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INTRODUCTION As the name implies, it is a system in which the circuit is closed and all the elements are directly

connected. This is unlike broadcast television where any receiver that is correctly tuned can pick up the signal from the airwaves. Directly connected in this context includes systems linked by microwave, infrared beams, etc. This article introduces the main components that can go to make up CCTV systems of varying complexity. THE APPLICATIONS FOR CCTV robably the most widely known use of CCTV is in security systems and such applications as retail shops, banks, government establishments, etc. The true scope for applications is almost unlimited. !ome examples are listed below. "onitoring traffic on a bridge. #ecording the inside of a baking oven to find the cause of problems. A temporary system to carry out a traffic survey in a town centre. Time lapse recording for the animation of plasticine puppets. $sed by the stage manager of a show to see obscured parts of a set. The well%publicised use at football stadiums. &idden in buses to control vandalism. #ecording the birth of a gorilla at a 'oo. "aking a wildlife program using a large model helicopter. #eproducing the infrared vision of a goldfish( Aerial photography from a hot air balloon. roduction control in a factory. The list is almost endless and only limited by the imagination. THE CAMERA The starting point for any CCTV system must be the camera. The camera creates the picture that will be transmitted to the control position. Apart from special designs CCTV cameras are not fitted with a lens. The lens must be provided separately and screwed onto the front of the camera.

There is a standard screw thread for CCTV cameras, although there are different types of lens mounts.

Diagram ) Camera And *ens +ot all lenses have focus and iris ad,ustment. "ost have iris ad,ustment. !ome very wide angle lenses do not have a focus ring. The -.+C- plug is for connecting the coaxial video cable. *ine powered cameras do not have the mains cable. ower is provided via the coaxial cable. THE MONITOR The picture created by the camera needs to be reproduced at the control position. A CCTV monitor is virtually the same as a television receiver except that it does not have the tuning circuits.

Diagram / CCTV "onitor SIMPLE CCTV SYSTEMS. The simplest system is a camera connected directly to a monitor by a coaxial cable with the power for the camera being provided from the monitor. This is known as a line powered camera. Diagram 0 shows such a system. robably the earliest well%known version of this was the ye 1bservation !ystem that popularised the concept of CCTV, mainly in retail establishments. 2t was an affordable, do%it%yourself, self%contained system.

Diagram 0 A .asic *ines owered CCTV !ystem The next development was to incorporate the outputs from four cameras into the monitor. These could be set to se3uence automatically through the cameras or any camera could be held selectively. Diagram 4 shows a typical arrangement of such a system. There was even a microphone built into the camera to carry sound and a speaker in the monitor. The speaker, of course, only put out the sound of the selected camera. There were however a few disadvantages with the system, although this is not to disparage it. The microphone, being in the camera, tended to pick up sound close to it and not at the area at which it was aimed. There was a noticeable, and sometimes annoying, pause between pictures when switching. This was because the camera was powered down when not selected and it took time for the tube to heat up again. The system was, though, cheap to buy and simple to install. 2t came complete in a box with camera, )5mm lens, bracket, switching monitor and )/ metres of coaxial cable with fitted plugs. An outlet socket for a video recorder was provided, although reviewing could be a little tedious when the cameras had been set to se3uence. There are now many systems of line powered cameras on the market that are more sophisticated than this basic system. "ost of the drawbacks mentioned have been overcome. Cameras had been around for a long time of course, before this development. The example is given to show the simplest, practical application. The use of some line powered cameras can impose limitations on system design. They do though, offer the advantage of ease of installation.

Diagram 4 A 6our%Camera *ine owered CCTV !ystem MAINS POWERED CCTV SYSTEMS. The basic CCTV installation is shown in diagram 7 where the camera is mains powered as is the monitor. A coaxial cable carries the video signal from the camera to the monitor. Although simple to install it should be born in mind that the installation must comply with the relevant regulations such as the 2nstitute of 8lectrical 8ngineers latest edition. 9+ow incorporated into .ritish !tandard .!:5:);. 6ailure to do so could be dangerous and create problems with the validity of insurance. This arrangement allows for a great deal more flexibility in designing complex systems. <hen more than one camera is re3uired, then a video switcher must be included as shown in diagram 5. $sing this switcher any camera may be selected to be held on the screen or it can be set to se3uence in turn through all the cameras. $sually the time that each camera is shown may be ad,usted by a control knob or by a screwdriver.

Diagram 7 A .asic "ains owered CCTV !ystem

Diagram.5 A 6our%Camera !ystem <ith Video !witcher

SYSTEMS WITH VIDEO RECORDING The next development of a basic system is to add a video recorder, the arrangement would be as shown in diagram :.

Diagram :A "ulti Camera !ystem <ith Video #ecorder <ith this arrangement the pictures shown during play back will be according to the way in which the switcher was set up when recording. That is, if it was set to se3uence then the same views will be displayed on the monitor. There is no control over what can be displayed. MOVABLE CAMERAS !o far all the cameras shown have been fixed with fixed focal length lenses. 2n many applications the area to be covered would need many fixed cameras. The solution to this is to use cameras fixed to a movable platform. This platform can then be controlled from a remote location. The platform may simply rotate in a hori'ontal plane and is generally known as a

scanner. Alternatively the platform may be controllable in both hori'ontal and vertical planes and is generally known as a pan, tilt unit. A basic system is illustrated in diagram =. This chapter does not deal with how cameras are controlled or wired> it is ,ust showing the facilities that may be incorporated into a CCTV system. Therefore the diagrams that follow are simply descriptive block diagrams and not connection drawings.

Diagram = .asic "ovable Camera !ystems Cameras may be used indoors or outdoors. <hen used outdoors they will always re3uire a protective housing. 6or indoor use the environment or aesthetic constraints will dictate whether a housing is needed. !ystems may contain a combination of both fixed and movable cameras.

Diagram ? "ultiple Camera !ystem OTHER CONSIDERATIONS This has been an introduction to some of the fundamentals of CCTV. #ecent developments have made some very sophisticated systems possible. These include concepts such as multiple recording of many cameras> almost real time pictures over telephone lines> true real time colour pictures over the 2!D+ telephone lines> switching of hundreds, even thousands, of cameras from many separate control positions to do'ens of monitors> reliable detection of movement by electronic evaluation of the video signal> immediate full colour prints in seconds from a camera or recording> the replacement of manual controls by simply touching a screen>

The Other Side of Using CCTV

+early all the articles and examples published about CCTV relate to security applications. &owever, there many far more interesting uses where imagination and flare can bring immediate and tangible benefits. !o, in this issue we are looking at non%security applications for CCTV. "any of these applications were one off re3uirements, which for a purchased installation would have been impossibly expensive. The solution was the short term hire of a system with temporary cabling, this made it affordable for the customer and very profitable to the installer. Time lapse recording for animating plasticine puppets The original experimental animation of plasticine puppets was made using a time lapse video recorder and replayed in real time. The rest is history. Carrying out a traffic survey for a town centre regeneration A town was planning a ma,or reconstruction of the town centre, one problem though, was that it was also an intersection of two main trunk roads and three local roads. An analysis of traffic flow was obviously a necessity and the usual method was for observers to sit by each ,unction and count the vehicles passing. 2t was considered that this would be expensive and not very accurate to cover a complete weeks traffic twenty four hours a day. Another problem was that although traffic flow could be counted at ,unctions, it would be difficult to determine where it went off. The solution proposed was a CCTV system to monitor the traffic flow. There was a multi%storey car park right in the centre of the intersection where cameras could be mounted covering every ,unction. To purchase such a system would have been very expensive 9although not prohibitively so; for ,ust a couple of weeks. The answer was to hire the complete system on a short term contract. The system consisted of eight fixed monochrome cameras, connected to a multiplexer and )/ hour time lapse video recorder. The installation would be temporary with cables simply laid along the roof, therefore, /4 volt cameras were used to eliminate the need for the expense of complying with wiring regulations. This made a significant reduction in the potential installation costs. Two tapes was used each day to provide a continuous record of traffic for the seven days. The tapes could then be analysed in significant detail including the types of vehicles and the routes taken in and out of the intersection. This proved to be not a cost effective solution but provided far more useful data than a manual survey could achieve.

Monitoring traffic on a bridge This was similar to the first example, in that a very old bridge could no longer take two way traffic and a bypass was needed. 1nce a time lapse VC# and two cameras provided far more information on traffic flow than manual logs could have provided. Recording inside a baking oven A large bakery was producing thousands of danish type pastries every night for distribution to a chain of high street shops. The pastries were conveyed on a wire mesh chain conveyor through the oven and discharged onto a flat belt conveyor to cool and pass to packing. 1n rare occasions, maybe four or five times a year, instead of discharging, the pastries ,ammed at the transfer with the following pastries piling up behind. 2t only needed a couple of minutes for the entire oven and feed line to be a complete mess of uncooked, overcooked pastry filling the space. +ot only was a complete nights production lost, but it needed several days to clean up the mess and start production again. The repercussions could be that it was not ,ust the danish pastry sales that were lost but confidence in the company would be diminished. 1n every occasion, the conveyors and drives were stripped down, inspected and reassembled, but nothing untoward was found. Again the solution was simple and temporary. A small camera was fitted in a water%cooled housing and mounted inside the oven, viewing the discharge area. This was connected to an =%hour video recorder and the entire production shift recorded. The tape was simply overwritten each night there was no incident. 2t was over two months before disaster struck again. &owever, this time there was a video from inside the oven. Detailed analysis of the tape produced an answer that could never have been found by any other means. There was a small kink on one side of the conveyor chain, and a small flaw in one of the driving sprockets. Due to the gear ratios and a fluid coupling the possibility of the mesh kink meeting the sprocket flaw was thousands to one. To make the incidence even more remote, this coincidence had to occur ,ust as the first batch of pastry emerged from the oven, once it was flowing there was no problem. &owever, it was determined that this was in fact what had occurred. 2t was decided to leave the camera in place permanently, but once cured the problem, never presented itself again and they all lived happily ever after. Recording the birth of a gorilla in a oo at night Apparently, gorillas are very private animals, particularly when expecting a birth. The ..C wildlife programme wanted to record the events leading up to and after

the birth, but the problem was during the night when any illumination would be unacceptable. The solution was to use an infrared illuminator with an =7@ nanometer filter which would be totally unobtrusive with an infrared sensitive camera and time lapse VC#. The result was the first recorded birth of a gorilla in captivity. Making a wildlife program in an isolated area using a model helicopter "any exotic locations for wildlife filming are too remote or inaccessible to reach on foot or from conventional helicopters. 1ne solution was to fit a miniature camera and radio transmitter to a small model helicopter. This was radio controlled and comparatively unobtrusive to the local wildlife, creating uni3ue footage of film. Reproducing the infrared vision of a goldfish A university was studying the ability of fish to apparently AseeB and navigate through murky water. The theory was that goldfish had vision that was sensitive to infra light. 2t would seem that where the visible part of the spectrum was largely reflected by water, infra light penetrates further. To simulate this, a camera was fitted with a filter that restricted its sensitivity to only the infrared part of the spectrum. An infrared illuminator was directed from above and the views from the camera noted. 2 never saw the results of this and donBt know what, if anything, was proven. 2t was interesting to set up and different from run%of%the% mill CCTV. Safety at !rand "ri# racing After the tragic accident of +icki *auder at The +urburg #ing in Cermany, Crand rix racing drivers banned the track for ma,or events. 2n "ay )??4 a new +urburg #ing was opened with a computer%designed track and many new safety measures. The particular item of interest is a Ceutebruck system of cameras connected back to a video motion detection system in the control room. 8ach camera monitors an area of the track, with 'ones defined alongside the track. 2f a car leaves the track it is detected and a view of the area instantly displayed at the control room and the appropriate action can be set into motion. 2f it is an accident, emergency teams can be directed to the scene immediately, even saving seconds can make the difference between life and death. The system would also detect a spectator straying onto the trackside. 2f a car leaves the track and re,oins the race, the system is automatically reset. There are many other examples of the innovative use of CCTV, other than security, such asD roduction control in factories.

2n a stage show to see obscured parts of a set. $se at football stadia. Arial photography from a hot air balloon. "any of these applications re3uire some lateral thinking and flexibility on the part of installation companies, maybe this is what is lacking today. "any of these systems have provided excellent value for money for the end user and can be very profitable for the installer.
Understanding Cameras

!pecification of the right CCTV camera for a pro,ect is not always the easiest of processes. There are many factors that have to be taken into accountD technical specifications, the application and its re3uirements, as well as any physical constraints the site may impose. <ith ever increasing product ranges available in the marketplace, and technology constantly evolving to optimise performance, reliability and functionality, it is 3uite a challenge to make an informed decision to meet the re3uirements for the ,ob whilst remaining within pro,ected budget. $nderstanding the many variables within CCTV camera technology today can only be an advantage in helping you make the right choices. At the heart of the CCTV camera technology is a CCD sensor 9Charge Coupled Device; that converts light into an electrical signal. This electrical signal is then processed by the camera electronics and converted to a video signal output that can then be either recorded or displayed on to a monitor. &owever, the treatment of the video signal is then dependant on the type of camera. CCD chip cameras can be divided into two principal typesD analogue or the more recently introduced digital versions. These can be sub%divided further into the followingD medium resolution monochrome E "edium resolution color E &igh resolution monochrome E &igh resolution color E Day Fnight cameras that provide color in the day and monochrome at night. To complicate matters even further, each of the above is generally available with different levels of performance %like a car model varying from -base features- to -top of the range-.
Monochrome or Colour$

The human eye remembers and recalls things better if they appear in colour % it-s easier to track down a brown%haired person wearing a red sweater and blue ,eans than a dark, grey%clad figure that would be produced in monochrome. Color cameras carry an additional premium in price compared with monochrome cameras. .ut they are also less sensitive making night usage an impractical option unless good lighting is available. "onochrome cameras can offer 2nfra #ed 92#; sensitivity allowing their use with covert 2# illumination possible. This can be particularly useful where planning permission makes extra lighting impractical or the security re3uirement is such that intruders should not be alerted to the existence of CCTV surveillance.
%nalogue or &igital$

$ntil recently most cameras have been of the analogue type, producing good 3uality images at an affordable price. &owever, the introduction of Digital !ignal rocessing 9D! ; has increased both the flexibility of using security cameras whilst enhancing the 3uality of the colour images produced. At the heart of D! lies computer microchips, or -chip sets- which have replaced the conventional integrated circuits in the camera head. This enables D! camera manufacturers to offer installer friendly, feature%rich products. The market for D! technology falls into two broad categoriesD -standard- and -premium- D! . !tandard D! cameras generally offer more consistent picture 3uality than their analogue counterparts, operating over a wider range of lighting conditions. remium D! cameras, however, have much richer functionality. This includes programmable intelligent backlight compensation 9.*C;, Video "otion Detection, remote set%up and control using a serial data link> built%in character generator and on%screen menus. These features make remium D! cameras the ideal choice for complex surveillance conditions such as those encountered in town centres. !ome situations may re3uire a standard D! camera, but with a specific premium feature. A good example of this is the Vista +C*504 colour camera. $sing digital signal processing, the +C*504 splits the screen into 54 'ones. The D! function calculates the average brightness within each of these 'ones and then compares it with those in all 54 'ones. The camera can then ad,ust the picture detail for areas that are in silhouette. This innovative feature is ideal in awkward lighting situations, e.g. a camera looking towards a shop window. 2n the morning, the sun may be in the top left corner of the window, but then moves across the field of view during the day, causing poor picture 3uality in most cameras. 2ntelligent backlight compensation is a function that will ensure crisp detailed pictures automatically throughout the day.
CC& Chip Si e

CCTV cameras generally use C1D chips that are designed for the consumer camcorder market. 1riginally, the chips used were half%inch image diagonal, but the drive for reduced si'e led to the development of third%inch and more recently 3uarter%inch chips. The half%inch chips are capable of producing the highest sensitivity and resolutions owing to the simple fact that they are able to gather more light. Third%inch chips now form an increasing part of the market and as product development continues their performance is approaching that of their larger brothers. Guarter%inch chip sets are a relatively recent development and are being widely used in consumer camcorders. Currently their use in CCTV is still somewhat limited because of the lack of availability and range of 3uarter%inch format lenses. As a general rule, 3uarter%inch cameras provide the lowest cost and performance while half%inch cameras provide premium performance and are more expensive. "id%priced third%inch cameras make up the bulk of cameras used in the market today.
Cameras and lenses made simple

1. CAMERAS The sub,ect of specifying cameras is a ,ungle of ,argon and misinformation, this brief article attempts to shed a little light on some of the mysteries surrounding it. 1nly CCD cameras will be considered because they are now the most commonly used type for CCTV. The imaging e!i"e# CCD means a Charged Coupled Device and consists of a flat array of tiny, light sensitive photodiodes. 8ach diode produces a voltage that is directly proportional to the amount of light falling on it. +o light would produce no voltage and therefore a black level. "aximum light would produce a maximum voltage and therefore a white level. 2n between these would be shades of grey, and is the luminance information of a video signal. 2n the case of a colour camera, a chrominance signal is superimposed onto the luminance signal to carry the colour information. 92f a colour camera is connected to a monochrome monitor, then a monochrome picture would be produced from the luminance information and the chrominance would not be processed;. !ee also colour cameras with separate HFC outputs under resolution.

The range of light levels that a CCD can cope with is very limited, therefore means have to be introduced to restrict the light range within certain limits. The !i e$ %igna&# A field of video is created by the CCD being scanned across and down exactly 0)/ )F/ times and this reproduced on the monitor. A second scan of 0)/ )F/ lines is exactly )F/ a line down and interlaced with the first scan to form a picture with 5/7 lines. This is known as a /D) interlaced picture. The combined 5/7 line is known as a frame of video and made up from two interlaced fields. The total voltage produced is one volt from the bottom of the sync pulse to the top of the white level, hence one volt peak to peak9pFp;. The luminance element of the signal is from @.0 volts to one volt, therefore is @.: volts maximum. This is known as a composite video signal because the synchronising and video information are combined into a single signal.

+ote that the imaging device is scanned 5/7 times but the actual resolution is defined by the number of pixels making up the device. There are several factors that make up a complete camera specification and are all be inter% related. These areD !ensitivity !ignal to noise ratio. Automatic gain control.

