do: the right to self-development
Learning to live together: the right to self-determination

•Millennium Development Goals- UN


‘Education For ALL’

•United Nations Literacy Decade [2003-2012]

The biennium celebration theme for 2007-2008


is
“Literacy and Health”.

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

International Literacy
Day 2008
has a strong
emphasis on
‘Literacy and
Epidemics’
with a focus on
communicable
diseases such as-

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

The benefits of literacy:


human, social, cultural, political & economic

•Human Benefits - individual’s self-esteem, confidence and personal empowerment


•Political Benefits- political participation, democracy, ethnic equality, post conflict
situations
•Cultural Benefits- Cultural change, Preservation of cultural diversity
•Social Benefits- Health, Reproductive behaviour, Education, Gender Equality
•Economic Benefits- Economic Growth, Return to Investment

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Presentation by Indraneel Bhowmik 8th September 2008

Let us
all strive
towards
the
goal……………
………..

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