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ARTIFACT DESCRIPTIONS: On that PowerPoint presentation, I covered Knowless Andragogy, Models of Adult Learning, Self-Directed Learning, Transformational Learning,

and Experience and Learning. Malcolm S. Knowles, known as the father of Andragogy, is a researcher who has made efforts toward theory-building in adult learners He is a researcher concerned with andragogy, selfdirection in learning, and informal adult education. Knowles was a very influential figure in adult education. The Andragogys assumptions about adult learner are: First, as a person matures his or her self-concept moves from that of a dependent personality towards one of a self-directing human being. Second, an adult accumulates a growing reservoir of experience, which is a rich resource of learning. Third, the readiness of an adult to learn is closely related to the developmental tasks of his or her social role. Fourth, there is a change in time perspective as people maturefrom future application of knowledge to immediacy of application. Thus, an adult is more problem-centered than subject-centered in learning. Fifth, which is the most potent, shows that motivations are internal rather than external. Sixth, adults need to know why they need to learn something. Also, there are three other models of adult learning. First is McCluskys Theory of Margin. This theory continues to captivate learners who find they can readily apply their life situation and their learning to this model. McClusky was a Professor of Educational Psychology and Community Adult Education at the University of Michigan from 1924 until his death in 1982. He examined adult learning as a person trained in experimental psychology. His theory of Power-Load-Margin, the key factors of adult life, were concerned with the load (the adult carries in living), and power (that which enables him or her to carry the load and power). Margin was conceived of as a formula expressing a ration or relationship between the "load" and "power.

The second model is Illeris Three Dimensions of Learning Model Theory. It captures major components of the learning process in an easy-to-grasp visual of an inverted triangle. The three Dimensions that involved in Learning are: Cognition, Emotion, and society. Contemporary learning theory in the tension field between the cognitive, the emotional and the social which is intended to present a generally accessible, coherent understanding of human learning and attempts to cover the whole subject area in accordance with current knowledge in this field. The third model is Peter Jarviss Learning Process. Jarvis comes closer to understanding the learning process. The model draws from a wide philosophical base as well as psychology and sociology. As a British educator and researcher, Jarvis developed a theory about the process of learning
through social experiences. He has received several academic honors in Europe, the United States of America, and Japan. He is also a frequent speaker on all aspects of adult education, distance learning, and lifelong learning throughout the world. He serves on editorial boards of a number of journals in the areas of Adult Education. According to the 1987 Learning Process Model, Jarvis considers an

experience as a learning process adults need along with a reflective action. Many adults might gain little or nothing from experiences. This can be good or bad, because the experiences turn out to be a routine for that person. An example would be driving a car or house hold routines. Jarvis (2007) at the beginning of the learning process is a disjuncture between biography (all that a person is at a particular point in time) and experience (an incident that a person is not equipped to handle). Jarvis (1987) set out nine routes of responses for the potential learning situation. He categorized these routes into three levels which are described in detail below. Another topic that I talked about on the PowerPoint presentation was the Self-Directed Learning Theory. There are three broad categories among self-direction learning which are: the

goals of self-directed learning, processes and applications of self-directed learning, and selfdirection as a personal attribute.
In the first category, the goals of self-directed learning have three major goals, which are: 1. Enhancing the ability of adults to be self-directed in their learning. This ability to be self-

directed in ones learning is conceived as both a set of personal attributes and specific skills. This goal is something that needs to be attended to at all levels of schooling from primary education through university and professional training.
2. To foster transformational learning as central to self-directed learning. That mean adults

need to reflect critically and have an understanding of the historical, cultural, and biographical reasons for their needs, wants, and interests.
3. To promote emancipatory learning and social action as an integral part of self-directed

leaning. This means that adults should think without restraint or limitations. Some writers point out that we cannot wait until adulthood to begin developing self-directed lifelong learners. However, I believe we should develop self-directed learning in children too. The second category is processes and applications of self-directed learning. This application
occurs when people take the primary initiative for planning, carrying out, and evaluating their own learning experience; it has received a great deal of attention in literature. People need to apply it on their own. Below are the three types of models that are extensively discussed in literature: 1. Linear Models: When learners move through a series of steps to reach their learning

goals in a self-directed manner. It reflects traditional ways of thinking about teaching, and could be applied to a learner's informal and formal learning.

