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The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at sacred-texts.














Scanned at, February, 2004. John Bruno Hare, redactor. This tex t is in the public domain. These files may be used for any non-commercial purpos e, provided this notice of attribution is left intact. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at

[p. v] TO IVOR AND MERTHYR. My dear Children, Infants as you yet are, I feet that I cannot dedicate more fitly than to you the se venerable relics of ancient lore, and I do so in the hope of inciting you to cultivate the Literature of "Gwyllt Walia," in whose beautiful language you are being initiated, and amongst whose free mountains you were born. May you become early imbued with the chivalric and exalted sense of honour, and the fervent patriotism for which its sons have ever been celebrated. May you learn to emulate the noble qualities of Ivor Hael, and the firm attachme nt to your Native Country, which distinguished that Ivor Back, after whom the el der of you was named. I am, Your affectionate Mother, C. E. GUEST. Dowlais, August 29th, 1838. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. vii]

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. THE Arthurian Legends have at all times furnished a congenial subject to the stu dents of Romance; and in the eight-and-thirty years which have elapsed since the first part of this Translation appeared, my "Mabinogion" have found their way i nto the hands of the learned both among ourselves and on the Continent. More recently, however, the publication of the "Idyls of the King"--and among th em of "Enid," which is founded on my version of "Geraint"--has interested a much wider circle of readers in the Legends, and there has arisen a demand for a new and more popular edition of my work, which it is the object of the present issu e to supply. It will be found to differ from its predecessor in the omission of the Welsh tex t, of all Welsh quotations in the Notes, and of the French Metrical Romance of t he "Chevalier au Lion." The notices relating to the corresponding versions of th e Tales in other European languages have also been condensed. [p. viii] It is, then, under these altered conditions, and in the absence of all means of comparison on their part, that I ask my new readers to believe that I have striv en to preserve in Saxon English the primitive simplicity of the Welsh original. To these remarks it only remains for me to add, that the text of the Mabinogion exists in the Llyfr Coch o Hergest (or Red Book of Hergest) preserved in the Lib

rary of Jesus College, Oxford, and that for the accurate copy which I used, I wa s indebted to the learned labours of the Rev. John Jones (Tegid), Fellow of that College, and to the courtesy of the late Mr. Justice Bosanquet, for whom the tr anscript in question was originally made. LANGHAM HOUSE, LONDON, 18th January, 1877. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. ix]


The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. xi]

INTRODUCTION Whilst engaged on the Translations contained in these volumes, and on the Notes appended to the various Tales, I have found myself led unavoidably into a much m ore extensive course of reading than I had originally contemplated, and one whic h in great measure bears directly upon the earlier Mediaeval Romance. Before commencing these labours, I was aware, generally, that there existed a co nnexion between the Welsh Mabinogion and the Romance of the Continent; but as I advanced, I became better acquainted with the closeness and extent of that conne xion, its history, and the proofs by which it is supported. At the same time, indeed, I became aware, and still strongly feel, that it is on e thing to collect facts, and quite another to classify and draw from them their legitimate conclusions; and though I am loth that what has been collected with some pains, should be entirely thrown away, it is unwillingly, and with diffiden ce, that I trespass beyond the acknowledged province of a translator. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries there arose into general notoriety in Eu rope, a body of "Romance," which in various forms retained its popularity till t he Reformation. In it the plot, the incidents, [p. xii] the characters, were almost wholly those of Chivalry, that bond which united the warriors of France, Spain, and Italy, with those of pure Teutonic descent, and embraced more or less firmly all the nations of Europe, excepting only the Slavo nic races, not yet risen to power, and the Celts, who had fallen from it. It is not difficult to account for this latter omission. The Celts, driven from the pl ains into the mountains and islands, preserved their liberty, and hated their op pressors with fierce, and not causeless, hatred. A proud and free people, isolat ed both in country and language, were not likely to adopt customs which implied brotherhood with their foes. Such being the case, it is remarkable that when the chief romances are examined, the name of many of the heroes and their scenes of action are found to be Celti c, and those of persons and places famous in the traditions of Wales and Brittan y. Of this the romances of Ywaine and Gawaine, Sir Perceval de Galles, Eric and Enide, Mort d'Arthur, Sir Lancelot, Sir Tristan, the Graal, &c., may be cited as examples. In some cases a tendency to triads, and other matters of internal evi dence, point in the same direction. It may seem difficult to account for this. Although the ancient dominion of the Celts over Europe is not without enduring evidence in the names of the mountains and streams, the great features of a country, yet the loss of their prior langu age by the great mass of the Celtic nations in Southern Europe (if indeed their successors in territory be at all of their blood), prevents us from clearly seei ng, and makes us wonder, how stories, originally embodied [p. xiii] in the Celtic dialects of Great Britain and France, could so influence the liter ature of nations to whom the Celtic languages were utterly unknown. Whence then came these internal marks, and these proper names of persons and places, the fea tures of a story usually of earliest date and least likely to change? These romances were found in England, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and even Iceland, as early as the beginning of the thirteenth and end of the twelfth cent ury. The Germans, who propagated them through the nations of the North, derived them certainly from France. Robert Wace published his Anglo-Norman Romance of th

e Brut d'Angleterre about 1155. Sir Tristan was written in French prose in 1170; and The Chevalier au Lion, Chevalier de l'Epee, and Sir Lancelot du Lac, in met rical French, by Chrestien de Troyes, before 1200. From these facts it is to be argued that the further back these romances are tra ced, the more clearly does it appear that they spread over the Continent from th e North-west of France. The older versions, it may be remarked, are far more sim ple than the later corruptions. In them there is less allusion to the habits and usages of Chivalry, and the Welsh names and elements stand out in stronger reli ef. It is a great step to be able to trace the stocks of these romances back to Wace, or to his country and age. For Wace's work was not original. He himself, a native of Jersey, appears to have derived much of it from the "Historia Britonu m" of Gruffydd ab Arthur, commonly known as "Geoffrey of Monmouth," born 1128, w ho himself professes to have translated from a British original. It is, however, very possible [p. xiv] that Wace may have had access, like Geoffrey, to independent sources of informat ion. To the claims set up on behalf of Wace and Geoffrey, to be regarded as the chann els by which the Cymric tales passed into the Continental Romance, may be added those of a third almost contemporary author. Layamon, a Saxon priest, dwelling, about 1200, upon the banks of the upper Severn, acknowledges for the source of h is British history, the English Bede, the Latin Albin, and the French Wace. The last-named however is by very much his chief, and, for Welsh matters, his only a vowed authority. His book, nevertheless, contains a number of names and stories relating to Wales, of which no traces appear in Wace, or indeed in Geoffrey, but which he was certainly in a very favourable position to obtain for himself. Lay amon, therefore, not only confirms Geoffrey in some points, but it is clear, tha t, professing to follow Wace, he had independent access to the great body of Wel sh literature then current. Sir F. Madden has put this matter very clearly, in h is recent edition of Layamon. The Abbe de la Rue, also, was of opinion that Gaim ar, an Anglo-Norman, in the reign of Stephen, usually regarded as a translator o f Geoffrey of Monmouth, had access to a Welsh independent authority. In addition to these, is to be mentioned the English version of Sir Tristrem, wh ich Sir Walter Scott considered to be derived from a distinct Celtic source, and not, like the later Amadis, Palmerin, and Lord Berners's Canon of Romance, impo rted into English literature by translation from the French. For the Auntours of Arthur, recently published by the Camden [p. xv] [paragraph continues] Society, their Editor, Mr. Robson, seems to hint at a simi lar claim. Here then are various known channels, by which portions of Welsh and Armoric fic tion crossed the Celtic border, and gave rise to the more ornate, and widely-spr ead romance of the Age of Chivalry. It is not improbable that there may have exi sted many others. It appears then that a large portion of the stocks of Mediaeva l Romance proceeded from Wales. We have next to see in what condition they are s till found in that country. That Wales possessed an ancient literature, containing various lyric composition s, and certain triads, in which are arranged historical facts or moral aphorisms , has been shown by Sharon Turner, who has established the high antiquity of man y of these compositions.

The more strictly Romantic Literature of Wales has been less fortunate, though n ot less deserving of critical attention. Small portions only of it have hitherto appeared in print, the remainder being still hidden in the obscurity of ancient Manuscripts: of these the chief is supposed to be the Red Book of Hergest, now in the Library of Jesus College, Oxford, and of the fourteenth century. This con tains, besides poems, the prose romances known as Mabinogion. The Black Book of Caermarthen, preserved at Hengwrt, and considered not to be of later date than t he twelfth century, is said to contain poems only. [*1] [p. xvi] The Mabinogion, however, though thus early recorded in the Welsh tongue, are in their existing form by no means wholly Welsh. They are of two tolerably distinct classes. Of these, the older contains few allusions to Norman customs, manners, arts, arms, and luxuries. The other, and less ancient, are full of such allusio ns, and of ecclesiastical terms. Both classes, no doubt, are equally of Welsh ro ot, but the former are not more overlaid or corrupted, than might have been expe cted, from the communication that so early took place between the Normans and th e Welsh; whereas the latter probably migrated from Wales, and were brought back and re-translated after an absence of centuries, with a load of Norman additions . Kilhwch and Olwen, and the dream of Rhonabwy, may be cited as examples of the older and purer class; the Lady of the Fountain, Peredur, and Geraint ab Erbin, of the later, or decorated. Besides these, indeed, there are a few tales, as Amlyn and Amic, Sir Bevis of Ha mtoun, the Seven Wise Masters, and the story of Charlemagne, so obviously of for eign extraction, and of late introduction into Wales, not presenting even a Wels h name, or allusion, and of such very slender intrinsic merit, that although com prised in the Llyvr Coch, they have not a shadow of claim to form part of the Ca non of Welsh Romance. Therefore, although I have translated and examined them, I have given them no place in these volumes. There is one argument in favour of the high antiquity in Wales of many of the Ma binogion, which deserves to be mentioned here. This argument is founded on the t opography of the country. It is found that Saxon [p. xvii] names of places are very frequently definitions of the nature of the locality to which they are attached, as Clifton, Deepden, Bridge-ford, Thorpe, Ham, Wick, a nd the like; whereas those of Wales are more frequently commemorative of some ev ent, real or supposed, said to have happened on or near the spot, or bearing all usion to some person renowned in the story of the country or district. Such are "Llyn y Morwynion," the Lake of the Maidens; "Rhyd y Bedd," the Ford of the Grav e; "Bryn Cyfergyr," the Hill of Assault; and so on. But as these names could not have preceded the events to which they refer, the events themselves must be not unfrequently as old as the early settlement in the country. And as some of thes e events and fictions are the subjects of, and are explained by, existing Welsh legends, it follows that the legends must be, in some shape or other, of very re mote antiquity. It will be observed that this argument supports remote antiquity only for such legends as are connected with the greater topographical features, as mountains, lakes, rivers, seas, which must have been named at an early perio d in the inhabitation of the country by man. But there exist, also, legends conn ected with the lesser features, as pools, hills, detached rocks, caves, fords, a nd the like, places not necessarily named by the earlier settlers, but the names of which are, nevertheless, probably very old, since the words of which they ar e composed are in many cases not retained in the colloquial tongue, in which the y must once have been included, and are in some instances lost from the language altogether, so much so as to be only partially explicable even by scholars. The argument applies likewise, in their

[p. xviii] degree, to camps, barrows, and other artificial earth-works. Conclusions thus drawn, when established, rest upon a very firm basis. They depe nd upon the number and appositeness of the facts, and it would be very interesti ng to pursue this branch of evidence in detail. In following up this idea, the n ames to be sought for might thus be classed:-I. Names of the great features, involving proper names and actions. Cadair Idris and Cadair Arthur both involve more than a mere name. Idris and Art hur must have been invested with heroic qualifications to have been placed in su ch "seats." II. Names of lesser features, as "Bryn y Saeth," Hill of the Dart; "Llyn Llyngcl ys," Lake of the Engulphed Court; "Ceven y Bedd," the Ridge of the Grave; "Rhyd y Saeson," the Saxons' Ford. III. Names of mixed natural and artificial objects, as "Coeten Arthur," Arthur's Coit; "Cerrig y Drudion," the Crag of the Heroes; which involve actions. And su ch as embody proper names only, as "Cerrig Howell," the Crag of Howell; "Caer Ar ianrod," the Camp of Arianrod; "Bron Goronwy," the Breast (of the Hill) of Goron wy; "Castell mab Wynion," the Castle of the son of Wynion; "Nant Gwrtheyrn," the Rill of Vortigern. The selection of names would demand much care and discretion. The translations s hould be indisputable, and, where known, the connexion of a name with a legend s hould be noted. Such a name as "Mochdrev," Swine-town, would be valueless unless accompanied by a legend. [p. xix] It is always valuable to find a place or work called after an individual, becaus e it may help to support some tradition of his existence or his actions. But it is requisite that care be taken not to push the etymological dissection too far. Thus, "Caer Arianrod" should be taken simply as the "Camp of Arianrod," and not rendered the "Camp of the silver circle," because the latter, though it might p ossibly have something to do with the reason for which the name was borne by Ari anrod herself, had clearly no reference to its application to her camp. It appears to me, then, looking back upon what has been advanced:-I. That we have throughout Europe, at an early period, a great body of literatur e, known as Mediaeval Romance, which, amidst much that is wholly of Teutonic ori gin and character, includes certain well-marked traces of an older Celtic nucleu s. II. Proceeding g away at each and with less of the Langue backwards in time, we find these romances, their ornaments fallin step, existing towards the twelfth century, of simpler structure, encumbered Celtic features, in the works of Wace, and other Bards d'Oil.

III. We find that Geoffrey of Monmouth, Layamon, and other early British and Ang lo-Saxon historians, and minstrels, on the one hand, transmitted to Europe the r udiments of its after romance, much of which, on the other hand, they drew from Wales. IV. Crossing into Wales we find, in the Mabinogion, the evident counterpart of t

he Celtic portion of the continental romance, mixed up, indeed, with various ref lex additions from beyond the border, but still [p. xx] containing ample internal evidence of a Welsh original. V. Looking at the connexion between divers of the more ancient Mabinogion, and t he topographical nomenclature of part of the country, we find evidence of the gr eat, though indefinite, antiquity of these tales, and of an origin, which, if no t indigenous, is certainly derived from no European nation. It was with a general belief in some of these conclusions, that I commenced my l abours, and I end them with my impressions strongly confirmed. The subject is on e not unworthy of the talents of a Llwyd or a Prichard. It might, I think, be sh own, by pursuing the inquiry, that the Cymric nation is not only, as Dr. Prichar d has proved it to be, an early offshoot of the Indo-European family, and a peop le of unmixed descent, but that when driven out of their conquests by the later nations, the names and exploits of their heroes, and the compositions of their b ards, spread far and wide among the invaders, and affected intimately their tast es and literature for many centuries, and that it has strong claims to be consid ered the cradle of European Romance. DOWLAIS, August 29th, 1848. Footnotes ^xv:1 It is also stated, that there is in the Hengwrt Library, a MS. containing the Graal in Welsh, as early as the time of Henry I. I had hoped to have added t his to the present collection; but the death of Col. Vaughan, to whom I applied, and other subsequent circumstances, have prevented me from obtaining access to it. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 3]

THE LADY OF THE FOUNTAIN KING ARTHUR was at Caerlleon upon Usk ; and one day he sat in his chamber; and with him were Owain the son of Urien , and Kynon the son of Clydno , and Kai th e son of Kyner ; and Gwenhwyvar and her handmaidens at needlework by the window . And if it should be said that there was a porter at Arthur's palace, there wa s none. Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr was there, acting as porter, to welcome guests and strangers, and to receive them with honour, and to inform them of the manners an d customs of the Court; and to direct those who came to the Hall or to the prese nce-chamber, and those who came to take up their lodging. In the centre of the chamber King Arthur sat upon a seat of green rushes , over which was spread a covering of flame-coloured satin , and a cushion of red satin was under his elbow. [p. 4] Then Arthur spoke, "If I thought you would not disparage me," said he, "I would sleep while I wait for my repast; and you can entertain one another with relatin g tales, and can obtain a flagon of mead and some meat from Kai." And the King w

ent to sleep. And Kynon the son of Clydno asked Kai for that which Arthur had pr omised them. "I, too, will have the good tale which he promised to me," said Kai . "Nay," answered Kynon, "fairer will it be for thee to fulfill Arthur's behest, in the first place, and then we will tell thee the best tale that we know." So Kai went to the kitchen and to the mead-cellar, and returned bearing a flagon of mead and a golden goblet, and a handful of skewers, upon which were broiled col lops of meat. Then they ate the collops and began to drink the mead. "Now," said Kai, "it is time for you to give me my story." "Kynon," said Owain, "do thou pa y to Kai the tale that is his due." "Truly," said Kynon, "thou are older, and ar t a better teller of tales, and hast seen more marvellous things than I; do thou therefore pay Kai his tale." "Begin thyself," quoth Owain, "with the best that thou knowest." "I will do so," answered Kynon. "I was the only son of my mother and father, and I was exceedingly aspiring, and my daring was very great. I thought there was no enterprise in the world too mi ghty for me, and after I had achieved all the adventures that were in my own cou ntry, I equipped myself, and set forth to journey through deserts and distant re gions . And at length it chanced that I came to the fairest valley in the world, wherein were trees of equal growth ; and a river ran through the valley, and a path was by the side of the river. And I followed the path until mid-day, and co ntinued my journey along the remainder of the valley until the evening; and at t he extremity of a plain I came to a large and lustrous Castle, at the foot of wh ich was a torrent. And I approached the Castle, and there I beheld two youths wi th yellow curling hair, each with a frontlet of gold upon his head, and clad in a garment of yellow satin , and they had gold clasps upon their [p. 5] insteps. In the hand of each of them was an ivory bow, strung with the sinews of the stag ; and their arrows had shafts of the bone of the whale , and were wing ed with peacock's feathers ; the shafts also had golden heads . And they had dag gers with blades of gold , and with hilts of the bone of the whale. And they wer e shooting their daggers. "And a little way from them I saw a man in the prime of life, with his beard new ly shorn, clad in a robe and a mantle of yellow satin; and round the top of his mantle was a band of gold lace. On his feet were shoes of variegated leather , f astened by two bosses of gold. When I saw him, I went towards him and saluted hi m, and such was his courtesy that he no sooner received my greeting than he retu rned it. And he went with me towards the Castle. Now there were no dwellers in t he Castle except those who were in one hall. And there I saw four-and-twenty dam sels, embroidering satin at a window. And this I tell thee, Kai, that the least fair of them was fairer than the fairest maid thou hast ever beheld in the Islan d of Britain, and the least lovely of them was more lovely than Gwenhwyvar , the wife of Arthur, when she has appeared loveliest at the Offering, on the day of the Nativity, or at the feast of Easter. They rose up at my coming , and six of them took my horse, and divested me of my armour; and six others took my arms, a nd washed them in a vessel until they were perfectly bright. And the third six s pread cloths upon the tables and prepared meat. And the fourth six took off my s oiled garments, and placed others upon me; namely, an under-vest and a doublet o f fine linen, and a robe, and a surcoat, and a mantle of yellow satin with a bro ad gold band upon the mantle . And they placed cushions both beneath and around me, with coverings of red linen; and I sat down. Now the six maidens who had tak en my horse, unharnessed him, as well as if they had been the best squires in th e Island of Britain. Then, behold, they brought bowls of silver wherein was wate r to wash, and towels of linen, some green and some white; and I washed. And in a little while [p. 6]