#esolution. Sen%i'i!i'(# The most common factor people look for in a camera specification is the sensitivity, although it is not always the most important. !ensitivity is the amount of light, in lux, necessary to produce a video signal of some, usually unspecified, level. This factor seems to be the marketing battleground upon which all manufacturers fight to show their cameras as being better than the competition(

Signa& '$ n$i%e )a'i$. *S+n,. As seems obvious this is the ratio of the level of the video signal to the amount of noise present. +oise in a video is seen as snow or graininess, resulting in a poorly defined image on the monitor or video recording. The unit for expressing sFn ratio is decibels 9d.;, but do not be too worried because it can be expressed as a ratio. The following table shows the e3uivalent ratio for values given in d..

d. )@@ 5@ 7@ 4@ 0@ /@ )@

#atio )@@,@@@D) ),@@@D) 0)5D) )@@D) 0/D) )@D) 0D)

2t can be seen that a sFn ratio of 4@Db is e3uivalent to a ratio of )@@D), that is the signal is )@@ times the noise level. Conversely the noise is one hundredth of the signal. +ote that at a sFn ratio of /@Db, the noise is )@I of the signal and would produce an unacceptable picture. The following table provides a guide as what 3uality to expect from various sFn ratios.

!F+ ratio d. 5@ d. 7@ d. 4@d. 0@ d. /@ d.

!F+ ratioD) ),@@@ 0)5 )@@ 0/ )@

icture 3uality 8xcellent, no noise apparent Cood, a small amount of noise but picture 3uality good. #easonable, fine grain or snow in the picture, fine detail lost. oor picture with a great deal of noise. $nusable picture.

A-'$ma'i" gain "$n')$& *AGC,. <hen the light falling on to an imaging device reduces to a certain level, there is insufficient to create a full level video signal. ACC acts to increase the amount of amplification in these conditions to bring the signal up to the re3uired level. As well as amplifying the video signal, additional noise can be introduced, and the signal to noise ratio reduced. The result is fre3uently a very much degraded signal and poor picture on the monitor. Re%$&-'i$n. The value referred to here is the hori'ontal resolution in TV lines, that is the number of black to white transitions that can be resolved across the image. This is a function of the number of pixels that make up the CCD imaging area and the bandwidth of the camera circuitry. Typical camera resolution is 07@ TV lines, with high resolution cameras producing better than 47@ lines. +ote that resolution costs money(

There are now colour cameras that instead of superimposing the chrominance onto the luminance signal, provide the chrominance as a separate signal. This is known as HFC separation and re3uires two coaxial cables from the camera to carry each signal separately. The effect of this techni3ue is to increase the bandwidth and therefore the resolution, typically to better than 7@@ TV lines. ?)/ words.

Came)a% an &en%e% ma e %im.&e.


/. LENSES In')$ -"'i$n The human eye is an incredibly adaptable device that can focus on distant ob,ects and immediately re%focus on something close by. 2t can look into the distance or at a wide angle nearby. 2t can see in bright light or at dusk ad,usting automatically as it does so. 2t also has a long -depth of field- therefore scenes over a long distance can be in focus at the same time. 2t sees colour when there is sufficient light but switches to monochrome vision when there is not. 2t is also connected to a brain that has a faster updating and retentive memory than any computer. Therefore the eyes can swivel from side to side and up and down, retaining a clear picture of what was scanned. The brain accepts all the data and makes an immediate decision to move to a particular image of interest. 2t can then select the appropriate angle of view and re%focus. The eye has another clever trick in that it can view a scene of great contrast and ad,ust only to the part of it that is of interest. .y contrast the basic lens of a CCTV camera is an exceptionally crude device. 2t can only be focused on a single plane, everything before and after this becomes progressively out of focus. The angle of view is fixed at any one time it can only view a specific area that must be predetermined. The iris opening is fixed for a particular scene and is only responsive to global changes in light levels. 8ven an automatic iris lens can only be set for the overall light level although there are compensations for different contrasts within a scene. Another problem is that a lens may be set to see into specific areas of interest when there is a lot of contrast between these and the surrounding areas. &owever as the sun and seasons change so do light areas become dark and dark areas become light so the important scene can be -whited out- or too dark to be of any use. 1ne of the most controversial but important aspects of designing a successful CCTV system is the correct selection of lens. The problem is that the customer may have a totally different perspective of what a lens can see compared to the reality. This is because most people perceive what they want to view as they see through their own eyes. Topics such as identification of miscreants or number plates must be sub,ects debated fre3uently between installing companies and customers. The selection of the most appropriate lens for each camera must fre3uently be a compromise between the absolute re3uirements of the user and the practical use of the system. 2t is ,ust not

possible to see the whole of a large loading bay and read all the vehicle number plates. The solution may be more cameras or viewing ,ust a restricted area of particular interest. The company putting forward the system proposal should have no hesitation of pointing out the restrictions that may be incurred according to the combination of lens versus the number of cameras. .etter this than an unhappy customer who is reluctant to pay the invoice.

Fi0e F$"a& Leng'h These are sometimes referred to as monofocal lens. As the name implies this type of lens is specified when the precise field of view is fixed and will not need to be varied when using the system. The angle of view can be obtained from the supplier-s specification or charts provided. They are generally available in focal lengths from 0.:mm to :7mm. *onger focal lengths may be produced by adding a /x adapter between the lens and the camera. 2t should be noted that this will increase the f number by a factor of two 9reducing the amount of light reaching the camera;. 2f focal lengths longer than these are re3uired then it will be necessary to use a 'oom lens and set it accordingly. 8xcept for very wide angle lenses all other lenses have a ring for ad,usting the focus. 2n addition cameras include a focusing ad,ustment that moves the imaging device mechanically relative to the lens position. This is to allow for minor variations in the back focal length of lens and manufacturing tolerances in assembling the device in the camera. Correct focusing re3uires setting of both these ad,ustments. The procedure is to decide the plane of the scene on which the best focus is re3uired and then set the lens focusing ring to the mid position. Then set the camera mechanical ad,ustment for maximum clarity. 6inal fine focusing can be carried out using the lens ring. The mechanical focusing on cameras is often referred to as the back focus. This was because a screw at the back of the camera moved the tube on a rack mechanism. "odern cameras now have many forms of mechanical ad,ustment. !ome have screws on the side or the top, some still at the back. There are cameras that have a combined CFC!%mount on the front that also has the mechanical ad,ustment and can accept either type of lens format. The longer the focal length of the lens the more critical is the focusing. This is a function of depth of field. Va)ia1&e F$"a& Leng'h This is a design of lens that has a limited range of manual focal length ad,ustment. 2t is strictly not a 'oom lens because it has 3uite a short focal length. They are usually used in internal situations where a more precise ad,ustment of the scene in view is re3uired which may fall between two standard lenses. They are also useful where for a small extra cost one lens may be specified for all the cameras in a system. This saves a lot of installation time and the cost of return visits to change lenses if the views are not 3uite right. 6or companies involved in many small to medium si'ed internal installations such as retail shops and offices this can save on stockholding. 2t makes the standardisation of systems and costing much easier.

Man-a& 2$$m Len% A 'oom lens is one in which the focal length can be varied manually over a range by means of a knurled ring on the lens body. 2t has the connotation of -'ooming in- and therefore infers a lens with a longer than normal focal length. The 'oom ratio is stated as being for instance 5D) this means that the longest focal length is six times that of the shortest. The usual way of describing a 'oom lens is by the format si'e, 'oom ratio and the shortest and longest focal lengths, i.e. /F0,J 5D), )/.7mm to :7mm. Again, great care must be taken in establishing both the camera and the lens format. The lens ,ust described would have those focal lengths on a /F0J camera but a range of =mm to 4=mm on a )F/J camera. !imilarly a lens giving the same performance on a )F/J camera would be a )F/,J 5D), =mm to 4=mm. M$'$)i3e 2$$m Len% "anual 'oom lenses are not widely used in CCTV systems because the angle of tilt of the camera often needs to be changed as the lens is 'oomed in and out. The most common need for a 'oom lens is when used with a pan tilt unit. The lens 'oom ring is driven by tiny DC motors and controlled from a remote source. <ith a correctly set up camera lens combination the focus should not change from one limit of 'oom to the other. <ith the development of ever smaller cameras and longer focal length lenses the method of mounting the cameraFlens combination must be taken into account. There are many cases where the lens is considerably larger than the camera and it may be necessary to mount the lens rigidly with the camera supported by it. 2n other cases it may be necessary to provide rigid supports for both camera and the lens. Always check the relationship between the camera and lens si'es and weights when selecting a housing or mounting. "ost manufacturers of housings can provide lens supports as an accessory. The most fre3uent reason for the focus changing when 'ooming is that the mechanical focus of the camera has not been set correctly. M$'$)i3e 2$$m Len% Wi'h P)e4%e'% There are many situations where it is re3uired to pan tilt and 'oom to a predetermined position within the area being covered. 2t is possible to obtain motori'ed lenses with potentiometers fitted to the 'oom and focusing mechanisms. These cause the lens to 'oom automatically and focus to the setting by measuring the voltage across the potentiometer and comparing it with the signals in the control system. All other functions are as for motori'ed 'oom lenses. re%set controls are only possible with telemetry controlled systems. The specification of the telemetry controls should be checked to see whether the pre%set positions are set from the central controller or locally from the telemetry receiver.

Understanding Covert Cameras

Covert Cameras, in essence, are a means of offering surveillance of an undetected or more discreet nature. !uitable for use in a broad range of internal applications, these miniature Cameras have been designed in developed to provide monitoring tools that are disguised in the form of everyday commercial and domestic ob,ects. This ensures that they are able to blend inconspicuously into any background and conse3uently do not catch people-s attention. As a result, there are a number of state%of%the%art products which have been introduced into the market to meet security demands, varying from office clocks to assive 2nfra#ed 9 2#; sensors, containing a minute camera within. These products are available in monochrome or colour versions and with optional audio. Covert cameras tend to be used where there is a re3uirement to achieve particular ob,ectives. These tend to fall into the following categoriesD A, C$!e)' %-)!ei&&an"e % where there is a re3uirement to monitor activities in a particular location, completely undetected, e.g. in areas of high security like ,ewellers and banks. They are also useful for back%up surveillance in installations where the primary CCTV e3uipment is of a more traditional nature, i.e. standard cameras. 2n this case Covert Cameras can operate as a back%up where primary cameras are disabled by an intruder. B, Di%")ee'+Un$1')-%i!e %-)!ei&&an"e % often there is a need for a surveillance system that is less conspicuous, not necessarily as an attempt to hide the fact that monitoring is taking place, but more from marketing or style considerations. <hen introducing a covert system, it is important to recognise that access to recorded material must be kept to a minimum to ensure the privacy of individuals who may appear. A responsible policy should be introduced to ensure that footage from covert cameras is used for the purposes it was intended.
%nalogue and &igital ' (hat)s the &ifference$

The issue of digital images as evidence is in focus as this new technology takes off in the security world. Demand for digital is rising rapidly as the cost of commercial applications falls 9particularly for storage and maintenance;. The 3uality of digital technology is clear to see 3uite literally with superior images that are more flexible to store and transfer. !o what is the difference between traditional analogue video images and images obtained from digital surveillance technology % and why all the fussK Traditional analogue 2mages are recorded in some physical form, such as fre3uency, amplitude or in the case of a photograph, the activation of photo% chemical emulsion.

A digital 2mage is recorded as a series of binary digits 9called bits; % either ones or 'eroes. The image is then focused onto an electronic sensor comprising individual light%sensitive elements known as pixels 9picture elements;. These act as switches to modify an electrical current on or off and the information is processed by a computer. 2t can then be displayed on a screen, stored in a variety of media or printed out.
Traceability

The !elect Committee #eport, -Digital 2mages and 8vidence-, seeks to clarify the difference 9see panel above; and makes recommendations to the Covernment on the way forward with digital CCTV images. 6or a court, the key word is -traceability- % having a cast%iron audit trail that takes you right back to the original recording. This means that whatever happens to an image if it is enlarged, printed out, even tampered with % the original remains for a court to examine. .ecause digital technology is so new, people are having to get to grips with the fact that a digital image consists of a series of ones and noughts that are converted by a computer into an electronic image. .ut that doesn-t mean they should be any less valid than a traditional analogue image. 6ar from saying digital images cannot be used as evidence the #eport lays out guidelines about ensuring their authenticity. *ike analogue images, suitable procedures should be followed in collecting and monitoring what is captured on camera. 2ndeed, the !elect Committee established that digital images have already been used as evidence in court. 6or example, images from a system installed in the car parks at &eathrow Airport have been successfully used as evidence. 2t seems certain that the increasing popularity of digital technology coupled with the fact that images can be replayed countless times with no diminution in 3uality means its widespread use and acceptance as evidence is inevitable. Analogue or digital images are unlikely to be the only evidence presented in a court case. 2n fact, they are far more likely to be used before a trial to make a person admit their involvement in a situation. 6rom our understanding of the #eport, the Covernment is saying that methods of storage and authentication of surveillance images should continue as before. "any of the issues created by new digital technology will be governed by the new Data rotection Act. The Data rotection Act is significant because unlike analogue images, digital images are covered by the Act. This seeks to protect individuals from the use of personal information without their consent, such as their names and addresses. 2t is very detailed about the way data must be handled and stored. .y falling within the remit of the Act, digital recordings are therefore governed by very stringent guidelines and controls.
(hat *t %ll Means for *nstallers

<hat is important is that end users of digital surveillance e3uipment know what is expected of them in terms of the way they record, store and use digital images. 2t-s not so much installers but the impact on their customers that need to be considered. 2nstallers should make sure their customers know what is expected of them.

<e-re helped here by a number of specific recommendations made by the !elect Committee and endorsed in the Covernment-s official response. Digital technology has the capacity for encryption and security coding so some kind of electronic audit trail involving file coding of digital images is suggested. A permanent physical record of the data that cannot be amended is one idea % this could be some form of write%once read many times- 9<1#"!; disk. Creating an audit trail would reduce the chances of undetected tampering of images. These are some of the main #eport recommendations which the Covernment has said it hopes will help to form -best practice- in the security industry and elsewhereD

#esponsibility for proving the reliability and authenticity of data is with the body that captures, processes and modifies it. A suitable audit trail is essential <here digital images are considered as evidence, courts should place greater weight on evidence that can be shown to be derived from an authenticated original. Luries should be informed of anything to doubt the authenticity of digital images As with analogue images, proper records must be maintained showing who was in control of the e3uipment at the time of an incident and subse3uently in charge of any images created, and who is responsible for the storage and retrieval of those images The Data rotection Act )??= should provide the regulatory framework to cover CCTV% derived images, including digital data. The Covernment supports the idea of devising some kind of incentive such as endorsing codes of good practice that are based on the 3uality, integrity and authenticity of data. 6actors here might includeD The way in which systems are tested, including on%site, by installers or users The way systems are set up, calibrated and maintained 8nvironmental conditions 1perating procedures Training of users Automatic 3uality warnings.

<hat installers need to make their customers aware of is not ,ust the fact that digital and analogue images differ but to ensure that the same careful approach is taken to the way any image is captured, stored and maintained. They need to make sure their customers understand the importance of ensuring traceability of surveillance images.
&igital *mages as +vidence

At last it is out, the long awaited report from the &ouse of *ords !elect Committee on !cience and Technology. "ost people in the industry and many end users have been waiting with baited breath for what was expected to be a series of draconian regulations imposing severe restrictions on the use of digital recordings. 8veryone 2 spoke to on the sub,ect had their own views of impending doom and enormous increases in costs to comply with these, as then, unpublished papers. The resultK 2 found the report to be an extremely down%to earth, pragmatic document that deals with the sub,ect realistically. 2t recognises the inevitability of progress along the digital route and

the problems of creating legislation based on technological criteria. The recommendations do come down very heavily on the need for secure audit trails from initial recording to copies produced as evidence. Although the report does not re3uire forms of encryption, watermarking or other anti%tamper measures it should be remembered that these techni3ues may well be necessary for other security re3uirements. The report deals with digital images as evidence only. There is one great difference between analogue and digital recording. 2f a copy is made from a tape recording, the copy will be of a lessor 3uality than the original, if further copies were made from copies the results may well be unusable. A digital recording however, consists of a series of binary digits which can be copied an unlimited number of times with no degradation of the images compared to the original. 2f an -original- set of images was on a CD for instance and then copied several times, it would be impossible to determine which was the original and which were copies. The report draws on a great deal of experience in relation to the digital storage and copying of documents and applies this to digital images. 6ollowing is a selection of extracts from the report. <hat is an originalK The report prefers> 5The $)igina& i% 'he a'a 6i)%' )e"$) e in mem$)(. Th-% an( .)in'e $) i%.&a(e image ")ea'e 6)$m 'he%e i% a "$.(. C$n%e7-en'&( igi'a& )e"$) ing 'e"hn$&$g( .)$!i e% n$ $)igina& 'ha' "$-& 1e .)$ -"e in e!i en"e. A&& 'ha' i% a!ai&a1&e 6$) e!i en"e i% a "$.( $6 'he 6i)%'8 .)$1a1&( 'em.$)a)(8 )e"$) ing in mem$)(8 an 'hi% 9i&& 1e a mi%%i1&e a% e!i en"e. I'% 9eigh' a% e!i en"e 9i&& e.en $n .)$.e) a-'hen'i"a'i$n an $'he) ma''e)%5. 2n the case of a digital "ame)a, it is probable that the original would be the digital file representing the image. This would be stored on a memory chip or series of chips and immediately transferred to some other form of storage 9hard disc, etc.; and the memory chip being overwritten with the next image. 5Thi% $e% n$' )e.)e%en' a .)$1&em -n e) 'he La9 $6 Eng&an an Wa&e% 1e"a-%e i6 'he $)igina& $6 a $"-men' n$ &$nge) e0i%'%8 "$.ie% $) e!en "$.ie% $6 "$.ie% a)e a mi%%i1&e a% e!i en"e an i' i% i))e&e!an' 'ha' 'he $)igina& 9a% e%')$(e 1( 'he .e)%$n %ee:ing '$ .)$ -"e 'he "$.( a% e!i en"e. N$) i% i' a .)$1&em in S"$'&an 1e"a-%e a&'h$-gh 'he gene)a& )-&e 'ha' "$.ie% $6 $"-men'% a)e a mi%%i1&e 9he'he) $) n$' 'he $)igina&% %'i&& e0i%' $e% n$' a..&( '$ !i%-a& image%8 "$.ie% $6 a $"-men' 9hi"h n$ &$nge) e0i%'% a)e a mi%%i1&e -n e) 'he 1e%' e!i en"e )-&e. The 6a"' 'ha' a $"-men' i% a "$.( g$e% '$ i'% 9eigh' a% e!i en"e8 n$' i'% a mi%%i1i&i'(. I' 9i&& 'he)e6$)e 1e ne"e%%a)( 6$) 'he -%e) '$ 1e a1&e '$ gi!e e!i en"e $6 'he .)$"e -)e% -%e 6$) gene)a'ing8 .)$"e%%ing an %'$)ing igi'a& image%. S$ a% '$ 1e a1&e '$ .)$!e 'ha' 'he image .)$ -"e '$ 'he "$-)' i% an a""-)a'e "$.( $6 'he $)igina&5. ....In gene)a& 'he "$-)' i% &i:e&( '$ a mi' 'he e!i en"e8 'he ;- ge 9i&& i)e"' 'he ;-)( $n 'he 9eigh' 'he( %h$-& "$n%i e) a''a"hing '$ i'. There is a section of the report dealing with the possibilities of modifying a digital image. There are a variety of inexpensive software packages that can perform sophisticated alterations to digital images. These techni3ues can be used for several reasons ranging from simple enhancement to making significant and possibly malicious alterations to an image. 5The)e i% n$

