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C16: Composite Materials

Prof. T. W. Clyne

Lent Term2013 14

Name............................. College..........................

Lent Term 2013-14

II

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H1

TWC - Lent 2014

Course C16: Composite Materials

Synopsis (12 lectures)

Lecture 1 - Overview of Types of Composite System

Overview of Composites Usage. Types of Reinforcement and Matrix. Carbon and Glass Fibres. PMCs,

MMCs and CMCs. Aligned Fibre Composites, Woven Rovings, Chopped Strand Mat, Laminae and

Laminates.

Lecture 2 - Elastic Constants of Long Fibre Composites

Recap of Axial and Transverse Youngs Moduli for an Aligned Long Fibre Composite, derived using the

Slab Model. Errors for Transverse Loading and Use of Halpin-Tsai Equations. Derivation of Shear

Moduli and Poisson Ratios. Number of Elastic Constants for Systems with different Degrees of Symmetry.

Lecture 3 - Elastic Loading of a Lamina

Plane Stress Loading of a Uniaxial Lamina and the Kirchoff Assumptions. Off-axis loading of a Lamina.

Elastic Constants as a Function of Loading Angle. Tensile-shear Interactions and Lamina Distortions.

Lecture 4 - Elastic Loading of a Laminate

A Laminate considered as a Stack of Laminae. Elastic Properties of Laminates as a Function of Loading

Angle. Elastic Constants of Some Simple Laminates. Balanced Laminates. Coupling Stresses and

Symmetric Laminates.

Lecture 5 - Short Fibre & Particulate Composites Stress Distributions

The Shear Lag Model for Stress Transfer. Interfacial Shear Stresses. The Stress Transfer Aspect Ratio.

Stress Distributions with Low Reinforcement Aspect Ratios. Numerical Model Predictions. Hydrostatic

Stresses and Cavitation.

Lecture 6 - Short Fibre & Particulate Composites Stiffness & Inelastic Behaviour

Load Partitioning and Stiffness Prediction for the Shear Lag Model. Fibre Aspect Ratios needed to

approach the Long Fibre (Equal Strain) Stiffness. Inelastic Interfacial Phenomena. Interfacial Sliding and

Matrix Yielding. Critical Aspect Ratio for Fibre Fracture.

Lecture 7 - The Fibre-Matrix Interface

Interfacial Bonding Mechanisms. Measurement of Bond Strength. Pull-out & Push-out Testing. Control

of Bond Strength. Silane Coupling Agents. Interfacial Reactions and their Control during Processing.

Lecture 8 - Fracture Strength of Composites

Axial Tensile Strength of Long Fibre Composites. Transverse and Shear Strength. Mixed Mode Failure

and the Tsai-Hill Criterion. Failure of Laminates. Internal Stresses in Laminates. Failure Sequences.

Testing of Tubes in combined Tension and Torsion.

Lecture 9 - Fracture Toughness of Composites

Energies absorbed by Crack Deflection and by Fibre Pull-out. Crack Deflection . Toughness of Different

Types of Composite. Constraints on Matrix Plasticity in MMCs. Metal Fibre Reinforced Ceramics.

Lecture 10 - Compressive Loading of Fibre Composites

Modes of Failure in Compression. Kink Band Formation. The Argon Equation. Prediction of

Compressive Strength and the Effect of Fibre Waviness. Failure in Highly Aligned Systems. Possibility of

Fibre Crushing Failure.

Lecture 11 - Thermal Expansion of Composites and Thermal Residual Stresses

Thermal Expansivity of Long Fibre Composites. Transverse Expansivities. Short Fibre and Particulate

Systems. Differential Thermal Contraction Stresses. Thermal Cycling. Thermal Residual Stresses.

Lecture 12 - Surface Coatings as Composite Systems

Misfit Strains in Substrate-Coating Systems. Force and Moment Balances. Relationship between Residual

Stress Distribution and System Curvature. Curvature Measurement to obtain Stresses in Coatings.

Limitations of Stoney Equation. Sources of Misfit Strain. Driving Forces for Interfacial Debonding.

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H2

TWC - Lent 2014

Booklist

D.Hull & T.W.Clyne, "An Introduction to Composite Materials", Cambridge University Press,

(1996) [AN10a.86]

Web-based Resources

Most of the material associated with the course (handouts, question sheets, examples classes

etc) can be viewed on the web and also downloaded. This includes model answers, which are

released after the work concerned should have been completed. In addition to this text-based

material, resources produced within the DoITPoMS project are also available. These include

libraries of Micrographs and of Teaching and Learning Packages (TLPs). The following TLPs are

directly relevant to this course:

Mechanics of Fibre Composites

Bending and Torsion of Beams

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H3

TWC - Lent 2014

Lecture 1: Overview of Composites & Types of Composite System

Stiff, Light, Corrosion-Resistant Structures The Attractions of Composites

Fig.1.1 Data for some engineering materials, in the form of a map of Youngs modulus against

density

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H4

TWC - Lent 2014

Fibres used in Composite Materials

Carbon Fibres

Fig.1.2 Effect of heat treatment temperature on the strength and Youngs modulus of carbon

fibres produced from a PAN precursor

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H5

TWC - Lent 2014

Glass Fibres

Polymeric Fibres

Fig.1.3 Structures of (a) cellulose & (b) Kevlar (poly paraphenylene terephthalamide) molecules

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H6

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Other Reinforcements

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H7

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Fibre Distributions and Orientations

Fig.1.4 A fibre laminate (stack of plies), illustrating the nomenclature system

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H8

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Lecture 2: Elastic Constants of Long Fibre Composites

Use of the Slab Model

Fig.2.1 Schematic illustration of loading geometry and distributions of stress and strain, and

effects on the Youngs moduli and shear moduli, for a uniaxial fibre composite and for

the slab model representation

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H9

TWC - Lent 2014

Halpin-Tsai Expressions

Fig.2.2 Predicted dependence on fibre volume fraction, for the epoxy-glass fibre system, of

(a) transverse Youngs modulus and (b) shear moduli of long fibre composites

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H10

TWC - Lent 2014

Poisson Ratios

Fig.2.3 Schematic representation of the three Poisson ratios of an aligned composite

Fig.2.4 Predicted dependence on fibre volume fraction, for the epoxy-glass fibre system, of the

three Poisson ratios

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H11

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Stress, Strain, Stiffness & Compliance Tensors

Fig.2.5 Examples of how 2-D relative displacement components can represent different

combinations of shear and rigid body rotation

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H12

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Lecture 3: Elastic Loading of a Lamina

Symmetry & Use of Matrix Notation for Matter Tensors

Matrix Notation

Effect of Material Symmetry on the Number of Independent Elastic Constants

Fig.3.1 Indication of the form of the S

pq

and C

pq

matrices (matrix notation for S

ijkl

and C

ijkl

tensors), for materials exhibiting different types of symmetry. All of the matrices are

symmetrical about the leading diagonal

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H13

TWC - Lent 2014

Off-axis Elastic Constants of Laminae

Loading Parallel and Normal to Fibre Axis

Loading at Arbitrary Angles to Fibre Axis

Fig.3.2 (a) Relationship between the fibre-related axes in a lamina (1, 2 & 3) and the co-

ordinate system (x, y & z) for an arbitrary in-plane set of applied stresses. (b)

Illustration of how such an applied stress state

ij

(

x

,

y

&

xy

) generates stresses in the

fibre-related framework of

ij

(

1

,

2

&

12

)

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H14

TWC - Lent 2014

Derivation of Transformed Stress-Strain Relationship

For a thin lamina, stresses and strains in the through-thickness (3) direction are neglected, so

that the 3, 4, and 5 components in matrix notation are of no concern. Therefore, when a lamina is

loaded parallel or normal to the fibre axis, the strains that interest us are given by

12

= S

12

=

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

12

(3.1)

in which, by inspection of the individual equations, it can be seen that

S

11

=

1

E

1

S

12

=

12

E

1

=

21

E

2

S

22

=

1

E

2

S

66

=

1

G

12

The first step in establishing the lamina strains for off-axis loading is to find the stresses,

referred to the fibre axis (

1

,

2

and

12

), in terms of the applied stress system (

x

,

y

and

xy

).