the man sat down to the table. And I sat next to him, and below me sat all the m aidens, except those who waited on us. And the table was of silver, and the clot hs upon the table were of linen; and no vessel was served upon the table that wa s not either of gold or of silver, or of buffalo-horn . And our meat was brought to us. And verily, Kai, I saw there every sort of meat and every sort of liquor that I have ever seen elsewhere; but the meat and the liquor were better served there than I have ever seen them in any other place. "Until the repast was half over, neither the man nor any one of the damsels spok e a single word to me; but when the man perceived that it would be more agreeabl e to me to converse than to eat any more, he began to inquire of me who I was. I said I was glad to find that there was some one who would discourse with me, an d that it was not considered so great a crime at that Court for people to hold c onverse together. 'Chieftain,' said the man, 'we would have talked to thee soone r, but we feared to disturb thee during thy repast; now, however, we will discou rse.' Then I told the man who I was, and what was the cause of my journey; and s aid that I was seeking whether any one was superior to me, or whether I could ga in the mastery over all. The man looked upon me, and he smiled and said, 'If I d id not fear to distress thee too much, I would show thee that which thou seekest .' Upon this I became anxious and sorrowful, and when the man perceived it, he s aid, 'If thou wouldest rather that I should show thee thy disadvantage than thin e advantage, I will do so. Sleep here to-night, and in the morning arise early, and take the road upwards through the valley until thou reachest the wood throug h which thou camest hither. A little way within the wood thou wilt meet with a r oad branching off to the right, by which thou must proceed, until thou comest to a large sheltered glade with a mound in the centre. And thou wilt see a black m an of great stature on the top of the mound. He is not smaller in size than two of the men of this world. He has but one foot; and one eye in the middle of his forehead. [p. 7] [paragraph continues] And he has a club of iron, and it is certain that there ar e no two men in the world who would not find their burden in that club. And he i s not a comely man, but on the contrary he is exceedingly ill-favoured; and he i s the woodward of that wood. And thou wilt see a thousand wild animals grazing a round him. Inquire of him the way out of the glade, and he will reply to thee br iefly, and will point out the road by which thou shalt find that which thou art in quest of.' "And long seemed that night to me. And the next morning I arose and equipped mys elf, and mounted my horse, and proceeded straight through the valley to the wood ; and I followed the cross-road which the man had pointed out to me, till at len gth I arrived at the glade. And there was I three times more astonished at the n umber of wild animals that I beheld, than the man had said I should be. And the black man was there, sitting upon the top of the mound. Huge of stature as the m an had told me that he was, I found him to exceed by far the description he had given me of him. As for the iron club which the man had told me was a burden for two men, I am certain, Kai, that it would be a heavy weight for four warriors t o lift; and this was in the black man's hand. And he only spoke to me in answer to my questions. Then I asked him what power he held over those animals. 'I will show thee, little man,' said he. And he took his club in his hand, and with it he struck a stag a great blow so that he brayed vehemently, and at his braying t he animals came together, as numerous as the stars in the sky, so that it was di fficult for me to find room in the glade to stand among them. There were serpent s, and dragons, and divers sorts of animals. And he looked at them, and bade the m go and feed; and they bowed their heads, and did him homage as vassals to thei r lord. "Then the black man said to me, 'Seest thou now, little man, what power I hold o

ver these animals?' Then I inquired of him the way, and he became very rough in his [p. 8] manner to me; however, he asked me whither I would go? And when I told him who I was and what I sought, he directed me. 'Take,' said he, 'that path that leads t owards the head of the glade, and ascend the wooded steep until thou comest to i ts summit; and there thou wilt find an open space like to a large valley, and in the midst of it a tall tree, whose branches are greener than the greenest pinetrees. Under this tree is a fountain , and by the side of the fountain a marble slab, and on the marble slab a silver bowl, attached by a chain of silver, so th at it may not be carried away. Take the bowl and throw a bowlful of water upon t he slab, and thou wilt hear a mighty peal of thunder, so that thou wilt think th at heaven and earth are trembling with its fury. With the thunder there will com e a shower so severe that it will be scarce possible for thee to endure it and l ive. And the shower will be of hailstones; and after the shower, the weather wil l become fair, but every leaf that was upon the tree will have been carried away by the shower. Then a flight of birds will come and alight upon the tree; and i n thine own country thou didst never hear a strain so sweet as that which they w ill sing. And at the moment thou art most delighted with the song of the birds, thou wilt hear a murmuring and complaining coming towards thee along the valley. And thou wilt see a knight upon a coal-black horse, clothed in black velvet, an d with a pennon of black linen upon his lance; and he will ride unto thee to enc ounter thee with the utmost speed. If thou fleest from him he will overtake thee , and if thou abidest there, as sure as thou art a mounted knight, he will leave thee on foot. And if thou dost not find trouble in that adventure, thou needest not seek it during the rest of thy life.' "So I journeyed on, until I reached the summit of the steep, and there I found e verything as the black man had described it to me. And I went up to the tree, an d beneath it I saw the fountain, and by its side the marble slab, and the silver bowl fastened by the chain. Then I took the bowl, [p. 9] and cast a bowlful of water upon the slab; and thereupon, behold, the thunder ca me, much more violent than the black man had led me to expect; and after the thu nder came the shower; and of a truth I tell thee, Kai, that there is neither man nor beast that can endure that shower and live. For not one of those hailstones would be stopped, either by the flesh or by the skin, until it had reached the bone. I turned my horse's flank towards the shower, and placed the beak of my sh ield over his head and neck, while I held the upper part of it over my own head. And thus I withstood the shower. When I looked on the tree there was not a sing le leaf upon it, and then the sky became clear, and with that, behold the birds lighted upon the tree, and sang. And truly, Kai, I never heard any melody equal to that, either before or since. And when I was most charmed with listening to t he birds, lo, a murmuring voice was heard through the valley, approaching me and saying, 'Oh, Knight, what has brought thee hither? What evil have I done to the e, that thou shouldst act towards me and my possessions as thou hast this day? D ost thou not know that the shower to-day has left in my dominions neither man no r beast alive that was exposed to it?' And thereupon, behold, a Knight on a blac k horse appeared, clothed in jet-black velvet, and with a tabard of black linen about him. And we charged each other, and, as the onset was furious, it was not long before I was overthrown. Then the Knight passed the shaft of his lance thro ugh the bridle rein of my horse, and rode off with the two horses, leaving me wh ere I was. And he did not even bestow so much notice upon me as to imprison me, nor did he despoil me of my arms. So I returned along the road by which I had co me. And when I reached the glade where the black man was, I confess to thee, Kai , it is a marvel that I did not melt down into a liquid pool, through the shame

that I felt at the black man's derision. And that night I came to the same castl e where I had spent the night preceding. And I was more agreeably entertained th at night than I had been [p. 10] the night before; and I was better feasted, and I conversed freely with the inma tes of the castle, and none of them alluded to my expedition to the fountain, ne ither did I mention it to any; and I remained there that night. When I arose on the morrow, I found, ready saddled, a dark bay palfrey, with nostrils as red as scarlet; and after putting on my armour, and leaving there my blessing, I return ed to my own Court. And that horse I still possess, and he is in the stable yond er. And I declare that I would not part with him for the best palfrey in the Isl and of Britain. "Now of a truth, Kai, no man ever before confessed to an adventure so much to hi s own discredit , and verily it seems strange to me, that neither before nor sin ce have I heard of any person besides myself who knew of this adventure, and tha t the subject of it should exist within King Arthur's dominions, without any oth er person lighting upon it." "Now," quoth Owain, "would it not be well to go and endeavour to discover that p lace?" "By the hand of my friend," said Kai, "often dost thou utter that with thy tongu e which thou wouldst not make good with thy deeds." "In very truth," said Gwenhwyvar, "it were better thou wert hanged, Kai, than to use such uncourteous speech towards a man like Owain." "By the hand of my friend, good Lady," said Kai, "thy praise of Owain is not gre ater than mine." With that Arthur awoke, and asked if he had not been sleeping a little. "Yes, Lord," answered Owain, "thou hast slept awhile." "Is it time for us to go to meat?" "It is, Lord," said Owain. Then the horn for washing was sounded, and the King and all his household sat d own to eat. And when the meal was ended, Owain withdrew to his lodging, and made ready his horse and his arms. [p. 11] On the morrow, with the dawn of day, he put on his armour, and mounted his charg er, and travelled through distant lands and over desert mountains. And at length he arrived at the valley which Kynon had described to him; and he was certain t hat it was the same that he sought. And journeying along the valley by the side of the river, he followed its course till he came to the plain and within sight of the Castle. When he approached the Castle, he saw the youths shooting their d aggers in the place where Kynon had seen them, and the yellow man, to whom the C astle belonged, standing hard by. And no sooner had Owain saluted the yellow man than he was saluted by him in return. And he went forward towards the Castle, and there he saw the chamber, and when h e had entered the chamber he beheld the maidens working at satin embroidery, in chairs of gold. And their beauty and their comeliness seemed to Owain far greate

r than Kynon had represented to him. And they rose to wait upon Owain, as they h ad done to Kynon, and the meal which they set before him gave more satisfaction to Owain than it had done to Kynon. About the middle of the repast, the yellow man asked Owain the object of his jou rney. And Owain made it known to him, and said, "I am in quest of the Knight who guards the fountain." Upon this the yellow man smiled, and said that he was as loth to point out that adventure to Owain as he had been to Kynon. However, he d escribed the whole to Owain, and they retired to rest. The next morning Owain found his horse made ready for him by the damsels, and he set forward and came to the glade where the black man was. And the stature of t he black man seemed more wonderful to Owain than it had done to Kynon, and Owain asked of him his road, and he showed it to him. And Owain followed the road, as Kynon had done, till he came to the green tree; and he beheld the fountain, and the slab beside the fountain, with the bowl upon it. And Owain took the bowl, a nd threw a bowlful [p. 12] of water upon the slab. And, lo, the thunder was heard, and after the thunder ca me the shower, much more violent than Kynon had described, and after the shower the sky became bright. And when Owain looked at the tree, there was not one leaf upon it. And immediately the birds came, and settled upon the tree, and sang. A nd when their song was most pleasing to Owain, he beheld a Knight coming toward s him through the valley, and he prepared to receive him; and encountered him vi olently. Having broken both their lances, they drew their swords, and fought bla de to blade. Then Owain struck the Knight a blow through his helmet, head-piece and visor, and through the skin, and the flesh, and the bone, until it wounded t he very brain. Then the black Knight felt that he had received a mortal wound, u pon which he turned his horse's head, and fled. And Owain pursued him, and follo wed close upon him, although he was not near enough to strike him with his sword . Thereupon Owain descried a vast and resplendent Castle. And they came to the C astle gate. And the black Knight was allowed to enter, and the portcullis was le t fall upon Owain; and it struck his horse behind the saddle, and cut him in two , and carried away the rowels of the spurs that were upon Owain's heels. And the portcullis descended to the floor. And the rowels of the spurs and part of the horse were without, and Owain with the other part of the horse remained between the two gates, and the inner gate was closed, so that Owain could not go thence; and Owain was in a perplexing situation. And while he was in this state, he cou ld see through an aperture in the gate, a street facing him, with a row of house s on each side. And he beheld a maiden , with yellow curling hair, and a frontle t of gold upon her head; and she was clad in a dress of yellow satin, and on her feet were shoes of variegated leather. And she approached the gate, and desired that it should be opened. "Heaven knows, Lady," said Owain, "it is no more poss ible for me to open to thee from hence, than it is for thee [p. 13] to set me free." "Truly," said the damsel, "it is very sad that thou canst not b e released, and every woman ought to succour thee, for I never saw one more fait hful in the service of ladies than thou. As a friend thou art the most sincere, and as a lover the most devoted. Therefore," quoth she, "whatever is in my power to do for thy release, I will do it. Take this ring and put it on thy finger, with the stone inside thy hand; and close thy hand upon the stone. And as long as thou concealest it, it will conceal thee. When they have consulted together, they will come forth to fetch thee, in order to put thee to death; and they will be much grieved that they cannot find thee. And I will await thee on the horseb lock yonder; and thou wilt be able to see me, though I cannot see thee; therefo re come and place thy hand upon my shoulder, that I may know that thou art near

me. And by the way that I go hence, do thou accompany me." Then she went away from Owain, and he did all that the maiden had told him. And the people of the Castle came to seek Owain, to put him to death, and when they found nothing but the half of his horse, they were sorely grieved. And Owain vanished from among them, and went to the maiden, and placed his hand upon her shoulder; whereupon she set off, and Owain followed her, until they cam e to the door of a large and beautiful chamber, and the maiden opened it, and th ey went in, and closed the door. And Owain looked around the chamber, and behold there was not even a single nail in it that was not painted with gorgeous colou rs ; and there was not a single panel that had not sundry images in gold portray ed upon it. The maiden kindled a fire, and took water in a silver bowl, and put a towel of w hite linen on her shoulder, and gave Owain water to wash. Then she placed before him a silver table, inlaid with gold; upon which was a cloth of yellow linen; a nd she brought him food. And of a truth, Owain had never seen any kind of meat t hat was not there in abundance, but it was better cooked there than he had ever found it in any [p. 14] other place. Nor did he ever see so excellent a display of meat and drink, as th ere. And there was not one vessel from which he was served, that was not of gold or of silver. And Owain ate and drank, until late in the afternoon, when lo, th ey heard a mighty clamour in the Castle; and Owain asked the maiden what that ou tcry was. "They are administering extreme unction," said she, "to the Nobleman w ho owns the Castle." And Owain went to sleep. The couch which the maiden had prepared for him was meet for Arthur himself; it was of scarlet, and fur, and satin, and sendall, and fine linen. In the middle o f the night they heard a woful outcry. "What outcry again is this?" said Owain. "The Nobleman who owned the Castle is now dead," said the maiden. And a little a fter daybreak, they heard an exceeding loud clamour and wailing. And Owain asked the maiden what was the cause of it. "They are bearing to the church the body o f the Nobleman who owned the Castle." And Owain rose up, and clothed himself, and opened a window of the chamber, and looked towards the Castle; and he could see neither the bounds, nor the extent o f the hosts that filled the streets. And they were fully armed; and a vast numbe r of women were with them, both on horseback and on foot; and all the ecclesiast ics in the city, singing. And it seemed to Owain that the sky resounded with the vehemence of their cries, and with the noise of the trumpets, and with the sing ing of the ecclesiastics. In the midst of the throng, he beheld the bier, over w hich was a veil of white linen; and wax tapers were burning beside and around it , and none that supported the bier was lower in rank than a powerful Baron. Never did Owain see an assemblage so gorgeous with satin, and silk, and sendall . And following the train, he beheld a lady with yellow hair falling over her sh oulders, and stained with blood; and about her a dress of yellow satin, which wa s torn. Upon her feet were shoes of variegated leather. And it was a marvel that the ends of her [p. 15] fingers were not bruised, from the violence with which she smote her hands toget her. Truly she would have been the fairest lady Owain ever saw, had she been in her usual guise. And her cry was louder than the shout of the men, or the clamou r of the trumpets. No sooner had he beheld the lady, than he became inflamed wit

h her love, so that it took entire possession of him. Then he inquired of the maiden who the lady was. "Heaven knows," replied the mai den, "she may be said to be the fairest, and the most chaste, and the most liber al, and the wisest, and the most noble of women. And she is my mistress; and she is called the Countess of the Fountain, the wife of him whom thou didst slay y esterday." "Verily," said Owain, "she is the woman that I love best." "Verily," said the maiden, "she shall also love thee not a little." And with that the maid arose, and kindled a fire, and filled a pot with water, a nd placed it to warm; and she brought a towel of white linen, and placed it arou nd Owain's neck; and she took a goblet of ivory, and a silver basin, and filled them with warm water, wherewith she washed Owain's head . Then she opened a wood en casket, and drew forth a razor, whose haft was of ivory, and upon which were two rivets of gold. And she shaved his beard, and she dried his head, and his th roat, with the towel. Then she rose up from before Owain, and brought him to eat . And truly Owain had never so good a meal, nor was he ever so well served. When he had finished his repast, the maiden arranged his couch. "Come here," sai d she, "and sleep, and I will go and woo for thee." And Owain went to sleep, and the maiden shut the door of the chamber after her, and went towards the Castle. When she came there, she found nothing but mourning, and sorrow; and the Counte ss in her chamber could not bear the sight of any one through grief. Luned came and saluted her, but the Countess answered her not. And the maiden bent down tow ards her, and said, "What [p. 16] aileth thee, that thou answerest no one to-day?" "Luned," said the Countess, "wh at change hath befallen thee, that thou hast not come to visit me in my grief? I t was wrong in thee, and I having made thee rich; it was wrong in thee that thou didst not come to see me in my distress. That was wrong in thee." "Truly," said Luned, "I thought thy good sense was greater than I find it to be. Is it well f or thee to mourn after that good man, or for anything else, that thou canst not have?" "I declare to heaven," said the Countess, "that in the whole world there is not a man equal to him." "Not so," said Luned, "for an ugly man would be as g ood as, or better than he." "I declare to heaven," said the Countess, "that were it not repugnant to me to cause to be put to death one whom I have brought up, I would have thee executed, for making such a comparison to me. As it is, I will banish thee." "I am glad," said Luned, "that thou hast no other cause to do so, than that I would have been of service to thee where thou didst not know what w as to thine advantage. And henceforth evil betide whichever of us shall make the first advance towards reconciliation to the other; whether I should seek an inv itation from thee, or thou of thine own accord shouldst send to invite me." With that Luned went forth: and the Countess arose and followed her to the door of the chamber, and began coughing loudly. And when Luned looked back, the Count ess beckoned to her; and she returned to the Countess. "In truth," said the Coun tess, "evil is thy disposition; but if thou knowest what is to my advantage, dec lare it to me." "I will do so," quoth she. "Thou knowest that except by warfare and arms it is impossible for thee to prese rve thy possessions; delay not, therefore, to seek some one who can defend them. " "And how can I do that?" said the Countess. "I will tell thee," said Luned. "U nless thou canst defend the fountain, thou canst not maintain thy dominions; and no one can defend the fountain, except it be a knight of Arthur's household; [p. 17] and I will go to Arthur's Court, and ill betide me, if I return thence without a

warrior who can guard the fountain as well as, or even better than, he who defe nded it formerly." "That will be hard to perform," said the Countess. "Go, howev er, and make proof of that which thou hast promised." Luned set out, under the pretence of going to Arthur's Court; but she went back to the chamber where she had left Owain; and she tarried there with him as long as it might have taken her to have travelled to the Court of King Arthur. And at the end of that time, she apparelled herself and went to visit the Countess. An d the Countess was much rejoiced when she saw her, and inquired what news she br ought from the Court. "I bring thee the best of news," said Luned, "for I have c ompassed the object of my mission. When wilt thou, that I should present to thee the chieftain who has come with me hither?" "Bring him here to visit me to-morr ow, at mid-day," said the Countess, "and I will cause the town to be assembled b y that time." And Luned returned home. And the next day, at noon, Owain arrayed himself in a c oat, and a surcoat, and a mantle of yellow satin, upon which was a broad band of gold lace; and on his feet were high shoes of variegated leather, which were fa stened by golden clasps, in the form of lions. And they proceeded to the chamber of the Countess. Right glad was the Countess of their coming, and she gazed steadfastly upon Owai n, and said, "Luned, this knight has not the look of a traveller." "What harm is there in that, lady?" said Luned. "I am certain," said the Countess, "that no o ther man than this chased the soul from the body of my lord." "So much the bette r for thee, lady," said Luned, "for had he not been stronger than thy lord he co uld not have deprived him of life. There is no remedy for that which is past, be it as it may." "Go back to thine abode," said the Countess, "and I will take co unsel." The next day the Countess caused all her subjects to assemble, and showed them t hat her earldom was left defenceless, and that it could not be protected but wit h horse and [p. 18] arms, and military skill. "Therefore," said she, "this is what I offer for your choice: either let one of you take me, or give your consent for me to take a hus band from elsewhere to defend my dominions." So they came to the determination that it was better that she should have permis sion to marry some one from elsewhere; and, thereupon, she sent for the bishops and archbishops to celebrate her nuptials with Owain . And the men of the earldo m did Owain homage. And Owain defended the Fountain with lance and sword. And this is the manner in which he defended it: Whensoever a knight came there he overthrew him, and sold him for his full worth, and what he thus gained he divided among his barons and his knights; and no man in the whole world could be more beloved than he was by his subjects. And it was thus for the space of three years.

