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OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 6200 North Central Expressway Dallas, Texas 75206

CONFERENCE 6200 North Central Expressway Dallas, Texas 75206 M. S. Plastic Consideration on Strength of Tubular

M.

S.

Plastic

Consideration

on

Strength

of

Tubular

Punching

Joints

Shear

By

Lee, A. P. Cheng~ Amoco International Oil

U-.

Co.,

of--Wi searls in

C.

T.

Sun,

Purdue U., and R.

Y.

Lai.

THIS PAPER IS SUBJECT TO CORRECTION

©Copyright 1976 Offshore Technology Conference on behalf of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. (Society of Mining Engineers, The Metallurgical Society and Society of Petroleum Engineers), American Association of Petroleum Geologists, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Society of Civil Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Institute of Electrical and Electronics En~ gineers, Marine Technology Society, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, and Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. This paper was prepared for presentation at the Eighth Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Tex., May 3-6, 1976. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. Illustrations may not be copied. Such use of an abstract should contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper is presented.

.

ABSTRACT

 

derived

from

the

correlation of

the

 
   

axial

load

test data.

This

generally

An

for calculating

alternative

procedure

the

is

punching

presented

shear

results

the

in a conservative design when

stress

is

predominant.

bending

strength of a

tubular

joint.

The

This

paper presents

an

improvement

development is based on the fully plastic consideration of the, chord

factor· for

bending

 

to

the

current

allowable

punching

shear

equation

member.

Both

in-plane

and

out-of-

The

development

is

based on

the

fully

plane bending moments

are

considered

plastic

consideration of

the

chord.

in the

formulation.

The

results

Also

presented

is

a

punching

shear

indicate that, tions of loads,

for

the

certain combina-_ proposed approach

equation which combines

the

axial

 

stress with both the

in-plane

and

yields

joint design compared to

a

more

rati()nal

and

economical

the

current

out-of-plane

bending moments.

Design

curves

and

a

sample

problem

are

API

approach.

 

presented

for

the

users who desire

to

INTRODUCTION

apply

the

proposed

 

procedure

to

check

their

joint designs.

An

structure- tubular joint design is t4e punching shear requirements r§com-

important

criterion

for

offshore

EQUATIONS

Calculated Punching Shear

DERIVATION

Stress

 

mended

by

the

API

(1).

The

current

calculated punching shear equation is

basically

a

combination of

the

axial -

A typical

shown

in

"Y"

Fig.

connection

1.

All

the

joint is

joint

stress

and

 

the maximum bending

geometrical

notations

defined

by

stresses, with no distinction between in-plane and out-of-plane bending

API

RP2A

are

followed.

The

right-

hand

rectangular

Cartesian

coordinate

stresses.

 

As

a

result,

the

calcu-

system

is

used with

the

x-axis

along

lated punching shear stress

is under-

the

chord member center

line and the_

estimated under

some

loading

condi-

y-plane coinciding with the chord-

 

tions.

On

 

the

other

hand,

the

current

brace

plane.

The

brace member

is

allowable punching shear equation is

 

References

 

and

illustrations

at end

of paper.

 
allowable punching shear equation is   References   and illustrations at end of paper.  
allowable punching shear equation is   References   and illustrations at end of paper.  