"&ea) i%'in"'i$n 1e'9een a""e.'a1&e <enhan"emen'< an -na""e.'a1&e <mani.-&a'i$n<. An( "hange% ha!e '$ 1e "$n%i e)e $n 'hei) me)i'%. The need for caution. Wi'h m$ e)n .)$"e%%ing an 'e&e4"$mm-ni"a'i$n% 'e"hni7-e% e!en an image 'ha' .-).$)'% '$ 1e ana&$g-e ma( ha!e ha a < igi'a& .a%'< F$) e0am.&e8 i' i% .$%%i1&e 'ha' an image %'$)e igi'a&&( ma( ha!e 1een gene)a'e 9i'h a %'an a) ana&$g-e "ame)a8 'he %igna& $) .i"'-)e ma( 1e "$n!e)'e in'$ igi'a& 6$)ma' 6$) ')an%mi%%i$n an 'hen "$n!e)'e 1a": '$ ana&$g-e again '$ 1e i%.&a(e . Th-% in man( "i)"-m%'an"e%8 i' "an 1e i66i"-&' '$ ma:e a i%'in"'i$n 1e'9een 9ha' i% an 9ha' i% n$' a igi'a& image. The ea%e 9i'h 9hi"h image%8 9hen in igi'a& 6$)ma'8 "an 1e "$.ie an m$ i6ie %-gge%'% 'ha' "a-'i$n m-%' 1e e0e)"i%e 9hen an( image i% -%e a% e!i en"e# a&& image%8 1$'h ana&$g-e an igi'a& migh' 1e %-%.e"'. .ut are these concerns realK ......We "$n"&- e 'ha' 1e6$)e 'he a !en' $6 igi'a& 'e"hn$&$g( i' migh' ha!e 1een a 'ime "$n%-ming an "$%'&( e0e)"i%e '$ .)$ -"e a m$ i6ie image in 9hi"h i' 9a% i66i"-&' '$ e'e"' 'am.e)ing8 1-' 9i'h 'he .)e%en' 9i e%.)ea a!ai&a1i&i'( $6 igi'a& 'e"hn$&$g( i' "$-& n$9 1e a &$9 "$%' $.e)a'i$n '$ .)$ -"e an image in 9hi"h 'he m$ i6i"a'i$n% 9$-& 1e -n e'e"'a1&e. The e0i%'en"e $6 a 'e"hn$&$g( 'ha' "an 1e -%e '$ m$ i6( image% in 'hi% 9a( nee in i'%e&6 1e $6 n$ g)ea' "$n"e)n= e!en 'he 9i e%.)ea a!ai&a1i&i'( $6 'he 'e"hn$&$g( a' &$9 "$%' migh' n$' "a-%e "$n"e)n. .........Thi% mean% 'ha' 9hen .)e%en'e 9i'h an image 'he $1%e)!e) %h$-& ha!e n$ m$)e8 an n$ &e%%8 6ai'h in i' 'han i6 'he in6$)ma'i$n ha 1een 'e0' $n a %hee' $6 .a.e) $6 7-e%'i$na1&e .)$!enan"e5. The report continues to state that witnesses regarded the differences between digital images and other evidence as being one of -degree rather than of fundamental kind-. There is a distinction between the admissibility of evidence between civil and criminal cases. 5......Thi% mean% 'ha' in ")imina& "a%e%8 an( -%e $6 a igi'a& image a% e!i en"e m-%' 1e a""$m.anie 1( 'he "e)'i6i"a'e )e7-i)e -n e) %e"'i$n >? 9of the olice and Criminal 8vidence Act )?=4; Thi% "e)'i6i"a'e8 gi!en 1( a .e)%$n )e%.$n%i1&e 6$) 'he "$m.-'e) %(%'em in 7-e%'i$n8 m-%' %'a'e 'ha' ei'he) 'he "$m.-'e) %(%'em 9a% a' a&& 'ime% $.e)a'ing .)$.e)&(8 $) 'ha' an( e6e"' in i'% $.e)a'i$n 9a% n$' %-"h a% '$ a66e"' 'he a""-)a"( $6 'he )e"$) 5. The *aw Commission has recently recommended the repeal of !ection 5? of AC8 because -it serves no useful purpose-. <ith the repeal of this section, a presumption of proper functioning would be applied to computers. The report emphasised many times the need for an accurate recorded audit trail from the initial image to the copy produced in court. 5A .)$%e"-'$) $) .a)'( '$ &i'iga'i$n 9i&& a&9a(% nee '$ 1e .)e.a)e '$ $66e) 6-)'he) e!i en"e a1$-' 'he %$-)"e $6 a igi'a& image an 'he .)$"e%%ing an %'$)age i' ha% -n e)g$ne %in"e i' 9a% 6i)%' )e"$) e . I' ha% 1een he& 'ha' 'he .e)%$n a -"ing a )e"$) ing a% e!i en"e m-%' e%")i1e i'% .)$!enan"e an hi%'$)(8 %$ a% '$ %a'i%6( 'he ;- ge 'ha' 'he)e i% a .)ima 6a"ie "a%e 'ha' 'he e!i en"e i% a-'hen'i"5. The next chapter concentrates on the use of digital images and continues the theme of authentication. 5The 6a"' 'ha' a $"-men' i% a "$.( ma( )e -"e i'% 9eigh' a% e!i en"e8

-n&e%% 'he)e i% %-66i"ien' a-'hen'i"a'i$n e!i en"e '$ "$n!in"e 'he "$-)' 'ha' i% an a""-)a'e "$.(. Thi% a-'hen'i"a'i$n e!i en"e 9$-& n$)ma&&( 1e in 'he 6$)m $6 an a- i' ')ai& "$nne"'ing 'he $)igina& image 9i'h 'he "$m.-'e) )e"$) 9hi"h i% '$ 1e a -"e in e!i en"e an )e"$) ing 9ha' ha% $""-))e '$ 'ha' )e"$) in 'he in'e)im. &ere the report refers to a .ritish !tandard Code of ractice for the *egal Admissibility of 2nformation on 8lectronic Document "anagement !ystems. 9D2!C D @@@=, 6ebruary )??5;. This sets out procedures and documentation re3uired for the audit of systems producing documents or other images that may be used as evidence in a court of law. 2n the absence of any Code of ractice more relevant to CCTV images, it may be that we all need to obtain a copy of this .!. 2 was very surprised to note the following comment. 5O6 "$n%i e)a1&e in'e)e%' '$ -% 9a% 'ha' n$ e6en"e 'eam% in 'he Uni'e @ing $m ha 8 a% (e'8 e!e) )e7-e%'e an a- i' ')ai& 1e .)$ -"e in an( "a%e 9he)e !i e$ image% 9e)e 1eing -%e 1( 'he .)$%e"-'i$n Thi% ma( "hange a% e6en an'% an 'hei) &a9(e)% 1e"$me m$)e 6ami&ia) 9i'h 'he 'e"hn$&$g(5. 2 have a feeling that this situation is going to change rapidly, and, of course will not only apply to digital recordings. The report goes into some length about watermarking and encryption technologies and the pros and cons of their usefulness in authenticating digital recordings. 2t continuesD 5The a)g-men'% again%' %.e"i6(ing ne9 ")i'e)ia 9hi"h m-%' 1e me' 1e6$)e e!i en"e "an 1e a mi''e a)e#4

I' 9$-& 1e !e)( i66i"-&' '$ %.e"i6( 'he na'-)e $6 'he a-'hen'i"a'i$n 'e"hn$&$g( in %-"h a 9a( 'ha' i' 9$-& n$' 7-i":&( 1e"$me $-' a'e a% 'he 'e"hn$&$g( a !an"e%. I' 9$-& 'a:e an a..)e"ia1&e 'ime 6$) man-6a"'-)e)% $6 igi'a& image 'e"hn$&$g( '$ in"$).$)a'e %-"h mea%-)e%8 an e!en &$nge) 6$) %-"h 'e"hn$&$g( '$ 1e"$me 9i e&( -%e = When 'e"hn$&$g( a !an"e%8 'he "$-)'% 9i&& 1e 6a"e 9i'h 'he .$%i'i$n 'ha' image% $!e) 9hi"h 'he)e i% n$ i%.-'e a% '$ 'hei) )e&ia1i&i'( "ann$' 1e )e"ei!e a% e!i en"e 1e"a-%e 'he( 9e)e n$' "a.'-)e 1( 'e"hn$&$g( 9hi"h me' 'he %.e"i6i"a'i$n= an The "&ea) ')en in 'he e!e&$.men' $6 'he &a9 i% '$ )em$!e .)i$) )e7-i)emen'% 6$) a&& 6$)m% $6 $"-men'a)( e!i en"e8 &ea!ing i' '$ 'he "$-)'% '$ e'e)mine 9he'he) 'he e!i en"e i% )e&ia1&e.

F$) 'he%e )ea%$n% 9e a)e n$' "$n!in"e 'ha' %$me %$)' $6 ")i'e)ia m-%' 1e me' 1e6$)e e!i en"e "an 1e a mi''e . Ra'he) 9e ag)ee 9i'h 'he 9i'ne%%e% 9h$ %ai 'ha' 'he)e %h$-& n$' 1e i66e)en' )-&e% a1$-' a mi%%i1i&i'( 1a%e $n 'he 'e"hn$&$g( -%e '$ "a.'-)e 'he e!i en"e5....... 5We )e"$mmen 'ha' e!i en"e %h$-& n$' ne"e%%a)i&( 1e ina mi%%i1&e 1e"a-%e i' $e% n$' "$n6$)m 9i'h %$me 6$)m $6 'e"hn$&$gi"a& )e7-i)emen'5.

&owever, it continues, that although there should not be technological re3uirements which digital images m-%' meet, it does not mean that the report is against authentication technologies. Guite the reverse, 5We %-..$)' 'he a..&i"a'i$n $6 an( 'e"hn$&$g( 9hi"h "an he&. 9i'h 'he !e)i6i"a'i$n $6 an image an .)$!i e a%%i%'an"e '$ 'he "$-)' in a%%e%%ing i'% 9$)'h5. 5We )e"$mmen 'ha' 'he G$!e)nmen' en"$-)age 'he -%e $6 a-'hen'i"a'i$n 'e"hni7-e%. Mem1e)% $6 'he &ega& .)$6e%%i$n %h$-& 1e a9a)e $6 'he 1ene6i'% $6 'he%e 'e"hni7-e%8 'hei) !a&-e in a ing 9eigh' '$ e!i en"e an 'he .$%%i1&e %igni6i"an"e $6 'hei) $mi%%i$n.5. Technical procedures can only be part of the authentication process, provenance of evidence can be greatly enhanced by the correct procedural measures. 5We )e"$mmen 'ha' 'he G$!e)nmen' .)$ -"e g-i an"e $n 'he 1ene6i'% $6 "$n6$)man"e 9i'h .)$"e -)a& mea%-)e% '$ e%'a1&i%h 'he )e&ia1i&i'( $6 e!i en"e8 9i'h .a)'i"-&a) )e6e)en"e '$ e0i%'ing %'an a) %. When 'hi% g-i an"e i% a!ai&a1&e8 9e )e"$mmen 'ha' 'he ')a e a%%$"ia'i$n% $6 'h$%e $)gani%a'i$n% &i:e&( '$ 1e "$n"e)ne 9i'h i' .)$ -"e ')aining ma'e)ia& $n i'% -%e. The report continues with a chapter on Civil *iberty implications and a final summary and recommendations. !o, digital images are admissible as evidence in court whether or not they have been manipulated. Their weight as evidence will be decided by authentication methods such as encryption or watermarking and particularly a secure audit trail from initial image to copy produced in court. 2 found the document 3uite readable and interesting, bringing out many aspects of digital documents and images when used in evidence. 2 would commend everyone who has an interest in digital recording, whether end user, manufacturer, installer or consultant to obtain a copy. The full report is 0: pages and at M:.=@ it-s a steal.
&igital storage , More facts and -ype

Digital storage is likely to be flavour of the month for a long time yet, as is the thriving hype and misinformation industry. 2 originally produced an article on digital recording in the Luly )??5 issue, when it really was very much in its infancy. 2ncidentally the article was sub%titled AThe hype and the factsB, so in one respect nothing has changed since then except that manufacturers now have bigger numbers to confuse us with. 2 expected that digital recording in CCTV would develop at a rate comparable with the C industry but this has not happened. 6or instance in )??5, a CD%#1" drive was many hundreds of pounds and a CD writer was several thousand pounds. +ow you can buy a CD%#1" for as little as M07.@@ and a CD%#< for not much over M)@@.@@. !imilarly C central processors have increased tenfold in power and speed at significantly lower prices. 1ne area of great interest to digital storage of video images is the capacity of hard disc drives 9&DD;. This has increased from about )F/Cb in )??5 to common )=Cb today with 05Cb available, still not the )@@Cb 2 hoped for in the original article.

There is no 3uestion as to the benefits of digital recording for event recording, AT"s, etc. This article is looking to the future of continuous recording as we currently en,oy with the VC#. A lot of progress has been behind the scene with developments and availability of various compression techni3ues to, create more efficient storage of data with smaller file si'es. 2t may be worth revising some of the techni3ues involved in digital recording. The following is a brief extract from The rinciples and ractice of CCTV /nd edition. "rinciples of &igital Video Recording. 2n digital recording each field is divided in to an array of individual points or pixels. At each one of these points, analogue to digital converters convert voltages representing the colour and brightness at that point to a binary digital number. This array of binary digital numbers can then be stored digitally in a file with a name cross referenced against time and date. A single frame of monochrome video needs about 47@Nb 9Nilobytes; of space for storage and single frame of colour needs about 57@Nb. This is the uncompressed si'e that would be needed for storage on hard disc or other storage medium. Conse3uently to store the same number of images as a videotape, a total storage capacity of about /=@Cb 9Cigabytes; would be needed for one camera. This is considerably larger than hard discs and other media generally available and would also be tremendously expensive. Conse3uently some means is re3uired of reducing the amount of space re3uired without adversely affecting picture 3uality. The techni3ue of reducing the amount of space re3uired is generally referred to as compression. The video frame contains a large amount of redundant information that can be eliminated without a great loss in perceived picture 3uality. Conse3uently, common types of compression used are known as Jlossy compressionJ because the redundant information is discarded. "ost compression methods are effective up to a certain point, or JNneeJ, beyond which the image 3uality 3uickly degrades. To assist in reducing the amount of si'e re3uired for storage the video signal can be represented in a form known as H$V. The H$V format consists of the H 9luminance; and $V 9colour difference; signals 9for further descriptions of luminance and video signal components see section /;. The advantage of using H$V format is that fewer bytes are needed to digitise the video. +ormally, recording all of the colour components> red, green, blue 9#C. recording; would need three bytes, one byte for each colour. .y using H$V format the luminance can be digitised as one byte and the colour difference signal as one byte. Conse3uently only two bytes are needed rather than three, a saving of one third of the storage space re3uired. This techni3ue can be used together with compression to minimise the amount of space re3uired for storage Types of Compression. The technology for compressing video pictures originated in the storage of still photographs on computers. The most commonly used standard, L 8C, takes its name from the Loint hotographic 8xpert Croup by whom it was developed. $sing L 8C compression, the knee

occurs at about =D) compression. The most commonly used standard is "otion L 8C for which the knee occurs at about )7D) compression. Conse3uently, "%L 8C reduces a 47@Nb file to only 0@Nb. <hile this is still too large to fit the same number of images as a video tape on to a hard disk it is small enough to permit, say, / frames per second to be recorded for /4 hours on to a 5Cb hard disk, which is a si'e generally available, costing a few hundred pounds. Another more recent compression standard was devised by the "otion icture 8xpert Croup specifically for the digitisation of moving images. This standard is given the name " 8C. This standard makes use of the redundancy between ad,acent frames. " 8C%) contains three types of encoded frames. 2ntracoded frames 92%frames; contain all of the video information re3uired to make a complete picture. redicted frames 9 %frames; are generated by previous 2%frames or %frames and are used to generate future %frames. .i% directional redicted frames 9.%frames; are generated using both previous and future frames. A complete se3uence of frames is made up of a series of these different frame types with more than one 2%frame for every )@ % or .%frames. This process is known as inter%frame correlation and allows compression ratios of )@@D) to be achieved. " 8C%/ is the format used in the latest Digital Video Disk 9DVD; technology, which can store about ?@ minutes of V&! 3uality video and audio on to only 57@"b of storage space, such as a CD%#1". &owever there are a number of disadvantages to " 8C compression. 6irstly, in order for " 8C to achieve high compression it needs the video signal not to change abruptly from frame to frame. !ince many video recording applications re3uire multiplexing because more than one camera must be recorded, the rapid change from frame to frame as cameras are switched defeats the inter%frame correlation techni3ue used in " 8C.