It befell that as Gwalchmai went forth one day with King Arthur, he perceived h im to be very sad and sorrowful. And Gwalchmai was much grieved to see Arthur in this state; and he questioned him, saying, "Oh, my lord! what has befallen thee ?" "In sooth, Gwalchmai," said Arthur, "I am grieved concerning Owain, whom I ha ve lost these three years, and I shall certainly die if the fourth year passes w ithout my seeing him. Now I am sure, that it is through the tale which Kynon the son of Clydno related, that I have lost Owain." "There is no need for thee," sa

id Gwalchmai, "to summon to arms thy whole dominions on this account, for thou t hyself and the men of thy household will be able to avenge Owain, if he be slain ; or to set him free, if he be in prison; and, if alive, to bring him back with thee." And it was settled according to what Gwalchmai had said. Then Arthur and the men of his household prepared to go and seek Owain, and thei r number was three thousand, besides their attendants. And Kynon the son of Clyd no acted as their guide. And Arthur came to the Castle where Kynon had been befo re, and when he came there the youths were [p. 19] shooting in the same place, and the yellow man was standing hard by. When the ye llow man saw Arthur he greeted him, and invited him to the Castle; and Arthur ac cepted his invitation, and they entered the Castle together. And great as was th e number of his retinue, their presence was scarcely observed in the Castle, so vast was its extent. And the maidens rose up to wait on them, and the service of the maidens appeared to them all to excel any attendance they had ever met with ; and even the pages who had charge of the horses were no worse served, that nig ht, than Arthur himself would have been in his own palace. The next morning Arthur set out thence, with Kynon for his guide, and came to th e place where the black man was. And the stature of the black man was more surpr ising to Arthur than it had been represented to him. And they came to the top of the wooded steep, and traversed the valley till they reached the green tree, wh ere they saw the fountain, and the bowl, and the slab. And upon that, Kai came t o Arthur and spoke to him. "My lord," said he, "I know the meaning of all this, and my request is, that thou wilt permit me to throw the water on the slab, and to receive the first adventure that may befall." And Arthur gave him leave. Then Kai threw a bowlful of water upon the slab, and immediately there came the thunder, and after the thunder the shower. And such a thunderstorm they had neve r known before, and many of the attendants who were in Arthur's train were kille d by the shower. After the shower had ceased the sky became clear; and on lookin g at the tree they beheld it completely leafless. Then the birds descended upon the tree, and the song of the birds was far sweeter than any strain they had eve r heard before. Then they beheld a knight on a coal-black horse, clothed in blac k satin, coming rapidly towards them. And Kai met him and encountered him, and i t was not long before Kai was overthrown. And the knight withdrew, and Arthur an d his host encamped for the night. And when they arose in the morning, they perceived the [p. 20] signal of combat upon the lance of the Knight. And Kai came to Arthur, and spoke to him: "My lord," said he, "though I was overthrown yesterday, if it seem good to thee, I would gladly meet the Knight again to-day." "Thou mayst do so," said Arthur. And Kai went towards the Knight. And on the spot he overthrew Kai, and struck him with the head of his lance in the forehead, so that it broke his helm et and the head-piece, and pierced the skin and the flesh, the breadth of the sp ear-head, even to the bone. And Kai returned to his companions. After this, all the household of Arthur went forth, one after the other, to comb at the Knight, until there was not one that was not overthrown by him, except Ar thur and Gwalchmai. And Arthur armed himself to encounter the Knight. "Oh, my lo rd," said Gwalchmai, "permit me to fight with him first." And Arthur permitted h im. And he went forth to meet the Knight, having over himself and his horse a sa tin robe of honour which had been sent him by the daughter of the Earl of Rhang yw , and in this dress he was not known by any of the host. And they charged eac

h other, and fought all that day until the evening, and neither of them was able to unhorse the other. The next day they fought with strong lances , and neither of them could obtain t he mastery. And the third day they fought with exceeding strong lances. And they were incens ed with rage, and fought furiously, even until noon. And they gave each other su ch a shock that the girths of their horses were broken, so that they fell over t heir horses' cruppers to the ground. And they rose up speedily, and drew their s words, and resumed the combat; and the multitude that witnessed their encounter felt assured that they had never before seen two men so valiant or so powerful. And had it been midnight, it would have been light from the fire that flashed fr om their weapons. And the Knight gave Gwalchmai a blow that turned his helmet fr om off his face, so that the Knight knew that it was Gwalchmai. Then Owain said, "My lord Gwalchmai, I did not know thee [p. 21] for my cousin , owing to the robe of honour that enveloped thee; take my sword a nd my arms." Said Gwalchmai, "Thou, Owain, art the victor; take thou my sword." And with that Arthur saw that they were conversing, and advanced towards them. " My lord Arthur," said Gwalchmai, "here is Owain, who has vanquished me, and will not take my arms." "My lord," said Owain, "it is he that has vanquished me, and he will not take my sword." "Give me your swords ," said Arthur, "and then neit her of you has vanquished the other." Then Owain put his arms around Arthur's ne ck, and they embraced. And all the host hurried forward to see Owain, and to emb race him; and there was nigh being a loss of life, so great was the press. And they retired that night, and the next day Arthur prepared to depart. "My lor d," said Owain, "this is not well of thee; for I have been absent from thee thes e three years, and during all that time, up to this very day, I have been prepar ing a banquet for thee, knowing that thou wouldst come to seek me. Tarry with m e, therefore, until thou and thy attendants have recovered the fatigues of the j ourney, and have been anointed." And they all proceeded to the Castle of the Countess of the Fountain, and the ba nquet which had been three years preparing was consumed in three months. Never h ad they a more delicious or agreeable banquet. And Arthur prepared to depart. Th en he sent an embassy to the Countess, to beseech her to permit Owain to go with him for the space of three months, that he might show him to the nobles and the fair dames of the Island of Britain. And the Countess gave her consent, althoug h it was very painful to her. So Owain came with Arthur to the Island of Britain . And when he was once more amongst his kindred and friends, he remained three y ears, instead of three months, with them.

And as Owain one day sat at meat, in the city of Caerlleon upon Usk, behold a da msel entered upon a bay horse , with a curling mane and covered with foam, and t he bridle and so [p. 22] much as was seen of the saddle were of gold. And the damsel was arrayed in a dre ss of yellow satin. And she came up to Owain, and took the ring from off his han d. "Thus," said she, "shall be treated the deceiver, the traitor, the faithless, the disgraced, and the beardless." And she turned her horse's head and departed .

Then his adventure came to Owain's remembrance, and he was sorrowful; and having finished eating he went to his own abode and made preparations that night. And the next day he arose but did not go to the Court, but wandered to the distant p arts of the earth and to uncultivated mountains. And he remained there until all his apparel was worn out, and his body was wasted away, and his hair was grown long. And he went about with the wild beasts and fed with them, until they becam e familiar with him; but at length he grew so weak that he could no longer bear them company. Then he descended from the mountains to the valley, and came to a park that was the fairest in the world, and belonged to a widowed Countess. One day the Countess and her maidens went forth to walk by a lake, that was in t he middle of the park. And they saw the form of a man. And they were terrified. Nevertheless they went near him, and touched him, and looked at him. And they sa w that there was life in him, though he was exhausted by the heat of the sun. An d the Countess returned to the Castle, and took a flask full of precious ointmen t, and gave it to one of her maidens. "Go with this," said she, "and take with t hee yonder horse and clothing, and place them near the man we saw just now. And anoint him with this balsam , near his heart; and if there is life in him, he wi ll arise through the efficacy of this balsam. Then watch what he will do." And the maiden departed from her, and poured the whole of the balsam upon Owain, and left the horse and the garments hard by, and went a little way off, and hid herself to watch him. In a short time she saw him begin to move his arms; and h e rose up, and looked at his person, and became [p. 23] ashamed of the unseemliness of his appearance. Then he perceived the horse and t he garments that were near him. And he crept forward till he was able to draw th e garments to him from off the saddle. And he clothed himself, and with difficul ty mounted the horse. Then the damsel discovered herself to him, and saluted him . And he was rejoiced when he saw her, and inquired of her, what land and what t erritory that was. "Truly," said the maiden, "a widowed Countess owns yonder Cas tle; at the death of her husband, he left her two Earldoms, but at this day she has but this one dwelling that has not been wrested from her by a young Earl , w ho is her neighbour, because she refused to become his wife." "That is pity," sa id Owain. And he and the maiden proceeded to the Castle; and he alighted there, and the maiden conducted him to a pleasant chamber, and kindled a fire and left him. And the maiden came to the Countess, and gave the flask into her hand. "Ha! maid en," said the Countess, "where is all the balsam?" "Have I not used it all?" sai d she. "Oh, maiden," said the Countess, "I cannot easily forgive thee this; it i s sad for me to have wasted seven-score pounds' worth of precious ointment upon a stranger whom I know not. However, maiden, wait thou upon him, until he is qui te recovered." And the maiden did so, and furnished him with meat and drink, and fire, and lodg ing, and medicaments, until he was well again. And in three months he was restor ed to his former guise, and became even more comely than he had ever been before . One day Owain heard a great tumult, and a sound of arms in the Castle, and he in quired of the maiden the cause thereof. "The Earl," said she, "whom I mentioned to thee, has come before the Castle, with a numerous army, to subdue the Countes s." And Owain inquired of her whether the Countess had a horse and arms in her p ossession. "She has the best in the world," said the maiden. "Wilt thou go and r equest the loan of a horse and arms for me," said Owain, "that [p. 24]

[paragraph continues] I may go and look at this army?" "I will," said the maiden . And she came to the Countess, and told her what Owain had said. And the Countess laughed. "Truly," said she, "I will even give him a horse and arms for ever; su ch a horse and such arms had he never yet, and I am glad that they should be tak en by him to-day, lest my enemies should have them against my will to-morrow. Ye t I know not what he would do with them." The Countess bade them bring out a beautiful black steed , upon which was a beec hen saddle, and a suit of armour, for man and horse. And Owain armed himself, an d mounted the horse, and went forth, attended by two pages completely equipped, with horses and arms. And when they came near to the Earl's army, they could see neither its extent nor its extremity. And Owain asked the pages in which troop the Earl was. "In yonder troop," said they, "in which are four yellow standards. Two of them are before, and two behind him." "Now," said Owain, "do you return and await me near the portal of the Castle." So they returned, and Owain pressed forward until he met the Earl. And Owain drew him completely out of his saddle, and turned his horse's head towards the Castle, and though it was with difficul ty, he brought the Earl to the portal, where the pages awaited him. And in they came. And Owain presented the Earl as a gift to the Countess. And said to her, " Behold a requital to thee for thy blessed balsam." The army encamped around the Castle. And the Earl restored to the Countess the t wo Earldoms he had taken from her, as a ransom for his life; and for his freedom he gave her the half of his own dominions, and all his gold, and his silver, an d his jewels, besides hostages. And Owain took his departure. And the Countess and all her subjects besought him to remain, but Owain chose rather to wander through distant lands and deserts. And as he journeyed, he heard a loud yelling in a wood. And it was repeated a se cond and a third time. And Owain [p. 25] went towards the spot, and beheld a huge craggy mound, in the middle of the wood ; on the side of which was a grey rock. And there was a cleft in the rock, and a serpent was within the cleft. And near the rock stood a black lion, and every t ime the lion sought to go thence, the serpent darted towards him to attack him. And Owain unsheathed his sword, and drew near to the rock; and as the serpent sp rang out, he struck him with his sword, and cut him in two. And he dried his swo rd, and went on his way, as before . But behold the lion followed him, and playe d about him, as though it had been a greyhound that he had reared. They proceeded thus throughout the day, until the evening. And when it was time for Owain to take his rest, he dismounted, and turned his horse loose in a flat and wooded meadow. And he struck fire, and when the fire was kindled, the lion b rought him fuel enough to last for three nights. And the lion disappeared. And p resently the lion returned, bearing a fine large roebuck. And he threw it down b efore Owain, who went towards the fire with it. And Owain took the roebuck, and skinned it, and placed collops of its flesh upon skewers, around the fire. The rest of the buck he gave to the lion to devour. W hile he was doing this, he heard a deep sigh near him, and a second, and a third . And Owain called out to know whether the sigh he heard proceeded from a mortal ; and he received answer that it did. "Who art thou?" said Owain. "Truly," said the voice, "I am Luned, the handmaiden of the Countess of the Fountain." "And wh at dost thou here?" said Owain. "I am imprisoned," said she, "on account of the

knight who came from Arthur's Court, and married the Countess. And he stayed a s hort time with her, but he afterwards departed for the Court of Arthur, and has not returned since. And he was the friend I loved best in the world. And two of the pages in the Countess's chamber traduced him, and called him a deceiver. And I told them that they two were not a match for him alone. So they imprisoned me in the stone vault , and said that I should be put to death, [p. 26] unless he came himself to deliver me, by a certain day; and that is no further o ff than the day after to-morrow. And I have no one to send to seek him for me. A nd his name is Owain the son of Urien." "And art thou certain that if that knigh t knew all this, he would come to thy rescue?" "I am most certain of it," said s he. When the collops were cooked, Owain divided them into two parts, between himself and the maiden; and after they had eaten, they talked together, until the day d awned. And the next morning Owain inquired of the damsel, if there was any place where he could get food and entertainment for that night. "There is, Lord," sai d she; "cross over yonder, and go along the side of the river, and in a short ti me thou wilt see a great Castle, in which are many towers, and the Earl who owns that Castle is the most hospitable man in the world. There thou mayst spend the night." Never did sentinel keep stricter watch over his lord, than the lion that night o ver Owain. And Owain accoutred his horse, and passed across by the ford, and came in sight of the Castle. And he entered it, and was honourably received. And his horse was well cared for, and plenty of fodder was placed before him. Then the lion went and lay down in the horse's manger; so that none of the people of the Castle dar ed to approach him. The treatment which Owain met with there was such as he had never known elsewhere, for every one was as sorrowful as though death had been u pon him. And they went to meat; and the Earl sat upon one side of Owain, and on the other side his only daughter. And Owain had never seen any more lovely than she. Then the lion came and placed himself between Owain's feet, and he fed him with every kind of food that he took himself. And he never saw anything equal to the sadness of the people. In the middle of the repast the Earl began to bid Owain welcome. "Then," said Ow ain, "behold, it is time for thee to be cheerful." "Heaven knows," said the Earl , "that it is not thy coming that makes us sorrowful, but we have cause [p. 27] enough for sadness and care." lied the Earl, "and yesterday n the mountain a monster who and to-morrow is the time he l then slay my sons before my daughter. He has the form of "What is that?" said Owain. "I have two sons," rep they went to the mountains to hunt. Now there is o kills men and devours them, and he seized my sons; has fixed to be here, and he threatens that he wil eyes, unless I will deliver into his hands this my a man, but in stature he is no less than a giant."

"Truly," said Owain, "that is lamentable. And which wilt thou do?" "Heaven knows ," said the Earl, "it will be better that my sons should be slain against my wil l, than that I should voluntarily give up my daughter to him to ill-treat and de stroy." Then they talked about other things, and Owain stayed there that night. The next morning they heard an exceeding great clamour, which was caused by the coming of the giant with the two youths. And the Earl was anxious both to protec t his Castle and to release his two sons. Then Owain put on his armour and went

forth to encounter the giant, and the lion followed him. And when the giant saw that Owain was armed, he rushed towards him and attacked him. And the lion fough t with the giant much more fiercely than Owain did. "Truly," said the giant, "I should find no difficulty in fighting with thee, were it not for the animal that is with thee." Upon that Owain took the lion back to the Castle and shut the ga te upon him, and then he returned to fight the giant, as before. And the lion ro ared very loud, for he heard that it went hard with Owain. And he climbed up til l he reached the top of the Earl's hall, and thence he got to the top of the Cas tle, and he sprang down from the walls and went and joined Owain. And the lion g ave the giant a stroke with his paw, which tore him from his shoulder to his hip , and his heart was laid bare, and the giant fell down dead. Then Owain restored the two youths to their father. The Earl besought Owain to remain with him, and he would not, but set forward to wards the meadow where Luned [p. 28] was. And when he came there he saw a great fire kindled, and two youths with bea utiful curling auburn hair were leading the maiden to cast her into the fire. An d Owain asked them what charge they had against her. And they told him of the co mpact that was between them, as the maiden had done the night before. "And," sai d they, "Owain has failed her, therefore we are taking her to be burnt." "Truly, " said Owain, "he is a good knight, and if he knew that the maiden was in such p eril, I marvel that he came not to her rescue; but if you will accept me in his stead, I will do battle with you." "We will," said the youths, "by him who made us." And they attacked Owain, and he was hard beset by them. And with that the lion c ame to Owain's assistance, and they two got the better of the young men. And the y said to him, "Chieftain, it was not agreed that we should fight save with thys elf alone, and it is harder for us to contend with yonder animal than with thee. " And Owain put the lion in the place where the maiden had been imprisoned, and blocked up the door with stones, and he went to fight with the young men, as bef ore. But Owain had not his usual strength, and the two youths pressed hard upon him. And the lion roared incessantly at seeing Owain in trouble; and he burst th rough the wall until he found a way out, and rushed upon the young men, and inst antly slew them. So Luned was saved from being burned. Then Owain returned with Luned to the dominions of the Countess of the Fountain. And when he went thence he took the Countess with him to Arthur's Court, and sh e was his wife as long as she lived.