This is done using the equation expressing any second rank tensor with respect to a new

coordinate frame

ij

=a

ik

a

jl

kl

in which a

ik

is the direction cosine of the (new) i direction referred to the (old) k direction.

Obviously, the conversion will work in either direction provided the direction cosines are defined

correctly. For example, the normal stress parallel to the fibre direction

11

, sometimes written as

1

, can be expressed in terms of the applied stresses '

11

(=

x

), '

22

(=

y

) and '

12

(=

xy

)

11

=a

11

a

11

11

+a

11

a

12

12

+a

12

a

11

21

+a

12

a

12

22

The angle is that between the fibre axis (1) and the stress axis (x). Referring to the figure, these

direction cosines take the values

a

11

=cos(= c)a

12

=cos 90 ( )=sin(= s)

a

21

=cos 90 + ( ) = sin(= s)a

22

=cos(= c)

Carrying out this operation for all three stresses

12

= T

xy

(3.2)

where

T =

c

2

s

2

2cs

s

2

c

2

2cs

cs cs c

2

s

2

( )

The same matrix can be used to transform tensorial strains, so that

12

= T

xy

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H15

TWC - Lent 2014

However, to use engineering strains (

xy

= 2

xy

etc), T must be modified (by halving the

elements t

13

and t

23

and doubling elements t

31

and t

32

of the matrix T ), so as to give

12

= T

xy

(3.3)

in which

T =

c

2

s

2

cs

s

2

c

2

cs

2cs 2cs c

2

s

2

( )

The procedure is now a progression from the stress-strain relationship when the lamina is

loaded along its fibre-related axes to a general one involving a transformed compliance matrix,

S , which will depend on . The first step is to write the inverse of Eqn.(3.3), giving the strains

relative to the loading direction (ie the information required), in terms of the strains relative to the

fibre direction. This involves using the inverse of the matrix T , written as T

1

xy

= T

1

12

in which

T

1

=

c

2

s

2

cs

s

2

c

2

cs

2cs 2cs c

2

s

2

( )

Now, the strains relative to the fibre direction can be expressed in terms of the stresses in those

directions via the on-axis stress-strain relationship for the lamina, Eqn.(3.1), giving

xy

= T

1

S

12

Finally, the original transform matrix of Eqn.(3.2) can be used to express these stresses in terms

of those being externally applied, to give the result

xy

= T

1

S T

xy

= S

xy

(3.4)

The elements of S are therefore obtained by concatanation (the equivalent of multiplication) of

the matrices T

1

, S and T . The following expressions are obtained

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H16

TWC - Lent 2014

S

11

=S

11

c

4

+ S

22

s

4

+ 2S

12

+ S

66

( )c

2

s

2

S

12

=S

12

c

4

+ s

4

( )

+ S

11

+ S

22

S

66

( )c

2

s

2

S

22

=S

11

s

4

+ S

22

c

4

+ 2S

12

+ S

66

( )c

2

s

2

S

16

= 2S

11

2S

12

S

66

( )c

3

s 2S

22

2S

12

S

66

( )cs

3

S

26

= 2S

11

2S

12

S

66

( )cs

3

2S

22

2S

12

S

66

( )c

3

s

S

66

= 4S

11

+ 4S

22

8S

12

2S

66

( )c

2

s

2

+S

66

c

4

+ s

4

( )

(3.5)

It can be seen that S S as 0.

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H17

TWC - Lent 2014

Effect of Loading Angle on Stiffness

Fig.3.3 Variation with loading angle of the Youngs modulus E

x

and shear modulus G

xy

for a

lamina of epoxy-50% glass fibre

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H18

TWC - Lent 2014

Tensile-Shear Interaction Behaviour

Fig.3.4 Variation with loading angle of the tensile-shear interaction compliance S

16

, for a

lamina of rubber-5% Al fibre, and photos of 4 specimens (between crossed polars) under

axial tension, lined up at the appropriate values of , showing tensile-shear distortions

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H19

TWC - Lent 2014

Lecture 4: Elastic Loading of a Laminate

Obtaining the Elastic Constants of a Laminate

Fig.4.1 Schematic depiction of the loading angle between the x-direction (stress axis) and the

reference direction (=0'), for a laminate of n plies. Also shown is the angle

k

between

the reference direction and the fibre axis of the k th ply (1k direction)

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H20

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Stiffness of Laminates

Fig.4.2 Variation with loading angle (between the stress axis and the reference (=0')

direction) of the Youngs modulus of a single lamina and of two simple laminates, made

of epoxy-50% glass fibre. (The equal stress model was used to obtain the transverse

Youngs modulus of the lamina, E

2

.)

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H21

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Tensile-Shear Interactions and Balanced Laminates

Fig.4.3 Variation with loading angle (between the stress axis and the reference (=0')

direction) of the interaction ratio,

xyx

(ratio of the shear strain

xy

to the normal strain

x

) of a single lamina and of three simple laminates, made of epoxy-50% glass fibre.

(The equal stress model was used to obtain the transverse Youngs modulus of the

lamina, E

2

.)

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H22

TWC - Lent 2014

In-plane Stresses within a Loaded Laminate

Fig.4.4 (a) Predicted stresses within one ply of a loaded crossply laminate (epoxy-50%glass)

and (b) a schematic of these stresses for loading parallel to one of the fibre axes

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H23

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Coupling Stresses and Symmetric Laminates

Fig.4.5 Elastic distortions of a crossply laminate as a result of (a) uniaxial loading and

(b) heating

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H24

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Lecture 5: Short Fibre & Particulate Composites - Stress Distributions

The Shear Lag Model for Short Fibre Composites

Displacements of Fibre and Matrix

Fig.5.1 Schematic illustration of the basis of the shear lag model, showing (a) unstressed system,

(b) axial displacements, u, introduced on applying tension parallel to the fibre and

(c) variation with radial location of the shear stress and strain in the matrix

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H25

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Derivation of Equations

The model is based on assuming that the build-up of tensile stress along the length of the fibre

occurs entirely via the shear forces acting on the cylindrical interface. This leads immediately to

the basic shear lag equation:

d

f

dx

=

2

i

r

0

(5.1)

The interfacial shear stress,

i

, is obtained by considering how the shear stress in this direction

varies within the matrix as a function of radial position. This variation is obtained by equating the

shear forces on any two neighbouring annuli in the matrix:

2 r

1

1

dx=2 r

2

2

dxie

2

=

r

2

r

1

=

i

r

0

r

The displacement of the matrix in the loading direction, u, is now considered. The shear strain

at any point in the matrix can be written both as a variation in this displacement with radial

position and in terms of the local shear stress and the shear modulus of the matrix, G

m

=

G

m

=

i

r

0

r

G

m

and =

du

dr

It follows that an expression can be found for the interfacial shear stress by considering the

change in matrix displacement between the interface and some far-field radius, R, where the

matrix strain has become effectively uniform (du/dr 0).

du

u

r

0

u

R

i

r

0

G

m

dr

r

r

0

R

i

=

u

R

u

r

0

( )

G

m

r

0

ln

R

r

0

(5.2)

The appropriate value of R is affected by the proximity of neighbouring fibres, and hence by the

fibre volume fraction, f. The exact relation depends on the precise distribution of the fibres, but

this needn't concern us too much, particularly since R appears in a log term. If an hexagonal array

of fibres is assumed, with the distance between the centres of the fibres at their closest approach

being 2R, then simple geometry leads to

R

r

0

2

=

2 f 3

1

f

Substituting for

i

in the basic shear lag equation now gives

d

f

dx

=

2 u

R

u

r

0

( )