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Recording devices There is now a far greater range of recording devices available at easily affordable prices than before. This is a brief review of the main characteristics for each. ANALOGUE DEVICES Vi e$ Ca%%e''e Re"$) e) *VCR, This is not intended to praise or condemn the humble VC#, simply to include it in the list of available devices. To record )5 cameras over /4 hours will provide a picture update time of 7.)/ seconds. The tape can then be removed and stored for as long as the Code of ractice re3uires. This is fre3uently 0) days but sometimes ?@ days. <ith !%V&! resolution can be up to 7@@ lines, depending on multiplexers, cameras, lenses, transmission, etc. #ewind time for a 8)=@ tape is in the order of three minutes, this would be the time to locate a scene at the opposite end of the tape. The stored signal is an analogue video signal and can be replayed on any other make of VC#. The information stored on tape is permanent and can normally only be deliberately wiped off. VC#s re3uire regular, relatively expensive maintenance and fre3uent replacement of tapes. O'he) ana&$g-e e!i"e% There are other types of higher 3uality analogue video recorders such as $%"atic, but these are rarely used in CCTV systems, they are mainly the province of broadcast television. DIGITAL DEVICES As discussed earlier, there are many different formats of compression and analogue to digital conversion and different compressed file si'es. There are also many varying claims for the resolution produced for these combinations. A future article will attempt to compare these to a common base. 6or simplicity of comparisons, this article will be based on a final file si'e of /@Nb which is a compression ratio of about 0@D) for a colour picture. There will be )5 cameras with a picture update time of 7.)/ seconds to compare with conventional recording. Ha) Di%" D)i!e &DDs are found in every computer and have evolved to be extremely reliable devices re3uiring virtually no maintenance. There are no touching components in a &DD although there are mechanical parts to rotate the disc and move the readFwrite head. !eek time is virtually instantaneous to retrieve a scene from any part of the disc by many search parameters. 2t is possible, although unlikely, to accidentally delete all the data from a hard disc. Current disc capacity is up to 05Cb, with )=Cb being readily available, this is likely to increase dramatically over the next few years.

The example would re3uire 7.4Cb per /4 hours, a 05Cb disc would provide 5.5: days of continuous recording, 9/5" images;. The options therefore would to accept an archive period of ,ust less than : days or transfer the full disc to another removable medium for longer archiving. The medium could be another &DD or a DAT. &DDs can be removable slot%in devices, therefore it would be practicable to remove a full disc and replace it with a blank pre%formatted disc to continue recording, ,ust as is done with VC# tapes. 1ne example of this is digital recording in trains where it is not practical to review incidents on the train. The hard disc is replaced with a blank disc and the original taken back to a central control for reviewing. A ma,or advantage of hard disc recording is that any part of the disc can be reviewed without interrupting the continuous recording. Digi'a& A- i$ Ta.e *DAT, DAT drives are miniature audiocassettes incorporating magnetic tape similar to a VC# and can have capacities up to 7@C.. 9A 7@C. tape costs in the order of M4@.@@;. 1ne common use of DAT drives would be to download from a &DD when it is full for archiving. As many tapes as necessary could be used to provide the total storage time re3uired. #ewind time would be about 0 minutes for a full tape. Although search parameters may be similar to a &DD, the seek time could be comparable to a VC#. 2f involved searches are re3uired, the DAT could be downloaded to a &DD for faster output. 2t should be noted that transfer rates of data can be 3uite slow, from ) to )/ "bFsec. At the best rate, transferring 7@"b could take over one hour or up to four hours at the slower rates. !imilar comments apply to a DAT as to a VC# cassette> there is a thin magnetic tape being drawn across readFwrite heads. Again similar to VC#s, because the cassette is a fixed si'e, greater capacity is achieved by using thinner tape. Digi'a& Ve)%a'i&e Di%" *DVD, This used to be known as Digital Video Disc, but is now used for all types of data storage. 2t utilises the same principle as a CD in that indentations are burned on to the disc by a laser. The same laser reads these indentations. These drives are now readily available as readFwrite devices at modest prices and can be used exactly the same as a &DD. Capacities of discs are 3uoted as being /.5 or 7./Cb, the latter uses both sides. A 7./Cb single sided disc will be available shortly. DVD drives can read a range of devises such as, CD%#1", CD%#<, D format, DVD%#A" and DVD%#1". .eware though of 3uoted capacities because data protocols use 3uite a lot of space. A DVD formatted as 6AT )5, which is the international standard for CD%#1"s, reduces the capacity to /C.. Another format is used for long continuous files of video is known as $D6, in this case capacity is limited to /.0/C.. At the previously noted files si'es and number of cameras this would e3uate to nearly ? hours of continuous recording, 9))" images;. This medium could be useful for downloading excerpts from a &DD drive for evidence or distribution. 2f formatted to 6AT )5 it could be replayed on any C. "ost DVD drives include " 8C) compression software so that recordings could be made directly from a composite or ! V&! input and replayed on a C with " 8C) decoding. 9"ost have this;. DVD discs cost about M)0.@@ for /.5Cb or M)?.@@ for 7./C..

CD 9)i'a1&e an )e49)i'a1&e i%"% *CD4R8 CD4RW, CD writer drives are now available for under M/@@.@@, with CD%# discs less than M).@@ each. The capacity though is limited to 54@". with several caveats. This is nearly 0 hours 9.0" images; of recording on the previous basis. CD%#< discs are written to 2!1?55@ standards so any CD device may read them. +ow for the caveats, and these apply to your CD writer that you use for every day applications. The header information re3uires /:"b, so this leaves only 5/:"b for data. 2f you write several separate sessions, then 7 sessions needs :?"b for headers leaving 75)"b for data, and )@ sessions leaves only 4?@"b for data. <riting speed is up to ?@@NbFsec, so 5@@Nb of data would be read in about )) seconds. As with the DVD, this would be a inexpensive medium for transferring data. S'an a) % As with most systems, there are no common standards for video data storage in the CCTV industry. The various systems on the market incorporate most of the types of compression mentioned earlier. Add to this many methods of encryption and watermarking and there are the makings of a massive problem of the use of digitally recorded video. *ife was simple when we had V&!, there were even problems when ! V&! was introduced and that was only two standards, although they are internationally agreed. C$n"&-%i$n There is no doubt that digital recording is now a potent force in the CCTV armoury and will prove to be the most effective and efficient method of video recording and archiving. 2t is still a case of Acaveat emptorB, be suspicious of the specification that states = video inputs and offers continuous /4 hour recording with an =Cb hard disc. Hou will probably find that this is only for one camera with a )7Nb file si'e and 7 frames per second.
&omes/ *n a Spin$

Dome cameras offer great flexibility and user-appeal during the day, but don't work quite as well at night. Right? rong, says Shaun Cutler of Derwent Systems. !e argues that with the right lighting - which is too often o"erlooked - domes can offer impro"ed performance at night. 6ully functional dome cameras are increasingly popular, bringing customers significant benefits % they-re more aesthetic, are less intimidating, they move faster and through more angles than panFtiltF'oom 9 TQ; cameras, and they are good for discreet security surveillance. Colour and "onochrome dome units are now common%place, giving the user full colour pictures during daylight hours, and a low light sensitive monochrome image at night. A potential disadvantage, however, is that domes don-t come with an in%built and obvious lighting solution offering totally effective performance at night.

2nfra%#ed 92#; lamps cannot be fitted into the dome because of their si'e, and problems with overheating and internal reflection from the dome bubble. 2n contrast, the traditional TQ camera set up can have powerful 2# lamps mounted on the sides to sweep round and light up whichever area the camera is focused on. There are other factors which further reduce night time performance of some domesD tinted dome covers reduce light pick%up by blocking out some available light combined camerasFlens combinations may not be as sensitive or effective as models specifically designed for performance in low light many domes are based on smaller CCDs with integral lenses, which do not provide the most sensitive low light performance

The result is that users have a system with great visual appeal and flexibility during the day, but provides reduced performance during the vulnerable hours of darkness. &owever, the performance of many dome cameras at night can be significantly improved through the correct use of 2# lighting. Dome cameras can be divided into two categoriesD fixed domes and fully functional domes. Fi0e D$me% 8xternal fixed domes are often vandal resistant and used for short%range surveillance purposes. .ecause the unit is fixed, the low light issues involved are similar to those of other standard cameras. 2n low light or 'ero lux conditions, fixed domes will re3uire additional lighting. Typically, 2# lighting provides the best, most practical and cost%effective solution. "any dome systems are sold with smoked domes that can reduce the 2# that reaches the camera by up to :@I. .ear this in mind when considering the camera-s performance in low light. 2ncreased 2# illumination levels may be re3uired to compensate for the dome-s 2# attenuation. To maximise low light performance it is best to use clear domes. To ensure full coverage of the scene, the 2# illumination must be matched to the field of view of the camera. +arrow beam illumination should be used to match narrow field of camera view, and wide beam illumination for a wide field of view. 6ailure to match camera field of view and 2# beam can dramatically reduce system performance. "ake sure that you match the camera-s field of view with that of the 2nfra%#ed. F-&&( F-n"'i$na& D$me% The challenge with fully functional dome cameras lies in the inability to mount 2nfra%#ed illuminators on the moving part of the dome. A>BC 9i e a)ea i&&-mina'i$n 05@R 2# coverage would ensure that wherever the camera moves there is sufficient 2#

illumination to enable the camera to view the scene effectively. .ut full 05@R coverage would re3uire location of approximately eight 47R spread $niflood 2# lamps. Domes mounted on the corner of a building may only re3uire /:@R 2# coverage, and domes mounted on walls may re3uire only )=@R 2# coverage. S.e"i6i" 'a)ge' i&&-mina'i$n An alternative solution can be achieved by using -specific target- illumination. This is a method of providing illumination to specific areas of risk rather than the whole area being viewed by the dome camera. The techni3ue 2# illuminators are positioned strategically to illuminate targeted locations and vulnerable areas such as gates, doors or pathways. During the full 05@R rotation of the dome camera, there may be only two or three specific targets that need to be viewed. 2# units may be mounted on and around the camera pole to illuminate these targets, increasing the effectiveness of the camera-s monitoring. L$"a& A)ea i&&-mina'i$n The 2# illumination may be located above or near a specific target. Cood matching of the camera angle of view and that of the 2# illumination is essential for maximum performance. Angle of illumination and camera field of view are critical to success. 6or both specific target illumination and local area illumination the 2# lamp may be triggered onFoff via a pre%set on the dome. A 2# detector may also be used to activate the 2# lamp, which is especially useful for discreet applications or to save energy and .ulb life, especially for high voltage 2# lamps. $sing dome pre%sets or 2#s to activate specific target or local area illumination will reduce running costs of the system. F)ame In'eg)a'i$n !ome dome cameras include frame integration techni3ues to attempt to overcome the problems of obtaining clear images in poor light. A slow shutter speed is used to capture enough light in dark areas of the scene. This may be acceptable only in a limited number of applications because of the inability of these systems to work with moving ob,ects. 2f an intruder moves through these areas during the dome-s tour the person will only be recorded as a blur and vital information and detail will be missed. The net result will be a large and potentially serious gap in the surveillance system-s total coverage. In6)a4Re an Vi e$ M$'i$n De'e"'i$n *VMD, !peed domes are often integrated with computer%driven digital video recorders using a -video follow- or Video "otion Detection 9V"D; systems. The V"D works by actively analysing pixel changes occurring in the video picture. .ut a person walking through a dark scene is unlikely to cause any pixel changes if there is insufficient illumination to detect pixel changes, thereby defeating the system. 2nfra%#ed illumination can dramatically increase the effectiveness of V"D systems S intelligent video analysis systems.

S-mma)( Designers of CCTV systems need to consider some fundamental issues involved in achieving effective /4F: pictures using dome cameras, particularly in low light conditions. 2lluminating the field of view of the camera with sufficient 2# lighting is essential. Three successful ways of achieving this are 05@R wide area illumination, !pecific Target illumination and *ocal area illumination. 2# is also a crucial element in ensuring the success of Video "otion Detection, 2ntelligent Video Analysis S other sophisticated software functions. S$6'9a)e 6-n"'i$n% a' )i%: $6 6ai&-)e The scenario goes something like thisD an intruder enters your premises and is picked up by your dome camera CCTV system> the V"D software works successfully and triggers an alarm condition> a response is generated. A week later the same thing happens % except this time the V"D software doesn-t activate the alarm. <hyK The second event took place during the night. $neven, poor 3uality and inade3uate lighting means the dome has failed to capture sufficient 3uantity and 3uality of video to enable the V"D to work. 6ollowing tests conducted on dome cameras in Derwent-s workshops we found that sub,ects moving through the field of view, under low and 'ero light conditions, could get past without triggering an alarm. 2n order to ensure a successful alarm trigger, the system re3uires good 3uality, consistent illumination across the scene. A scene that may appear at first sight to the human eye to be reasonably illuminated will often cause dome cameras to fail under low light conditions, because the illumination may have been designed for human use9pedestrians, drivers etc; and not the CCTV camera. There will often be poorly lit, shadowy parts of the scene. Any organisation using such a system must consider the night%time performance of the system as well as during the day. 2t-s not ,ust V"D software that can be -fooled- % the problem may well become more widespread as tools such as 2ntelligent !cene Analysis are adopted. Designers and end users must recognise the need for well designed illumination and specifically the benefits of 2nfra%#ed. <ith the dark nights looming, the 3uestion every security manager should be asking is -will my system fail me during the nightKDerwent has produced a +ight%time &andbook that provides a good starting point to help understand some of the key generic issues. C$mm$n mi%"$n"e.'i$n% a1$-' 'he .e)6$)man"e $6 in i!i -a& .a)'% $6 'he %(%'em
Cameras

*ight levelsD A salesperson was heard to say recently, Jthat-s a great camera it-s got a good lux level and it-s cheap.J This is not an indictment of the salesperson it is a criticism of the level of training provided. 2t is also not untypical of the ,argon used by people desperate to create an impression of knowledge. The camera in 3uestion was in a distributors- catalogue and described as -sensitivity .5 lux. #esolutionD 7=@ lines> :7@9&; x 7=@9V;> 407,@@@ pixels. <hat do they all meanK The most useful method of specifying resolution is by the number of lines in this case 7=@ hori'ontal. <ith the increasing number of CCD cameras it is becoming common to state the number of hori'ontal and vertical pixels, in this example :7@ x 7=@. 2f this is the only value given it can easily be mistaken for resolution in lines and appears to be better than it is. The last value is the total number of pixels in the chip, impressive but no practical use. Apart that is from the salesperson who needs to impress,%% Jtheir camera only has 7=@ lines, mine has 407,@@@ elements(J An approximation to convert hori'ontal pixels to e3uivalent lines is TV *2+8! T 2U8*! U @.:. 2.e. :7@ pixels is approximately 7/7 lines. Colour cameras generally have lower resolution than monochrome. .e careful not to be taken by the specification for some colour cameras that specify resolution as 47@ lines HFC. These can only be used in certain situations and the resolution can only be obtained when using a compatible monitor and associated control e3uipment. 9!ee similar note under monitors;. Auto exposure controlD !ometimes called electronic iris. This is a development in CCD cameras and electronically controls the amount of light reaching the CCD sensor. !everal manufacturers claim that this eliminates the need for an automatic iris lens. $sing manual iris lenses instead can make a significant saving on a system. 2f this type of camera is to be used from full daylight to dusk then use caution. Call the manufacturers- technical department, describe the application and go by their advice. !ensor si'esD 8arly cameras had a circular tube as the sensor therefore the si'e was decided by the diameter of the tube, which is the diagonal measurement of the picture. This is still the case today so although CCD sensors are flat rectangular chips the nominal si'e is the diagonal measurement.

The sensor si'es shown in the diagram must be considered in relation to the lens selected. This is because lenses are also designed for a particular si'e of sensor. !ee further notes under lenses. +oteD 2t is a little known fact that the video output from a colour camera should be )./ volts peak%to%peak compared to ).@ volts for a monochrome signal.
0enses

*ens functionsD The CCTV lens performs two main functions. 6irst it determines the scene that will be shown on the monitor, this is a function of the focal length. !econd it controls the amount of light reaching the sensor, this is a function of the iris. The focal length may be fixed%% or variable as on a 'oom lens. The iris may be manual%% or automatic and controlled by the camera. *ens mountingsD All CCTV lenses are based on what is known as the -C- mount. This is a photographic standard that specifies the thread type and dimensions. There is now a generation of lens mounts for CCTV known as the -C!- mount. The first point to make is that the thread type and its dimensions are identical for both types of lenses. Therefore, either type of lens may be screwed to cameras having either type of mount without causing any damage. The wrong combination will be impossible to focus but there is no apparent mechanical indication to an installer that the wrong combination has been used. The difference between the two types is the optical distance from the back of the mounting flange to the face of the sensor. This is known as the -flange back length.- 2n the case of the -C!lens this distance is shorter. This allows the use of smaller glass elements in the make up of the lens and fewer elements to be needed. The result is a lens that is more compact and cheaper to manufacture. The differences are shown in the diagram.

The lenses are not totally interchangeable. A -C!- lens may only be used on a camera with a -C!format mounting. A -C- mount lens may be used on a -C!- mount camera by adding a 7mm% adapter ring.

*ens si'esD 2t can be very confusing to establish the actual field of view that will be obtained from a combination of sensor si'e and lens specification. *enses are specified as being designed for a particular sensor si'e. A lens designed for one sensor si'e may be used on a smaller si'e but not the reverse. The reason is that the extremities of the scene will be outside the area of the sensor. "any people in the CCTV industry have grown up with the /F0J camera as being the most popular and are familiar with the fields of view produced. &owever the )F/J and )F0J cameras are now being extensively used and therefore there are important factors that must be taken account.