And then he took the road that led to the Court of the savage black man, and Owa in fought with him, and the lion did not quit Owain until he had vanquished him. And when he reached the Court of the savage black man he entered the hall, and beheld four-and-twenty ladies, the fairest that could be seen. And the garments which they had on were not [p. 29] worth four-and twenty pence, and they were as sorrowful as death. And Owain aske d them the cause of their sadness. And they said, "We are the daughters of Earls , and we all came here with our husbands, whom we dearly loved. And we were rece ived with honour and rejoicing. And we were thrown into a state of stupor , and while we were thus, the demon who owns this Castle slew all our husbands, and to ok from us our horses, and our raiment, and our gold, and our silver; and the co rpses of our husbands are still in this house, and many others with them. And th

is, Chieftain, is the cause of our grief, and we are sorry that thou art come hi ther, lest harm should befall thee." And Owain was grieved when he heard this. And he went forth from the Castle, and he beheld a knight approaching him, who saluted him in a friendly and cheerful manner, as if he had been a brother. And this was the savage black man. "In very sooth," said Owain, "it is not to seek thy friendship that I am here." "In soot h," said he, "thou shalt not find it then." And with that they charged each othe r, and fought furiously. And Owain overcame him, and bound his hands behind his back. Then the black savage besought Owain to spare his life, and spoke thus: "M y lord Owain," said he, "it was foretold that thou shouldst come hither and vanq uish me, and thou hast done so. I was a robber here, and my house was a house of spoil; but grant me my life, and I will become the keeper of an Hospice , and I will maintain this house as an Hospice for weak and for strong, as long as I li ve, for the good of thy soul." And Owain accepted this proposal of him, and rema ined there that night. And the next day he took the four-and-twenty ladies, and their horses, and their raiment, and what they possessed of goods and jewels, and proceeded with them t o Arthur's Court. And if Arthur was rejoiced when he saw him, after he had lost him the first time, his joy was now much greater. And of those ladies, such as w ished to remain in Arthur's Court remained there, and such as wished to depart d eparted. [p. 30] And thenceforward Owain dwelt at Arthur's Court greatly beloved, as the head of his household, until he went away with his followers; and those were the army of three hundred ravens which Kenverchyn had left him. And wherever Owain went wi th these he was victorious. And this is the tale of THE LADY OF THE FOUNTAIN. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 31]

NOTES TO THE LADY OF THE FOUNTAIN. 3a ARTHUR.--Page <page 3>. AMONG the various characters introduced into the foregoing tale, none is more st rictly and successfully maintained than that of Arthur. In him we see the dignif ied and noble-hearted sovereign, the stately warrior, and the accomplished knigh t, courteous of demeanour and dauntless in arms. And whilst the lofty bearing of the monarch himself excites our admiration, we are scarcely less struck with th e devoted attachment evinced towards him by his knights, who are ever solicitous that he should be the last to encounter danger, and ever ready themselves to da re the most perilous adventures to uphold the dignity of his crown. But it is no t merely the consistency observed in these several characters that arrests our a ttention in this and similar compositions professing to record the achievements of Arthur and his knights; we are also forcibly struck with the powerful influen ce which those legends exercised over society, and the ascendancy which their pr incipal hero so decidedly maintained. Nor can we withhold our wonder at the sing ular destiny which has awaited this extraordinary being. Whilst by some his very existence has been called in question, his name has become celebrated throughou t the civilised world; and his exploits, whether fabulous or real, have afforded

the most ample and interesting materials to the poet, the antiquary, and the hi storian. To this very day the memory of the mighty warrior, "whose sword extende d from Scandinavia to Spain," exercises a power over our imagination which we ar e as unable as we are unwilling to dispel. His image adorned our earliest vision s of Chivalry and Romance, and though the weightier cares of maturer age must su pervene, they serve but to deepen, not to efface the impression; and while in th e eddying stream of life we pause to look back upon the days when Caerlleon and its Round Table formed to us an ideal [p. 32] world, we feel that, in our hearts at least, "King Arthur is not dead." The real history of this chieftain is so veiled in obscurity, and has led to so much unsatisfactory discussion, that I shall in this place only consider him wit h reference to the position which he occupies in the regions of Fiction. Amongst the many incidents of a highly imaginative character, in the legendary h istory of Arthur, we may more particularly notice his introduction upon the scen e of his exploits. During the turbulent times which followed the death of Uther Pendragon, the nobl es of Britain assembled to elect a successor to him, but, after protracted debat e, they were unable to come to any decision upon the subject. At length a large stone was discovered near the place of assembly, in which was a sword fastened a s it were in a sheath. Around it was an inscription in gold letters, signifying that whoever should draw out that sword was rightful heir to the throne. After a ll those who were ambitious of this dignity had made the attempt in vain, Arthur , who was previously unknown, came forward, and drew out the sword from the ston e as easily as he would have drawn it out of the scabbard. He was thereupon imme diately acknowledged king. Being thus placed at the head of the Chivalry of Britain, he proceeded in a glor ious and triumphant career, until, by the treachery of his nephew, Modred, he su stained a defeat in the battle of Camlan. After witnessing the destruction of his army in that fatal conflict, Arthur, fin ding himself mortally wounded, delivered his sword to Caliburn one of his knight s, with a request that he would cast it into a certain lake. The knight, thus co mmissioned, proceeded to the appointed spot, and, standing upon the bank, flung the sword forward with all his might. As it was descending, a hand and arm came out of the lake, and seizing it by the hilt brandished it three times, and disap peared with it in the water. Arthur was afterwards conducted by the Knight to the border of the lake, where h e found a little bark moored, in which were Viviane, the Lady of the Lake, and M organ le Fay, and other ladies, who carried him off to the Island of Avalon, in Fairy-laud, where it was affirmed that he was healed of his wounds, and continue d to live in all the splendour of that luxurious country, waiting for the time w hen he should return once more to take possession of his ancient dominions. In confirmation of this idea it was asserted that the place of his [p. 33] sepulture was not known. This tradition was current for many ages, and is found among the Welsh, in the Memorials of the Graves of the Warriors,-"The grave of March is this, and this the grave of Gwythyr.

Here is the grave of Gwgawn Gleddyfrudd But unknown is the grave of Arthur." [*1] Our English ears are so familiarized with the name of King Arth ur, that it seems impossible to give him the appellation of Emperor, by which he is designated in the original Welsh, and to which, according to the old Romance s, he was fully entitled, since once upon a time, "at crystemas," he was crowned "Emperour with creme as it bylongeth to so hyhe astate."--Morte d'Arthur. We find the title of Emperor bestowed upon Arthur in Llywarch Hen's Elegy upon G eraint ab Erbin. "At Llongborth were slain to Arthur Valiant men, who hewed down with steel; He was the emperor, and conductor of the toil of war." OWEN'S Heroic Elegies.

3b CAERLLEON UPON USK.--Page <page 3>. THIS place derives its name from the circumstance of its being the station of th e Second Legion (Legio Secunda Augusta) during the dominion of the Romans. The n ame by which they originally called it was Isca Silurum, evidently from its situ ation upon the river Usk; but by later Latin writers it is named Urbs Legionum, which probably is a translation of the Welsh Caer-lleon, and not the original of that appellation. This place still exhibits many traces of Roman magnificence, and among others the remains of an amphitheatre. It is natural to suppose that, upon the departure of the Legions, Caerlleon would attract the attention of the native Sovereigns, who were at that time beginning to resume their power; accord ingly, tradition informs us that it was the principal residence of King Arthur; and the amphitheatre is still called Arthur's Round Table. In confirmation of th is traditionary evidence, Nennius asserts that one of Arthur's battles was fough t at Cairlion. [p. 34] In the old English version of this tale the opening scene is laid at Cardiff. "He made a feste, the soth to say, Opon the Witsononday, At Kerdyf, that es in Wales."--line 17. [paragraph continues] And on a subsequent occasion we find the City of Chester named-"The kyng that time at Cester lay."--line 1567. [paragraph continues] In the French Copy,"Q' li rois cort a cestre tint." Of CHESTER it may be remarked, that it bears in Welsh the name of Caerlleon Gawr, which seems to indicate its having been the station of the Tw entieth Legion, called Legio Vicesima Valens Victrix, the word Gawr being nearly equivalent to the Latin Valens.

3c OWAIN THE SON OF URIEN.--Page <page 3>. OWAIN AB URIEN RHEGED.--AMONGST all the characters of ancient British history, n one is more interesting, or occupies a more conspicuous place, than the hero of this tale. Urien, his father, was prince of Rheged, a district comprising the pr esent Cumberland and part of the adjacent country. His valour and the considerat ion in which he was held, are a frequent theme of Bardic song, and form the subj ect of several very spirited odes by Taliesin, particularly those upon the battl es of Gwenystrad and Argoed Llwyfein, which are given, with English translations , in the Myvyrian Archaiology, i. 52, 3, 4. The name of Fflamddwyn, the flame-be arer, which occurs in these poems, is supposed to be that by which the Welsh des ignated Ida, the Anglian King of Northumberland. In the Appendix to Gale's Nenni us, it is mentioned that Urien was one of the four Northern princes who opposed the progress of Deodric the Son of Ida. Urien besieged the latter in the island of Lindisfarne. The other princes were Rhydderch Hael, Gwallawc ap Llenawc, and Morcant, [*1] the latter of whom being jealous of Urien's military skill, in whi ch he is [p. 35] said to have excelled all the other kings, procured his assassination during the expedition. According to Llywarch Hen's Elegy upon Urien Rheged, this event occurred in a pl ace called Aberlleu. [*1] The Triads mention Llovan Llawdivo as the assassin. Of him little is known; but that he was a person of some note is evident from the circumstance of his grave being recorded. "The grave of Llovan Llawdivo is on the strand of Menai, where makes the wave a sullen sound. " [*2] "The Genealogy of the Saints records that Urien came into South Wales, and Was instrumental with the sons of Ceredig ab Cunedda, and his nephew s, in expelling the Gwyddelians, who had gained a footing there from about the t ime of Maxen Wledig."--Camb. Biog. The old Romancers connect him with South Wales, and call him King Uryens of Gore , evidently intended for Gower in Glamorganshire. Thus it is recorded in and lete crye a grete ronacion of hym at the n, and of Orkeney with ge Uryens of gore with the Morte d'Arthur, "Thenne the Kyng remeued in to Walys, feste that it shold be holdyn at Pentecost after the inco Cyte of Carlyon, vnto the feste come kyng Lott of Lowthea fiue C knygtes with hym. Also there come to the feste kyn four C knyghtes with hym."

But to return to Owain; it appears from the manner in which he is always mention ed by contemporary Bards, that he greatly distinguished himself in his country's cause, subsequently to the death of his father, but with what ultimate success we are not acquainted. There exists an ancient Poem, printed among those of Taliesin, called the Elegy of Owain ap Urien, and containing several very beautiful and spirited passages. It commences,

The soul of Owain ap Urien May its Lord consider its exigencies,-Reged's chief the green turf covers." In the course of this Elegy, the Bard bursts forth with all the energy of the Awen, "Could Lloegria sleep with the light upon her eyes?" [*3]

[p. 36] [paragraph continues] Alluding to the incessant warfare with which this chieftai n, during his lifetime, had harassed his Saxon foes. In the Myvyrian Archaiology (II. 80) we have the following Triad relating to him . "Three Knights of battle were in the Court of Arthur; Cadwr, the Earl of Cornwal l; Lancelot du Lac; [*1] and Owain the son of Urien Rheged. And this was their c haracteristic, that they would not retreat from battle, neither for Spear, nor f or Arrow, nor for Sword, and Arthur never had shame in battle, the day he saw th eir faces there, and they were called the Knights of Battle." Owain is also mentioned with Rhun mab Maelgwn, and Rhufawn befr mab Deorath Wled ig, as one of the Three blessed Kings; [*2] and in the 52nd Triad, we are inform ed that his Mother's name was Modron, the daughter of Afallach, and that he was born a twin with his sister Merwydd, or Morvyth, to whom Cynon ap Clydno's attac hment is well known. His place of sepulture is thus mentioned in the Graves of the Warriors. "The grave of Owain ap Urien is of quadrangular form, Under the turf of Llan Morvael." Frequent allusions are made to Owain by the Bards of the Middle Ages, especially by Lewis Glyn Cothi, who in an ode to Gruffudd ap Nicholas, a powerful chieftain of Carmarthenshire, and one of the descendants of Urien Rhege d, has, among other things, the following passage: "Gruffudd will give three ravens of one hue, And a white lion to Owain, [his son]."--I. 133. The Editor of the works of Glyn Cothi supposes that "this expre ssion may allude to Griffith presenting his son with a shield, with his own arms emblazoned upon it, and the royal lion for a [p. 37] crest," The three ravens undoubtedly apply to the armorial bearings of Urien Rhe ged, which are still borne by his descendants of the House of Dynevor; the lion also may have been an heraldic bearing of the family, but I am inclined to think that the Bard here intended an allusion to one of the principal incidents of th e Lady of the Fountain. That he was acquainted with this Tale is evident, from s

ome lines occurring in one of his Poems, addressed to Thomas ap Philip of Picton Castle, in which Owain and Luned are mentioned together. In the early French compositions, called Lays and Fabliaux, Owain's name frequen tly occurs. He is mentioned in the Lay of Lanfal, and in Court Mantel, where he is particularized for his love of dogs and hawks. "Li rois prit par la destre main L'amiz monsegnor Ivain, Qui au roi Urien fu filz, Et bons chevaliers et hardiz Qui tant ama chiens et oisiaux." (Fab. MSS. du roi, n. 7615, fol. 114 recto, col. 3.) He acts a conspicuous part in the Romances of the Round Table; and it is on such authority that Ste. Palaye celebrates him, "pour avoir introdu it l'usage des fourrures ou zibelines aux manteaux, des ceintures aux robes, et des boucles pour attacher les eperons et Den, et pour avoir encore invente la mo de des gants."

3d KYNON THE SON OF CLYDNO.--Page <page 3>. CYNON AP CLYDNO EIDDIN.--This ancient British Warrior is celebrated in the Triad s as one of the Three wisely-counselling Knights of Arthur's Court. 'Three counselling Knights were in the Court of Arthur, which were Cynon the son of Clydno Eiddin, Aron the son of Kynfarch ap Meirchion gul, and Llywarch hen t he son of Elidir Lydanwyn. And these three knights were the Counsellors of Arthu r, and whatever dangers threatened him in any of his wars, they counselled him, so that none was able to overcome Arthur; and thus he conquered all the nations through three things which followed him; and these were, Good hope, and the cons ecrated arms which had been sent him, and the virtue of his warriors; and throug h these he came to wear twelve crowns upon his head, and he became Emperor of Ro me." And in another place it is added, "And he had nothing but success when he acted by the advice [p. 38] which he received from them, and reverses when he did not follow their counsel." Kynon is also called one of the three ardent Lovers, on account of his passion f or Morvyth, daughter of Urien Rheged, and sister of Owain, the Hero of this Tale . "The three ardent lovers of the Island of Britain, Caswallawn the son of Beli fo r Flur the daughter of Mugnach Gorr, and Trystan the son of Talluch for Yseult t he wife of March Meirchawn his uncle, and Kynon the son of Clydno Eiddin for Mor vyth the daughter of Urien." This warrior is mentioned by Aneurin, "And Kynon------like rushes they fell before his hand.-----O son of Clydno, a song of lasting praise will I sing unto thee

." And it is probable that he was one of the three, who, together with the Bard himself, escaped from the disastrous battle of Cattraeth. The Warriors who went to Cattraeth were renowned; Wine and Mead out of golden goblets was their beverage. That year was to them. one of exalted dignity, Three warriors and three score and three hundred, wearing the g olden torques------Of those who marched forth after the excess of revelling, But three escaped from the conflict of gashing weapons; The two War-dogs of Aeron and Kynon the dauntless, (And I myself from the spilling of blood) worthy are they of my song." Gray has given a poetical version of this passage in his fragme nts, commencing with the words, "To Cattraeth's vale in glittering row." Also, in another poem by Aneurin, named the Gwarchan (or Incantation) of Cynvely n, are the following lines: "Three Warriors and three score and three hundred, To the conflict of Cattraeth went forth. Of those who hastened from the banquet of mead, Three only returned, Kynon, and Kadreith, and Katlew of Catnant, And I myself from the shedding of blood." Kynon is frequently mentioned by the bards of the Middle Ages, and celebrated both for his bravery and for his devotion as a lover. [p. 39] [paragraph continues] It is in the latter character that be is alluded to by Gru ffudd ap Meredith, in the beginning of the fourteenth Century, who compares the force of his own passion to that of Kynon for Morvyth, and that of Uther Pendrag on for the fair Ygrayne. "As the sigh of Uther for the love of Ygraine, the fair and sple ndid, And the sigh of Kynon for the love of the beauteous daughter of Urien, Such is the sigh of the bard for the lovely object of his affec tions. Myv. Arc h. In the Memorials of the Graves of the Warriors, the following s tanza records the place of the sepulture of Kynon. "The grave of a warrior of high renown Is in a lofty region--but a lowly bed, The grave of Kynon the son of Clydno Eiddin." In another stanza, the term lowly bed seems to be explained, an

d it would appear that a little hollow among the mountains was meant: Whose is the grave beneath the hill? It is the grave of a warrior valiant in the conflict The grave of Kyrion the son of Clydno Eiddin."

3e CLYDNO.--Page <page 3>. CLYDNO EIDDIN, the father of Cynon.--But little is known of the history of this Chieftain, although as late as the fourteenth Century, his name is found recorde d by the Bards, in such terms as to make it evident that he still continued to a place of considerable distinction among the heroes of the Principality, as may be seen in a poem by Risierdyn, a bard who flourished about the year 1300. In t his poem, which records the burial of Hywel ap Gruffudd in the Church of St. Ben no, that Warrior is compared in point of bravery, to Clydno. "The red-weaponed chief, the ruler of the golden region of costl y wine, Saint Beuno's blessed choir now conceals; The mighty high-famed leader, daring as Clydno. Silent are his remains within their oaken cell." Myv. Arch. I. 432. [p. 40] 3f KAI THE SON OF KYNER.--Page <page 3>. CAI AP CYNYR.--According to the Welsh pedigrees, Kai was the son of Cynyr Cainva rvawc, the son of Gwron, the son of Cunedda Wledig. In the Triads he is called o ne of the three diadem'd chiefs of battle, and is said to have been possessed of magical powers, by which he could transform himself into any shape he pleased. [*1] Of his real history, however, nothing is known. It is supposed that Caer Ga i, in North Wales, bear his name; and it was the opinion of Iolo Morganwg, that the place of his sepulture was at Cai Hir, at Aberavan, in Glamorganshire. In the Brut he is called the Dapifer, or Sewer of King Arthur. And in the French Romances he is mentioned as the Seneschal, and is styled Messire Queux, and Mai tre Queux, or Keux--the original name being evidently altered in this manner in order to adapt it to his office of Chief of the Cooks. In these productions, his general character is a compound of valour and buffoonery: always ready to fight , and generally getting the worst of the battle. There is much that is very entertaining concerning him in the Morte d'Arthur, pa rticularly a story of his want of courtesy to Sir Gareth, Gwalchmai's (Gawain's) brother, which led him into trouble. "Whan Arthur held his round table moost plenour, it fortuned that he commaunded that the hyhe feest of Pentecost shold be holden at a cyte and a Castel the whic he in tho dayes was called kynke kenadonne upon the sondes that marched nyghe wa lys." Upon this occasion, a youth who would not declare his name, presented hims elf before Arthur, and craved a boon, which the monarch immediately promised to grant. The boon he asked was, that he should be allowed meat and drink for the s pace of a twelvemonth in the King's palace. This the King considered a very unwo rthy petition, and counselled him to ask something more honourable, but the yout h still persisted in his request. "Well sayde the kynge ye shal haue mete and dr ynke ynouz, I neuer deffended yt none, nother my frende ne my foo." "Thenne the

kyng betook hym to sir Kay the steward and charged hym that he shold gyue hym of al manner of metes and drynkes of the best, and also that he hadde al maner of fyndynge as though he were a lordes sone. That shal lytel nede sayd syr Kay to d oo suche [p. 41] cost upon hym. For I dare undertake he is a vylayne borne, and neuer will make m an, for and he had come of gentylmen he wold haue axed of you hors and armour, b ut such as he is so he asketh. And sythen he hath no name, I shall yeue hym a na me that shall be Beaumayns that is fayre handes, and in to the kechen I shalle b rynge hym, and there he shalle haue fatte broweys euery day yt he shall be as fa tte by the twelue monethes ende as a porke hog." So Sir Kai "scorned hym and moc ked hym." At the end of the twelvemonth, Beaumayns desired to be knighted, in order to ach ieve a certain perilous adventure; [*1] and Sir Kai called him a "kechyn knave." And when the young man left the Court, to set out on his expedition, Kai armed himself and followed him, thinking to vanquish him without difficulty, and bring him to disgrace. But Beaumayns unhorsed Sir Kai, and took possession of his arm s, with which he performed several gallant exploits to the great surprise of all , inasmuch as he was taken by his shield to be Sir Kai, whose prowess was by no means in high repute. Afterwards Beaumayns proved to be Sir Gareth of Orkney, th e son of King Lot, and brother of Sir Gawain.