G

m

r

0

2

1

2

ln

1

f

The displacements u

R

and u

r

0

are not known, but their differentials are related to identifiable

strains. The differential of u

r

0

is simply the axial strain in the fibre (assuming perfect interfacial

adhesion and neglecting any shear strain in the fibre - which is taken as being much stiffer than

the matrix)

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H26

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du

r

0

dx

=

f

=

f

E

f

while the differential of u

R

, ie the far-field axial strain of the matrix, can be taken as the

macroscopic strain of the composite

du

R

dx

1

Differentiating the expression for the gradient of stress in the fibre and substituting these two

relations into the resulting equation, with the shear modulus expressed in terms of Young's

modulus and Poisson's ratio [E

m

=2 G

m

(1+

m

)], leads to

d

2

f

dx

2

=

n

2

r

0

2

f

E

f

1

( ) (5.3)

in which n is a dimensionless constant (for a specified composite), given by

n =

2E

m

E

f

1+

m

( )ln

1

f

(5.4)

This is a second order linear differential equation of a standard form, which has the solution

f

= E

f

1

+ Bsinh

n x

r

0

+ Dcosh

n x

r

0

and, by applying the boundary condition of

f

= 0 at x = L (the fibre half-length), the constants B

and D can be solved to give the final expression for the variation in tensile stress along the length

of the fibre

f

= E

f

1

1 cosh

n x

r

0

sech n s ( )

(5.5)

in which s is the aspect ratio of the fibre (=L/r

0

). From this expression, the variation in interfacial

shear stress along the fibre length can also be found, using the basic shear lag equation, by

differentiating and multiplying by (-r

0

/2),

i

=

E

f

n

1

2

sinh

n x

r

0

sech n s ( ) (5.6)

An estimate can now be made of the axial modulus of the composite. This is done by using

the Rule of Averages (

1

= f

f

_

+ (1-f)

m

_

), with the average matrix stress taken as its Young's

modulus times the composite strain and the average fibre stress obtained by integrating the above

expression for

f

over the length of the fibre. This leads to

E

1

=

1

= f E

f

1

tanh n s ( )

n s

+ 1 f ( ) E

m

(5.7)

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H27

TWC - Lent 2014

The Stress Transfer Length (Aspect Ratio)

Fig.5.2 Predicted (shear lag) variations in (a) fibre tensile stress and (b) interfacial shear stress

along the axis of a glass fibre in a polyester-30% glass composite subject to an axial

tensile strain of 10

-3

, for two fibre aspect ratios

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H28

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Fibre End Regions - Hydrostatic Stresses and Cavitation

(a) (b)

Fig.5.3 Photoelastic (frozen stress) models under applied axial load, showing the stress field

in the matrix around two stiff reinforcements having the same aspect ratio, with

(a) cylindrical and (b) ellipsoidal shapes

Fig.5.4 Predicted (finite element) hydrostatic stress fields around sphere and cylinder (s=5) of

SiC in an Al matrix, with an applied axial tensile stress of 100 MPa (and differential

thermal contractions stresses corresponding to a temperature drop of 50 K)

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H29

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Lecture 6:

Short Fibre & Particulate Composites - Stiffness & Inelastic Behaviour

Shear Lag Model Predictions for Stiffness

Fig.6.1 Predicted composite/matrix Youngs modulus ratio, as a function of fibre/matrix Youngs

modulus ratio, for aligned short fibre composites with 30% fibre content and fibre aspect

ratio (s) values of (a) 30 and (b) 3. Shear lag model predictions are reliable when s is

relatively large. For very short fibres, the predictions become inaccurate, due to neglect

of the stress transfer across the fibre ends, which is more significant for shorter fibres

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H30

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Approach to Rule of Mixtures (Long Fibre) Stiffness

Fig.6.2 A set of four (rubber 5% Al fibre) photoelastic models under axial load, showing how

the stress field and the axial extension change as the aspect ratio and degree of

alignment of the fibres are changed

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H31

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Interfacial Sliding and Matrix Yielding

Fig.6.3 Plots of the dependence of peak fibre stress,

f0

, (at the onset of interfacial sliding or

matrix yielding) on the critical shear stress for these phenomena,

i

*

. Plots are shown

for different fibre aspect ratios, with n values typical of polymer- and metal-based

composites. Also indicated are typical value ranges for fracture of fibres and for matrix

yielding and interfacial debonding

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H32

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Critical Fibre Aspect Ratio

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H33

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Lecture 7: The Fibre-Matrix Interface

Bonding Mechanisms and Residual Stresses

Bonding Mechanisms

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H34

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Residual Stress Distributions

Fig.7.1 Predicted stress distribution around and within a single fibre, in a polyester-35% glass

long fibre composite, as a result of differential thermal contraction (T drop of 100 K)

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H35

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Silane Coupling Agents for Glass Fibres

Fig.7.4 Depiction of the action of silane coupling agents, which are used to generate improved

fibre-matrix bonding for glass fibres in polymeric matrices. The silane reacts with

adsorbed water to create a strong bond to the glass surface. The R group is one which

can bond strongly to the matrix

Objectives for MMCs and CMCs

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H36

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Bond Strength Measurement

Single Fibre Pull-out Testing

Fig.7.2 Schematic stress distributions and load-displacement plot during single fibre pull-out

testing. The interfacial shear strength,

*

, is obtained from the pull-out stress,

0,*

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H37

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Single Fibre Push-out Testing

Fig.7.3 Schematic stress distributions and load-displacement plot during the single fibre push-

out test. One difference from the pull-out test is that the Poisson effect causes the fibre

to expand (rather than contract), which augments (rather than offsets) the radial

compressive stress across the interface due to differential thermal contraction

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H38

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Lecture 8: Fracture Strength of Composites

Axial, Transverse and Shear Strengths of Long Fibre Composites

Fig.8.1 Schematic depiction of the fracture of a unidirectional long fibre composite at critical

values of (a) axial, (b) transverse and (c) shear stresses

Axial Strength

Transverse and Shear Strengths

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H39

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Failure Criteria for Laminae subject to In-plane Stresses

Maximum Stress Criterion

Mixed Mode Failure and the Tsai-Hill Criterion

Fig.8.2 Single ply failure stresses, as a function of loading angle: (a) maximum stress

criterion, for polyester-50%glass (

1*

=700 MPa,

2*

=20 MPa,

12*

=50 MPa) and

(b) maximum stress and Tsai-Hill criteria, plus experimental data, for epoxy-

50%carbon (

1*

=570 MPa,

2*

=32 MPa,

12*

=56 MPa)

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Experimental Data for Single Laminae

Fig.8.3 Schematic illustration of how a hoop-wound tube is subjected to simultaneous tension

and torsion in order to investigate failure mechanisms and criteria

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Failure of Laminates

Failure Sequences in Laminates

Fig.8.4 Loading of the crossply laminate of Fig.4.4 parallel to one of the fibre directions:

(a) cracking of transverse plies as

2

reaches

2*

, (b) onset of cracking parallel to fibres

in axial plies as

2

(from inhibition of Poisson contraction) reaches

2*

and (c) final

failure as

1

in axial plies reaches

1*

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Failure of Laminates under Uniaxial and Biaxial Loading

Fig.8.5 Stresses within an angle-ply laminate of polyester-50%glass fibre, as a function of the

ply angle: (a) stresses within one of the plies, as ratios to the applied stress. and

(b) applied stress at failure (maximum stress criterion, with

1*

=700 MPa,

2*

=20 MPa

and

12*

=50 MPa)