260

PLASTIC

CONSIDERATION

ON

PUNCHING

STRENGTH

OF

TUBULAR JOINTS

SHEAR

OTe

2641

.1 carrying an axial_ f()_y-c~_P, an Jll- _ tan- 1 [ m sine plane bending
.1
carrying an axial_ f()_y-c~_P, an Jll- _
tan- 1
[
m
sine
plane bending moment M l
and
an
out-
of-plane bending moment MO. The
punching shear ~qrthe joint can be
approximated by superimposing the ~
axial stress to bending stresses;
namely,
X
tan 2 e
-tan 2 8
F(cos8)+(2-sec 2 8)
F(cos8)+(1+sec 2 8)
E(COS8)]
E(cos8)
••
(2)
where
•••
(1
)
m
with
brace axial
stress
Observe that ¢ is a function of force
ratio m and geometry 8. For
a
given
brace maximu~in-plane
joint geometry and brace member
forces (stresses), Equations (1) and
bending
stress
(2) constitute the formulae for cal-
culating the maximum punching shear.
brace maxj.rr1llm
out-Clf
plane
bending
stress
Ultimate Punching
Shear
Capacity
Fully Plastic
Analysis
angle
at
the
point of
ellipse
where maximum punching
shear
In
a
normal
elastic
analysis,
the
occurs
maximum
allowable
loads
for
a
joint
shown
on
Figure
1
must
satisfy
the
and
condition
sin8
2
P e
.
.~E (cos8)
'TfSln8
v p
2tdE(cos8)
i
2
e
3Me
Sln
casp
+
td2[tan2eF(COSe)+(2-se~2e)E(~OSe)J
3M~
sin8
SincP
+
(2-sec 2 e)
E(cosB)]
••
(3)
k c
-,.-_4,-'--;:- -[-tan 2 eF(Cos8)--
3'Tfsin8 -
with
d
= 2rb
where
F
and
E
are
complete
elliptical
integrals of
the
first
kind
and
second
kind,
respectively.
Note
that
k a , kb and k c arethe~owest r~lative
length and section factors for- a--
noncircular intersection curve.
Thus, Equation (1) giYE!s a conserva-
tive result in design~ An inspection
of k a and kb values indicates that
where Pe, M~ and Mg are maximum loads
for axial force, in-plane bending
moment and out-of-plane bending
moment, respectively, in elastic
analysis. And vp is the maximum
ultimate punching shear stress. By
introducing
the
parameter
they
agree_with those_~hownoJ:l API
••
(4)
RP2A, Fig. 2.22-1. Taking the
diff-erenEiationof Equation (1) with
respect to ¢ yields the equation for
determining the angle ¢ where p is ~
maximum; i. e. ,
Equation (1) with respect to ¢ yields the equation for determining the angle ¢ where p
GTC 2641 261 M. S. LEE, A. P. CHENG, C. T. SUN, AND R. Y.
GTC
2641
261
M.
S.
LEE,
A.
P.
CHENG,
C.
T.
SUN,
AND
R.
Y.
LAI
and
Equation
(3)
can
be
rewritten
as
![
Vptd
1
2
e
P e
si n
2B(cos8)
Vptd
f 1f + A
I
2
2
1-cos
8sin
w
dW
J
sin8
B
3A~COS</J.
(1+m 2 tan 2 p)
+
tan 2 S
F (cos8) +(2-sec 2 8)
E (cos8)
Vptd
--
h(8,A,B)
••. (9)
sin8
••• (5)
with
The
above
quantity
is
the maximum
axial
load
th~t the brace
can
carry
for
a
given
;\~
and
m.
The
correspond-
f(8,A,B)
ing maximum bending moments
are
••• (6)
+ c~se
[sin- 1 (cos8sinB)
Following
the
conventional
approach
for
plastic design as outlined by
AISC(2), the stress diagram for an
intersection at the chord-brace con-
nection is idealized as shown in Fig.
2. The axial load P p is assumed to
be supported entirely by a centrally
located portion of the total cross-
section area and the bending moment
is resisted by the rest of the area.
Furthermore, the entire section is
stressed to the level corresponding
to the ultimate punchi~g shear stress.
- sin- 1 (cosSsinA) ]
g(8,A,B)
The
bending
moments
and
the
axial
load
in
the
brace
shown
by
Fig.
2
can
cos8
be
easily
evaluated.
We
obtain
h(B,A,B)
E(1f+A,cos8)
-
E(B,cos8)
·2V
t
fB
X
ds
P
A
Note the values of A and Bare
related to A and m by
f(8,A,B)/4sin8h(8,A,B)
Or-
•••
(1
0)
and
2
m
f(8,A,B)/sinSg(S,A,B) ••• (11)
Vptd--
f B
sinw/1-cos 2 8sin 2 w dw
2sin8
A
V
td 2
The
increase
in
the
load-carrying
P
g(8,A,B)
••• (8)
capacity due
to
plastification can be
4sin8
represented by the "improvement
factor" n, i.e.,
i
P
M
MO
p
n
---E =
---E.
(12 )
P
M O
e
M e i
e
represented by the "improvement factor" n, i.e., i P M MO p n ---E = ---E.
represented by the "improvement factor" n, i.e., i P M MO p n ---E = ---E.

Substituting

Eqs.

(5)

and

a -L-lwzllx

LI.LI’I

(9) into

UJI

.Iu.DuhfiK

LJULLWLD

is a tedious

job to calculate

U-L-G

.40%

these

Eq. (12) results

in

numbers.

However, the following

 

discussions may help those who are

interested in preparing numerical

~ = sine h(e,A,B)

l-(e,A,B)

(13)

‘data for design.

Taking advantage

with

l(e,A,B)

or

~=L

 

4ai

It

follows

A,

m

and

of the fact that the joint punching shear capacity is not affected by the bending moment’s sign, we assume Mfi and M: both to be positive. This

assumpt~onr together with the engi-

=

1

neering

properties

of material,

 

lead

2E(cose)

to

the

following

restriction

on

A and

 

B:

+

3~iC0S$(l+m2tan2@)

 

tan26F(cos0)

+(2-sec28)

E(cose)

 

sinB-sinA>O;

 

COSA-COSB20

(16)

and

f(e,A,B)

l(O,A,B)

 

(14)

 

.1

< A

~ ~;

B-As?r

(17)

2-

2.

that

q actually

depends

on

@ only.

Once

the

A

and

B values

are obtained,

APPLICATION

the improvement

culated

from

Eq.

factor

(13)

rI can

be

and tables

cal-

or

curves of rIvalues for different A;, m and 0 can be prepared.

If more exact punching shear stress calculations are needed, Equation (1) should be used in lieu of the

equation shown

However; the angle @ in Equation- (1) values at e = 900 for all inter-

has to be determined from Equation (2) before the calculation can

Since n becomes the minimum

constant Ai and 900, it will be

section angles.

for

m when 0 approaches conservative to use

It is also observe~

of the moment

on_APIRP2A_, page 17.

that the orientation

is

proceed.