3g GWENHWYVAR.--Page <page 3>. ACCORDING to the Welsh Legends, Arthur had three queens, one of whom was daughte r of Gwythyr ap Greidiol, another of Gwryd Gwent, and a third of Gogyrvan Gawr; and each of them bore the name of Gwenhwyvar. Concerning the latter lady, [*2] t he following couplet is still current in the Principality:-"Gwenhwyvar, the daughter of Gogyrvan the Giant, Bad when little, worse when great." This confusion of names and persons is only what might be expec ted from the mass of traditionary matter that has accumulated among the Welsh. A s the exploits of Arthur began to assume a fabulous character, it is evident tha t many of the more ancient legends of Britain became blended with those of the R ound Table, and perhaps [p. 42] some of the mythological traditions of the Druidic age are to be found amongst t hem. This continual accession of fable tends to render still more obscure that w hich a redundancy of imagination had already sufficiently involved. The name of Gwenhwyvar, under the various forms of Guenever, Genievre, and Geneu ra, must be familiar to all who are conversant with chivalric lore. And it is to her adventures, and those of her true knight, Sir Lancelot, that Dante alludes in the beautiful episode of Francesca da Rimini.

3h PORTER.--Page <page 3>. THE absence of a Porter was formerly considered as an indication of hospitality,

and as such is alluded to by Rhys Brychan, a bard who flourished at the close o f the fifteenth century. "The stately entrance is without porters, And his mansions are open to every honest man." Lewis Glyn Cothi also (about 1450), in an eulogium upon Owain, the son of Gruffudd ap Nicholas, says, that his establishment was complete in ev ery respect, with the exception of a Porter:-"Every officer there is to the great Knight Of the South, except a Porter."--I. 139.

3i GLEWLWYD GAVAELVAWR.--Page <page 3>. "THE dusky hero of the mighty grasp" is said to have escaped from the battle of Camdan by means of his extraordinary strength and stature. There is nothing of h is real history known: indeed, from the construction of his name, he appears to be altogether a fictitious character; and it is not impossible that he may be on e of those mythological personages who formed the subjects of the Welsh legendar y tales, before the adventures of Arthur had assumed the character of fiction, a nd that when those adventures became objects of fabulous composition, this and o ther ancient Druidical traditions were incorporated with them. Among the Bardic remains there is a poem, called a Dialogue betwixt Arthur and K ai, and Glewlwyd, some lines in which are considered by Davies to have reference to some Druidical mysteries. Although it may appear presumptuous to differ from [p. 43] so high an authority, I shall venture to give the following translation"Who is the Porter? Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr. Who is it that asks? Arthur and the blessed Kai. If thou shouldst bring with thee The best wine in the world, Into my house thou shalt not come, Unless it be by force, &c."

3j ON A SEAT OF GREEN RUSHES.--Page <page 3>. THE use of green rushes in apartments was by no means peculiar to the Court of C aerleon upon Usk. Our ancestors had a great predilection for them, and they seem to have constituted an essential article, not only of comfort but of luxury. Th e custom of strewing the floor with rushes is well known to have existed in Engl and during the Middle Ages, and that it also prevailed in the Principality we ha ve evidence from allusions which occur in the works of native writers. Of this, one example will suffice, from a tale written apparently in the 14th Century; an d as the passage contains several curious traits of ancient manners, I shall giv e it at some length.

In this tale Davydd ap Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales, wishing to send an embassy to Rhys, Prince of South Wales, and having fixed upon Gwgan the Bard as a proper person for that mission, despatches a messenger called y Paun Bach (the Little Peacock) in search of him. This person, after a long and tedious journey , arrives towards the close of evening at a house in a wooded valley, where he h ears the tuning of a harp. From the style of playing, and the modulation, he sup poses that the performer can be no other than Gwgan himself. In order to ascerta in if his surmise is correct, be addresses him in a rambling high-flown style of language. The Bard answers him in the same strain, and asks him what he require s. To which Y Paun Bach thus replies:--"I want lodging for to-night ...... And t hat not better than I know how to ask for. ...... A lightsome hall, floored with tile, and swept, in which there has been neither flood nor rain-drop for the la st hundred years, dressed with fresh green rushes, laid so evenly that one rush be not higher than the other the height of a gnat's eye, so that my foot should not slip either backward or forward the space of a mote in the sunshine [p. 44] of June. Then I would have a chair with a cushion beneath me, and a pillow under each elbow," [*1] &c. Y Paun Bach then goes on to describe the entertainment he desires to have. The fire is to be of ashen billets, without smoke or sparks; a nd the supper is to consist of wine, and swans, [*2] and bitterns, and sundry sp iced collops besides; and the servants, all dressed in one livery, [*3] are to p ly him continually with ale, and urge him to drink, for his own good and the hon our of his entertainers. In France, the practice of strewing rushes on the floor was also prevalent. We f ind the Seigneur Amanieu des Escas giving his instructions to the young men of h is household on the Art of Love, "dans sa salle bien jonchee."--Poesies Provenca les, cited by Ste. Palaye, I. 453. [p. 45] 3k FLAME-COLOURED SATIN.--Page <page 3>. THE literal translation of this expression is yellow-red. With regard to this mi xture of colours, Ellis, in his notes to Way's Fabliaux, remarks, "The old Frenc h writers speak also of pourpre and ecarlate blanches (white crimson); of pourpr e sanguine (sanguine crimson); and, in the Fabliau de Gautier d'Aupais, mention is made of "un vert mantel porprin, (a mantel of green crimson)." Hence, M. Le G rand conjectures, "that the crimson dye being, from its costliness, used only on cloths of the finest manufacture, the term crimson came at length to signify, n ot the colour, but the texture, of the stuff. Were it allowable to attribute to the Weavers of the Middle Ages the art now common amongst us, of making what are usually called shot silks (or silks of two colours, predominating interchangeab ly as in the neck of the drake or pigeon), the contradictory compounds above giv en (white crimson, green crimson, &c.) would be easily accounted for." II. 227.

4a DISTANT REGIONS.--Page <page 4>. LITERALLY, "desert places, and the extremities of the earth." It is possible tha t some peculiar district of romantic geography was intended to be here alluded t o, since we find that "la terre deserte" was formerly a kingdom of no inconsider able importance, the sovereign of which, named Claudas, overran the territories of King Ban of Benoic, one of Arthur's allies in Gaul. And in the Morte d'Arthur , it is said that Arthur, being wounded in the battle of Camlan, was conveyed to the Island of Avalon "in a shyppe wherin were thre quenes, that one was kyng Ar thurs syster quene Morgan le fay, the other was the quene of North galys, the th

yrd was the quene of the waste londes. Also there was Nynyue (Viviane) the chyef lady of the lake," &c.

4b TREES OF EQUAL GROWTH.--Page <page 4>. THIS species of scenery appears to have been much admired by our ancestors. A similar description occurs in a chivalric tale of considerable interest, by Gr uffydd ab Adda, a Bard who was killed at Dolgellau, about 1370. "In the furthermost end of this forest he saw a level green valley, and trees of equal height, &c." [p. 46] Chaucer describes a bower in the same style, in his Flour and Leaf. It was compo sed of "sicamour and eglatere," Wrethen in fere so well and cunningly That every branch and leafe grew by mesure Plaine as a bord, of an height by and by." The whole account which he gives us of the "pleasaunt herber" i s very poetical, particularly the following beautiful lines, descriptive of the avenues of "okes" which led to it. "In which were okes great, streight as a line, Under the which the grasse so fresh of hew Was newly sprong, and an eight foot or nine Every tree well fro his fellow grew, With branches brode, laden with leves new, That sprongen out agen the sunne-shene, Some very red, and some a glad light grene."

4c YELLOW SATIN.--Page <page 4>. PALI MELYN.--The exact signification of the word Pali in the original is not qui te obvious, as it sometimes seems to imply satin and sometimes velvet, according to the rank of the persons who are represented as wearing it. Nor is the questi on so immaterial as at first sight it may appear; for, in the best days of Chiva lry, the most exact etiquette was observed by the different grades of society wi th regard to the materials of which their dress was composed. Ste. Palaye mentio ns that, on occasions where the Knights wore cloth of damask, the Squires were r estricted to dresses of satin; and where the Knights were clothed in velvet, the Squires could only appear in cloth of damask. The colour of scarlet was permitt ed to be worn only by Knights. (I. 247, 283.)

5a SINEWS OF THE STAG.--Page <page 5>. MOSELEY, in his work upon Archery, says that "bowstrings were composed from the sinews of beasts, and on that account are termed 'Nervus,' neyra." "It was custo mary for this purpose," says he, "to select the sinews of several of those kinds

of animals remarkable for their strength or activity, such as Bulls, Lions, Sta gs, &c., and from those particular parts of each animal in which their respectiv e strength was conceived to lie. From Bulls, the sinews about the back and shoul ders were collected; and from Stags, they took those of the legs." [p. 47] 5b BONE OF THE WHALE.--Page 5. A SIMILAR substance is mentioned in the ancient Romance of "The Erle of Tolous," -"Hur hondys whyte as whallys bonne,"--verse 355. [paragraph continues] Upon which Ritson has the following note: --"This allusion is not to what we now call whale-bone, which is well known to b e black, but to the ivory of the horn or tooth of the Narwhal, or Sea-unicorn, w hich seems to have been mistaken for the whale. The simile is a remarkable favou rite. Thus, in Syr Eglamour of Artoys, "The erle had no chylde but one, A mayden as white as whales bone.' Again, in Syr Isembras, 'His wyfe as white as whales bone.' Again, in 'The Squyr of low degree,' 'Lady as white as whales bone.' It even occurs in Skelton's and Surrey's Poems; and, what is st ill more extraordinary, in Spenser's Faery Quene, and Shakespeare's Love's Labou r Lost (if, in fact, that part of it ever received the illuminating touch of our great dramatist). Mister Steevens, in his Note on the last instance, observes t hat whales 'is the Saxon genitive case,' meaning that it requires to be pronounc ed as a dissyllable (thus, whales, or, more properly, whalees), which it certain ly is, in every instance."--Rit. Met. Rom. III. 343, 344.

5c WINGED WITH PEACOCK'S FEATHERS.--Page <page 5>. THAT it was fashionable to feather arrows in this manner, we learn from the foll owing description of the Yeman who attended upon the Knight, in the Prologue to Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. "A shefe of peacock arwes bright and kene Under his belt he bare ful thriftily, Wel coude he dresse his takel yemanly: His arwes drouped not with fetheres low, And in his hond he bare a mighty bowe."--line 104-8. In a Wardrobe account, 4th of Ed. II., the following entry occu rs "Pro duodecim flecchiis cum pennis de pavone emptis pro rege, de

[p. 48] [paragraph continues] 12 den'." For twelve arrows with peacock's feathers, bough t for the King, twelvepence. There was much art and care required in the construction and feathering of arrow s. That the Welsh archers paid much attention to their equipments may be seen in an interesting passage from the composition already noticed, <page 43>. In this Tale the messenger from the Court of North Wales, who appears to be a skilful a rcher, on being told by Gwgan the Bard that a robber will ride away with his hor se, answers, "But what if I were opposite to him in yonder Wood, with a bow of r ed yew in my hand, ready bent, with a tough tight string, and a straight round s haft with a compass-rounded neck, and long slender feathers fastened on with gre en silk, and a steel head heavy and thick, and an inch across, of a green blue t emper, that would draw blood out of a weathercock; and with my foot to a hillock , and an oak behind me, and the wind to my back, and the sun to my side, and the maid I love best on the footpath hard by looking at me, and I conscious of her being there; then would I shoot him such a shot, so strong and long-drawn, so lo w and sharp, that it would be no more avail to him there were between him and me a breastplate and Milan hauberk, than a tuft of fern, or a kiln mat, or a herri ng net." It is well known that bows and arrows formed a subject of legislation in England , and among the Welsh Laws we find the following clause--"Three weapons by law:--A sword, a spear, and a bow with twelve arrows in a quiv er. And it is required of every master of a family to keep them in readiness aga inst the attacks of a foreign army, and of strangers, and other depredators."

5d GOLDEN HEADS.--BLADES OF GOLD.--Page <page 5>. To Knights and to their families was exclusively confined the privilege of decor ating their dress, their arms, and the accoutrements of their horses with gold; Squires being only permitted the use of silver.--Ste. Palaye, I. 247, 283. By th e sumptuary laws of Ed. III. (an. 27. c. ix. x. xi. xii.) Esquires were to posse ss property of at least 200 marks yearly value, before they could be permitted t o wear "cloth of silk and of silver, ribband, girdle, and other apparel reasonab ly garnished with silver." And Knights, their wives, daughters, and children, we re not entitled to wear "cloth of gold, nor cloths, mantle, nor gold furred with miniver, nor of ermins, nor [p. 49] no apparel bordered of stone, nor otherwise," if their possessions were below th e yearly value of 251 marks. But to such Knights and Ladies as possessed 400 mar ks annually, there was no restriction as to dress, except with respect to "ermin s and letuses and apparel of pearl and stone," which they might only wear upon t he head. Merchants and burgesses of 500 marks had the same privilege of dress as Esquires of 200 markland. Hence perhaps it may be inferred that the two Youths mentioned in this Tale were of knightly origin. That the gilding of bows was customary in the 14th Century, we have the authorit y of Davydd ap Gwilym. In lines addressed to his fair countrywomen against gaudi ness of dress, and which have been thus elegantly rendered by Arthur Johnes, Esq ., in his Poetical Translation of the Works of that celebrated Bard, he says:--

"The vilest bow that e'er was framed of Yew, That in the hand abruptly snaps in two, When all its faults are varnished o'er with gold, Looks strong, and fair, and faultless, and--is sold."--(p. 412. ) Lewis Glyn Cothi has the following line, "With gold shall be adorned thy fingers, thy sword, and thy mant le." And examples might be multiplied to almost any extent. Where arrow-heads, and the blades of weapons are mentioned as golden, it is very evident that in many instances steel inlaid with gold is meant. Thus, the Bard above alluded to says,-"A gold Brigandine like the casting of a Dragon's skin." And subsequently this gold Brigandine is said to be of steel,-Good is the band of this steel vestment.--(I. 158.)

5e VARIEGATED LEATHER.--Page <page 5>. CORDWAL.--This word occurs in another of the Mabinogion; and from the manner tha t it is used, it is evidently intended for the French Cordouan, or Cordovan leat her, which derived its name from Cordova, where it was manufactured. [p. 50] 5f DAMSELS EMBROIDERING SATIN.--Page <page 5>. IN the English Romance of "Ywayne and Gawain," paraphrased from the French "Chev alier an Lyon," we find a similar picture. In a beautiful city, named in English the "Castel of the Hevy Sorrow," and in the French the "Chastel de Pesme Auentu re," the hero, Ywayne or Owen, finds a number of ladies, "wirkand silk and gold wir." They are very meanly attired, and inform Owen that they were once of great estate in the country of Mayden-land, whence they were sent as hostages by thei r sovereign. They complain that they have to work very hard, and for a very slig ht remuneration; the best of them receiving only "four penys" in a week, which w as scarce sufficient to maintain them, whereas they consider that they might ear n "fourty shilling."

5f MORE LOVELY THAN GWENHWYVAR.--Page <page 5>. THIS was the highest compliment that Kynon could pay to the beauty of these four -and-twenty damsels, since Gwenhwyvar is celebrated in the Triads (with Enid and Tegau Euron,) as one of the three fair ladies of Arthur's Court. Lewis Glyn Cothi, in extolling the charms of Annes, the daughter of John, of Cae rlleon upon Usk, has the following allusion to this Triad:--

The beauteous and amiable Annes is where Tegau was, Where Gwenhwyvar was, with all her charms; Where Enid was seen, wearing azure robes, Where the Castle of the valorous Arthur stands."

5g THEY ROSE UP AT MY COMING.--Page <page 5>. IT was very usual in the chivalric days, for the ladies to perform those courteo us offices for the Knights, even where there were male attendants, to whom we ma y consider that they would have been more appropriately assigned. Ste. Palaye te lls its, "Les jeunes demoiselles . . . . prevenoient de civilite les chevaliers qui arrivoient dans les chateaux; suivant nos romanciers, elles les desarmoient au retour des tournois et des expeditions de guerre, leur donnoient de nouveaux habits et les servoient a table. Les exemples en sont trop souvent et trop unifo rmement repetes, pour nous permettre de revoquer en doute la realite de cet usag e." (I. 10.) I should imagine, however, it was the absence of male assistance th at induced the damsels in Kynon's story to extend their cares to his horse, for I am not aware that in general their courtesy went so far. [p. 51] 5h GOLD BAND UPON THE MANTLE.--Page <page 5>. THE word in the original Welsh is gorffoys, which is evidently the same as orfra ys, or aurifrigia. [*1] This was a kind of fretwork, or embroidery of gold, and is mentioned thus in the playful description of the allegorical figure of Idlene sse, which occurs in the Romaunt of the Rose: "And of fine orfrais had she eke A chapelet, so semely on, Ne wered never maide upon; And faire above that chapelet A rose garlonde had she set."--562-6.