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Fig.8.6 Stresses within an angle-ply laminate of polyester-50%glass fibre, as a function of the

ply angle, when subjected to biaxial loading, with

x

=2

y

: (a) stresses within one of the

plies, as ratios to the applied

x

. and (b) applied stress,

x

, at failure (maximum stress

criterion, with

1*

=700 MPa,

2*

=20 MPa and

12*

=50 MPa)

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Lecture 9: Fracture Toughness of Composites

Fracture Energies of Reinforcements and Matrices

Crack Deflection at Interfaces Planar Systems

Fig.9.1 Schematic load-displacement plots for 3-point bend testing of monolithic SiC and a SiC

laminate with (weak) graphitic interlayers

Fig.9.2 SEM micrographs showing the layered structures of (a) a mollusc and (b) a SiC laminate

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Energy of Interfacial Debonding in Fibre Composites

Fig.9.3 Schematic representation of the advance of a crack in a direction normal to the fibre

axis, showing interfacial debonding and fibre pull-out processes

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Energy of Fibre Pull-out

G

cpo

=

Ndx

0

L

0

L

rx

0

2

i*

=

f

r

2

r

i*

L

L

3

3

=

fs

2

r

i*

3

(9.1)

Effects of Fibre Flaws and Weibull Modulus

Fig.9.4 Schematic depiction of stress distribution, and associated probability of fracture, along a

fibre bridging a matrix crack, for (a) fixed fibre strength

*

(m=) and (b) strength

which varies along the length of the fibre, due to the presence of flaws (finite m)

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Fracture Energy of a Metal Fibre Reinforced Ceramic Composite

(a) (b)

Fig.9.5 Microstructure of a composite (Fiberstone) comprising coarse stainless steel fibres in

a matrix which is predominantly alumina, illustrated by (a) an X-ray tomograph,

showing the fibres only, and (b) an optical micrograph of a polished section

There have been many attempts to produce ceramic-matrix composites with high toughness,

but with limited success. Probably the most promising approach is to introduce a network of

metallic fibres, and this is the basis of a commercial product (Fiberstone see Fig.9.5). The

fibres are often about 0.5 mm diameter, although finer fibres can be used. During fracture, fibres

bridge the crack and energy is absorbed by both frictional pull-out and plastic deformation - see

Fig.9.6. These mechanisms are likely to dominate any other contributions to the work of fracture.

Fig.9.6 Schematic representation of the fracture of Fiberstone, showing: (a) overall fracture

geometry, (b) fibres undergoing debonding, possibly fracture, and then frictional pull-

out and (c) fibres undergoing debonding, plastic deformation and then fracture

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The work of fracture can thus be estimated by summing the energy absorbed via both

processes, assuming that a fraction g of the fibres bridging the crack plane undergo pull-out and

the remainder (1-g) undergo plastic deformation and rupture.

G

cnet

= G

cpo

+ G

cfd

(9.2)

An expression for the fibre pull-out work was derived previously (Eqn.(9.1)), but the relationship

between N and f depends on fibre orientation distribution, and that treatment referred to aligned

fibres. For this type of composite, it can be taken as isotropic (random), in which case N is half

that for the aligned case (see EE Underwood, Quantitative Stereology. 1970, Addison-Wesley)

N =

f

2r

2

(9.3)

leading to

G

cpo

=

gfs

2

r

i*

6

(9.4)

where s is here the ratio of , the (average) length of fibre extending beyond the crack plane, to

the fibre radius, r.

Fig.9.7 Data from tensile testing of single 304 stainless steel fibres, showing (a) a set of 10

stress-strain curves and (b) the distribution of corresponding work of deformation values

The work done during plastic deformation and rupture of fibres can be estimated by assuming

that interfacial debonding extends a distance x

0

from the crack plane - see Fig.9.6(c). The energy

is obtained by summing the work done on each fibre, as if it had an original length 2x

0

and were

being subjected to a simple tensile test

G

cfd

= (1 g)2x

0

NU

fd

= (1 g)2x

0

f

2r

2

W

fd

r

2

= (1 g)x

0

fW

fd

(9.5)

where U

fd

and W

fd

are the work of deformation of the fibre, expressed respectively per unit length

(J m

-1

) and per unit volume (J m

-3

). The latter is given by the area under the stress-strain curve of

the fibre. Some such curves, for the fibres used in Fiberstone, are shown in Fig.9.7, together

with corresponding W

fd

values. The value of is in this case given by the product of x

0

and

*

, the

fibre strain to failure, leading to

G

cfd

= (1 g)

fW

fd

=

(1 g)srfW

fd

*

(9.6)

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Use of Eqns.(9.2), (9.4) and (9.6) allows prediction of the composite fracture energy, although

it requires measurements or assumptions to be made concerning several parameters. In addition to

the single fibre work of deformation, W

fd

, and the failure strain,

*

, estimates are required for the

proportion of fibres undergoing pull-out, g, the interfacial frictional sliding stress,

i*

, and the

(average) length of fibre extending beyond the crack plane, , and hence the protrusion aspect

ratio, s (= /r) Nevertheless, predictions can be made, based on experimental data or on plausible

assumptions, and compared with measured composite fracture energies. An example is shown in

Fig.9.8, where it can be seen that, even with the relatively low fibre content (~10-15%) that is

normally present, the work of fracture is both predicted and observed to be substantial. The

experimental G

c

values were obtained by impact (Izod) testing.

Fig.9.8 Comparison between experimental data for the fracture energy of Fibrestone

composites, as a function of fibre volume fraction, and predictions obtained using

Eqns.(9.4) amd (9.6), for fine and coarse fibres

The value of s can be estimated from observation of fracture surfaces. However, its difficult

to be sure whether particular fibres have predominantly undergone pull-out, rather than plastic

deformation and rupture - of course, some fibres could deform plastically and then pull out. In

any event, very strong bonding may be undesirable, since this will tend to inhibit both pull-out and

plasticity, although very poor bonding may allow fracture to take place without the fibres being

significantly involved in the process. An intermediate bond strength is likely to give optimal

toughness.

It also worth noting that, for a given fibre protrusion aspect ratio, s (= /r), both pull-out and

plastic deformation contributions increase linearly with the absolute scale (fibre diameter).

Composites reinforced with coarser fibres therefore tend to be tougher, particularly for this type of

composite. Its clear that refining the scale of the microstructure does NOT always give benefits!

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Lecture 10: Compressive Loading of Fibre Composites

Euler Buckling

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Kink Band Formation

Fig.10.1 Optical micrograph of an axial section of a carbon fibre composite after failure under

uniaxial compression, showing a kink band

Fig.10.2 Predicted kinking stress, as a function of misalignment angle, for epoxy-60%carbon

composites, with two different interfacial shear strengths

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Failure by Fibre Crushing in Highly Aligned Systems

(a) (b)

Fig.10.3 (a) Fragment of SiC monofilament extracted from a Ti-35%SiC composite after loading

under axial compression and (b) schematic of the crushing process

Fig.10.4 Stresses in Ti-35%SiC monofilament composite (average axial values for fibre, matrix

and composite) as axial strain is increased by external loading. At zero strain, stresses

in fibre and matrix are from differential thermal contraction. The matrix yields when the

stress in it reaches

mY

. It is assumed that no matrix work hardening occurs during

plastic straining. Failure occurs when the fibre stress reaches the critical value

f*

Failure is expected when the fibre stress reaches

f*

, taken to be a single, fixed value. The

composite strength

c*

can readily be predicted, provided it can be assumed that the matrix yields

before composite failure and that matrix work hardening is negligible, since it is then given by

c*

= E

1c

cmY

+ E

1c

'

c*

cmY

( ) (10.1)

in which the composite moduli before and after matrix yielding are given by

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E

1c

= fE

f

+ 1 f ( ) E

m

E

1c

'

= fE

f

Now, the strains at matrix yield and at final failure can be written as

cmY

=

mY

+

mT

E

m

c*

=

f*

+

fT

E

f

Substituting into Eqn.(10.1), and applying the residual stress force balance condition

f

fT

+ 1 f ( )

mT

= 0

then leads to

c*

= f

f *

+ 1 f ( )

mY

A correction should be applied for the effect of misalignment in reducing the stress parallel to the

fibre axis, leading to

c*

=

f

f *

+ 1 f ( )

mY

cos

2

0

(10.2)

This predicted strength is independent of the thermal residual stresses (whereas the strain at which

failure occurs will depend on them).

