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Apr 08, 2014

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add math 2013

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Teachers Name : En. Rozai Zamri School : SMKA Simpang Lima, Sg Besar ,Selangor

CONTENTS

NO

1. 2. 3. 4.

CONTENT

OBJECTIVES ACKNOWLEDGMENT INTRODUCTION PART 1 Part 1(a) Part 1(b)(i) Part 1(b)(ii)

PAGE

5.

PART 2 PART 3

6.

Part 3(A) Part 3(B)(a) Part 3(B)(b) Part 3(B)(c)(i) Part 3(B)(c)(ii) Part 3(B)(c)(iii)

7. 8. 9.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Primarily, I would like to say thank you to God, for giving me the strength, time and energy to do this project and finished it on time. Not forgotten my parents, for providing me the luxury for me to do this project such as money, to buy anything that are related to this project, internet, books, and laptop. Their advises and full support financially and mentally which I needed the most to finished this project. They also encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate in doing it especially during this long holiday. I would like to thanks my Additional Mathematics teacher, En. Rozai Zamri for all the guidance he had provided for me and my friends throughout this project. We had some difficulties in doing this task but he taught us patiently until we knew what to do. Finally yet importantly, my fellow friends who were doing this project with me and helped me in some part of the project and they shared some ideas with me. They were helpful when we discussed together and shared all of our thoughts and ideas we finally managed to finished this task.

OBJECTIVES

The aims of carrying out project work are : To apply and adapt a variety of problems- solving strategies to solve problems To improve thinking skills To promote effective mathematical communication To develop mathematical knowledge through problems solving in a way that increases students interest and confidence To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning To develop positive attitude towards mathematics

INTRODUCTION

One of the mathematical concepts which we must be familiar with is logarithms.Before the day of scientific calculators, logarithms were used to multiply or divide extreme numbers using mathematicals tables.For these calculations, ten was the most common base to use.Logarithm to the base of ten is also called the common logarithm.Other bases such as two,five and eight can also be used .The ancient Babylonians had used bases up to 60. Logarithms have many applications in various fields of studies.In the early 17th century it was rapidly adopted by navigators,scientists,engineers and astronomers to perform computations more easily.

REFLECTION

While I am conducting this project, I found out a lot of information about logarithm. I have learnt how logarithm appear in our daily life. Apart from that, this project encourages the students to work together and share their knowledge. After all, sharing is caring. It also teaches the students to improve thinking skills,promote effective mathematical communication and encourage students to use the internet for good use like gather information for project like this. Moreover, I have learned some moral values that I practice. This project taught me to be responsible on the works that that are given to me to be completed. This project also disciplines me to be on time, which I was given about three weeks to complete this project and pass up to my teacher just in time. It has also made me feel more confident about myself to do works and not to give up easily when we could not find the solution for the question, because when there is a will, there is a way. You always have family, friends, teacher and internet to help you. I also enjoy doing this project. I spend my time doing useful work with my friends to complete this project and it had tighten our friendship and I have realize that Additional Mathematics is not as boring and uninviting like I have always thought it is. Finally yet importantly, I proposed this project should be continue for the following years because it teaches a lot of moral value to the students and also test the students understanding in Additional Mathematics.

PART 1

(a) History of logarithm

Logarithms were invented independently by John Napier, a Scotsman, and by Joost Burgi, a Swiss. Napier's logarithms were published in 1614; Burgi's logarithms were published in 1620. The objective of both men was to simplify mathematical calculations. This approach originally arose out of a desire to simplify multiplication and division to the level of addition and subtraction. Of course, in this era of the cheap hand calculator, this is not necessary anymore but it still serves as a useful way to introduce logarithms. Napier's approach was algebraic and Burgi's approach was geometric. The invention of the common system of logarithms is due to the combined effort of Napier and Henry Biggs in 1624. Natural logarithms first arose as more or less accidental variations of Napier's original logarithms. Their real significance was not recognized until later. The earliest natural logarithms occur in 1618. It cant be said too often: a logarithm is nothing more than an exponent. The basic concept of logarithms can be expressed as a shortcut. Multiplication is a shortcut for Addition: 3 x 5 means 5 + 5 + 5 Exponents are a shortcut for Multiplication: 4^3 means 4 x 4 x 4 Logarithms are a shortcut for Exponents: 10^2 = 100. The present definition of the logarithm is the exponent or power to which a stated number, called the base, is raised to yield a specific number. The logarithm of 100 to the base 10 is 2. This is written: log10 (100) = 2.

(b) The applications of logarithm in two different fields of study.Explanation of each application include the following: (i) The field of study chosen

Example 1 pH In chemistry, a solutions pH is defined by the logarithmic equation , where t is the hydronium ion concentration in moles per liter. We usually round pH values to the nearest tenth. a. Find the pH of a solution with hydronium ion concentration 4.5 x 10-5 b. Find the hydronium ion concentration of pure water, which has a pH of 7.

Solutions 1. If t=4.5 x 10-5, then p(t)= -log10(4.5 x 10-5)= -(log104.5 + log1010-5)= -(log104.5 + (5)(log1010))= -(.6532+-5)= -(-4.3468)=4.3.

1. Since water has a pH of 7, we know 7=-log10t and so 7=log10t-1; thus 107= t-1, and so the hydronium ion concentration of water is t=10-7 moles per liter.

Example 2 Measuring decibels of sound The loudness of sound is measured in units called decibels. These units are measured by first assigning an intensity I0 to a very soft sound (which is called the threshold sound). The sound we wish to measure is assigned an intensity I, and we measure the decibel rating d of this sound with the equation .

1. Find the decibel rating of a sound with intensity 5000I0. 1. If a sound has a decibel rating of 85, how much more intense is it than the threshold sound?

Solutions

a. b.

decibels

, where the sound in question is k times as intense as the threshold sound. Thus , and so the sound is

PART 2