6a BUFFALO HORN.--Page <page 6>. DRINKING-HORNS of this material are frequently mentioned by the Bards, and appea r to have been made use of by the Welsh in all their banquets. There is still ex tant in the Welsh language, a spirited poem by Owain Kyveiliog, Prince of Powis, called the Hirlas, a name by which his drinking-horn was known, and which he de scribes as "The highly honoured buffalo-horn Hirlas, enriched with ancient silver." In the course of this poem, one passage occurs of a highly dram atic character. The Prince having sent round the horn to several chieftains, at length orders it to be filled with the choicest beverage, and borne to Tudur and Moreiddig, at the same time expatiating with gratitude and admiration upon thei r valour, and the eminent services they had tendered him in the arduous conflict s ill which he had been engaged. Turning round in the fulness of his heart to ad dress them personally, he perceives their places vacant; and suddenly recollecti ng that they had both fallen in one of the late encounters, he bursts out in a p

athetic strain of lamentation, "The wail of death has been heard, they both have departed!--O, lost Moreiddig, how greatly shall I miss thee!" 8a FOUNTAIN.--Page <page 8>. THIS description answers to that of the Fountain of Barenton, in the forest of B receliande, to which locality it is referred in the [p. 52] [paragraph continues] "Chevalier au Lion." [*1] Breceliande is in Brittany, and is the fabled scene of Merlin's imprisonment, by the enchantments of his Mistres s Viviane, the Lady of the Lake. Within the precincts of this Forest also lay th e Val sans Retour, or the Vallon des Faux Amans. An amerawd was the stane, Richer saw i never nane, On fowr rubyes on heght standand, Their light lasted over al the land."--line 364.

10a AN ADVENTURE SO MUCH TO HIS OWN DISCREDIT.--Page <page 10>. BY the laws of Chivalry, the knights were under a solemn obligation, when relati ng their adventures, to give a faithful account of what befell them, without con cealing anything, however disadvantageous to themselves.

10b UNCOURTEOUS SPEECH.--Page <page 10>. SIR KAI'S uncourteous speech was proverbial. In Ywain and Gawin, we are told, "And than als smertly sayd Sir Kay; He karpet to tham wordes grete." And so rude was his manner, that at length "The quene answered, with milde mode, And said, Sir Kay, ertow wode? What the devyl es the withyn, At thi tong may never blyn Thi felows so fowly to shende? Sertes, sir Kay, thou ert unhende."--line 488.

10c HORN FOR WASHING.--Page <page 10>. IT was customary to prepare for dinner by washing the hands, and the summons for this preparation was given by sounding a horn, which, by the French, was termed corner l'eau, or corner l'eue. Amongst the Monks, the same notice was given by ringing a bell. [p. 53]

12a BLACK KNIGHT.--Page <page 12>. We have the name of the Black Knight given us both in the English and in the Fre nch version. In the former, the appellation of Salados the rouse is bestowed upo n him, and in the latter he is called Elcadoc le rous, which bears some resembla nce to the Welsh Cadoc or Cattwg. 12b MAIDEN.--Page <page 12>. THIS maiden, whose name we subsequently find to be Luned, is supposed, in the No tes to Jones's Welsh Bards, to be the same person as Elined the daughter of Bryc han; although from the accounts transmitted to us of that illustrious lady, she appears to have differed much in disposition and pursuits from the handmaid of t he Lady of the Fountain. Mr. Rees, in his valuable Essay on the Welsh Saints, ha s the following notice concerning her:-"Elined, the Almedha of Giraldus Cambrensis, who says that she suffered martyrdo m upon a hill called Penginger, near Brecknock, which the Historian of that Coun ty, so often quoted, identifies with Slwch. 'Crug gorseddawl,' [*1] mentioned after the name of Elined in the Myvyrian Archa iology, has been taken for Wyddgrug, or Mold, in Flintshire; but it may be no mo re than a descriptive appellation of Slwch, on which there were lately some rema ins of a British Camp. Cressy, speaking of St. Almedha, says, 'This devout virgi n, rejecting the proposals of an earthly prince, who sought her in marriage, and espousing herself to the eternal king, consummated her life by a triumphant mar tyrdom. The day of her solemnity is celebrated every year on the firstday of Aug ust.'"--(149-50.) The beauty of Luned was much celebrated amongst the Bards of the Middle Ages. Gr uffudd ap Meredydd, who flourished between 1290 and 1340, thus alludes to her ch arms, in an Elegy on Gwenhwyvar of Anglesey:-"Alas, for the loss of her who was equal to Luned, that gem of light!" And Dafydd ap Gwilym mentions her in the same strain. She is in the French Romances generally called Lunette, and in the Morte d'Arthu r she acts a conspicuous part in the story of Sir Gareth of Orkney, who undertoo k the adventure of the "Castel [p. 54] peryllous" on her behalf, and whose illtreatment by Sir Kai is related, <page 40 >. Sir Gareth took his full revenge upon Sir Kai, but his conduct under the taun ts he received from Luned, who called. him a kechen knaue, and used towards him very discourteous language, considering that he was taking up her quarrel, is ge nerous and high-minded in the extreme. It ended in Sir Gareth marrying Luned's s ister, Dame Lyones, of the Castel peryllous; and in Luned herself, who is also c alled the "daymoysel saueage," becoming the wife of Sir Gaherys, who was Sir Gar eth's brother. And these nuptials were solemnized with great pomp and splendour at King Arthur's Court. See Morte d'Arthur, Book VII. Compare Mr. Tennyson's poe m of Gareth and Lynette in the Idylls of the King.

13a WHATEVER IS IN MY POWER.--Page <page 13>. IT appears rather extraordinary at first sight that Luned should take so lively an interest in Owain, and give herself so much trouble to forward his suit with

the Countess, and also that she should express herself so well acquainted with h is character. But from the English Metrical Romance, we find that they were old friends, Luned having been on an embassy to Arthur's Court some time previously.

13b TAKE THIS RING.--Page <page 13>. THE ring is enumerated among the "Thirteen Rarities of Kingly Regalia of the Isl and of Britain, which were formerly kept at Caerlleon, on the river Usk, in Monm outhshire. These curiosities went with Myrddin the son of Morvran, into the hous e of Glass, in Enlli, or Bardsey Island. It has also been recorded by others tha t it was Taliesin, the Chief of the Bards, who possessed them." "The Stone of the Ring of Luned, which liberated Owen the son of Urien from betw een the portcullis and the wall. Whoever concealed that stone, the stone or beze l would conceal him." The properties of this magical ring, will, doubtless, call to mind the ring of G yges, which was most probably the prototype from which it was indirectly derived .

13c HORSEBLOCK.--Page <page 13>. ELLIS, in his Notes to Way's Fabliaux, has the following remarks upon horseblock s, which are mentioned in a vast number of the old Romances: "They were frequent ly placed on the roads and in the forests, and were almost numberless in the tow ns. Many of them still remain in Paris, where they were used by the magistrates in order to mount their mules, on which they rode to the courts of [p. 55] justice. On these blocks, or on the tree which was generally planted near them, were usually suspended the shields of those Knights who wished to challenge all comers to feats of arms. They were also sometimes used as a place of judgment, a nd a rostrum, on which the barons took their seats when they determined the diff erences between their vassals, and from whence the publick criers made proclamat ions to the people."--(II. 229.) 13d PAINTED WITH GORGEOUS COLOURS.--Page <page 13>. THIS custom of painting figures upon the panels of rooms was much practised and esteemed at the time when we may suppose that this Tale was put into its present dress. Chaucer has several instances, of which we may notice more particularly the allegorical figures on the wall, at the opening of the Romaunt of the Rose, and the far more interesting and descriptive representations in the Temples of M ars, Venus, and Diana, in the "Knightes Tale." The paintings at the Temple of Ma rs were executed with so much art that even sounds were emitted by them. "First on the wall was peinted a forest In which ther wonneth neyther man ne best With knotty knarry barrein trees old Of stubbes sharpe and hidous to behold, In which ther ran a romble and a swough, As though a storme shuld bresten every bough," &c.--(1977.)

14a SENDALL.--Page <page 14>. THIS Word is the same as that in the original Welsh, and is used by the old writ ers to signify a thin kind of silk like cyprus. The dress of the "Doctour of Phi sike," one of the pilgrims to Canterbury, was, no doubt, a handsome one, and of him we are told-"In sanguine and in perse he clad was alle Lined with taffata and with sendalle."--(441.)

15b SHE WASHED OWAIN'S HEAD.--Page <page 15>. HOWEVER these personal services may appear to be at variance with the manners of the present day, it is clear that they were in perfect accordance with those of our ancestors. Of this, the following passage from the Life of Merlin will affo rd an example:-"When. they went to the palace and had disarmed themselves, [p. 56] [paragraph continues] King Leodagan made his daughter Genievre (Gwenhwyvar) take the richest cloths which were in the house, and warm water, and fair basins of silver, and made them be placed before King Arthur, and King Ban, and King Boors ; and his daughter would wait upon Arthur, and would wash his neck and his face; but he would not allow thereof, till Leodagan and Merlin requested him, and mad e him accept the lady's service. The damsel washed his face right humbly, and th en she wiped it with a fine towel, full gently; and then she went and ministered in like manner to the other twain."

15a COUNTESS.--Page <page 15>. THE English Version gives this Countess the title of "The riche lady Alundyne, The dukes doghter of Landuit."--line 1255. And it is very satisfactory to find that she was not that Penar wen, daughter of Culfynawyt Prydein, who is mentioned as Owain's wife in the Tri ads, though in terms which are anything but complimentary. Perhaps Penarwen may have been a subsequent wife, since we may infer that Owain survived the Lady of the Fountain, from the circumstance so naively mentioned in the text, of her con tinuing to be his wife as long as she lived. In Owen's Llywarch Hen, it is stated that after the death of Penarwen, Owain, wa s married to Denyw, the daughter of Llewddyn Luyddawg of Edinburgh, by whom he h ad Kendeyrn Garthwys, the celebrated St. Kentigern, who founded the Cathedral at Glasgow.

18a HER NUPTIALS WITH OWAIN.--Page <page 18>.

THIS trait of manners is very characteristic of the times in which the present T ale was written. It was very usual for widows and heiresses in the troublous day s of Knight-errantry to marry those whose strength and valour rendered them best able to defend and preserve to them their possessions. Ste. Palaye, in enumerat ing the advantages of the order of Knighthood, does not forget to mention this e asy mode of advancing to fortune.--(I. 267, 326.)

18b GWALCHMAI.--Page 18. GWALCHMAI AP GWYAR.--This ancient British name, Gwalchmai, which signifies the H awk of Battle, is in the French Romances changed [p. 57] into the not very similar form of Gawain, having first been Latinized into Walga nus and Walweyn. In the Triads, he is mentioned in the following manner:-"There were three golden-tongued Knights in the Court of Arthur: Gwalchmai the s on of Gwyar; Drudwas the son of Tryffin, and Eliwlod the son of Madog ap Uthur. For there was neither King, nor Earl, nor Lord, to whom these came, but would li sten to them before all others; and whatever request they made, it would be gran ted them, whether willingly or unwillingly; and thence were they called the Gold en Tongued." As a proof of the high estimation in which Gwalchmai's powers of persuasion were held, the following translation from the Myvyrian Archaiology (I. 178) may be a dduced:--

HERE ARE ENGLYNS Between Trystan the son of Tallwch, and Gwalchmai the son of Gwyar, after Trysta n had been absent three years from Arthur's Court, in displeasure, and Arthur ha d sent eight-and-twenty warriors to seize him, and bring him to Arthur, and Trys tan smote them all down, one after another, and came not for any one, but for Gw alchmai with the Golden Tongue. GWALCHMAI. Tumultuous is the nature of the wave, When the sea is at its height-Who art thou, mysterious warrior? TRYSTAN. Tumultuous are the waves and the thunder. In their bursting forth let them be tumultuous. In the day of conflict I am Trystan. GWALCHMAI. Trystan of the faultless speech, Who, in the day of battle, would not retreat, A companion of thine was Gwalchmai. TRYSTAN.

I would do for Gwalchmai in that day, In the which the work of slaughter is let loose, That which one brother would not do for another. [p. 58] GWALCHMAI. Trystan, endowed with brilliant qualities, Whose spear has oft been shivered in the toil of war, I am Gwalchmai the nephew of Arthur. TRYSTAN. Gwalchmai, there swifter than Mydrin, Shouldst thou be in danger, I would cause blood to flow till it reached the knees. GWALCHMAI. Trystan, for thy sake would I strive Until my wrist should fail me; Also for thee I would do my utmost. TRYSTAN. I ask it in defiance, I ask it not through fear,-Who are the warriors before me? GWALCHMAI. Trystan, of distinguished qualities, Are they not known to thee? It is the household of Arthur that comes. TRYSTAN. Arthur will I not shun, To nine hundred combats will I dare him,-If I am slain, I will also slay. GWALCHMAI. Trystan, the friend of damsels, Before commencing the work of strife, The best of all things is peace. TRYSTAN. Let me but have my sword upon my thigh, And my right hand to defend me, And I myself will be more formidable than they all. GWALCHMAI. Trystan of brilliant qualities, Before exciting the tumult of conflict,-Reject not Arthur as a friend. [p. 59] TRYSTAN.

Gwalchmai, for thy sake will I deliberate, And with my mouth I utter it. As I am loved, so will I love. GWALCHMAI. Trystan, of aspiring mind, The shower wets a hundred oaks. Come to an interview with thy kinsman. TRYSTAN. Gwalchmai, of persuasive answers, The shower wets a hundred furrows. I will go where'er thou wilt. Then came Trystan with Gwalchmai to Arthur. GWALCHMAI. Arthur, of courteous replies, The shower wets a hundred heads. Here is Trystan, be thou joyful. ARTHUR. Gwalchmai, of faultless answers, The shower wets a hundred dwellings. A welcome to Trystan, my nephew. Worthy Trystan, chief of the host, Love thy race, remember the past Am I not the Chief of the Tribe? Trystan, leader of onsets, Take equal with the best, But leave the sovereignty to me. Trystan, wise and mighty chieftain, Love thy kindred, none shall harm thee, Let there be no coldness between friend and friend. TRYSTAN. Arthur, to thee will I attend, To thy command will I submit, And that thou wishest will I do. In one Triad we find Gwalchmai extolled as one of the three mos t courteous men towards guests and strangers; and from another we learn that be added scientific attainments to his other remarkable qualities. [p. 60] "The three learned ones of the island of Britain, Gwalchmai ab Gwyar, and Lleche u ab Arthur, and Rhiwallon with the broom-bush hair; and there was nothing of wh ich they did not know the elements and the material essence." William of Malmsbury says, that during the reign of William the Conqueror (A.D.

1086) the tomb of Gwalchmai, or Walwen, as he calls him, was discovered on the s ea-shore, in a certain province of Wales called Rhos, which is understood to be that still known by the same name, in the county of Pembroke, where there is a d istrict called in Welsh Castell Gwalchmai, and in English Walwyn's Castle. In the Graves of the Warriors a similar locality is indicated:-The grave of Gwalchmai is in Pyton, Where the ninth wave flows." The Romances make Gawain one of the four sons of King Lot of Or kney, and of Morgawse, sister to King Arthur; and in them the character for cour tesy given to him in the Triads is fully maintained. So proverbial, indeed, was he for this quality, that the highest praise the Squier could bestow upon the ad dress of the Knight who rode the "stede of bras" was, That Gawain with his olde curtesie, Though he were come agen out of faerie Ne coude him not amenden with a word."--line 10410.

20a SATIN ROBE OF HONOUR.--Page <page 20>. THIS species of honourable dress could only be worn by knights; and, according t o Ste. Palaye, was generally the gift of the sovereign, who accompanied it with a palfrey, or, at least, with a horse's bit, either golden or gilded. His words are, "Le manteau long et trainant qui enveloppoit toute la personne, etoit reser ve particulierement au chevalier, comme la plus auguste et la plus noble decorat ion qu'il put avoir lorsqu'il n'etoit point pare de ses armes .... on l'appeloit le manteau d'honneur."--(I. 287.)

20b EARL OF RHANGYW.--Page <page 20>. PROBABLY this is meant for the Earl of Anjou, and was originally written Iarll y r Angyw, the Welsh particle yr, in its contracted form 'r, being by some error o f the transcriber incorporated with Angyw, which is the Welsh name for Anjou. Wh at renders this the more likely is, that the Earldom of Anjou, or Angyw, was [p. 61] according to the Brut, one of the possessions of Arthur, who bestowed it upon hi s seneschal Sir Kai.

20c STRONG LANCES.--Page <page 20>. IT would be vain to attempt to find English terms corresponding precisely with t hose used in the Welsh text, to designate the various kinds of arms which the kn ights fought with, in this Tale.

21a COUSIN.--Page <page 21>.

THE following genealogical table will explain this consanguinity, as given in th e Welsh Pedigrees. Genealogical chart From very remote periods down to the time of Elizabeth, the Welsh kept up their Pedigrees with much care, and many copies of them are extant both in public and private collections; and although in these occasional discrepancies may be perce ived, yet, in general, their authenticity is well established. It must be allowe d, that it appears somewhat extraordinary that these family records should be tr ansmitted with such accuracy through so many generations. But when we consider t he imperative obligations of the Welsh Laws upon this subject, we are no longer surprised at the existence of such ancient documents, nor at the solicitude of t he Welsh to preserve them. "It has been observed," says the Essayist on Welsh Pedigrees, in the Transaction s of the Cymmrodorion Society, "that genealogies were preserved as a matter of n ecessity, under the ancient British constitution. A man's pedigree was to him of the first importance, as thereby be was enabled to ascertain and prove his birt hright, and claim the privileges which the law attached to it. Every one was obl iged to show his descent through nine generations, in order to be acknowledged a free native, by which right he claimed his portion of land in the community. He was also affected with respect to legal Process in his collateral affinities th rough nine degrees; for instance, every murder committed had a fine levied on th e relations of the [p. 62] murderer, divided into nine degrees; his brother paying the greatest, and the ni nth in relationship the least. The fine thus levied was in the same proportions distributed among the relations of the victim. A person beyond the ninth descent formed a new family; every family was represented by its elder, and these elder s from every family were delegates to the national council."

21b GIVE ME YOUR SWORDS.--Page <page 21>. THIS modesty, in disclaiming praise, and attaching merit to others, was one of t he most esteemed qualities of knighthood. Ste. Palaye quotes from Olivier de la Marche (Mem. i. 315), a contest of generosity somewhat similar to that between O wain and Gwalchmai. "Jacques de Lalain et Pietois, en 1450, ayant fait armes a p ied, se renverserent lun sur l'autre; ils furent releves par les escortes et ame nes aux juges qui les firent toucher ensemble en Signe de paix. Comme Lalain, pa r modestie, voulut envoyer son bracelet, suivant la convention faite pour le pri x, Pietois declara qu'ayant ete aussi bien que lui porte par terre, il se croiro it egalement oblige de lui donner le sien. Ce nouveau combat de politesse finit par ne plus parler de bracelet, et par former une etroite liaison d'amitie entre ces genereux ennemis."--(I. 150.)

21c BANQUET.--Page <page 21>. A FEAST which took three years to prepare, and three months to consume, appears in our degenerate days as something quite enormous; but it is a trifle to what w e read in another of the Mabinogion, where a party spend eighty years in listeni ng to the songs of the birds of Rhianon, that charm away the remembrance of thei r sorrows.