Fig.10.5 Experimental strength data, as a function of the initial angle between fibre and loading

axes, during compression of misaligned Ti-35%SiC specimens. Also shown are

predicted curves for failure by kink band formation and by fibre crushing, obtained by

substitution of the values shown into the kinking equation and Eqn.(10.2) respectively

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Lecture 11:

Thermal Expansion of Composites & Thermal Residual Stresses

Thermal Expansivity Data for Reinforcements and Matrices

Fig.11.1 Thermal expansion coefficients for various materials over a range of temperature

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Derivation of Expression for Composite Axial Expansivity

Fig.11.2 Schematic showing thermal expansion in the fibre direction of a long fibre composite,

using the slab model

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Transverse Thermal Expansivities

Fig.11.3 Predicted thermal expansivities of Al-SiC uniaxial fibre composites, as a function of

fibre content

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Thermal Stresses in Composite Systems

Magnitudes of Thermal Residual Stresses

Stresses in Composites during Thermal Cycling

Fig.11.4 Neutron diffraction data for an Al-5vol%SiC whisker (short fibre) composite, showing

lattice strains (& hence stresses) within matrix & reinforcement during unloaded

thermal cycling. (111) reflections were used for both constituents. The gradients shown

are calculated values for elastic behaviour, assuming a fibre aspect ratio of 10

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Lecture 12: Surface Coatings as Composite Systems

Force and Moment Balances

A Substrate-Deposit System with a Uniform Misfit Strain

Fig.12.1 Schematic depiction of the generation of curvature in a flat bi-material plate, as a result

of the imposition of a uniform misfit strain, . The strain and stress distributions shown

are for the case indicated, obtained using Eqns.(12.10) & (12.11)

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Relation between Curvature and Misfit Strain

The forces P and P generate an unbalanced moment, given by

M= P

h + H

2

(12.1)

where h and H are deposit and substrate thicknesses respectively. Since the curvature, ,

(through-thickness strain gradient) is given by the ratio of moment, M, to beam stiffness,

=

M

(12.2)

P can be expressed as

P =

2

h + H

(12.3)

The beam stiffness is given by

= b E y

c

( )

H

h

y

c

2

dy

c

= b E

d

h

h

2

3

h +

2

+ b E

s

H

H

2

3

+ H +

2

(12.4)

where , the distance from the neutral axis (y

c

= 0) to the interface (y = 0) is given (see Appendix

on p.64) by

=

h

2

E

d

H

2

E

s

2 hE

d

+ HE

s

( )

(12.5)

The magnitude of P is found by expressing the misfit strain as the difference between the

strains resulting from application of the P forces.

=

s

d

=

P

HbE

s

+

P

hbE

d

P

b

=

hE

d

HE

s

hE

d

+ HE

s

(12.6)

Combination of this with Eqs.(12.3)-(12.5) gives a general expression for the curvature, , arising

from imposition of a uniform misfit strain,

=

6E

d

E

s

h + H ( )h H

E

d

2

h

4

+ 4E

d

E

s

h

3

H + 6E

d

E

s

h

2

H

2

+ 4E

d

E

s

h H

3

+ E

s

2

H

4

(12.7)

Note that, for a given deposit/substrate thickness ratio, h/H, the curvature is inversely proportional

to the substrate thickness, H. This scale effect is important in practice, since it means that

relatively thin substrates are needed if curvatures are to be sufficiently large for accurate

measurement. Predicted curvatures, obtained using this equation, are shown in Fig.12.2.

Curvatures below about 0.1 m

-1

(radius of curvature, R > 10 m) are difficult to measure accurately.

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Biaxial Stresses

In practice, there are often in-plane stresses other than those in the x-direction. For an isotropic

in-plane stress state, there is effectively another stress equal to

x

in a direction at right angles to it

(z-direction); this induces a Poisson strain in the x-direction. Assuming isotropic stiffness and

negligible through-thickness stress (

y

= 0), the net strain in the x-direction can be written

x

E =

x

y

+

z

( )

=

x

1 ( )

so that the relation between stress and strain in the x-direction can be expressed

x

=

E

1 ( )

= E' (12.8)

and this modified form of the Youngs modulus, E, (the biaxial modulus) is usually applicable

in expressions referring to substrate/coating systems having an equal biaxial stress state.

Stoneys Equation the Thin Coating Limit

A simplified form of Eq.(12.7) applies for coatings much thinner than the substrate (h << H).

The whole of the misfit strain is now accommodated in the deposit, the substrate stress becomes

negligible and that in the deposit varies little as a result of curvature adoption. The misfit strain

can under these circumstances be converted to a deposit stress. Focussing on the equal biaxial

case, the relationship between the two can be written

d

=

E

d

1

d

( )

Substituting in Eqn.(12.7) for , using the two biaxial moduli and applying the condition h << H,

now leads to

=

6E

d

'

h

E

s

'

H

2

d

1

d

( )

E

d

=

6h 1

s

( )

E

s

H

2

d

(12.9)

This is Stoneys equation, which is commonly used to relate (biaxial) stress to (biaxial) curvature

for thin coatings. The properties required (E

s

and

s

) are only those of the substrate. This is

convenient, since these are usually more readily accessible than those of the coating.

Unfortunately, the Stoney equation is only accurate in a regime (h<<H) where curvatures are often

very small (and hence difficult to measure) - see below.

Stress Distributions in Thick Coating Systems

When the condition h << H does not apply, then stresses and stress gradients are often

significant in both constituents. Stress distributions are readily found for the simple misfit strain

case outlined above, from the values of P and , using the expressions

d

y=h

=

P

bh

+ E

d

h ( ) (12.10a)

d

y=0

=

P

bh

E

d

(12.10b)

s

y=H

=

P

b H

E

s

H + ( ) (12.11a)

s

y=0

=

P

b H

E

s

(12.11b)

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The stress distributions in Fig.12.1, 12.3 and 12.4 were obtained using these equations. The

adoption of curvature can effect substantial changes in stress levels and high through-thickness

gradients can result. It may be seen from Eqns.(12.10) and (12.11) that (for a given value of h/H),

since P is proportional to H and is inversely proportional to H, the stresses (at y=-H, 0 and h) do

not depend on H, ie the stress distribution is independent of scale. However, the curvature is not.

Substrates must be fairly thin if measurable curvatures are to be generated, although the maximum

thickness could be as small as 50 m, or as large as 50 mm, depending on various factors.