2. Interactive Models: This learning process is not so well planned or linear in nature. It is an emphasis on two or more factors, such as opportunities for people to find their own preferred learning environment. There are three models that are discussed as illustrative of the work in this area: Spear (1988), Brockett and Hiemstra (1991), and Garrison (1997). The interactive model more closely resembles how learners go about learning primarily on their own. 3. Instructional Models: This category represents the framework that instructors could use in formal settings to integrate self-directed methods of learning into their programs and activities. It is specifically designed to be used as ways to organize instruction in formal and non-formal settings. The instructional method also includes self-direction, an important personal attribute. Self-direction is important because it focuses on research literature. Self-directed learning has been defined as personal attribute or characteristic of the learner. Self-directed learning is a great way for adults to learn. When adults learn on their own, it can help them. Researchers have tried to link a number of different variables, such as learning style, level of education, or life satisfaction, as being related to self-direction in ones learning. Assessing self-direction and the concept of autonomy have received the greatest attention from scholars who are studying the method as a personal attribute of learners. Transformative Learning Theory by Jack Mezirow is another theory that I covered in the PowerPoint presentation. The lenses of transformational learning theory are: 1. Mezirows Psychocritical Approach. 2. Dalozs Psychodvevlopment Perspective and Boyds Psychoanalytic Approach. 3. Freires Social-Emancipatory Philosophy

The study of transformational learning emerged with the work of Jack Mezirow (1981, 1994, 1997). This theory concerns how adults make sense of their life experience. According to transformative learning in practice book by Mezirow, Taylor and associates, the ten phases of transformative learning theory are: 1. A disorienting dilemma. 2. Self-examination with feelings of guilt or shame. 3. A critical assessment of assumption. 4. Recognition that one's discontent and process of transformation are shared and that others have negotiated a similar change. 5. Exploration of options for new roles, relationships, and actions. 6. Planning of a course of action. 7. Acquisition of knowledge and skills for implementing one's plans. 8. Provisionally trying out new roles. 9. Building of competence and self-confidence in new roles and relationships. 10. A reintegration of new assumption into one's life on the basis of conditions dictated by one's new perspective (P.19). 1. Dalozs Psych Development Perspective and Boyds Psychoanalytic Approach: Daloz focuses on adults who are returning to higher education. Daloz takes a storied approach to development and transformative learning. Boyds theory predates the recent flurry of attention given to spirituality in adult education.

2. Freires Social-Emancipatory Philosophy: Freire is a Brazilian philosopher and educator, influenced by Karl Marx. Freire claimed that by learning skills relevant to their harsh lives, people can be empowered to create a better society. The three key concepts of transformative learning are: 1) Life experience, 2) the nature of critical reflection, and 3) the connection between transformative learning and development. First, experience is important to learning because adults bring with them a wisdom and extensiveness of experience that can be used as a resource for their, and others, learning. The critical reflection is a second concept after experience which means that effective learning does not come from the experience but from effective reflection. The connection between transformative learning and development is the third concept after critical reflection and experience. Development is the ability to think critically, which is mandatory to effecting a transformation, is itself developmental. Also, development is outcome of transformative learning. According to Mezirow there are three types of reflection which are: 1) content reflection, 2) process reflection, and 3) premise reflection. Content reflection is thinking about the actual experience itself. Process reflection is thinking about the ways to deal with the experience like problem solving strategies. Premise reflection involves examining long-held, socially constructed assumptions, beliefs, and values about the experience or problem. The last theory that I covered on the PowerPoint presentation was the Experience and Learning Theory. We learn from experience in different ways. People may make sense of their experience through collaboration with others in a community. Many adult educators have underscored the fundamental role that experience plays in learning during adulthood. John Dewey, 1938, said that all genuine education comes through experience, but that does not means

that every experience teaches something. Kolb (1984), building primarily on the work of Dewey, states learning is continuous process grounded in experience. Knowledge is continuously derived and tested in the experiences of the learner. Learning from experience requires four different
kinds of abilities:

1) An openness and willingness to involve oneself in new experiences. 2) Observational and reflective skills these new experiences can be viewed from a variety of perspectives. 3) Analytical abilities integrative ideas and concepts can be created from their observation. 4) Decision-making and problem solving skills these new ideas and concepts can be used in actual practice. Also, there are four investigate methods associated with reflection which are: reflective practice,
situated cognition, cognitive apprenticeships, and anchored instruction. Reflective practice allows one to make judgment in complex and murky situations; judgments

based on experience and prior knowledge. The knowledge was gained through experience and interaction, and involves using data from our past and present experiences. Reflective practice should result in the most thoughtful and useful solutions to practice problems. Reflective practice is identified as center to two basic fundamentals: a) Reflection on action, which involves a situation after it has happened. b) Reflection in action, which reshapes what we are doing while we are doing it.
Situated cognition involves learning from real-world experiences. How these experiences are interpreted is often vastly different. Also, it cannot separate the learning process from the situation in

which the learning is presented. Cognitive apprenticeship is a method that tries to acculturate learners into authentic practices through activity and social interaction in a way similar to that evidence. Finally, the purpose of the anchored instruction method is to create situations in which learners through sustained experience can grapple with the problems and opportunities that experts encounter.