21d A DAMSEL ENTERED, UPON A BAY HORSE.--Page <page 21>. THE custom of riding into a hall, while the Lord and his guests sat at meat, the memory of which is still preserved in the coronation ceremonials of this countr y, might be illustrated by innumerable passages of ancient Romance and History. But I shall content myself with a quotation from Chaucer's beautiful and half-to ld Tale of Cambuscan. And so befell that after the thridde cours While that this king sit thus in his nobley, Herking his ministralles hir thinges pley Beforne him at his bord deliciously, [p. 63] In at the halle dore al sodenly Ther came a knight upon a stede of bras, And in his hond a brod mirrour of glas; Upon his thombe he had of gold a ring, And by his side a naked swerd hanging: And up be rideth to the highe bord. In all the halle ne was ther spoke a word, For mervaille of this knight; him to behold Ful besily they waiten yong and old."--10,390-10,401.

22a AND ANOINT HIM WITH THIS BALSAM.--Page <page 22>. THE healing art was always confined to females in chivalric times, a principal p art of whose education it formed, and to the -wives and daughters of knights was confided the care of such as were sick or wounded. Of this, the instances are s o numerous, that it is needless to adduce any here. We find, from the English metrical version of this Tale, that mentioned, was the gift of Morgant le sage, very probably the fay, who was sister of King Arthur, and wife to Urien Rheged, magic was justly celebrated, as the adventure of the Manteau fortunately prove. the ointment here same as Morgan le and whose skill in mal taille will un

23a WRESTED FROM HER BY A YOUNG EARL.--Page <page 23>. THE name of this invader is in Ywain and Gawin, "The ryche eryl, syr Alers,"--li ne 1871; and the "Cuens Alers," in the Chevalier au Lion.

24a A BEAUTIFUL BLACK STEED.--Page <page 24>. THE name of Owain's horse is recorded, with the epithet of "irrestrainable" (Anr heithfarch), but we cannot venture to affirm that the Carn Aflawg (or grasping-h oofed) of the Triads, was either the charger which he received from the Lady of the Castle, or that which met with so disastrous a fate at the falling of the po rtcullis.

25a WENT ON HIS WAY, AS BEFORE.--Page <page 25>.

THE story of this adventure, as well as that of the fountain, appears to have be en popular in the Principality, during the Middle Ages, as it is alluded to in a n Ode addressed to Owain Glendower, by [p. 64] [paragraph continues] Gruffydd Llwyd ab Davydd ab Einion, one of his Bards, abou t the year 1400. Of this, the following translation is given in Jones's Welsh Bards, I. 41:-"On sea, on land, thou still didst brave The dangerous cliff, and rapid wave; Like Owain, who subdued the knight, And the fell dragon put to flight, Yon moss-grown fount beside; The grim, black warrior of the flood, The dragon, gorged with human blood, The water's scaly pride."

25b STONE VAULT.--Page <page 25>. THIS part of the Tale is by no means clearly expressed, but it is evidently inte nded to be understood that Luned was incarcerated in a stone cell, near which Ow ain chanced to halt for the night. We subsequently find that he shut up the Lion in the same place, during his contest with Luned's persecutors.

27a A MONSTER.--Page <page 27>. THIS monster is in the English called "Harpyns of Mowntain," and he is, moreover , said to have been "a devil of mekil pryde." According to this and the French v ersion, the good knight (who, it appears, had married a sister of Sir Gawain) wa s, originally, the, father of "sex knyghts," two of whom Harpyns had already sla in, while he threatened to put the remaining four to death, unless their sister was given "hym to wyve." The costume of the Harpyns and the four young men is ve ry characteristic. "With wreched ragges war thai kled And fast bunden thus er thai led: The geant was both large and lang, And bar a lever of yren ful strang, Tharwith he bet them bitterly, Grete rewth it was to her tham cry, Thai had no thing tham for to hyde. A dwergh yode on the tother syde; He bar a scowrge with cordes ten, Thar-with he bet tha gentil men."

[p. 65] And further on, it is said of the giant,

"Al the armure he was yn Was noght bot of a bul-skyn."

29a STATE OF STUPOR.--Page <page 29>. THE literal meaning of this passage is not advantageous to the four-and-twenty l adies, as it gives them a character for anything but sobriety. It is possible, h owever, that allusion is made to some act of necromancy (not by any means unusua l in the old writers of romance), by which they were thrown into a state of inse nsibility.

29b HOSPICE.--Page <page 29>. SPYTTY.--This term is derived from the Latin word Hospitium, and is used to desi gnate those establishments which were erected and maintained by the monks for th e reception of travellers. They bore some remote resemblance to our present inns , and were generally placed in secluded spots at a distance, from any town. Seve ral places in Wales retain the recollection of these hospitable institutions in the name they still bear, as Spytty Ivan, Spytty Cynvyn, &c. 30a RAVENS.--Page <page 30>. As some explanation of this strange expression, it may, be noticed, that in anot her of the Mabinogion, called the "Dream of Rhonabwy," Owain is represented as h aving an army of Ravens in his service, which are engaged in combat with some of Arthur's attendants. But in that, as well as in the present Tale, the adventure is introduced with an abruptness that can only be accounted for by supposing th at the story was well known, and that it formed a part of that great store of Ro mance which existed among the Welsh, and which furnished to the other nations of Europe the earliest materials of imaginative composition. This Raven Army of th e Prince of Rheged has evidently a connection with the armorial hearings of that house already alluded to. Footnotes ^33:1 March ap Meirchion, Gwythyr ap Greidiol, and Gwgawn Gleddyfrudd, were thre e of Arthur's Knights; the second of them was father to Queen Gwenhwyvar. ^34:1 In the Life of St. Kentigern, mention is made of a wicked king of Strathcl yde, called Morken. Perhaps he is the Morcant, who caused the death of Urien Rhe ged. Probably it is through a confusion of names, by no means unusual in those days, that Urien's wife, Morgan le Fay, is by the old romancers accused of an attempt to assassinate him. ^35:1 Myv. Arch. i. 105. ^35:2 Myv. Arch. i. 78. ^35:3 This line, with the substitution of Cambria for Lloegria [England], was ta ken as the subject of a speech to rouse the Welsh to the due consideration of th eir literature, by the Rev. Thomas Price of Crickhowel, at the Meeting [p. 35] o f the Cymreigyddion Society of Abergavenny, in the Autumn of 1835. The effect it

produced was quite electric. ^36:1 Lancelot du Lac is generally considered as an exception to the general rul e, that all the heroes of the Arthurian Romances are of Welsh origin. But it has been suggested to me by a learned Antiquary, that this distinction does not rea lly exist, the name of Lancelot being nothing more than a translation of Paladrddellt (splintered spear), which was the name of a knight of Arthur's Court, cel ebrated in the Triads. ^36:2 The arrangement of ancient pedigrees is at all times attended with difficu lty, but vain indeed would be the attempt to reconcile the genealogies of Romanc e with those of history. In Morte d'Arthur, Owain's Mother is Morgan le Fay, sister to King Arthur. ^40:1 Kai's horse, according to the Welsh authorities, was called Gwineu gwddwf hir, the long-necked bay. ^41:1 It is somewhat singular that this adventure was undertaken on behalf of Lu ned, who, under the title of the damoysel saueage, rode to Arthur's Court, to be seech the championship of some of the Knights of the Table rounde, for her' sist er dame Lyones, of the Castel peryllous. The story is again referred to in a sub sequent Note. ^41:2 According to the Romances, Arthur's Queen was daughter of King Leodegrance . ^44:1 We trace the customs of a country in what may appear accidental expression s. Thus a cushion in a chair was one of the requisites of a Welsh establishment. Three things proper for a man to have in his house,-A virtuous wife, His cushion in his chair, And his harp in tune. In like manner it is particularly mentioned in the present tale , that Arthur had "a cushion of red satin under his elbow," <page 3>; and that a t the Castle where Kynon was received, on his way to the adventure of the Founta in, the maidens, in doing him honour, " placed cushions both beneath and around him," when he sat down to meat, <page 6>. In this latter instance, the cushions we find were covered with red linen. ^44:2 Swans appear to have been a great dainty in those days. Of the luxurious M onk in the Pilgrimage to Canterbury, Chaucer tells us, "A fat swan loved he best of any rost."--line 206. ^44:3 Uniformity of dress in those who held the same office, appears to be dwelt upon with much satisfaction by the writers of the Middle Ages. In Geoffrey of M onmouth, the thousand young noblemen, who, at Arthur's Coronation Banquet, assis ted Kai in serving up the dishes, were clothed like him in robes of Ermine. The same writer proceeds to tell us, that "at that Time Britain was arrived to such a pitch of Grandeur, that whether we respect its Affluence of Riches, Luxury of Ornaments, or Politeness of Inhabitants, it far surpassed all other Kingdoms." A nd he adds, "The Knights in it that were famous for Feats of Chivalry, wore thei r Clothes and Arms all of the same colour and Fashion. And the Women also no les s celebrated for their Wit, wore all the same Kind of Apparel."--Thompson's Tran slation.

In the Procession to Canterbury, Chaucer relates that "An HABERDASHER, and A CARPENTER, A WEBBE, a DYER, and a TAPISER, Were alle yclothed in o livere, Of a solemne and grete fraternite."--line 363.

^51:1 See Du Cange, in voce. ^52:1 A long note on the story of the Fountain of Barenton in printed separately on <page 67>, so which the reader is referred. A fountain possessed of the like properties occurs in the Fabliau of "The Paradi se of Love," and a similar one is mentioned in " The noble Hystory of Kyng Ponth us of Galyce." ^53:1 Crug gorseddawl, "the hill of Judicature."--Dr. Pughe's Welsh Dictionary. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 66]



THE TALE OF "THE LADY OF THE FOUNTAIN." THE story of Owain and the Lady of the Fountain was very popular in the days of Chivalry, and we meet with it in many European languages besides the Welsh. The English version, under the title of "Ywaine and Gawin " (derived from the Fr ench work of Chrestien de Troyes), was published by Ritson in the first volume o f his Metrical Romances, from a MS. in the British Museum, supposed by him to be of the reign of Richard II. Towards the end of the 12th century, the trouvere Chrestien de Troyes made Owain 's adventures the subject of his metrical Romance of the "Cheualier an Lyon," wh ich I have printed in the first edition of this work, and of which there are sev eral MS. copies in the Bibliotheque Nationale. Chrestien's French poem was turned into German verse by Hartmann von der Aue, a Meister-sanger of the end of the 12th or the beginning of the 13th century. Of t his production many copies exist, that in the Library of the Vatican being consi dered by Tieck to be the oldest German MS, preserved there. It has appeared more than once in print, and is to be found in Professor Myller's Collection of Teut onic Romances, 2 vols. 4to., Berlin, 1784. It was also published by Michaeler in four small 8vo. volumes. Vienna, 1786. Ulrich Furterer, a Bavarian rhymer, who flourished in the later part of the 15th

century, has likewise left a poem on the subject of "Ivain," as one of an immen se series of metrical compositions embracing the entire story of the Grail and t he Round Table heroes. In the Royal Library at Stockholm are preserved MS. versions of the Tale of "Iva in," both in the Danish and Swedish languages, and the British Museum, as well a s the University Library of Copenhagen, possesses MSS. of the Icelandic "Ivent S aga." The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 67]



FOUNTAIN OF BARANTON. THE Forest of Breceliande, in Brittany, the scene of the leading incident in the Chevalier au Lion, has ever been one of the most favoured haunts of Romance, an d one whose marvels the Trouveres have most delighted to celebrate. Amongst thos e whose names have contributed to add to the renown of this remarkable spot, is the mighty Enchanter, Merlin, whose prison it became through the artifices of hi s Lady love. The manner of his being incarcerated there is very circumstantially detailed in the Romance which bears his name, as quoted by Mr. Southey, in the Preface to the Morte d'Arthur. Merlin, having become enamoured of the fair Viviane, [*1] was weak enough to imp art to her various important secrets of his art, [*2] being impelled by a fatal destiny, of which he was at the same time fully aware. The Lady, however, was no t content with his devotion, unbounded as it seems to have been, but "cast about ," as the Romance tells us, how she might "detain him for evermore," and with a view of learning some mode of accomplishing this object, she one day addressed h im in these terms,--"Sir," said she, "I would have you teach and show me how to enclose and imprison a man [p. 68] without a tower, without walls, without chains, but by enchantment alone, in suc h manner that he may never be able to go out, except by me." Aware of her design , Merlin shook his head, and evinced great reluctance to comply with her request . But Viviane, "for her great treason," began to fawn and to flatter him, and us ed many subtle arguments to prove that he ought to perform her will, whatever it might be. So at last he said to her, "Certes, lady, yes, and I will do it; tell me what you would have." "Sir," said she, "I would that we should make a fair p lace and a suitable, so contrived by art and by cunning, that it might never be undone, and that you and I should be there in joy and in solace." "My lady," sai d Merlin, "I will perform all this." " Sir," said she, "I would not have you do it, but you shall teach me, and I will do it, and then it will be more to my wil l." "I grant you this," said Merlin. Then he began to devise, and the damsel put it all in writing. And when he had devised the whole, then had the damsel full great joy, and showed him greater semblance of loving him than she had ever befo

re made; and they sojourned together a long while. At length it fell out that, a s they were going one day hand in hand through the forest of Broceliande, they f ound a bush of white thorn which was laden with flowers; and they seated themsel ves under the shade of this white thorn upon the green grass, and they disported together and took their solace, and Merlin laid his head upon the damsel's lap, and then she began to feel if he were asleep. Then the damsel rose and made a r ing with her wimple round the bush and round Merlin, and began her enchantments such as he himself had taught her; and nine times she made the ring, and nine ti mes she made the enchantments; and then she went and sate down by him, and place d his head again upon her lap; and when he awoke, and looked round him, it seeme d to him that he was enclosed in the strongest tower in the world, and laid upon a fair bed. Then said he to the dame, "My [p. 69] lady, you have deceived me unless you abide with me, for no one hath power to un make this tower, save you alone." She then promised she would be often there, an d we are told that in this she held her covenant to him. "And Merlin never went out of that tower where his mistress Viviane had enclosed him. But she entered a nd went out again when she listed; and oftentime she regretted what she had done , for she had thought that the thing which he taught her could not be true, and willingly would she have let him out if she could."--(T. 2. f. 134.) From the same authority, it appears that after this event Merlin was never more known to hold converse with any mortal but Viviane, except on one occasion. Arth ur having for some time missed him from his Court, sent several of his Knights i n search of him, and among the number Sir Gawain, who met with a very unpleasant adventure while engaged in this quest. Happening to pass a damsel on his road, as he journeyed along, and neglecting to salute her, she revenged herself for hi s incivility, by transforming him into a hideous dwarf. He was bewailing aloud h is evil fortune as he went through the Forest of Breceliande, when "suddenly he heard the voice of one groaning on his right hand;" and "looking that way he cou ld see nothing save a kind of smoke which seemed like air, and through which be could not pass." Merlin then addressed him from out the smoke, and told him by w hat misadventure be was imprisoned there. "Ah, Sir," he added, "you will never s ee me more, and that grieves me, but I cannot remedy it; and when you shall have departed from this place, I shall never more speak to you, nor to any other per son, save only my mistress." And after this he comforted Gawain under his transf ormation, assuring him that he should speedily be disenchanted, and he predicted to him that he should find the King at Carduel, in Wales, on his return, and th at all the other Knights who had been on the like quest, would arrive there the same day as himself. And all this came to pass as Merlin had said.--(T. 2. f, 14 6.) [*1] It is evident that the wonders ascribed by Chrestien de Troyes to [p. 70] the Fountain of Baranton, in this famous Forest, were not the creation of his ow n fancy, but were in his time already in no small repute; for we find his precur sor Wace so much impressed with the desire to be an eye-witness of them, that he actually made a journey to the spot for that purpose. In his Roman de Rou be re lates the whole affair with admirable naivete. After adverting to the marvels of the slab, he tells us, that if what the Bretons say is true, Fairies are often to be seen sporting on the Fountain's bank; but he very frankly owns that he met with nothing but disappointment to repay the trouble of his expedition, and he reproaches himself for his folly in having ever undertaken it. The passage is brought in by the mention of the Barons who accompanied William o f Normandy to the conquest of England, some of whom he says were

"de verz Brecheliant, Dune Bretunz vont sovent fablant, Une forest mult lunge e lee, Ki en Bretaigne est mult loee; La Fontaine de Berenton Sort d'une part lez le perron; Aler i solent veneor A Berenton par grant chalor, Et o lor cors l'ewe puisier Et li perron de suz moillier, Por co soleient pluee aveir; Issi soleit jadis pluveir En la forest tut envirun, Maiz jo ne sai par kel raisun. La solt l'en li fees veir, Se li Bretunz disent veir, Et altres merveilles plusors; Aigres solt aveir destors E de granz cers mult grant plente, Maiz li vilain ont deserte. La alai jo merveilles querre, Vis la forest e vis la terre; [p. 71] Merveilles quis, maiz nes' trovai; Fol m'en revins, fol i alai, Fol i alai, fol m'en revins, Folie quis, per fol me tins."--v. 11514-11539. Roman de Rou, publie par F. Pluquet. Rouen, 1827--ii. 143, 4. Huon de Mery, a subsequent trouvere, set out on a similar erran d, and was either more fortunate, or less ingenuous than Wace. One cannot help s uspecting him of reckoning rather largely upon the credulity of his readers, in the narrative he gives of his journey however, he shall tell his story in his ow n words. Being one of those who accompanied an expedition made by the "Rois Loeys en Bret aingne," he considered the opportunity thus afforded him of visiting its Forest of wonders too tempting to be overlooked. "Por cou que n'iert pas mult lontaingne La fores de Breceliande, Mes cuers ki souvent me commande Faire autre cose ke mon preu, Me fist faire, aussi comme veu, Ke ge en Breceliande iroie, Ge m'en tornai et pris ma voie Vers la forest, sans plus atendre, Kar la Vrete voloie aprendre De la perilleuse fontaine, Une espee ou ot fer d'Andainne Dont lameure n'estoit pas double Et un hauberc a maille double Portai qui puis m'orent mestier, Sans tenir voie ne sentier Chevauchai iiij. jours entiers. Adonc m'aparut uns sentiers Qui par une gaste lande,

Me mena en Breceliande, Mult est espesse et oscure, En la forest par aventure Perdi le sens de mon sentier, Car li solaus s'aloit couchier, Qui avoit faite sa journee. Mais la clartes est ajornee De la lune qui lors leva." [p. 72] * * * * * "Cele nuis resambla le jour. Sans faire alonge ne sejour, Ce fu la quinte nuis de mai; La fontainne mult esgardai Ke la trouvai par aventure. La fontaine n'iert pas oscure Ains ert clere com fins argens, Mult estoit li praales gens. Qui sombroioit de desous l'arbre Le bachin, le perron de marbre, Et le vert pin et la caiere Trouvai en icele maniere, Comme l'a descrit Crestiens En plus clere eve crestiens . . . . Ne sambla pas que ce fust cresme. Quant le bachin ting en ma main, Car tout aussi le puisai plain Com se la vousisse espuisier. Quand ge mis la main au puisier, Lors vi le firmament doubler. Quant oi puisie, lors vi doubler Le torment, quant l'eve versai, Je qui, tous seus le sai, Ne talent n'en ai du mentir, Mais le chiel oi desmentir Et eselarcir de toutes pars. De plus de .vc. mile pars Ert la fores enluminee; Se tous li chiex ert queminee Et tous li mons ardoit ensamble, Ne fesist-il pas, ce me samble, Tel clarte, ne si grant orage. .C. fois maudis en mon corage Par cui conseill ting la mon oirre, Car a cascun cop de tonnoirre La foudre du ciel descendoit Qui troncounoit et porfendoit Parmi le bois, caines et fals. Or escoutes com ge fui fals Et tresperdus et entrepris, K'encor plain bachin d'iaue pris [p. 73] Et seur le perron le flasti Mais se le ciel ot bien glati Et envoies foudres en terre. Lors double la noise et la guerre Ke j'oi mene a tout le monde, Can del' tounoire a la reonde Toute la terre vi tranbler Ge cuidai bien que assambler Fesist del' chiel et terre ensamble. Ce fu folie, ce me samble,