Fig.12.2 Predicted curvature, as a function of the fall in temperature, for four different

substrate/deposit combinations

Curvature Measurement Techniques

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Accuracy of the Stoney Equation

Fig.12.3 Predicted dependence on thickness ratio of (a) curvature and (b) stress in deposit

(coating), obtained using Eqns.(12.7), (12.10) and (12.11), and the Stoney equation

(Eqn.(12.9).) The Poisson ratios of substrate and deposit were both taken as 0.2

Possible Sources of a Misfit Strain

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Driving Force for Interfacial Debonding

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Appendix Location of the Neutral Axis

Fig.12.4 Location of the Neutral Axis of a Bi-Material Beam

The force balance

b y ( )

H

h

dy= 0 (12..1)

can be divided into contributions from the two constituents and expressed in terms of the strain

b E

d

(y)

0

h

dy+b E

s

(y)

H

0

dy= 0 (12..2)

which can then be written in terms of the curvature (through-thickness strain gradient) and the

distance from the neutral axis

b E

d

y ( )

0

h

dy+b E

s

y ( )

H

0

dy= 0 (12..3)

Removing the width, b, and curvature, , which are constant, this gives

E

d

y

2

2

y

0

h

+ E

s

y

2

2

y

H

0

= 0

E

d

h

2

2

h

+ E

s

H

2

2

H

= 0

E

d

h + E

s

H ( ) =

1

2

E

d

h

2

E

s

H

2

( )

=

h

2

E

d

H

2

E

s

2 hE

d

+ HE

s

( )

(12..4)

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Property Data (Room Temperature)

Fibres

Fibre

Density

(Mg m

-3

)

Axial

Modulus

E

1

(GPa)

Transverse

Modulus

E

2

(GPa)

Shear

Modulus

G

12

(GPa)

Poisson

Ratio

12

Axial

Strength

*

(GPa)

Axial

CTE

1

( K

-1

)

Transverse

CTE

2

( K

-1

)

Glass

2.45 76 76 31 0.22 3.5 5 5

Kevlar

1.47 154 4.2 2.9 0.35 2.8 -4 54

Carbon (HS)

1.75 224 14 14 0.20 2.1 -1 10

Carbon (HM)

1.94 385 6.3 7.7 0.20 1.7 -1 10

Diamond

3.52 1000 1000 415 0.20 4 3 3

Boron

2.64 420 420 170 0.20 4.2 5 5

SiC

(monofilament)

3.2 400 400 170 0.20 3.0 5 5

SiC

(whisker)

3.2 550 350 170 0.17 8 4 4

Al

2

O

3

( continuous)

3.9 385 385 150 0.26 1.4 8 8

Al

2

O

3

( staple)

3.4 300 300 120 0.26 2.0 8 8

W

19.3 413 413 155 0.33 3.3 5 5

Matrices

Matrix

Density

(Mg m

-3

)

Young's

Modulus

E (GPa)

Shear

Modulus

G (GPa)

Poisson

Ratio

Tensile

Strength

*

(GPa)

Thermal

Expansivity

( K

-1

)

Epoxy 1.25 3.5 1.27 0.38 0.04 58

Polyester

1.38 3.0 1.1 0.37 0.04 150

PEEK

1.30 4 1.4 0.37 0.07 45

Polycarborate

1.15 2.4 0.9 0.33 0.06 70

Polyurethane

Rubber

1.2 0.01 0.003 0.46 0.02 200

Aluminium

2.71 70 26 0.33 0.07 24

Magnesium

1.74 45 7.5 0.33 0.19 26

Titanium

4.51 115 44 0.33 0.24 10

Borosilicate

glass

2.23 64 28 0.21 0.09 3.2

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Question Sheet 1

[Can be attempted after lecture 8: property data on C16H65 can be used if necessary.]

1. Show that the Young's modulus of a composite lamina (having the elastic constants, referred

to the fibre axis, given below) falls by about 50% if it is loaded at 7 to the fibre axis,

compared with the on-axis value. What is the minimum Young's modulus that the lamina can

exhibit and at what loading angle does this occur ?

[E

1

= 200 GPa, E

2

= 7 GPa, G

12

= 3 GPa, v

12

= 0.3]

2. Explain what is meant by tensile-shear interactions in composite laminae. Using information

in the Data Book, derive an expression for the tensile-shear interaction compliance S

16

of a

lamina. State how this is used in describing the elastic deformation of the lamina under an

applied uniaxial tensile load. For a lamina of an epoxy-glass composite, with the elastic

constants given below, calculate the loading angles for which the lamina will show no shear

strains under such a load.

[E

1

= 40 GPa, E

2

= 8 GPa,

12

= 0.3, G

12

= 3 GPa]

3. (a) A simple cross-ply laminate is made from two plies of a composite material comprising

60vol% of continuous glass fibres in a polyester matrix. The shape of the laminate is a

rectangular strip, with its sides parallel to the two fibre directions. Describe, with the help of

sketches, the shape changes you would expect to see when it is subjected to: (i) uniaxial

tensile loading, along the length of the strip and (ii) an increase in temperature.

(b) For case (i) in part (a) above, the applied stress level is 100 MPa. Using equal strain and

equal stress models, estimate respectively the axial and transverse Youngs moduli of the

composite material, and hence calculate the axial strain exhibited by the laminate.

(c) It is observed that, over the central region of the specimen (ie remote from the constraint

imposed by the grips), it exhibits curvature in the plane normal to the testing axis. Briefly

explain the origin of this effect and indicate whether the axial or the transverse ply will lie on

the concave side of the specimen. If each ply has a thickness of 0.5 mm (so that the laminate

is 1 mm thick), calculate the expected radius of curvature in this region, stating your

assumptions.

(d) How could a cross-ply laminate be constructed which would be free of such curvature

when loaded in this way?

[Youngs moduli: glass; E = 76 GPa : polyester; E = 3 GPa

Poisson ratios: glass; = 0.22 : polyester; = 0.37

Axial and transverse Poisson ratios are related to the corresponding Youngs moduli by

12

E

1

=

21

E

2

The curvature, , exhibited by a pair of bonded strips, each of thickness h, when there is a

misfit strain between their natural (stress-free) lengths, is given by

=

12

h

E

1

E

2

+14 +

E

2

E

1

] {from 2005 Tripos}

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4. An angle-ply (50) laminate of a polyester-50%glass composite is subjected to an increasing

tensile stress in the

x

(=0) direction. Use the facility at the end of the section entitled

Failure of Laminates and the Tsai-Hill Criterion, within the Mechanics of Fibre

Composites TLP (www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/fibre_composites/index.php), to establish the

applied stress at which the laminate will fail (according to the maximum stress criterion),

given that

1*

= 700 MPa,

2*

= 20 MPa and

12*

= 50 MPa. Carry out the same calculation,

just using simple analytical equations, for one of the two plies (ie ignore the presence of the

other) and compare this value with the first result. Account for any difference between the

two.

5. Candidate materials for a gas pipeline are steel and a glass fibre reinforced polymer

composite. The diameter of the pipeline will be 1 m and the maximum gas pressure will be

100 bar (10 MPa). The composite would be filament-wound, at 45 to the hoop direction.

There are no concerns about stiffness, so the key design criterion is to avoid phenomena which

could lead to failure (which would be likely to be plasticity in the case of the steel and some

type of microstructural damage in the case of the composite). The main design variable will

be the wall thickness. Using the von Mises yield criterion (steel) and the Tsai-Hill failure

criterion (composite), and ignoring the issue of safety factors, estimate the minimum wall

thickness in each case and hence deduce which material would allow the lighter pipeline.

Comment on the assumptions and sources of error in your calculation and on whether there

might be a danger of any other types of failure. Without carrying out any further calculations,

indicate whether and how you would recommend changing the fibre winding angle of the

composite in order to make it more effective for this application.

[The von Mises yield criterion can be written

1

2

( )

2

+

2

3

( )

2

+

3

1

( )

2

2

Y

where

1

,

2

and

3

are the principal stresses and

Y

is the uniaxial yield stress. The latter

has a value of 150 MPa for the steel. The density of the steel is 7.8 Mg m

-3

.

The Tsai-Hill criterion for failure of a composite ply under plane stress conditions can be

expressed as:

1*

2

+

2

2*

1*

2

+

12

12*

2

1

where

1

,

2

and

12

are the stresses parallel, transverse and in shear relative to the fibre

axis and

1*

,

2*

and

12*

are corresponding critical values (measured respectively to be

900 MPa, 30 MPa and 40 MPa). The composite density is 1.8 Mg m

-3

.

The stresses within a lamina, subject to

x

,

y

and

xy

, are given by

12

=

c

2

s

2

2cs

s

2

c

2

2cs

cs cs c

2

s

2

xy

where c = cos and s = sin, and is the angle between x and 1 (fibre) directions.]