The diagram shows the effect of using one lens on two different si'es of sensor. The result of using a larger lens format on a smaller camera format is to create the effect of a longer focal length, that is, a narrower angle of view. To summarise thenD ). A lens designed for one format may be used on a smaller format camera but will produce a narrower angle of view. /. A lens designed for one format may not be used on a larger format camera. 0. Assuming a focal length has been assessed based on a particular format of camera and lens. 2t is then decided to use a smaller format camera. The same field of view will only be obtained if a shorter focal length lens is used. 4. Always check the angle of view for the particular lens and camera combination it is intended to use.
Monitors

!i'eD As with camera sensors the si'e of monitors is the diagonal measurement of the screen. The distance at which it is to be viewed generally decides the si'e of monitor. Typical figures in metres areD ?544444B.A44B.> 1/54444B.>441.B 1D544441.B441.A 1E544441.A441.>

Another consideration is for viewing multiscreen displays. A )7J monitor is normally the minimum for viewing a 3uad display. 6or multiplex displays that can show up to sixteen pictures then a ):J is the minimum with a /)J preferred. #esolutionD <ith monochrome monitors resolution is not generally the limiting factor. As always specifications need interpretation for instance most monitor resolution figures are given as number lines at the centre. A figure of 5@@ lines at the centre may only be 4@@ lines at the edges. The difference is likely to be greater the larger the monitor for two reasons. 6irst the problem of maintaining accuracy of the scanning magnets over a larger area. !econd, it is more difficult to produce larger monitors with as fine a coating as smaller monitors. This is why the picture on a ?J monitor always looks sharper than when seen on a ):J monitor. The resolution of colour monitors is less than can be obtained with monochrome. This is because three spots are needed to make each point%% red, green and blue. Typical resolutions for colour monitors are from /=@ lines to 07@ lines. There is the same fall off towards the edges of the screen as with monochrome monitors. !ome colour monitors are specified as 47@ TV* HFC. Take care because these monitors only produce this resolution when using cameras and control e3uipment that produce separate chrominance and luminance signals.
Switchers

A simple video switcher is designed to direct the signal from one of a series of cameras to a monitor. "ost switchers have a control to enable the monitor to se3uence automatically through each camera in turn. The time between each se3uence is generally ad,ustable. A switcher should be selected that incorporates what is known as -vertical interval- switching. This delays the actual moment of switching until the blanking period of the sync pulse in the composite video signal. The result of this techni3ue is to prevent picture -bounce- between successive pictures. 1ne picture simply replaces the previous one without any rolling caused by waiting for the next sync pulse. !ome switchers can provide output to two monitors. 1ne monitor can be locked on to a specific camera while the other se3uences. "atrix switchers are now becoming common place in the market due to the development of microprocessor technology. This type of switcher can process the signals from a large number of cameras to many monitors. There can also be many control positions, each of which can call up any of the cameras. 2n a railway system for instance it is possible to have two hundred stations each with twenty cameras. 8ach station would have individual control of its own cameras to se3uence or select. All the stations would be connected back to a central location that could control all four thousand cameras. The central control could then be divided into say ten regions each with a control and bank of monitors for its own group of cameras.
Recording

#ecording of CCTV cameras has had a fairly mixed press over the last few years. 1bviously the failures to identify culprits and lousy pictures seen on programs like Crimewatch have not

helped. There are though hundreds of systems incorporating video recording that have paid for themselves time and time over. The most successful systems are obviously in conditions of good consistent lighting using good 3uality colour cameras and a well%maintained video recorder. This then is the key to successful video recording, the right conditions, the correct e3uipment and proper maintenance of the system. $ntil recently, one problem has been the limitation of a video recorder to provide only /4@ lines resolution. This is a function of the maximum bandwidth that can be used on the standard width V&! tape. 2t does not really matter what 3uality of camera and monitor is used. The limiting resolution is that of the recorder. That is why the superb pictures seen on the screen during commissioning and handover of a system are not reproduced when an incident occurs. #eusing the same tape repeatedly fre3uently aggravates this. Also, by lack of maintenance on the recorder. The problems of poor video recordings could be dramatically reduced if customers insisted that the manufacturers- recommendations for maintenance and limits of tape use were strictly followed. !%V&!D 9!uper V&!; There is a new generation of video recorders using the !%V&! system. This provides greater resolution of up to 7@@ lines but only in colour. 2n a composite video signal there are two elements that make up the colour information. They are known as the chrominance 9C; and the luminance 9H;. The chrominance is specific to colour signals and determines the colour content of the picture. The luminance is used in both monochrome and colour signals and determines the brightness. 2n !%V&! colour signals these two components are separated at the camera and transmitted as separate signals. Therefore point one% the camera has to provide separate HFC components. This re3uires two coaxial cables to be run from each camera. The video recorder must be able to accept the separate HFC signals as also does the monitor. The use of this improved 3uality is limited because at present there are no switchers or multiplexers that can pass the HFC components. +ote that there is no improvement with a monochrome signal.
&igital Recording

There has been much written about digital recording recently and is not within the scope of this article to reiterate all the advantages and loopholes in specifying this type of recording. &owever, there are still tens of thousands of analogue recorders still in use and thousands still being installed. Analogue recorders are still the main recording medium for many small installations.
(eatherproof -ousings

<eatherproof housings must be about the most mundane aspect of a CCTV installation. 1r so it seems because many engineers simply consider the housing as a protection against the elements. &owever there are many aspects to consider and many suppliers of housings. 2t is about the cheapest element of an external system yet price seems to be the main factor in selecting which to use. 2mportant considerations should beD

8ase of access for pre%assembly in workshop.

8ase of access during installation. 8ase of access for future service needs. 2s the camera mounting plate insulated from the caseK Can the mechanical focusing screws on the camera be accessedK !ome are at the back, some at the side and some on top. Can the lens be focused and the peakFaverage settings ad,usted on siteK Can one man remove the cover and work on the insideK 2f there is a telemetry board fitted can it be accessed without removing the cameraK

The most common type of housing is that where the camera is mounted on a flat bed. A rectangular box shaped cover drops down over the complete assembly and is held in place by four spring clips. This is great for assembly in the workshop because everything is nicely accessible. The problem comes when a service engineer at the top of a ladder needs to work on it. "any engineers know that it needs four hands to hold the clips clear and two to remove the cover. 8specially if it has been on for some time and the cover is welded to the rubber seal. 1nce the cover is off everything is exposed to the elements and it is no 3uick ,ob to replace it. Another type that was in vogue a few years ago and still around is the extruded aluminium design. The housing is a complete box and the camera plate slides out of the back in guides. The cable glands are usually in the rear sealing plate therefore sufficient slack must be allowed for the length of the plate to be slid all the way out. At this point the engineer is faced with the whole assembly and cable in his hands. 2t now needs two hands to hold it and two more to work on it. <ith the camera and lens on a loose platform and the cables hanging down it is really fun to focus the camera and set up the lens ad,ustments. There is a variation on the first type mentioned but instead of using clips there is a pivot at the front. There are clips at the rear and when released the cover swings right up and forward. This exposes the complete interior and a stay rod holds up the cover. 2t-s ,ust like opening a rear% pivoting bonnet of a car. 2n another design there is a simple gas strut to hold the cover open. This needs one hand to open the cover and leaves two hands to work on the inside. Another design is a box like housing with two latches on each side. <hen the latches on one side are released, the cover pivots open on the opposite side latches. The cover may be opened in either direction. 2f all four latches are released, the cover can be completely removed. There are other designs around that may be ,ust as engineer friendly. 2t is worth spending a little time on this often overlooked item to make future servicing easier and cheaper. 6inally there is the ubi3uitous dome. There has been a proliferation of dome variants introduced recently probably more than any other development. 2n addition they are becoming ever smaller and faster. .ut they are not necessarily the panacea for all TQs. The main fallibility of dome housings is in the material and manufacturer of the actual dome itself. oorly moulded domes can lead to disastrous loss of focus, particularly at long focal lengths. 2t is always advisable to arrange a test and see the results for the longest focal lengths and distances. 2f you intend to purchase a dome and fit your own cameraFlens make sure that there is sufficient clearance between the lens and the inside of the dome to allow focussing at long focal lengths.

"ost domes now allow for 3uick release fixing of the pan tilt mechanism and plugFsocket for the telemetry and video. This can be especially important when fitted at the top of a pole in a high street.
Understanding 1i#ed &ome Cameras

6ixed domes provide a popular means of monitoring a specific area in a more discreet manner than a traditional camera. &oused inside a plastic casing, usually with a smoked, gold or silver finish, they offer protection from tampering whilst preventing observers from detecting what area of surveillance the dome is covering. Complimentary to any CCTV installation, these cameras can be supplied in a range of formats and specifications dependant on the re3uirement, including monochrome and Vandal #esistant. Due to the increase in demand for ruggedised products in particular applications, some fixed domes have been developed to offer vandal resistance. These vary in strength, from protection against the impact of heavy hammers to bullet proofing.
Resolving the "roblem of 1ocus Shift

6ocus !hift is the condition that occurs when images that are sharp and in focus under artificial lighting 9such as external cameras illuminated with 2# lighting at night; are out of focus 9appear soft or blurred; in daylight conditions and vice versa. The problem is caused by the nature of light. Different types of light have different wavelengths which means that an image viewed in different light conditions will appear slightly differently. $nless the lens is ad,usted for different light conditions, it is impossible for a standard lens to produce a sharply focused image in all types of light. To overcome this lenses either have to be ad,usted manually for day and night time performance 9impractical; or, if the camera is fitted with a remote controlled motor 'oom lens, the picture may easily be brought back into focus 9not possible with static lenses, of course, or on an unmanned site;. A third option is to use the more expensive 2# corrected lenses. 8rnitec AF! is a leading manufacturer of 2# corrected lenses. +iels%Christian Andreasen, *ens roduct "anager, is understandably keen on 2# corrected lenses but believes they should be adopted more widely than ,ust for dayFnight colourFmonochrome environmentsD J2#%corrected lenses should always be used and not only when using 2#%illumination at night time. "any light sources include a part of 2#%light, small or light. 2n connection with monochrome% or dayFnight cameras 2#%corrected lenses will provide a sharper picture because all the light is focused, resulting in a far crisper picture compared to ordinary lenses. !unlight contains much 2#%light, but also many artificial light sources, especially halogen. Also, ordinary incandescent light bulbs include a considerable amount of 2#%light. <hen having illumination with a mixture of visible and infrared light, it is possible to obtain a considerable improvement of the picture reproduction without having to replace the camera % ,ust by replacing the lens. !o there are excellent reasons for using 2# corrected lenses in all environments.

J2t is not possible to modify standard lenses to make them 2#%corrected, e.g. ,ust by coating the lens elements % at least not with optimum results. 6rom the early stages of the design phase 2#% correction must be considered and included in the design> special glass must be used for the lens elements and special coating of the lens element surfaces is re3uired. reviously, this caused 2#% corrected to be fairly expensive, but new efficient production technologies have reduced costs dramatically.J 2# illumination manufacturer Derwent is pleased to see the increased use and market awareness of 2# corrected lenses. !haun Cutler, Derwent-s "arketing Director, highlighted that -the recent increased growth in day and night cameras has contributed towards the demand for 2# corrected lenses and naturally, 2# illumination. The industry is accepting that colour cameras can not perform as effectively at night as monochrome camera supported by 2# illumination. *ens 2# sensisitivity and 6ocus !hift are a real issue and it is pleasing to see that many of the leading lens manufactures such as Computar, entax, 6u,ion and 8rnitec are responding to this.The "anufacturer 8xtreme CCTV believes that whilst single ccd day and night cameras can provide a good /4hour solution, their performance can not be compared to a twin camera solution. 8xtreme argue that a single camera solution can only provide a compromise between a perfect daytime picture and a perfect night%time picture 9this is more evident with fixed filter models;. 8xtreme-s engineers claim that the perfect, no compromise picture day and night picture can only truly be achieved with two separate cameras and two separate lenses integrated with 2# illumination % in other words, two cameras in a single package. "ark Vernon of 8xtreme CCTV commentedD JThis is not ,ust a focus shift issue> it-s also about accurate colour rendition, achieving the best picture in day and night conditions. During the day cameras must accommodate extremes of bright light yet at night gather as much light as possible. As a result it will always be a compromise trying to get the best picture /4 hrs a day from a single camera. <ith the dual camera each lens is optimised to get the best day and night image with the result that there is no focus shift, no colour rendition and very high 2# sensitivity thereby matching the 2# illumination to the camera field of view. <hen light levels drop the unit shifts to a monochrome camera which is then maximised for low light sensitivity with a high f% stop lens to gather as much light as possible and is already pre%focused for when the 2# illumination switches on.J
!uidelines for identification

!ome time ago the &ome 1ffice issued guidelines for the identification of persons and vehicles. This is fine, but many system engineers stumble when trying to find what camera and lens combination will satisfy these guidelines. And what about end users who know even less about camera and lens formats, how can they assess the merits of competing specificationsK This month all will be revealed for both groups. Charts showing the hori'ontal and vertical fields of view for many lenses and four formats are given in AThe rinciples and ractice of CCTVB and were published in the first issue of CCTV

Today 9Lan A?4;. They also show the I of the screen height of a ).:" person. The &ome 1ffice guidelines had not been published for general use when 2 produced the first draft of the book and so the ).:" was my guess at the average height. The current guidelines use ).5" as the height. The values for various degrees of identification are given as the percentage the ).5" figure would occupy of the monitor screen. 2 call this the Ascreen height ratioB. The complete guidelines are provided in several &ome 1ffice publications and so only the basic ratios are given in this article. The publications are available free from the &ome 1ffice and provide a lot more information as well. These criteria are now becoming increasingly used as part of the specification for many CCTV systems, particularly in Town Centre schemes. !ometimes the specification will state the distance from the camera for each criterion, sometimes the specification will ask the 3uestion, Aat what distances from the camera will the criteria applyBK 2n either case it involves calculations that are not too difficult but can be tedious to keep repeating for each lens and camera location. Another problem that many people find difficulty in resolving are the different fields of view obtained from various camera and lenses formats, i.e. what is the result of fitting a /F0J lens onto a )F/J camera, and how does this affect the screen height ratio at certain distancesK A word of caution, ,ust about all lens manufacturers brochures give the &1#2Q1+TA* angle of view, whereas these calculations re3uire the V8#T2CA* angles of view. The vertical angle of view is the hori'ontal angle times 0F4.

Fie& $6 !ie9
The field of view is the ratio of the sensor si'e to the focal length and the distance to the sub,ect. This is shown in diagram). The -width to height- ratio of the sensor is 4D0. The hori'ontal and vertical angles and therefore fields of view are different and must be considered separately.

&iagram 2 1ield Of View +ote when using these ratios all the units must be the same, i.e. millimetres or "etres. Sen%$) Si3e% Diagram / shows the sensor si'es to be used when calculating fields of view and angles of view.

&iagram 3 Sensor &imensions +#ample !upposing it re3uired to recognise a known person at 7@", using a /F0J lens, the following is the calculation.

The scene height at 7@" needs to be twice the standard height, / x ).5T0./". ThereforeD

. The nearest standard would be a )@.7D)@7mm 'oom lens to satisfy this re3uirement. The formula can be worked backwards to find the scene height for a given lens. 2t is a simple matter to put all these criteria into a spreadsheet program and find the result for any combination. &owever, this may not be very convenient for the many salespersons on the road.

&o it the easy way The following table summarises the main three criteria for the &ome 1ffice guidelines, )@I to AseeB a person, 7@I to recognise a known person and )/@I to identify an unknown person.

The focal lengths of lenses for four camera formats is listed in the first four columns. The next column lists the vertical angle of view for each. The remaining columns list the percentage of the screen a ).5" target would be at various distances. Using the table

). !elect a lens focal length under the camera format column and look along that line to find the I of the screen height for different distances.

6or instance, a 7@mm lens on a /F0J camera would produce a ratio of ?.:I at )/7", 5@.5I at /@" and )/).)I at )@".. The scale across is linear so intermediate distances can be interpolated. 2n this example the 7@I criteria would be met at /7". 9between /@ S 0@;.

1n the other hand a 7@mm lens on a )F/J camera would produce ratios of ))./I at )7@", 75I at 0@" and )/@I at about )5" 9interpolated;.

/. 6or convenience the table has been shaded into yellow, blue and grey areas. Any lensFdistance within yellow area complies with the )@I rule, in the blue band to the 7@I rule and in the grey area to the )/@I rule.

+ote that it is the 61CA* *8+CT& of the lens that is significant not the lens format. The lens format is significant in that a larger format lens can be used on a smaller format camera but not the reverse

0. The table can also be used to solve the knotty problem of what is the e3uivalent of a lens on one format to that on another. !imple, look across the focal lengths under the sensor si'es and the e3uivalent focal lengths is shown for each format. 2.e. an =mm lens on a /F0J format will have the same angle of view as a 7.=mm on a )F/J or a 4.4mm on a )F0J camera. 4. +ote that the angles of view are calculated from the sensor si'es, The actual angle may vary between manufacturers but will only have a marginal effect on the results from the table. 2f a precise value is re3uired then the vertical ang&e of view must be taken from manufacturers data and not calculated from the sensor si'e.
Understanding -ard &isk Recorders

The late )?=@-s saw the introduction of video multiplexers offering users the facility to record pictures on to a single video tape, eliminating the need for VC#s dedicated to recording a single camera output.

The use of time%lapse VC#s as a storage medium for those images is well known, as are their inevitable drawbacks % introduction of noise, wear and tear and the simple re3uirement that the tape needs to be rewound to access information. 2n a practical situation the reviewing of tapes to secure the important face shotJ or Jscene of crimeJ can involve long and tedious work. The late )??@-s have seen the emergence of &ard Disk #ecorders 9&D#s; that are essentially multiplexers with a computer hard disk memory to store images. &D#s are excellent at reproducing high 3uality images with little noise or picture degradation and are extremely useful in calling up an alarmed picture. A problem that &D#s faced, however, was that computer memory was still relatively expensive compared with a storage medium such as videotape. The struggle for many &D# manufacturers was to produce a machine that provided the features and performance re3uired with sufficient memory to make it a practical machine at a realistic price. +ow, with computer memory being available in hundreds of Cb at a relatively low cost, &ard Disc #ecorders have finally come of age. The advantages over VC#-s are many. &D#s are able to record in V&! mode 9the same 3uality as a standard VC#;, !V&! mode 9the standard used by the highest 3uality VC#s and giving over 5@I better resolution than standard V&!; and !V&!V 9not available with VC#s;. 6urther to the above a VC# and it-s tapes begin to wear and deteriorate from the moment they begins recording while &ard Disk recording should remain at the same high standard throughout it-s working life. This means that even in VC# mode the 3uality will, in most cases, be superior to what would be achieved on a standard Video #ecorder. 2n addition to the above &D#s offer a number of additional features not available with "ultiplexers. ). /. 0. 4. The ability to view and control the system from computers around the world. 2nterconnectivity to Computer networks. .uilt in "otion Detection for setting alarm events and immediate retrieval. The ability to go direct to a time or incident without the need to search through hours of videotape.