Values

of @ vs. moment

 

ratios

m for several intersection

angles

0 are plotted

in Fig. 3.

Also

the curve

for kc

vs.

0 is added

to

the current

API RP2A Fig.

2.22-1

and

is shown ‘in Fig. 4.

Note

that the

immaterial to q for this particular

intersection <angle.

Thus, by setting

MO

=

0

and

ML

z iv and noting

B = -A,

Equations

(10) and

(13) are reduced

to

kc value is considerably lower than

the kb value

for a chosen

e.

As for

the allowable

punching

shear

in

the

chord

wall,

the authors

propose

to

incorporate

the

to

the improvement

current

API RP2A Eq.

factor

~

(23),i.e. ,

A=—,

-sinA

?I’+2A

and

-:5

A

~

O

(18)

‘P

= QQ~Qf

.

Fy

9Y.7

(plus 1/3 increase

where applicable)

(15)

There--is an obstacle to be overcome

before ~ ca’n be evaluated,

to determine the plastic zone between

A and B as shown

ously,

from Eqs.

Since the equations are cotipled, it

which is

Obvi-

in Fig. 2.

A and B can be determined

(10) and.(n)

numerically.

n = (I+4A)(1+2Ay)

(19)

The transcendental Equation (18) can.

easily be solved by numerical method.

The curve of improvement

pseudo moment/axial load ratio X is

shown in Fig.

curve,

between the resultant moment M and

factor n vs.

(5).

When using the

A should be taken as the ratio

the axial

load P, i.e.,

b%

and M = ~(Mi)2+(M0)2

(20)

OTC

2641

M. S. LEE, A. P. CHENG,

C. T. SUN, AND R. Y. LAI

26

EXAMPLE

=1.36X

50

 

.9 X 28.28-7

 

Given

 

= 5.35

1.36

X

 

1. Chord Member Can Section

64.75’’0.D. X 1.125 W.T.

ksi

= (since

7.28

Q~=Qf=l)

 

Stress in can section:

15.14 ksi

vs.

5.35

ksi

in

the

API

equation.

2. Brace Member

28’’o.D. X .5(IW.T.

P=391.21 kip, fa=9.06 ksi.

Mi=3523.36 kip-in, f~=12.08 ksi.

M0=2475.46 kip-in, f~=8.48 ksi.

3.

Intersection Angle

0 = 430

4. Material Yield Strength

= 50 ksi

Since m = ~

=

1.42,

we obtain from

Equation 4 = 40.20. we have

(2) or from Fig. Furthermore,

(3) that

from Fig.(4)

ka = 1.24, kb = 1.64, kc = 1.37.

Using Eq.

(1) we obtain

 

Vp

=

*

(sin 43°~”

 
 

.

 

+

12.08

 

.0s

40.20 ;”~”sin

 

40.2~”-”

1.64

1.37

 

=

5.83

ksi

vs.

5.58

ksi

by

API

 

equation

 

thus from Fig.(5)

we obtain

rI = 1.36.

Therefore, the allowable punching

shear is

Vp

= qQ6Qf

Fy

.9y”7

.

(15)

CONCLUSION

An alternative procedure has been presented for calculating the punch- ing shear stress of a tubular joint. The procedure was developed by considering the effect of both the in-plane and out-of-plane bending moments and the full plastification of the chord member. The use of. the proposed approach will generally yield a more economical joint design compared to the present API method. The sample problem demonstrates that the use of the proposed procedure . increased the allowable punching shear stress by 36%. On the other

hand, the example

also shows that

the present API code somewhat under-

estimates the calculated punching

shear stress.

conventional jacket design where the out–of–plane bending moments are usually less than the in-plane bend-

This is typical

in

ing moments.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to express their gratitude to Amoco International Oil Company for permission to present this paper. Special recognition is extended to Edmond R. Genois and Rudolph A. Hall of Petro-Marine Engineering, Inc., for their contri- bution in conducting this study. Special thanks to Denise Bellon for typing and editing the manuscript.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

“Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platform,” API RP2A, Sixth Edition, January 1975.

2.

“plastic Design Steel,” American

Institute of Steel Construction,

1959.

/

(

*)

b

7)

Location Of

Y Max. Calculated Vp

1

J

Fig.

1

.x

Z-=7

@=+

-

tb

l=+

>

1111111::1111111111 +

Full Plastificetion

II

1111111::111111

Axial Loed

+

+ Plastic Bending

‘~~

dlsin 0

I

(11111::1111111 +

11111111::11111111 +

Fig.

2

Plastic Bending

,

&daI Loed

II

_

Full Plw@ication

)- Y

+

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.01

o

w

I

I

I

I

I

I

60”

!

I

Fig.

!

o

4

I

I

I

~o

I

I

I

I

I

I

o“

4.!

3.0

2.0

1.0

0

 

I.5

 

1.5

 

I.4

 

1.4

1.3

1.3

T

 

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

Fig.

2

5

A