{from 2012 Tripos}

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H68

TWC - Lent 2014

Question Sheet 2

[Can be attempted after lecture 12; property data on C16H65 can be used if necessary.]

1. A strut is in the form of a hollow cylinder with an outside diameter of 25 mm and a bore of

20 mm. It is manufactured from MMC material composed of 70 vol.% SiC monofilaments in

a titanium alloy matrix, with the SiC fibres aligned approximately parallel to the axis of the

strut. However, the limitations of the manufacturing process are such that fibre misalignments

of up to 4 are present. The crushing strength of the SiC monofilaments is known to be about

8 GPa and the yield stress of the Ti alloy is 600 MPa, while the critical shear stress of the

composite, on planes parallel to the fibre axis, is measured to be about 200 MPa.

(i) Estimate the shear modulus of the composite and hence the stress for failure by kink band

formation. Would failure of this type occur under an axial compressive load of 25 kN?

(ii) Would any other type of failure or deformation be expected under this applied load?

[Shear moduli: Ti alloy; G = 44 GPa: SiC monofilament; G = 170 GPa

Youngs moduli: Ti alloy; E = 115 GPa: SiC monofilament; E = 400 GPa]

{from 2006 Tripos}

2. (a) A 1 mm thick unidirectional ply of epoxy-25vol% glass fibre composite is bonded at

120C to a steel plate with the same dimensions, and curing goes to completion at this

temperature. The bonded pair is then cooled (elastically) to room temperature (20C).

Describe the out-of-plane distortion that arises and calculate the associated curvature(s).

(b) When the bonded pair is loaded in compression parallel to the fibre axis of the ply, it is

observed that the curvature(s) it exhibits starts to reduce. Account for this effect. Calculate

the applied stress at which the specimen would become flat and comment on whether this is

likely to be achievable.

[For glass fibres: E = 76 GPa, = 5 10

-6

K

-1

, = 0.22

for epoxy resin: E = 3.5 GPa, = 58 10

-6

K

-1

, = 0.40

for steel: E = 210 GPa, = 11.4 10

-6

K

-1

, = 0.26

For an aligned long fibre composite. axial and transverse thermal expansivities,

c, tr

and

c, tr

,

are given by the following (force balance and Schapery) expressions

c, ax

=

m

1 f ( ) E

m

+

f

fE

f

1 f ( ) E

m

+ fE

f

c, tr

=

m

1 f ( ) 1+

m

( ) +

f

f 1+

f

( )

c, ax

12c

The curvature, , exhibited by a pair of bonded plates, each of thickness h, when there is a

misfit strain between their natural (stress-free) lengths, is given by

=

12

h

E

1

E

2

+14 +

E

2

E

1

]

{from 2008 Tripos}

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H69

TWC - Lent 2014

3. (a) During formation of a coating on a substrate, its common for a misfit strain, , to be

created, representing the difference between the (stress-free) in-plane dimensions of the two

constituents. For example, this often arises during deposition and/or subsequent cooling. This

misfit creates stresses and stains in the coating (and possibly in the substrate). Show that the

relation between the stress and strain in the coating, in any (in-plane) direction, can be

expressed

=

E

1 ( )

where E is the Youngs modulus and is the Poisson ratio.

(b) The curvature, , arising from a misfit strain, , between a coating (deposit) of thickness

h and a substrate of thickness H is given by

=

6E

d

E

s

h + H ( )h H

E

d

2

h

4

+ 4E

d

E

s

h

3

H + 6E

d

E

s

h

2

H

2

+ 4E

d

E

s

h H

3

+ E

s

2

H

4

where E

d

and E

s

are the Youngs moduli of deposit and substrate. Show that, in the limit of

h<<H, this reduces to the Stoney equation, giving the curvature in terms of the stress in the

deposit, its Poisson ratio, the Youngs modulus of the substrate and the thicknesses of the two

constituents.

(c) A glass sheet of thickness 3 mm has a 10 m layer of Al evaporated onto one side, to form

a mirror. The production process generates negligible stress in the coating. The sheet is

subsequently heated from room temperature (20C) to 170C. Calculate the curvature

exhibited by the sheet after heating, assuming that the system remained elastic.

(d) Decide, stating any assumptions, whether yielding is in fact likely to occur in the Al layer

during heating, given that it has a uniaxial yield stress at 170C of 100 MPa.

(e) Hence give an opinion as to whether any detectable distortion of the reflective

characteristics of the mirror is likely to be present after it has cooled to room temperature.

[For the glass: E = 75 GPa, = 8.5 10

-6

K

-1

,

for the Al: E = 70 GPa, = 0.33, = 24.0 10

-6

K

-1

] {from 2009 Tripos}

4. (a) Show that the curvature, , of a beam (reciprocal of the radius of curvature, R) is equal to

the through-thickness gradient of the strain, with the strain being zero at the neutral axis.

{15%}

(b) A vibration-damped sheet material is made by bonding a 1 mm thick rubber layer

between two steel plates of thickness 1 mm. The sheet is pushed against the surface of a large

cylindrical former, which has a radius of 0.5 m. Sketch the through-thickness distributions of

strain and stress in the sheet, assuming that both the steel and the rubber remain elastic.

{25%}

(c) This forming operation is actually designed to generate plastic deformation, creating a

shaped component with a uniform curvature in one plane. Taking the steel to have a yield

stress of 300 MPa (in compression or tension), and assuming that the rubber remains elastic,

show that the above operation would in fact induce plastic deformation in outer layers of both

metal sheets and calculate the thickness of the layers that would yield in this way and the

plastic strain at the free surfaces.

{20%}

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H70

TWC - Lent 2014

(d) Show that, if the width of the sheet (length along the axis of the cylinder) is 0.5 m, then the

beam stiffness ( = EI) of the sheet is 216.7 N m

2

and the bending moment that would be

needed in order to bring the sheet into contact with the cylindrical former would be 433 N m,

assuming that the steel remained elastic. Calculate the required bending moment for the actual

case, with the steel undergoing plastic deformation at a yield stress of 300 MPa (but

neglecting any work hardening).

{40%}

[Steel: Youngs modulus, E = 200 GPa;

Rubber: Youngs modulus value more than 4 orders of magnitude lower]

{2011 Tripos}

5. John Harrison, the famous clock-maker credited with developing a time-keeping system

sufficiently reliable to establish longitude at sea, was reportedly the first to create a bi-metallic

strip (for compensation of the effects of temperature change), which he did by casting a thin

brass layer onto a thin steel sheet. Show that, if both layers have a thickness of 0.1 mm, and

the strip is 100 mm long, then the temperature change required to generate a lateral deflection

of 1 mm at its end is about 4.6 K, assuming that the system remains elastic.

Sketch the (approximate) through-thickness distributions of stress and strain within the above

strip, after it had been heated by 100 K. Give your view as to whether such heating would be

likely to cause plastic deformation within the strip, given that the yield stresses of both

constituents are expected to be of the order of 100 MPa.

[The curvature, , of a bi-material strip comprising two constituents of equal thickness (h),

arising from a misfit strain of between them, is given by

=

12

h

E

1

E

2

+14 +

E

2

E

1

where E

1

and E

2

are the Youngs moduli of the constituents. The relationship between

curvature, , end deflection, y, and length, x, of a bi-material strip may be expressed as

=

2sin tan

1 y

x

( )

x

2

+ y

2

( )

For steel: Youngs modulus, E = 200 GPa; thermal expansivity, = 13 10

-6

K

-1

For brass: Youngs modulus, E = 100 GPa; thermal expansivity, = 19 10

-6

K

-1

]

{2012 Tripos}

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H71

TWC - Lent 2014

Examples Class I

[Property data on C16H65 can be used if necessary.]