4e#t'!eneration &igital Video and %udio Recording

Also available now is the next%generation digital video and audio recording solution, this is designed for casinos and other high%security, real%time recording applications. &ighlights

$p to 0@ frames per second +T!CF/7 fps A*, per camera % high frame rates enable users to extract the most information from their digital images

$p to ?5 camera inputs per unit % saves space, re3uires fewer components, and increases reliability 2mproved picture 3uality % high recording resolution provides superior definition and clarity allowing for optimum event monitoring and analysis

8nhanced integration capabilities % 0/bit A 2 enables seamless integration with existing security systems thus positively impacting the profitability of the business.
Understanding -ousings

&ousings, in essence are casings used to protect Cameras from a variety of conditions, dependent on the environment in which they are mounted. At first sight, most Camera &ousings may seem similar. 2n practise to ensure the optimum appearance and performance of appropriate for a Camera installation a number of factors have to be taken into considerationD ). *ocation. /. #isk of vandalism. 0. The total load weight of the housing and constituent elements 9including Camera, *ens and any other e3uipment encased within, the hanging bracket and fixing surface; 4. The housing chosen has sufficient physical space for the Camera, *ens 9which may have to be changed at a later stage;, electrical wiring and enough room to make the connections and allow for future maintenance. 7. Try to aluminium or rust proof products. !teel is more vulnerable to the elements and will rust in time( 5. &ousings should only be mounted onto load bearing points. :. 2t is recommended that the top five or six levels of brick work on buildings it is avoided when mounting a Camera housing. 8nvironmental conditions are also a primary consideration in selecting an appropriate housing for a camera system, but often one which is not given the due attention. As a result, a housing may not give the level of protection re3uired in its specific application % wasting time, money and effort. 2f a camera is to be mounted externally in a coastal location, for example, the housing will re3uire a marine finish to protect against the damaging effects of salt which can induce premature corrosion. Climatic effects also need to be considered. #ising and falling temperatures can dramatically effect the workings of electrical e3uipment and as a result re3uires pro%active consideration. 2n hot conditions, the severity of the sun may re3uire the use of air blowers and sun shields to maintain the temperature of the camera at an optimum level and ensure clear viewing. Conversely, in cold conditions, it may be that a camera re3uires a heater and thermostat built into

the housing. 2n rainy conditions, wipers may be re3uired to keep the housing glass clear to maintain the cameras viewing 3uality. The standard for the degree of protection that housing afford to its contents is defined by the 2 system 9see following charts; 1%' IP Deg)ee $6 P)$'e"'i$n Digi' @ Qero protection rotection against ) greater than 7@mm rotection against / greater than )/mm rotection against 0 greater than /.7mm rotection against 4 greater than ).@mm 7 5 Dust protected Dust tight De6ini'i$n +o special protection solids *arge surface of human body such as a hand, none against deliberate access solids 6ingers or similar ob,ects not exceeding =@mm in length solids ToolsFwires etc of thickness or diameter greater than /.7mm solids <ires or strips greater than ).@mm Total protection against dust is not provided but sufficient protection to allow satisfactory operation +o ingress of dust

/n IP Deg)ee $6 P)$'e"'i$n De6ini'i$n Digi' @ Qero protection +o special protection rotection against dripping ) Vertically dripping water shall have no effect water rotection against dripping Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect, / water when tilted up to )7R when enclosure is titled at any angle up to )7R <ater falling as a spray at an angle up to 5@R from 0 rotection against water spray vertical shall have no harmful effect rotection against splashing <ater splashed against the enclosure from any angle 4 water shall have no harmful effect <ater protected by a no''le against the enclosure from 7 rotection against water lets any angle shall have no harmful effect <ater from heavy seas or water pro,ected by powerful 5 rotection against heavy seas ,ets shall not enter the enclosures in harmful 3uantities
Understanding *nfra Red 0amps

The range that your camera will see in the dark will depend on the sensitivity and spectral response of the camera and lens combination. !ome cameras have a better 2# performance than others. 6or maximum performance choose 2# sensitive cameras. The human eye cannot see infra%red light, however most mono CCTV cameras can. As such the invisible light can be used to illuminate a scene, this allows night time surveillance without the

need for additional artificial lighting. 2nfra%red also provides many other benefits above conventional lighting. The infra%red beam shape can be designed to optimise CCTV camera performance, as such it is important to remember to design illumination for the CCTV camera and scheme. 2nfra%red lamps cannot work with colour cameras. +ormal artificial light e.g. sodium light, causes problems to the 3uality of the picture, not producing accurate colour 3uality. There are two optionsD 2t is possible to use a mirrored shift filter lamp that produces good colour rendition with a good 3uality low%light colour camera or to use a dual technology camera 9colour by day, monochrome at night; together with 2# lamps. .ulb life is dependant on filament ruggedness, design and power management and control. !tandard 2# lamps claim average life between /,@@@ to 7,@@@ hours. Choose lamps with long average bulb life to reduce maintenance costs. 6or short%range, low power applications consider *8D products with a greater than 7%year life. 2nfra%red lamps come in varying wavelengths from approx. :0@nm to ?7@nm. :0@nm filters are overt and give a red glow % like a traffic light. =0@nm filters are semi%discreet and produce a dull red glow. ?7@nm filters are effectively totally covert % giving off no visible illumination. Viewing distances are reduced with =0@nm and ?7@nm lamps. A ?7@nm will re3uire a highly sensitive night time camera.
*nfrared *llumination5 -O( 1%R &O+S 6OUR 0*!-T S-*4+$

2 wanted to know a lot more about the black art 9or should it be red artK; of infrared illumination and how to know what results can be expected at different ranges and angles of lenses. 2 wanted practical answers as well as the theory, so 2 approached Trevor Duffy, "arketing Director of Derwent !ystems to see what he could tell me. The reason being that Derwent are the acknowledged leaders in the field of infrared illumination and have probably carried out more research on this sub,ect than any other company. The result was that he and .rent "idgley, their Technical Director, gave me a full day seminar on the sub,ect which of course included their uni3ue approach to the sub,ect of infrared illumination. Combining this with data gathered for The rinciples and ractice of CCTV has produced the most comprehensive analysis of the sub,ect ever published. The main problem in designing a CCTV system incorporating infrared illumination is that infrared light cannot be measured in lux. !o how do you know how to specify camera sensitivity and how do you know what will be seen at various distancesK 1ther 3uestions to be answered are how sensitive are different cameras to infrared light, how are spectral diagrams to be interpreted and the effect of the lens. To understand the answers to these and many more 3uestions re3uires a basic understanding of three main aspects of physics. 1ne is the wavelengths of light, another is the inverse s3uare law of illumination and finally the transmission of light through a lens.

2nfrared illumination is used to provide light over scenes that would otherwise be too dark for a camera to create an image. 2t is a compromise because the best results can only be obtained by providing sufficient white light but of course this is not always possible. 2n many cases using powerful floodlights would cause a considerable nuisance and could be dangerous where there is road traffic moving towards the lights. 2t is also difficult to cover a large area when a pan tilt camera is being used, in this case the illumination is only re3uired where the camera is directed and infrared lights provide the answer. principles of light. E&e"')$magne'i" Ra ia'i$n *ight is energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The different forms of electromagnetic radiation all share the same properties of transmission although they behave 3uite differently when they interact with matter. 8lectromagnetic radiation is measured in nanometres which is the wavelength. 1ne "etre is ),@@@,@@@,@@@ +anometres 9nm;. The fre3uency is the speed of light divided by the wavelength, i.e. a wavelength of =0@ nm is 0.5 x )@)4 &'.

Diagram ) *ight is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by the human eye. This is a very narrow band within the total spectrum as shown in diagram ). E&e"')$magne'i" Wa!e% The Transmission of light energy can be conveniently described as a wave motion and having the following propertiesD 8lectromagnetic waves re3uire no medium and therefore can travel in a vacuum. Different types of electromagnetic radiation have different wavelengths or fre3uencies. 6rom radio waves through visible light to gamma rays.

All electromagnetic waves travel at the same velocity, which is approximately 0@@,@@@,@@@ "etres per second in a vacuum, the speed of light.. The waves travel in a straight line but can be affected byD Re6&e"'an"e. <hich is the reversal of direction that occurs at the surface of an ob,ect i.e. a mirror. Re6)a"'i$n. A change of the angle that occurs at the boundaries of different surfaces. Different wavelengths have different angles of refraction i.e. a stick apparently bending in the water. Di66)a"'i$n. <hich is a deflection that occurs at apertures or edges of ob,ects. Vi%i1&e Ra ia'i$n These are the wavelengths of light that are visible to the human eye and are from approximately AFB nm '$ E>B nm. <hen all these wavelengths are seen simultaneously the eye cannot distinguish the individual wavelengths and the result is seen as white light. Therefore, white light is not one wavelength but a combination of them all. This effect can be demonstrated in reverse by passing white light through a prism. As stated previously, different wavelengths have different angles of refraction, therefore when the light is passed through a prism it is dispersed into its constituent spectra because each wavelength is refracted differently. The result is that if a white screen is placed to show the light passing out of the other side of the prism it will show all the individual colours. This effect is shown in diagram /. The result is to show the spectrum of light and the seven significant colours of the rainbow. 2n reality there is a continuous range of hues but the eye sees mainly the main colours. A real rainbow is created in the same way by the light being reflected and refracted by droplets of moisture in the atmosphere. 9#emember from school days JRichard Of York Gained Battles In VainJ;.

Diagram /

2nfrared light is considered to be wavelengths *onger than :)7 nm. The range of wavelengths that the human eye can see is compared with the wavelengths of two main types of infrared light used in CCTV is illustrated in the diagram 0.

Diagram 0 Measurement of light energy As stated light is a form of electromagnetic radiation, its power is measured in <atts and its intensity measured in <atts per s3uare "etre 9<F" /;. This goes for all wavelengths. The visible spectrum is, however, normally measured in lumens for power and intensity in lux. The lumen is related to perceived power or brightness and because of this, the relationship between lumens and <atts is dependant on wavelength. *umen values diminish virtually to 'ero at infrared wavelengths,. This is why it is not possible to express infrared radiation in terms of lux values. 2n order to measure light radiation in terms of <atts it is necessary to use a radiometer which normally only exists in the sacred domain of laboratories and needless to say tend to be very expensive and beyond the means of normal installation companies. Camera sensitivity to infrared light. The sensor in a CCD camera is composed of thousands of tiny photo%sensitive diodes, a camera with a resolution of 7:@ lines incorporates over 4@@,@@@ such diodes. There are two main materials used in the production of sensors, germanium and silicon. These have very different responses to wavelengths of light as shown in diagram 4.

Diagram 4 Therefore for CCTV applications the material used in the chip has a great bearing on the response to either visible of infrared light. The development of sensors for CCTV cameras is driven by the vast Camcorder market and Camcorders are only used in the visible part of the spectrum. Therefore any response outside the visible is wasted and reduces the overall sensitivity of the sensor. An enormous amount of money has been expended by sensor manufacturers to develop a sensor that accurately follows the spectral range of the human eye, this is known as a photopic curve. !uch a sensor has by definition a low response in the infrared part of the and therefore cannot be classified as infrared cameras. This is an important point for CCTV designers to consider because with new cameras arriving on the market every month it is essential to keep checking on their suitability for infrared illumination. !ome manufacturers are not very helpful in this respect and often optimistic. .eware of such comments as Asuitable for 2F#B, always ask for a spectral response diagram. 2ncidentally, all camera sensors are monochrome, colour is obtained by inserting red, green and blue filters in front. This is why colour cameras have less resolution than monochrome cameras. Also due to the filters, colour cameras are not sensitive to infrared light. Therefore all the discussion on camera sensitivity and suitability for infrared illumination is confined to monochrome cameras. This is except for the Dual "ode cameras now becoming available which potentially offer the best of both worlds. This however is evidence of the fact that colour cameras cannot be as sensitive as monochrome and the industry is finally recognising the fact. Camera spectral response Cameras have different responses to the spectrum of light. This is usually shown in diagrammatic form and is known as the relative spectral sensitivity. Diagram 7 shows the relative response to each part of the spectrum and is usually in a range from @ to ).@. Curves from two cameras are shown in the following diagram. 2t can be seen that camera A covers the visible part of the spectrum very effectively whereas camera . is sensitive far into the infrared. 2t could be thought that camera . would suit all re3uirements because of the wide range of wavelengths covered, but not so.. A 6urther point is that using an infrared sensitive camera in daylight can produce different ranges of grey tones because they see a higher content of infrared that the eye cannot see. Also the infrared sensitive camera can cause the automatic iris to close due to the amount of infrared light instead of visible light. This is particularly noticeable if there

is foliage in the scene, chlorophyll reflects at about :)7 nm and often appears bright white instead a shade of grey. 2n practice the sensors sensitive to extended infrared light are more sensitive than photopic sensors.

Diagram 7 A high power infrared lamp generally uses a tungsten halogen bulb which due to its operating temperature emits a high proportion if light in the infrared part of the spectrum as well as covering the visible spectrum. 9!ome longer life bulbs now use 3uart' halogen;. 2n front of the light source is a filter that blocks wavelengths up to the re3uired infrared part of the spectrum. There are various filters that allow different wavelengths to pass, the most common passes light at :)7 nm and above. This wavelength is ,ust at the threshold of visible light and shows as a dull red glow. At :=@ nm the light is considerably reduced and at =0@ it is almost invisible to the human eye. 2f optimum performance is to be achieved it is necessary to match the camera to the light source. #eference to diagrams 5 and : it can be seen that the important part of the graph is where the camera response overlaps the infrared filter response. The camera sensor effectively integrates all the wavelengths of light falling on it within the response curve. Therefore the measure of the camerasB sensitivity to infrared radiation is the AREA UNDER THE OVERLAPPING CURVES8 not ,ust at say :)7 or =0@ nm. This is why it is essential to know the shape of both the camera and the infrared filter response curves. 2t is not the height or amplitude of the curve but the area enclosed by the camera curve and the light source curve that determines sensitivity. Diagrams 5 and : superimpose typical infrared light performance curves over the camera curves in the previous diagram. The resulting areas under the curves indicate the reduced sensitivity even with the camera that does have response up to ?@@ nm. Diagram = shows the area under the curve for an infrared sensitive camera used only in daylight.

Diagram 5 Diagram :

Diagram = The normally undetected radiation /x the area under the curve, therefore all other things being e3ual the sensor will be twice as sensitivity. 0ight and illumination 1nly natural light provides absolutely even illumination, although it is of course affected by clouds and shadows. All forms of artificial light suffer from the fact that as the distance increases from the light source so the illuminance reduces. This is due to the inverse s3uare law of illumination where the illuminance falls to a 3uarter of its value if the distance is doubled.. In!e)%e S7-a)e La9 O6 I&&-mina'i$n As the luminous flux travels away from the light source the area over which it spreads increases, therefore the illuminance 9lux; must decrease. The relationship is expressed by the inverse s3uare law and illustrated in diagram ?

Diagram ? 2nverse !3uare *aw 1f 2llumination The relationship between illuminance and it-s effect at a distance is given byD

This factor is particularly important in considering the light available for a camera. 6or instance a light source providing a level of 0@ lux at /@ "etres will provide :.7 lux at 4@ "etres and only 0.0 lux at 5@ "etres. The other effect of this is that the wide range of light levels can cause problems with automatic iris lenses. $nless set up correctly, the foreground light will cause the iris to close and lose definition in the distance. The reverse is if the iris is set to the distant light level in which case there will be a lot of flare in the foreground.

Diagram )@ Diagram )@ illustrates the actual light levels over )@@ "etres, the ratio from )@@ " to )@" is )@@D). This illustration is for a white light because infrared light cannot be measured in lux. The effect of this law though, affects infrared light in exactly the same way. The effects of this when using infrared illumination on pan tilt 'oom units can be catastrophic. 2f it is re3uired to 'oom in to distant sub,ects the power must be sufficient for the distance. The problem is that when focused on near sub,ects the picture is fre3uently flared out. C$%ine La9 O6 I&&-mina'i$n

Another factor that affects the light level of an area is if the light is striking the surface at an angle. This is often the case in CCTV systems when an infrared lamp is located well above ground level. <ithout going into too much theory the principle is shown in diagram )/.:.

&iagram22 Cosine 0aw Of *llumination Diagram )) shows the effect of light striking a diffuse surface at an angle. The effective area of the surface is reduced proportionally to the cosine of the incident light. Avoiding too much mathematical complexity, this means that the reflected light from a diffuse target will be approximately proportional to the cosine of the striking angle and the specific reflectance of target or scene. This is only true for a diffuse reflector. 2f a very highly reflective surface 9specula; is encountered, virtually no energy will be reflected back along the incident light path to the camera. This is why a mirror may appears black when viewed at an angle.

&iagram 23 %d7ustment 1or %ngle Of 8eam %nd 0amp

The maximum illumination is at the centre of the beam of light. This falls off towards the extremities. As can be seen from diagram )/ there is a greater reduction of light at the farthest distance. The cosine law formula can be modified to approximate the light levels at the outside ranges of a lamp. 2t is necessary to take account of both the angle of the beam and the angle at which the lamp is directed. The total angle at the farthest point will be the angle of the lamp from the vertical plus half the included beam angle.

6or example a 0@@%watt lamp gives /@ lux at a distance of )@ "etres, has a beam angle of 5@o and is mounted at 0@o. The light level at the farthest point will then be approximately )@ lux.

Uniform light distribution The Derwent lamp utilises design principles borrowed from radar antennas to achieve even levels of illumination for targets at short and long range and high and low altitude. As has been seen from the previous text, for targets at say, )@@ "etres it is necessary to radiate )@@ times the amount of energy needed to radiate a target at )@ "etres. This is necessary to cancel out the effects of the inverse s3uare law. The Derwent system is designed to provide e3ual illumination for short and long range targets. !upposing, for instance, a lamp will radiate targets at )@@ "etres and )@ "etres with an illumination level of 5@ m<F" /. This is illustrated in diagram )0 and is more than sufficient illumination to provide @.: volts of video from an average photopic CCD camera using an average f).4 lens.

Diagram )0 The design concept is that a single lamp will provide the e3uivalent of five lux evenly distributed over a scene from )@ to )@@ "etres. 2f twin lamps are used the e3uivalent light distribution will be ten lux. The inverse s3uare law may be applied to obtain the illuminance at other distances. Therefore at two hundred "etres a single lamp will provide )./7 lux e3uivalent, i.e. a 3uarter of the light for twice the distance. The beam power transmitted by the lamp is actually ),@@@ milliwatts to provide )@ milliwatts per s3uare "etre at )@@ "etres and )@ milliwatts to provide )@ milliwatts per s3uare "etre at )@ "etres. The structure of the vertical beam is such that a sub,ect at )@ "etres will be radiated by the same intensity of energy as one at )@@ "etres. Cameras Camera sensitivity 6or research purposes a comparison was made of five commonly available cameras to compare the energy re3uired on the sensor to achieve certain levels of performance. The tests were carried out using light sources that could put out a calibrated level of light energy measured in microwatts per s3uare "etre. Two monochromatic light sources were used, one at 7?7 nm, the other at ==@ nm. These simulate the wavelengths in the middle of the visible spectrum and well into the infrared spectrum. The tests were also measured at two output levels of the sensor. 1ne

to provide a signal to noise ratio of )/ d., the other to provide a full @.: volts video signal. The results are listed in table ). 6our of the cameras had similar specifications for sensitivity, around the @.) lux level, one had a sensitivity of @.@7 lux. +ote the greatly different performance at ==@ nm( Although as always they are all 3ualified by various factors such as> usable picture> acceptable picture> 7@ 2#8, etc. 2n other words they are all the same but different( <ith the 7?7 nm light source which is in the middle part of the visible spectrum there is almost no difference in the energy re3uired at the )/ d. level. 6or the full video there is more variation with factor of 4.:D) between the greatest and the least. <ith the ==@ nm light source the variation is 7.:D) for the )/ d. level but for full video the range stretches to )@D). 2t is beyond the scope of this article to analyse these results further but they are presented to illustrate the variations in light energy re3uired by different sensors at different wavelengths.