1. (a) The components of the compliance tensor of an epoxy-glass fibre composite lamina,

referred to the fibre axis direction and the transverse direction, can be written

S =

S

11

S

12

0

S

12

S

22

0

0 0 S

66

=

1/ E

1

12

/ E

1

0

21

/ E

2

1/ E

2

0

0 0 1/ G

12

Using information in the Data Book, show that the interaction compliance giving the shear

strain arising from a normal stress, when the lamina is loaded at an angle to the fibre axis, is

S

16

= 2S

11

2S

12

S

66

( )c

3

s 2S

22

2S

12

S

66

( )cs

3

in which c = cos and s = sin.

(b) Using the following measured values of elastic constants of the composite

E

1

= 50GPa, E

2

= 5GPa,

12

= 0.3,G

12

= 10GPa

calculate the shear strain induced in the lamina when a normal tensile stress of 100 MPa is

applied at an angle of 30 to the fibre axis.

(c) The dependence of this interaction compliance on is shown below for a different

composite. Sketch the corresponding plot for a 0/90 crossply laminate of the same material,

obtained by assuming that the laminate compliance, at any given , can be taken as the

average of those for the constituent plies at their corresponding values.

{from 2009 Tripos}

[The questions below involve use of the DoITPoMS TLP Mechanics of Fibre Composites]

2. On the page Stiffness of Laminates, use the facility at the end to create an epoxy-50% glass

composite (dragging the materials icons concerned to the matrix and reinforcement boxes) and

to estimate the ratio of maximum to minimum Youngs modulus it exhibits when loaded at

different angles to the fibre axis. Now create a 0/90 (cross-ply) laminate of the same

composite and repeat the operation. Find a sequence giving complete in-plane isotropy and

confirm that the Youngs modulus in this case is about 22 GPa for all in-plane directions.

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H72

TWC - Lent 2014

3. On the page Failure of Laminates and the Tsai-Hill criterion, use the facility at the end to

create a polyester-50%glass angle-ply laminate (40). Taking this to be a filament-wound

tube, with the plies at 40 to the hoop direction, and a radius/wall thickness ratio of 20,

subjected to internal pressure, P, estimate the value of P at which failure will occur, according

to the Tsai-Hill criterion, given that

1*

= 700 MPa,

2*

= 20 MPa and

12*

= 50 MPa. Using

analytical equations, carry out the same calculation for one of the two plies (ignoring the

presence of the other). Account for the difference between this value and the one you

obtained treating the laminate as a whole (using the numerical procedure in the TLP).

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H73

TWC - Lent 2014

Examples Class II

[Property data on C16H65 can be used if necessary.]

1. (a) Outline the function of silane coupling agents, which are sometimes applied to glass

fibres prior to composite manufacture.

(b) Show that the contribution to the fracture energy of a directionally-reinforced long fibre

composite (loaded parallel to the fibre axis) from fibre pull-out is given by

G

cp

=

f s

2

r

i*

3

where f is the fibre volume fraction, s is the fibre pull-out aspect ratio (pull-out length /

diameter), r is the fibre radius and

i*

is the fibre-matrix interfacial shear strength, which may

be taken as the shear stress during frictional sliding.

(c) Inspection of the fracture surface of an epoxy-50% glass fibre (8 m diameter) composite

reveals an approximate distribution of fibre pull-out aspect ratio of: 25% with s~10, 50% with

s~20 and 25% with s~30. Estimate the expected contribution from fibre pull-out to the

fracture energy of this composite, assuming the interfacial shear strength to be 20 MPa. What

characteristic of the fibre determines the average pull-out aspect ratio?

{from 2007 Tripos}

2. (a) A small aircraft is being designed and a choice must be made between an aluminium alloy

and a composite for the fuselage material. The fuselage, which will approximate to a cylinder

of diameter of 2 m, is expected to experience internal pressures up to 0.6 atm (0.06 MPa)

above that of the surrounding atmosphere, axial bending moments of up to 500 kN m and

torques of up to 600 kN m. The composite fuselage would be produced by filament-winding

at 45 to the hoop direction. It may be assumed that this is a strength-critical application,

with the airframe stiffness expected to be adequate in any event. Using the Tresca yield

criterion (aluminium) and the Tsai-Hill failure criterion (composite), and ignoring the issue of

safety factors, estimate the minimum wall thickness in each case and hence deduce which

material would allow the lighter fuselage.

(b) Comment on the main sources of error in your calculation and also on whether there might

be a danger of any other type of failure.

[For the aluminium alloy, the yield stress in uniaxial tension = 250 MPa

For the composite, failure stresses for loading transverse and in shear relative to the fibre

axis are both 50 MPa: the possibility of failure by fracture of the fibres can be neglected.

Densities: Al = 2.70 Mg m

-3

, composite = 1.50 Mg m

-3

The peak axial stress in a thin-walled cylinder subjected to a bending moment M is R M/I,

where R is the radius and I is the moment of inertia, which is given by R

3

t, where t is the

wall thickness.]

{from 2006 Tripos}

3. The transverse thermal expansivity of an epoxy-55vol% glass fibre lamina is measured as

38 10

-6

K

-1

. Two identical such laminae are bonded together to make a cross-ply laminate.

The laminate is given a prolonged annealing treatment at 50C, after which it may be assumed

to be free of any thermal residual stress. It is then quickly cooled to 0C. Estimate the axial

stress in the fibres within a ply.

{from 1998 Tripos}

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H74

TWC - Lent 2014

4. A diamond coating of 1 m thickness is deposited by CVD onto a 1 mm thick titanium

substrate, at a temperature of 600C. Neglecting any deposition stresses, calculate the

curvature it is expected to exhibit after cooling to room temperature. Compare the values you

obtain using Eqn.(12.7) and Stoneys equation. Estimate the average stresses within the

coating and the substrate, and hence the driving force (strain energy release rate) for interfacial

debonding. In view of the magnitude of your value, comment on whether spallation of the

coating is likely to occur during cooling, given that the interfacial fracture energy in this

system has been estimated to be about 1 kJ m

-2

.

5. Steel sheet of thickness 1 mm is given a thin protective layer of vitreous enamel. This coating

is created by adding glassy powder to the surface and holding at around 700-800C, causing

the powder to fuse and form a layer of uniform thickness. The sheet is then furnace cooled,

taking several hours to reach room temperature, such that the thermal misfit strain is

completely relaxed by creep down to about 220C, after which cooling is elastic. Assuming

that the coating / substrate thickness ratio, h/H, is sufficiently small for the Stoney equation to

be valid, estimate the elastic strain in the coating, stating your assumptions.

{20%}

The adhesion of the enamel to the steel is excellent, so the system is highly resistant to

debonding, but its found that, if the coated sheet is progressively bent in one plane (with the

steel undergoing plastic deformation), then through-thickness cracks appear in the enamel

layer (on the convex side) when the local radius of curvature reaches 60 mm. Assuming that

such cracking starts when the tensile strain in the enamel reaches a certain level, use this

information to estimate this critical strain.

{25%}

A fabrication procedure requires bending of the coated sheet to a radius of curvature of

50 mm. The suggestion is made that, instead of furnace cooling the sheet after formation of

the coating, it should be removed from the furnace and cooled more quickly, such that elastic

cooling occurs below about 420C (and stress relaxation is complete until this point). Would

you expect this measure to result in the elimination of through-thickness cracking during

bending of the sheet to this curvature?

{20%}

For the latter case (ie the rapidly cooled sheet), what are the principal stresses within the

coating, before and after the bending operation? (The deformation of the steel sheet can be

taken as entirely plastic.)

{35%}

[Property data:

Steel: = 14 10

-6

K

-1

Enamel: = 5 10

-6

K

-1

; E = 70 GPa; = 0.2

where is the thermal expansivity, E is the Youngs modulus, and is the Poisson ratio]

{2010 Tripos}

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