*ight source 7?7 nm Camera 6or !F+ )/d. ref. A . C D 8 )@./ )@.: ?.@ ?./ =.? 0/ 0/ =@ =@ ):

*ight source ==@ nm 6or @.: v video 6or !F+ )/d. 6or @.: video =@ 0/ 0@@ 0/@ :4 v

0/ )4 =@ 74 0).5

Table ), <F"/ re3uired on sensor.

0enses

The first component that light from a scene has to pass through is the lens. 2f this is wrong then everything after gets progressively worse. Apart from selecting the focal length for a particular scene, there is generally very little thought given to this prime element in the chain to get a picture from a scene to a monitor. There are several factors in lens selection that will affect the effectiveness of a system under infrared light. 1ften they will determine whether anything at all will be seen. Spectral response As has been previously discussed, cameras have varying response to wavelengths of light but the same also applies to lenses. Lust as CCTV camera sensors are led by the Camcorder market, so CCTV lenses are led by the photographic market, as well as lenses on Camcorders. They are all based on the need to create images in visible light. 8ven in the dark a flash is used to simulate visible light. Therefore lenses have a spectral response which is biased towards the visible part of the spectrum. An example of a lens spectral response diagram is shown in diagram )4. 2n this example the response at :)7 nm is only 5@I of that at 77@ nm. This can vary greatly between different makes of lens and can have a significant affect on the infrared performance of a system. !o, get on to your lens manufacturer and obtain diagrams, beware of those that cannot provide them.

Diagram )4 %perture The f number of a lens is the ratio of the focal length to the effective ob,ect lens diameter. 2t is a mechanical ratio and does not infer the efficiency of a lens. 2t does affect the amount of light energy passed to the sensor and will play a significant part in the resulting picture. Traditionally camera manufacturers have specified sensitivity with a lens having an aperture of f ).4. This would be fine if they all did it the same but they donBt. !ome say with :7I reflectance some say =?I and so on. Then again some will state the sensitivity with ACC on but not what the ACC gain is. Camera specmanship is too vast a sub,ect to expand on in this article but suffice to say

the f number of the lens is a most important consideration. 2n simple terms the smaller the f number the more light is passed to the sensor, therefore f)./ is better than f).=. The percentage of light passed by different apertures is listed in table /. This shows the percentage of light falling on the lens that is passed to the sensor. The f stops in bold face are full stops and each number in the scale halves or doubles the light passed. There are two intermediate stops shown because they are common stops found in CCTV lens.

6 number

61.B

f)./

61.G

f).=

6/.B

6/.F

6G.B

6D.>

I passed /BH

)7I

1BH

:.7I

DH

/.DH

1./DH

B.>/DH

Table / light passed by f stops Hes, it is true that with an aperture of f).4 only )@I of the light on the lens is passed to the sensor. !ome manufacturers specify camera sensitivity as that on the faceplate or sensor. 2n these cases use these ratios to convert to the light re3uired on the lens. i.e. ) lux faceplate sensitivity re3uires )@ lux with an f).4 lens or /@ lux with an f/.@ lens. 2t may seem relatively unimportant to 3uibble about the difference between an f)./ lens and an f).4 lens, especially when the latter is much cheaper than the first. 2t is significant though because the f).4 lens needs 7@I more light for the same energy on the sensor. An example taken from a distributorsB catalogue shows two )/mm auto iris lenses, one f).4 and one f)./. The f).4 is M:7.@@ the f)./ is M)7/.@@( <hich lens would a comparatively inexperienced estimator use in a competitive tenderK 2n a ten camera system it could mean a saving of M:7@.@@ or about M),@@@.@@ on the tender price% a considerable temptation. The effect of sensor si e As stated earlier, light is energy measured in <atts per s3uare "etre. Therefore if the area of a sensor is known then the resultant power in watts can be easily calculated. The nominal areas of the sensors in common use are listed in table 0.

!ensor si'e +ominal area, mm/ Table 0, areas of sensors

/F0J >F

)F/J A>

)F0J 1E

The power produced by each individual pixel in the sensor is directly proportional to its area. 2f three cameras are considered each with the same resolution of say 7@@ lines then the number of pixels on each sensor must be the same. The result of this is that the pixels on each smaller si'e of sensor must also be smaller. Therefore the power produced will be less for the same aperture setting, i.e. the same amount of light energy. 2f for the sake of an example a light source of ),@@@ milliwatts per s3uare "etre is passed to the sensors via an f).= aperture lens. The amount of light passed by the f).= lens will be :.7I T :7 m<F"/ . 6rom this the power output can be calculated for each sensor. This will be the power multiplied by the area of the sensor. The result is shown in table 4.

!ensor si'e !ensor area Aperture P$9e) $-'.-'

/F0J 5=mm/ f).= D.1mW

)F/J 05 mm/ f).= /.EmW

)F0J ): mm/ f).= 1./ED mW

Table 4 power output of sensors Therefore the )F/J and /F0J sensors will be producing insufficient power for a full video signal. The answer is to use a lens with a larger aperture for these sensors so that more energy is passed to maintain the output power. This is summarised in table 7.

!ensor si'e !ensor area A.e)'-)e I light passed

/F0J 5=mm/ 61.F :.7I

)F/J 05 mm/ 61./ )7I

)F0J ): mm/ 6B.FD 0@I

ower output

7.)m<

7.)m<

7.)m<

Table 7 power output corrected by lens f stop This is the reason that many )F0J cameras have the sensitivity specified with an f).@ or sometimes an f @.? aperture. .eware though, there are only a limited number of lenses made to the )F0J format. 2f the longer focal length lenses must be used they usually have smaller apertures 9higher f numbers; and pass less light energy. The contra to this argument is that if a sensor of one si'e has the %ame %i3e pixels as a larger one, then the light re3uired will be the same. &owever the total number of pixels will be fewer and the resulting resolution will be proportionally less. There is no such thing as a free lunch( Sensor and lens format The range of lenses available for the )F/J and particularly the )F0J cameras is limited. The largest range of lenses are still /F0J and )J format. 2t is alright to use a larger format lens on a smaller format camera but there is another penalty to pay. A /F0J lens will focus the scene on the e3uivalent area around a )F/J sensor but only the light energy relative to the area of the sensor will be converted to power. !ee diagram )7.

Diagram )7, /F0J lens with a )F/J sensor. The area of a )F/J sensor is 70I that of a /F0J sensor, therefore only this proportion of the light energy will be converted to output power and thus a video signal. This would make an f).4 lens e3uivalent to about f/.@. The area of a )F0J sensor is only /7I that of a /F0J which is e3uivalent to an f/.= lens( !o this is yet another correction factor that needs to be applied. Transmission ratio As stated, the f number is simply a ratio and although it is a measure of the amount of light that a lens will pass it is not a measure of the efficiency of the lens. The efficiency of a lens is measured by its transmission ratio referred to as the -T- number. A lens, as stated earlier, is

several different glass elements arranged to provide the correct pro,ection of the image being viewed on to the sensor of the camera. 8very time light is transmitted through a standard glass to air surface some is lost. *ens designers and manufacturers use a range of techni3ues to reduce this factor. The amount of light that is additionally lost depends on the glass materials, the thickness and curves of the glass and the coating of each lens element. *ight may be lost by absorption and reflectance in passing through a lens. 2t can also be lost by internal reflections. The mathematics are 3uite complicated to calculate. The Transmission #atio is calculated from a factor known as the Transparency #atio. !uffice to say that the effect is to ad,ust the effective aperture to a value depending on the 3uality of the lens. 6or example a high 3uality f).4 lens with a Transparency #atio of @.=7 would have an effective aperture of f).7=. A lower 3uality lens may have a Transparency #atio of @.5 and would produce an effective aperture of f).=. This represents a significant loss of available light to the sensor. Other lens factors There are several other factors in lens design that will affect the final picture seen on the monitor. F&a)e8 caused by some light being lost due to internal reflections. A%'igma'i%m8 caused by the curvature of the lens being different in the vertical and hori'ontal planes. S.he)i"a& A1e))a'i$n8 <here the surface of a convex lens in not perfectly spherical and all the rays of light do not focus at the same point. Ba))e& Di%'$)'i$n, <here the rays from the outer areas of the lens do not focus at the same point as those from the centre, usually exaggerated in very wide angle lenses. Ch)$ma'i" A1e))a'i$n8 where different fre3uencies of light refract at different angles causing blurred images. A high 3uality lens will minimise these effects, a low 3uality lens will exaggerate them. The difference in cost between a high 3uality lens and a cheap one may have be a small percentage of a tender price but it could have a dramatic affect on performance. 1ocusing with infrared light The distance to an ob,ect in focus will be different under infrared light compared to natural light. This is due to the different angle of refraction and the fact that a lens compensates for refraction mainly in the visible part of the spectrum. Therefore focusing of cameras illuminated by infrared light re3uires that they must be set up and back focused at night under the infrared light. The focusing is also more critical under infrared light because the aperture will be at its maximum with resulting decrease in depth of field. This will generally be compensated for in daylight with smaller apertures. Another factor is that the angle of the lamp must be accurately ad,usted to the

angle of the camera, ,ust a couple of degrees difference can lose a large amount of the available light energy. There are lenses available that will focus visible light and infrared light at the same focal point, however the price penalty 9or benefit(; is a factor of about four times the cost. Reflectance The camera only sees the light energy reflected from the sub,ect, so this factor must also be considered. !ome typical values for reflectance are given as follows. "att white test card =?I !nowy scene =7I Class windows and walls :@I <hite matt paint on concrete 5@I $npainted concrete, car park 4@I #ed bricks 07I 1pen country, trees, grass /@I 9 This can be 5@I%:@I for 2F#; 8mpty asphalt area 7I 2t is interesting to note that photographic cameras with built%in light meters use a reflectance factor of )=I in the calibration of the meter. <hat about the glass in a camera housingK Try a simple experiment, Co to the office window and measure the light from the inside, then measure it from the outside. The loss can be in the order of /7I%07I, so add this into the e3uation and see what happens((

2n conclusion a typical example may be as follows using the real world in which we all live.

!upposing a system is designed to provide 5@m<F" / of infrared power, what on earth does that e3uate to in plain 8nglishK

2n very approximate terms it can be assumed that /:@ *ux e3uates to ) <attF" / light power over a wide spectrum. Therefore 5@ m< e3uates to a nominal 1> L-0 if it were over the visible part of the spectrum. This sounds like a lot of light power for a camera with the following specificationD !ensitivityD @.) lux for usable video at f).@ 9?@I reflectance; &owever if the camera specification is examined more closely some surprises transpire.

A. B.1 L-0 i% a' .h$'$.i" 9a!e&eng'h. B. Thi% )e6e)% '$ a 'a)ge' )e6&e"'an"e $6 ?BH. C. Thi% -%-a&&( )e&a'e% '$ DBH !i e$ $) I-%a1&e !i e$J D. U%ing a n$n4%'an a) &en% 9i'h an a.e)'-)e $6 6 1.B. +ow come back to planet earth and see how the camera performs at :0@ nm((( A. The "ame)a ha% a1$-' /AH %en%i'i!i'( a' EAB nm. B. I' i% )e7-i)e '$ %ee 'a)ge'% 9i'h a )e6&e"'an"e $6 1BH. C. A 6-&& !i e$ %igna& $6 B.E !$&'% i% )e7-i)e 8 n$' DBH. D. The &en% a"'-a&&( 6i''e 9i&& 1e 61.G. The infrared power re3uired will actually be the e3uivalent of 29 0u#K visible light. <hat a coincidence Add ,ust one more factor, supposing that the area from :7@ nm under the lens spectrum curve is 7@I of the total. The infrared power now re3uired will beD The e3uivalent 1f :3 0u#; of visible light 2s the camera in a housingK 1h dear this could lose another /7I. !o now the light power needed isDD The e3uivalent of <= 0U>; of visible light 2t is probably best to forget about a 'oom lens where the effective aperture may reduce at maximum 'oom, or that an f).4 lens may not be available for the focal length re3uired(

Summary <hen a system is re3uired to operate under infrared light all the components are being pushed to their limit of functionality. <ith all the factors to be considered it is ama'ing that any systems function at all, and of course many do not. "ore attention given to the many factors discussed in this article will improve the chances of achieving a system that will provide optimum performance. These comments e3ually apply to any system operating under low light conditions without infrared light where components are operating towards the limit of their specification.

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S$8 h$9 6a) "an ($-) &igh' %hineL The an%9e) i%8 $6 "$-)%e FOREVER. B-'8 h$9 6a) "an ($-) CAMERA %eeL
Understanding 0enses

!electing the most appropriate *ens from 2nstallation can be a complex task % the choices constantly expanding in response to new Camera and *ens technology. *enses have a number of characteristics that must be considered to match a particular re3uirement with the best *ens for the ,ob.
1i#ed 1ocus 0ength 0ens

6ixed focus lenses are the simplest type of *ens, and therefore the cheapest. The presets focal length means a precise calculation is re3uired to select the *ens most suitable for the location, based on the desired si'e of viewing area and its distance from the Camera. Typical *ens si'es offer either 0@ degree view % narrow to allow more detail at distance % or 5@ degree, which offers a much wider angle of view.
Varifocal 0ens

Varifocal lenses offer more flexibility, allowing the field of view to be ad,usted manually. Although more expensive these lenses of popular because the use it is able to get the view re3uired rather than the limited by the constraints of the fixed *ens. 6inally, Qoom *ens are the most complex type,

offering the greatest functionality once installed % unsurprisingly, Qoom lenses offer the widest choice of associated features and technologies. Qoom lenses can be remotely ad,usted to allow variation of the focal length. This means that a single *ens can be used to view a wide area until an intruder is detected whereupon do it can be 'oomed into capture facial details. Cenerally Qoom lenses incorporate an Auto 2ris mechanism to permit /4%hour usage.
1ormats

*enses are also categorised according to si'e format. As Camera technology has advanced, sensor chips have reduced in si'e, re3uiring lenses to produce smaller images at the focal point. This has made smaller lenses possible 9less glass resulting in less physical si'e and weight; although the re3uirements of precision manufacturing doesn-t permit a proportional price reduction % the component materials of a *ens being a very small proportion of the overall manufacturing cost. The 3uoted format of the *ens 9)J, )F/J, )F0J and now even )F4J; is derived from the ratio of diameter to the viewing image produced. <hilst it is often most cost effective to match the lens format to the camera sensor si'e, it is possible to use a larger lens on a smaller si'e camera since the image only needs to be at least as large as the sensor. $sing a larger lens can often be advantageous, since it offers greater depth of field 9the range of distances from the lens before ob,ects are too close or too far away to be in focus;. *arger lenses also mean that the area of the image that is used is taken entirely from the central, flatter part of the lens causing much less corner distortion and better focus.
%spherical

*enses have traditionally been shaped to the arc of a sphere, which has the effect of causing some distortion of image at the very edges of the lens, as well as reducing its light gathering capability. A recent innovation in lens manufacturing, aspherical technology, allows the edges of a lens to be less curved, producing a larger area of accurate image and allowing transmission of a greater amount of light. Aspherical lenses can therefore reduce distortion and give a lower effective f% stop permitting camera to operate at lower light levels.
*ris

To provide optimum performance neither too much nor too little light should fall on the camera sensor. This can be ad,usted by means of the lens iris. A smaller iris opening offers greater depth of field and better focus, but the reduced amount of light admitted into the camera results in poor 3uality images in low lighting levels. A fixed iris lens offers no ad,ustment to different lighting conditions, so is therefore limited in use and not suitable for applications where fine detail is consistently re3uired. A manual iris can be ad,usted at the time of installation, allowing an optimum picture to be obtained for a fixed lighting level.

These lenses are best suited to indoor applications, where the lighting level is controllable and consistent. .oth manual and fixed iris lenses can be used with cameras which offer a feature known as -electronic iris- % an on%board technology to effectively reduce the sensor exposure to compensate for the lack of iris control. This can be cost effective, but does not provide the increased depth of field offered by a correctly si'ed iris. 6or external use 9where conditions generally vary the most;, an automatic iris lens offers the best performance, as the iris aperture automatically ad,usts to create the optimum image by monitoring the output signal from the camera. There are a number of different lens types offering this method of iris control. The original design for automatic iris 9Al; lenses was wholly self% contained, with the image analysing technology built into the lens and an iris that was ad,usted by servomotors. "arket demand to produce smaller, lower cost lenses led to the introduction of direct drive technology which re3uires circuitry within the camera, replacing that previously located in the lens. This techni3ue used a different iris control % galvanic drive. !ubse3uently this technology has been introduced into the original style auto iris lens where onboard camera circuitry is not re3uired. Today these are the choices for auto%iris control % traditional servo drive, galvanic iris and direct drive. The final lens characteristic to take account of is the light%gathering speed of the lens%expressed as an f%stop number. This literally measures the amount of light captured by the lens in a given period of time> the lower the f%stop range, the more light that can be transmitted.
Using a :?mm Camera to Calculate CCTV 0enses

There are many methods of calculating the field of view needed for a particular application and the appropriate lens selection. revious articles in CCTV Today have covered this topic in depth. robably the most useful method is to make a video recording using a camera and 'oom lens from a hydraulic hoist at the actual camera positions being proposed. "any companies now offer a service using a custom designed vehicle with several types of camera mounted on hydraulic masts. 2nside the vehicle are various switching and recording devices. &owever, they can only cover a limited number of surveys compared to the total number of opportunities. This article looks at other ways of determining fields of view and lens specifications. There are several types of CCTV viewfinders which are like a small telescope with a 'oom lens. Hou look through the viewfinder and ad,ust the lens until the re3uired field of view is in the frame. The lens focal length for various camera formats is then shown on scales on the barrel. 1ne problem is that some of these useful devices only ad,ust to comparatively wide angles and are mainly suitable for internal systems. Also they do not provide a permanent record of the field of view ,which could lead to disputes in the future. 2f you have a 07mm camera with a 'oom lens, you can accomplish two benefits at one go. 6irst, find the correct lens angle for any camera by reading the 'oom setting when the re3uired field of

view is composed through the camera viewfinder. !econd, make a permanent record of this by taking a shot, keeping a note of the shot and the 'oom setting.

The accompanying table lists the lens focal lengths and angles for various 'oom settings on a 07mm camera and the e3uivalent focal lengths for camera formats.

:?mm 22 2? 29 2C 2B 3: 3< 3C 3B := ::

2@ <.= ?.: ?.C 9.= 9.? B.= B.? D.< 2=.= 2=.? 22.9

3A:@ 3.B :.C :.D <.3 <.? ?.? ?.D 9.? 9.D C.: B.=

2A3@ 3.= 3.C 3.D :.= :.: <.= <.: <.C ?.= ?.: ?.B

2A:@ 2.? 3.= 3.3 3.: 3.? :.= :.3 :.9 :.B <.= <.<

%ngle 22?.9 2==.? D9.3 D:.3 BB.C C9.D C:.? 9B.2 9<.B 93.: ?C.<

:? <: <? ?2 ?C 9? 9B C2 B? 2:9 2<3 32: 3?? 3B: 3DB

23.? 2?.= 29.= 2B.2 3=.= 3:.2 3<.= 3?.= :=.= <B.= ?=.= C?.= D=.= 2== 2=?

B.C 2=.< 22.2 23.? 2:.D 29.= 29.9 2C.: 3=.B ::.: :<.9 ?3.= 93.< 9D C:

9.: C.9 B.2 D.2 2=.2 22.9 23.2 23.9 2?.2 3<.3 3?.3 :C.B <?.< ?= ?:

<.C ?.C 9.= 9.B C.9 B.C D.2 D.< 22.: 2B.2 2B.D 3B.: :<.= :B <=

?:.D <?.D <:.: :B.C :?.3 :=.C 3D.9 3B.? 3:.D 2?.2 2<.? D.C B.2 C.: 9.D

Understanding Monitors

Today, "onitors are available in a vast array of si'es, resolutions and aesthetic designs> with options in

monochrome and colour, to enable a wide range of applications and budgets to be met. <hen considering the most appropriate "onitor for a particular security application, a number of factors may determine the selection.
The "hysical &istance %vailable from the "lacement of the Monitor to the Viewer

1ften, in manned surveillance operations, a viewer is expected to concentrate on one or more "onitors for long periods of time. To protect both the health and safety interests of the operator and to ensure that they remain alert to potential incidents, guidelines have been established to determine the optimum viewing distances.
Optimum Viewing &istances

A simple model is available to help calculate the optimum viewing distance of the viewer to the "onitor. M$ni'$) Si3e *in"he%, O.'im-m Vie9ing Di%'an"e *6ee', ? )%0 )/ 0%5 )4 5%? ): :%)) /@ ?%)7
The %mount of "hysical Space %vailable

Due to the wide range of "onitor si'es in the marketplace today, it is important to consider the available space the your installation. There is no point buying a /)in "onitor when there is only space or a )4in model. 2t is also worth taking a long%term view and considering the other factors such as heat and room installation. As a security installation develops, there may be the re3uirements to incorporate additional "onitors.
The 0evel of Viewing &etail ReEuired

6or high%3uality manned surveillance systems, where there is a re3uirements to view high resolution pictures as well as record images, then a high resolution monitor with HFC inputs is advisable.
The 4eed to Show Colour or Monochrome "ictures

Colour monitors are advantageous in applications where identification is important, e.g. someone wearing a red ,umper and

blue ,eans can be identified more effectively on a colour monitor than someone who appears dressed in dark grey on a monochrome monitor. &owever, if budget is a concern or usage means that low light camera viewing is re3uired, a monochrome monitor may be more appropriate.
(hether %udio is ReEuired

+ot all monitors have audio capabilities. Conse3uently, it is a feature that needs to be specified in advance, especially in applications in staff protection for example.
The %vailable 8udget

rice variances in monitors arise for different reasons dependant on whether a monochrome or colour monitor is re3uired. The ma,ority of monochrome monitors today are supplied with high resolution C#Ts. Conse3uently price differences in these models simply tend to reflect the screen si'e. Colour monitor pricing, on the other hand, is determined by both resolution and screen si'e. &owever, as a result of the vast 3uantity of )4J monitors that are currently produced for the C market, the !ecurity 2ndustry has been able to offer )4J2s high%resolution colour displays at extremely affordable prices.
Understanding "an F Tilts

.roadly categorised into internal and external usage, panFtilts are normally selected on the basis of the maximum load they can take. This of course will dramatically vary from application to application. Careful consideration is re3uired to ensure the total weight of the housing, camera, lens, 2nfra #ed lamps and any other e3uipment featured.
This article was supplied by +orbain and used with permission. +orbain are manufacturers of the Vista rotos range of state%of%the%art products designed for leading edge and performance critical applications % where extensive features and functionality are the key. %nother way of looking at monitors

The aspect ratio of a standard CCTV picture is 4 units wide by 0 units high, typically complicated by being based on the diagonal measurement of the tube or sensor. A )/J monitor would have dimensions of about //@mm wide by )57mm high. Camera lenses have the vertical and hori'ontal angles of view in the same proportions.

2t is standard practice to set up cameras and monitors to view in this normal plane, but is this always the best way to look at a sceneK "any systems protecting a perimeter are looking along a long narrow field of view as illustrated in the diagram ). This shows the view on a monitor in its normal orientation and with the camera mounted conventionally. The field of view will be determined by the vertical angle of the lens. 2t can be seen that there is a great deal of the screen showing areas not necessarily important in relation to the scene being monitored.

2f the camera is turned through ?@ and also the monitor, as in diagram /, the part of the scene being monitored is now represented in greater detail. This is because the orientation of the re3uired scene is in a better relationship with that of the monitor.

9.elieve it or not, the two screens shown are the same si'e and the corect ratio; 2t is not ,ust a 3uestion of rotating the camera and monitor, because the field of view will now be determined by the hori'ontal angle instead of the vertical angle of the lens. As previously stated this is in the ratio of 4D0, therefore a lens with a longer focal length will be re3uired. This is 3uite straightforward. &aving calculated the re3uired lens using the vertical angle, simply find a lens

that has the same hori'ontal angle of view. 6or instance a )/.7mm lens has hori'ontal and vertical angles of view of/=.4 and /).0 respectively. A )5mm lens has hori'ontal and vertical angles of //.0 and )5.= respectively. Therefore the hori'ontal angle of the )5mm lens is nearly e3ual to the vertical angle of the )/.7mm lens. The longer focal length lens, though, produces a larger image on the screen for the same scene content. This is illustrated in diagram 0. The angle of view is the same in both diagrams.

Diagram 0 2t can be seen therefore that more of the important part of the scene is displayed when the camera and monitor are rotated through ?@ . This is obviously a somewhat controversial point of view and in reality must take into consideration factors of other cameras to be viewed which may re3uire the conventional arrangement. &owever there may be occasions when some lateral thinking may pay dividends.
Understanding Video Compression

As the CCTV industry continues to move towards digital devices, such as Digital Video #ecorders 9DV#s; and 2 devices, technicians need to be familiar with the sub,ect of Compression O the methods such as " 8C, <aveletW, and similar. 2n this article we spell out some of the basics of compression technology. !o first O why is data compression necessaryK .ecause without it, the volumes of data produced by digitising CCTV image streams would swamp the available storage and communications systems. To overcome this, the process of compression is applied to the image stream, reducing the amount of information that needs to be transmitted and stored. 2n fact compression of the camera

signal is not new % many people do not realise that all Aanalogue videoB has always been compressed. !imilarly, there has long been a need for data compression in the computer industry. !pecialist mathematicians have worked for many years on solving the basic problem of how to reduce the image si'e to produce the best compromise between image clarity, the data si'e of the image, and the amount of processing power it takes to run the compression method. Different applications have different priorities regarding clarity of the image, data volumes, and processing power O for example identification evidence has a different picture 3uality re3uirement compared to monitoring the length of a 3ueue. !o if you are selecting digital e3uipment, youBll need to select the compression format that suits the network or the application you are installing. Different sorts of compression are described as lossless or lossy. 2n general, the less compression the better the playback and recorded image, so naturally in that sense lossless is always better than lossy> however, less compression means more data to be transmitted and stored, and thus incurs higher system costs. Compression reduces the signal in three ways. The first is by various mathematical tricks that are lossless to the image, and can be reversed at the time of display so that the full image is viewed. The second is to remove parts of the signal that are redundant to human viewing of the image. The third method is to start to visibly reduce image 3uality O definition, frames per second, and colour range O and it is this type of compression that is called lossy. The compression formats used in CCTV vary by manufacturer and by product. .ut the four most commonly used compression formats areD

&/5) "otion L 8C, also written "%L 8C or "%L C <aveletW " 8C, also written mpg

-392

&/5) is a digitisation and compression scheme for analogue video. 2t is widely used in video conferencing and is aimed at providing digitised video at a bit rate of 54Nbps%)"bps, which is the bandwidth range of public data networks. Compression rates as high as /7@@D) are achieved, but of course at the cost of 3uality. The format is good for high frame rates, showing movement, but the resolution of those frames is not high. This is not good if, say, person identification images are re3uired. .ut if the application is a non%security application such as video%conferencing, the 3uality is likely to be ade3uate.

$ni3uely among the compression formats discussed here, &/5) encoded signals can also be decoded or decompressed by reversing the process9es; from a valid reference or 2%6rame. That means you can get back to the original high 3uality if you ever need to.
Motion G"+! HM'G"+!I

"otion L 8C 9L 8C stands for Loint hotographic 8xperts Croup; is an adaptation of the popular L 8C image compression for still digital photos. L 8C is a lossless compression techni3ue, losing very little data in the image. "otion L 8C creates a video stream from a succession of L 8C%compressed still photos. .ecause it is based on these high 3uality lossless stills, it delivers a much higher 3uality image than &/5). .ut at a cost O it re3uires a considerably greater transmission bandwidth and storage capacity compared to its &/5) counterparts. An advantage of "otion L 8C is that, because it is based on still images, it can produce any of its frames as a single image for identification purposes. As we will explain, some compression techni3ues cannot provide such images.
M"+!

" 8C 9named after the "oving ictures 8xperts Croup; is purpose designed for moving pictures, rather than being based on still image compression. This means that each frame is defined as the previous frame plus changes, rather than a full frame. The advantage of this is that compression is more efficient O the same 3uality can be displayed from less data. &owever, the method has problems when there is extensive motion between one frame and the next O there is a danger that the image gets AblockyB and vague, losing some definition in the areas of the frame where the movement occurs. There is not one " 8C standard but several , changing over time, of which only the first two are relevant at present.. " 8C %) was designed to output )7 frames per second video from limited bandwidth sources, such as CD%#1"s. " 8C%/, designed for high bandwidth applications such as &igh Definition TV. 9&DTV;, delivers 0@ frames per second video at full CC2# 5@) resolution but re3uires special high speed hardware for compression and playback O Cs cannot handle this.
(aveletJ Compression

*ike "otion%L 8C, <aveletW compression delivers high%3uality moving images by starting with still images, applying a compression method to them, and putting them together to form moving pictures. 2t compresses images by removing all obvious redundancy and using only the areas that can be perceived by the human eye. <aveletW is up to four times more effective in reducing the volume of data than L 8C and "%L 8C.

<aveletW is also seen as offering superior development potential to current " 8C compression, giving a greater amount of compression with e3uivalent 3uality. 2t transforms the whole image and not ,ust blocks of the image, so as the compression rates increase, the image degrades gracefully, rather than into the -blocky- artefacts seen with some other compression methods. <aveletW applications can have their preferred level of compression selected by the user O higher or lower. Thus, although <aveletW is not as established as some other compression techni3ues, it is growing in popularity.
*t all depends on the application ' *mage Resolution

There is no AgoodB or AbadB in compression methods. The idea of Ahorses for coursesB applies, and the table below summarises when each method is best. Me'h$ C$m.)e%%i$n Ra'i$ Ban 9i 'h an S'$)age Re7-i)e &igh *ow Very high *ow /7 /7 /7 /7 F)ame% .e) %e"$n M-a&i'( &igh *ow Very high &igh

M4NPEG *ow H/>1 MPEG Very high *ow

Wa!e&e'O &igh

Video Recording in Security Surveillance Systems

!ecurity monitoring of premises and the movement of people by the use of CCTV systems can be beneficial in the need to protect premises and ensure the safety of staff and visitors. 2n combination with access control, fire and intruder alarm systems it can prove to be a formidable tool in the fight against crime. .ut no matter how good the system is, its effectiveness will be diminished unless cameras are monitored, pictures recorded and a means by which its use can be documented and its integrity proved, is established from the outset. The following are suggestions for ways of ensuring best practice in relation to the gathering and presentation of video evidence. 2f these general guidelines concerning the handling of evidential video tapes and e3uipment are followed it will greatly assist prosecution cases. This may lead to an increase in -Cuilty- pleas at court and a decrease in the amount of staff time wasted in attending court to give evidence. The olice and Criminal 8vidence Act )?=4 re3uires that the gathering of olice evidence be both procedurally correct and as far as possible, technically verifiable. 2t therefore puts the emphasis on improving the standard of evidence re3uired, to catch suspects -in the act- of committing a crime.

The use of video recordings have already proved their worth in court proceedings, enabling the viewing of events as they took place and as an added bonus, the publicity surrounding such events can act as a form of Crime revention. This preventative effect will only last as long as prosecutions using video evidence succeeds. 2t is vital therefore that total integrity of any system is maintained from beginning to end.
Kuality

2t should be established at the outset whether the purpose of the system is intended to identify an incident or to provide identification evidence of suspects suitable for presentation to the courts. The 3uality of any recording depends on the standard and condition of both the video tape and the system used to make the recording. 83uipment used must be in good order and regularly, professionally maintained and serviced, details of which should be recorded from the date of purchase and commissioning of the system. $nless the camera is set to record a fixed point, eg a particular door or piece of e3uipment, a preference should tend towards pan, tilt and 'oom cameras. This will facilitate the provision of an identifiable picture of the sub,ect but successful system operation is dependent on an operator being available to manually control the system. Ade3uate lighting 9colour cameras; or infra red assisted 9monochrome; recording should be employed for night%time operation of a CCTV system. A member of staff should be in a position to explain to any court, procedures relating to the systems installation and use.
Video Tape "urchase5 Usage and Storage

"uch criticism is levelled by the police and others that the standard of video reproduction is of poor 3uality. There may be many reasons for this but the most common is over%use of the recording tape. 2n an ideal world tapes would be used only once. 2t is appreciated that cost effectiveness is a necessity, therefore it is suggested that a library of 0) tapes is established, one for each day of the month. <ith the complete library being changed at the end of the twelve month period, this gives a maximum usage of twelve times per tape at which point it would tend to show signs of wear and deterioration. 1bviously, the more recording machines used, the greater number of -libraries- will be re3uired. 2t should be borne in mind that although this may appear to be excessive, the cost of the tapes is only a small percentage of the overall cost of the complete video based security system. Tapes should be stored in a secure cupboard or cabinet so that their integrity can be maintained also avoiding the possibility of accidental damage or use. 1nce purchased it is important that the life of the tapes are fully recorded, a guide to this is shown at the end of this document.

Cataloguing

2t is of the utmost importance, when presenting a video recording as evidence, that the tapes have not been interfered with and that their integrity can be proved. The best manner to prove this is to establish strict procedures for usage, these being fully documented in a prepared register which can be subse3uently produced at court if re3uired. 8ach tape should be given a uni3ue reference number and labelled accordingly. The principle aim of the register is to be able to prove the life of the tape, its movements and usage. The register will also prove to be a useful management tool in evaluating the system as it will contain information relating to the number of tapes used and the number of cases where video evidence was presented. 2n con,unction with this, where manually monitored, a daily -incident log- should be kept on which the person monitoring the system can record details of occurrences that have been recorded on the tape. The log should include the date, time, a brief description of the incident and the tape counter reading at the start and finish of the incident. 2t should also bear details of the person who monitored the incident. 2t follows therefore that not only will provision have to be made for the secure storage of video cassettes but also for the tape register and daily incident logs.
Making Recordings .efore recording check that the e3uipment is in good working order !ee that the tape counter is set to 'ero Check that the time and date generator is correctly set and is being recorded

from a single

source only All recordings should be made without interruption unless it is absolutely necessary, any interruptions should be recorded so that allegations of malpractice can be disproved.
Tape Re'usage

.efore re%using a tape it should be erased by the use of a bulk eraser, which uses a magnetic field to erase previously recorded material. 2t should be erased ,ust prior to its re%use, thereby giving you one month in which to decide if any recordings on the tape are re3uired for possible future use. .y starting with a freshly erased tape that has been documented to that effect, its integrity is enhanced.
The Video Tape %s +vidence ' Conclusions There must be evidence of continuity

of handling of the videotape from the time it is first taken into use, up to its production as an exhibit in court. The videotape evidence must be the original recording and there must be no evidence of editing, either by physically cutting and splicing or mechanically recording from separate sources.

The tape used should either be new or evidence should be produced to show that it was erased prior to its use. Time and date must be encapsulated to the tape. At no time during an incident, nor in the period following, should the recording be touched until the olice 1fficer investigating the incident arrives. $nder no circumstances should a member of staff be allowed to remove the tape from the recorder or playback the video recording of the incident. This is against olice procedure and will effect both the 3uality of the recording and the usefulness of the tape for evidential purposes. 2t should be appreciated that the identification of a defendant must not exclusively rely on evidence from the videotape, the proof of the crime must be supported by other testimony.

%ction to be taken by "olice

<hen olice are called to a venue where a CCTV system is installed and it is apparent that what has taken place may have been recorded the officer will re3uest permission to remove the recording cassette from the recorder. I' i% $6 'he -'m$%' im.$)'an"e 'ha' 'he 'a.e i% n$' )e9$-n $) )e!ie9e . !tatements will be re3uired from the followingD A member of staff who is capable of proving the system and who can provide details of the e3uipment used. The member of staff who last placed the tape into the video library store following normal use procedures. The member of staff who erased the video tape 9if applicable; and put it into the recorder. The member of staff who monitored the incident 9if applicable and if different from above;. The officer will then treat the tape as he would any other exhibit in the case except that the plastic exhibit bag should be of the perforated type in order to avoid the build up of condensation which could harm the tape. The video tape recording should then be transported to the laboratory or other designated place, where a working copy will be made. 6rom this working copy all viewing or further copies will be made, the original retained as the exhibit for production at court. 6urther statements will be re3uired from the person who transported the tape for copying, the person who copied the tape and the person who retrieved the original. The fact that there is video tape evidence in a case must be declared to the Crown rosecution !ervice at the earliest opportunity in order that its existence can be declared to the defence.