De .ij. fois le bachin widier, Mais ce fu pair mon fol cuidier, Car le tans apaisier cuidai Quant le secont bachin widai; Mais lors perchui que cil qui cuide Qu'il a de seus la teste wide. * * * * * Lours commencha a aprochier Li jours dont l'aube ert ja' venue; Joie firent de sa venue Trestout li oiseillon menu Ke a voleter ai veu De par tout Bercheliande. En broche, n'en forest, n'en lande N'en vit mais nus tant amasses Sus le pin en ot plus amasses. Ke n'en vit Kalogrinans. Et faisoient de divers cans Une si douce melodie Ke a ma mort, ni a ma vie, Ne keisse avoir autre gloire. Encore, quant me vient en memoire, En mon cuer en ai si grant joie Qn'encore me sanlle qu'eus ge oie; M'est-il tous vraiement avis Que c'est terrestre paradis. Tournoiement Ante-Crist, [*1] MS. du Roi, No. 541. S. F. (fol. 72. col. 2. v. 5)

[p. 74] The Fairies, who are reported to haunt the Forest of Breceliande, appear to have patronized children in an especial manner, and to have delighted in showering d own gifts upon such as were brought there soon after their birth to receive thei r benediction. There is extant in the Bibliotheque du Roi (MS. du Roi, n. 7989-4 Bal.) a fragment of a curious Romance, named Brun de la Montague, which is fou nded entirely upon this circumstance. It is printed in Le Roux de Lincy's Livre des Legendes. The outline of the story, is as follows:-Butor de la Montague, on the birth of his infant son, is desirous that he should receive a Fairy's blessing; and after revolving in his mind the names of all th e "lieux faes" [*1] with which he is acquainted, he determines on sending him to the haunt of the Fairies in the "bois Bersillant." The little Brun is according ly conveyed thither by a trusty Knight, and placed on the margin of the enchante d fountain. It is not long before the Fairies [*2] appear, and the child is endo wed with the choicest gifts which they have in their power to bestow. One of the m, however, envious of the extreme brightness of his prospects, dooms him to mis fortune and disappointment in love. On his return to his parents, one of the benevolent Fairies, who had taken a par ticular liking to him, disguises herself, and becomes his nurse. The MS. breaks off abruptly, just as the story of his disastrous love-adventure is about to com mence. [*3] I shall conclude this Note with a description of the state of the [p. 75]

famous Forest of Breceliande, in our own times, from an account of a visit made to it by the Vicomte de la Villemarque, and published by him in the Revue de Par is for May, 1837. "J'avais tant de fois, dans mon enfance, entendu parler de Merlin, et lu, dans n os romans de chevalerie bretonne, de si merveilleuses choses sur son tombeau, la foret de Brecilien, la fontaine de Baranton, et la vallee de Concoret, que je f us pris d'un vif desir de visiter ces lieux, et qu'un beau matin je partis. "Ploermel est la ville la plus voisine de Concoret; de la an bourg la route est longue et difficile; toujours des chemins creux, des montagnes, des bois, on des landes sans fin." * * * * * * *

"La plaine qu'on appelle en breton Concoret, [*1] et dans les romans da moyen-ag e le Val-des-Fees, est un immense amphitheatre couronne de bois sombres, jadis n ommes Broc'hallean, [*2] aujourd'hui par corruption Brecilien. A l'une de ses ex tremites, coule une fontaine pres de laquelle on voit deux pierres couvertes de mousse que domine une vieille croix de bois vermoulue; c'est la fontaine de Bara ndon et le tombeau de Merlin; la dort, dit-on, le vieux druide, au murmure des e aux et du vent qui gemit dans les bruyeres d'alentour. "De cette hauteur, l'oeil embrasse toute la vallee, et un horizon sans bornes de bois, de champs remplis de bles on de genets aux fleurs jaunes, de paroisses et de lointains clochers. "Brecilien etait une de ces forets sacrees qu'habitaient les pretresses du druid isme dans les Gaules; son nom et celui de sa vallee l'attesteraient a defaut d'a utre temoignage; les noms de lieux sont les plus surs garans des evenemens passe s." All the old traditions which give an interest to the Forest continue to be curre nt there. The Fairies, who are kind to children, are still reported to be seen i n their white apparel upon the banks of the Fountain; and the Fountain itself (w hose waters are now considered salubrious) is still said to be possessed of its marvellous rain-producing properties. In seasons of drought, the inhabitants of the surrounding parishes go to it in procession, headed by their five great bann ers, and their priests, ringing bells and chanting Psalms. On arriving at the Fo untain, the Rector of the Canton dips the foot of the Cross into its waters, and it is sure to rain before a week elapses. [p. 76] The Fountain of Baranton is supplied by a mineral spring, and it bubbles up on a piece of iron or copper being thrown into it. "Les enfans s'amusent a y jeter des epingles, et disent par commun proverbe: 'Ri s donc, fontaine de Berendon, et je te donnerai une epingle.'" [*1] Footnotes ^67:1 This Viviane is said to be the daughter of a Vavasour of high lineage, cal led Dyonas, from Dyane, a goddess of the sea. He married a niece of the Duchess of Burgundy, with whom he received as a dowry half the Forest of Briogne; the ot her half was granted him soon after in reward for his good services. Under the t itle of the "Lady of the Lake" Viviane is well known. ^67:2 Of the nature and extent of the powers with which Merlin was endowed, Spen ser has left us a most marvellous account.

"For he by wordes could call out of the sky Both sunne and moone, and make them him obey; The land to sea, and sea to maineland dry, And darksom night he eke could turne to day; [p. 68] Huge hostes of men he could alone dismay, And hostes of men of meanest thinges could frame, Whenso him list his enimies to fray: That to this day, for terror of his fame, The feendes do quake when any him to them does name." Faerie Queens, b. iii. c. 3. s t. xii. What wonder is it then that he should elsewhere characterize hi m as the being "Which whylome did excell All living wightes in might of magicke spell." Ibid. b. i. c. 7. at. xxxvi.

^69:1 Preface--Morte d'Arthur, xliii--xlviii. In the "Prophecies of Merlin," though the result is the same, the circumstances attending his disappearance are differently related. There the scene is laid, no t in Breceliande, but in the Forest of Arvantes, and Merlin's living sepulchre i s not a white-thorn bush, but a tomb which he had constructed for himself, and w hich Viviane persuaded him to lie down in, under pretence of trying whether it w ould be large enough for her to be buried in it with him. As soon as he had ente red it, Viviane put down the lid, and closed it so effectually, [p. 69] by arts which he himself had taught her, that it never after could be opened.--See Morte d'Arthur, ii. 463-8. It is this version that Ariosto appears to have followed; but he places in the S outh of France, somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Garonne, the tomb in which "Col corpo morto il vivo spirto alberga." Orlando Furioso, C. iii.

^73:1 Livre des Legendes. Par le Roux de Lincy. Intro. 230, 4. Paris, 1836. Huon de Mery was a Monk of St. Germain des Pres, near Paris. He wrote the Poem a bove quoted about A.D. 1228. See Warton's History of English Poetry, ii. 121. ^74:1 "a des lieux faes es marches de Champaigne, Et ausi en a il en la roche grifaigne, Et si croy qu'il en a aussi en Alemaigne, Et on bois Bersillant, par desous la montaigne; Et non por quant ausi en a il en Espaigne, Et tout cil lieu fae sont Artu de Bretaigne."

Livre des Legendes, 264.

^74:2 The following is the description given of these Ladies in the Romance;-Les dames dont je di si estoient faees Qui si tres noblement estoient asesmees. Leur cors furent plus blanc que n'est noif sor gelee, Et si tres chierement estoient atournees. Car de couronnes d'or furent tontes dorees Et de blaus dras de soie estoient aournees; En mi de la portrine estoient escollees. Se uns hom en eust erre .ij. c. mile journees Ne fussent point par li trois plus belles trouvees Et s'eust converse en cent mile contrees." Liv. des Leg. 267-8.

^74:3 Ibid. 260, 284. ^75:1 "Kun-kored, vallee des druidesses." ^75:2 "Le bois de la Nonne, de l'Hermite, de la Solitaire." ^76:1 Revue de Paris. Tome 41. 7 Mai, 1837, pp. 47-58, article "Visite ou Tombea u de Merlin," par Theodore de la Villemarque. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 77]

LLYN DULYN IN SNOWDON. THE extraordinary property of producing rain, when spilt upon a stone, is attrib uted to the waters of Llyn Dulyn, in Snowdon, according to the following account , which is translated from the Greal, a Welsh Magazine, published in London, 180 5. "There is a lake in the mountains of Snowdon, called Dulyn, in a rugged valley, encircled by high steep rocks. This lake is extremely black, and its fish are de formed and unsightly, having large heads and small bodies. No wild swans are eve r seen alighting upon it (such as are on all the other lakes in Snowdon), nor du cks, nor any bird whatever. And there is a causeway of stones leading into this lake; and if any one goes along this causeway, even when it is hot sunshine, and throws water so as to wet the furthest stone, which is called the Red Altar [yr Allawr Goch], it is a chance if it do not rain before night. Witness, T. Prys, of Plas Iolyn, and Sion Davydd, of Rhiwlas, in Llan Silin." The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 81]

PEREDUR THE SON OF EVRAWC Earl Evrawc owned the Earldom of the North. And he had seven sons. And Evrawc ma intained himself not so much by his own possessions as by attending tournaments , and wars, and combats . And, as it often befalls those who join in encounters and wars, he was slain, and six of his sons likewise. Now the name of his sevent h son was Peredur, and he was the youngest of them. And he was not of an age to go to wars and encounters, otherwise he might have been slain as well as his fat her and brothers. His mother was a scheming and thoughtful woman, and she was ve ry solicitous concerning this her only son and his possessions. So she took coun sel with herself to leave the inhabited country, and to flee to the deserts and unfrequented wildernesses. And she permitted none to bear her company thither bu t women and boys, and spiritless men, who were both unaccustomed and unequal to war and fighting. And none dared to bring either horses or arms where her son wa s, lest he should set his mind upon them. And the youth went daily to divert him self in [p. 82] the forest, by flinging sticks and staves. And one day he saw his mother's flock of goats, and near the goats two hinds were standing. And he marvelled greatly that these two should be without horns, while the others had them. And he though t they had long run wild, and on that account they had lost their horns. And by activity and swiftness of foot, he drove the hinds and the goats together into t he house which there was for the goats at the extremity of the forest. Then Pere dur returned to his mother. "Ah, mother," said he, "a marvellous thing have I se en in the wood; two of thy goats have run wild, and lost their horns, through th eir having been so long missing in the wood. And no man had ever more trouble th an I had to drive them in." Then they all arose and went to see. And when they b eheld the hinds they were greatly astonished. And one day they saw three knights coming along the horse-road on the borders of the forest. And the three knights were Gwalchmai the son of Gwyar, and Geneir G wystyl, and Owain the son of Urien. And Owain kept on the track of the knight wh o had divided the apples in Arthur's Court, whom they were in pursuit of. "Mothe r," said Peredur, "what are those yonder?" "They are angels, my son ," said she. "By my faith," said Peredur, "I will go and become an angel with them." And Per edur went to the road, and met them. "Tell me, good soul," said Owain, "sawest t hou a knight pass this way, either to-day or yesterday?" "I know not," answered he, "what a knight is." "Such an one as I am," said Owain. "If thou wilt tell me what I ask thee, I will tell thee that which thou askest me." "Gladly will I do so," replied Owain. "What is this?" demanded Peredur, concerning the saddle. "I t is a saddle," said Owain. Then he asked about all the accoutrements which he s aw upon the men, and the horses, and the arms, and what they were for, and how t hey were used. And Owain shewed him all these things fully, and told him what us e was made of them. "Go forward," said Peredur, "for I saw such an one as thou i nquirest for, and I will follow thee." Then Peredur returned to his mother and her company, [p. 83] and he said to her, "Mother, those were not angels, but honourable knights." The n his mother swooned away. And Peredur went to the place where they kept the hor ses that carried firewood, and that brought meat and drink from the inhabited co untry to the desert. And he took a bony piebald horse, which seemed to him the s trongest of them. And he pressed a pack into the form of a saddle, and with twis ted twigs he imitated the trappings which he had seen upon the horses. And when Peredur came again to his mother, the Countess had recovered from her swoon. "My

son," said she, "desirest thou to ride forth?" "Yes, with thy leave," said he. "Wait, then, that I may counsel thee before thou goest." "Willingly," he answere d; "speak quickly." "Go forward, then," she said, "to the Court of Arthur, where there are the best, and the boldest, and the most bountiful of men. And whereve r thou seest a church, repeat there thy Paternoster unto it. And if thou see mea t and drink, and have need of them, and none have the kindness or the courtesy t o give them to thee, take them thyself. If thou hear an outcry, proceed towards it, especially if it be the outcry of a woman. If thou see a fair jewel, possess thyself of it, and give it to another , for thus thou shalt obtain praise. If t hou see a fair woman, pay thy court to her, whether she will or no; for thus tho u wilt render thyself a better and more esteemed man than thou wast before." After this discourse, Peredur mounted the horse, and taking a handful of sharp-p ointed forks in his hand, he rode forth. And he journeyed two days and two night s in the woody wildernesses, and in desert places, without food and without drin k. And then he came to a vast wild wood, and far within the wood he saw a fair e ven glade, and in the glade he saw a tent, and the tent seeming to him to be a c hurch, he repeated his Paternoster to it. And he went towards it, and the door o f the tent was open. And a golden chair was near the door. And on the chair sat a lovely auburn-haired maiden, with a golden frontlet on her forehead, and spark ling stones in the frontlet, and with a large gold ring on her [p. 84] hand. And Peredur dismounted, and entered the tent. And the maiden was glad at h is coming, and bade him welcome. At the entrance of the tent he saw food, and tw o flasks full of wine, and two loaves of fine wheaten flour, and collops of the flesh of the wild boar. "My mother told me," said Peredur, "wheresoever I saw me at and drink, to take it." "Take the meat and welcome, chieftain," said she. So Peredur took half of the meat and of the liquor himself, and left the rest to th e maiden. And when Peredur had finished eating, he bent upon his knee before the maiden. "My mother," said he, "told me, wheresoever I saw a fair jewel, to take it." "Do so, my soul," said she. So Peredur took the ring. And he mounted his h orse, and proceeded on his journey. After this, behold the knight came to whom the tent belonged; and he was the Lor d of the Glade. And he saw the track of the horse, and he said to the maiden, "T ell me who has been here since I departed." "A man," said she, "of wonderful dem eanour." And she described to him what Peredur's appearance and conduct had been . "Tell me," said he, "did he offer thee any wrong?" "No," answered the maiden, "by my faith, he harmed me not." "By my faith, I do not believe thee; and until I can meet with him, and revenge the insult he has done me, and wreak my vengean ce upon him, thou shalt not remain two nights in the same house." And the knight arose, and set forth to seek Peredur. Meanwhile Peredur journeyed on towards Arthur's Court. And before he reached it, another knight had been there, who gave a ring of thick gold at the door of the gate for holding his horse, and went into the Hall where Arthur and his househo ld, and Gwenhwyvar and her maidens, were assembled. And the page of the chamber was serving Gwenhwyvar with a golden goblet. Then the knight dashed the liquor t hat was therein upon her face, and upon her stomacher, and gave her a violent bl ow on the face, and said, "If any have the boldness to dispute this goblet with me, and to revenge the insult to Gwenhwyvar, let him follow me to the meadow, an d there I will await him." So the knight [p. 85] took his horse, and rode to the meadow. And all the household hung down their he ads, lest any of them should be requested to go and avenge the insult to Gwenhwy var. For it seemed to them, that no one would have ventured on so daring an outr

age, unless he possessed such powers, through magic or charms , that none could be able to take vengeance upon him. Then, behold, Peredur entered the Hall, upon the bony piebald horse, with the uncouth trappings upon it; and in this way he traversed the whole length of the Hall. In the centre of the Hall stood Kai. "Te ll me, tall man," said Peredur, "is that Arthur yonder?" "What wouldest thou wit h Arthur?" asked Kai. "My mother told me to go to Arthur, and receive the honour of knighthood." "By my faith," said he, "thou art all too meanly equipped with horse and with arms." Thereupon he was perceived by all the household, and they threw sticks at him. Then, behold, a dwarf came forward. He had already been a y ear at Arthur's Court, both he and a female dwarf. They had craved harbourage of Arthur, and had obtained it; and during the whole year, neither of them had spo ken a single word to any one. When the dwarf beheld Peredur, "Haha!" said he, "t he welcome of Heaven be unto thee, goodly Peredur, son of Evrawc, the chief of w arriors, and flower of knighthood." "Truly," said Kai, "thou art ill-taught to r emain a year mute at Arthur's Court, with choice of society; and now, before the face of Arthur and all his household, to call out, and declare such a man as th is the chief of warriors, and the flower of knighthood." And he gave him such a box on the ear that he fell senseless to the ground. Then exclaimed the female d warf, "Haha! goodly Peredur, son of Evrawc; the welcome of Heaven be unto thee, flower of knights, and light of chivalry." "Of a truth, maiden," said Kai, "thou art ill-bred to remain mute for a year at the Court of Arthur, and then to spea k as thou dost of such a man as this." And Kai kicked her with his foot, so that she fell to the ground senseless. "Tall man," said Peredur, "shew me which is A rthur." "Hold thy peace," said Kai, "and go after the knight who [p. 86] went hence to the meadow, and take from him the goblet, and overthrow him, and p ossess thyself of his horse and arms, and then thou shalt receive the order of k nighthood." "I will do so, tall man," said Peredur. So he turned his horse's hea d towards the meadow. And when he came there, the knight was riding up and down, proud of his strength, and valour, and noble mien. "Tell me," said the knight, "didst thou see any one coming after me from the Court?" "The tall man that was there," said he, "desired me to come, and overthrow thee, and to take from thee the goblet, and thy horse and thy armour for myself." "Silence!" said the knight ; "go back to the Court, and tell Arthur, from me, either to come himself, or to send some other to fight with me; and unless he do so quickly, I will not wait for him." "By my faith," said Peredur, "choose thou whether it shall be willingl y or unwillingly, but I will have the horse, and the arms, and the goblet." And upon this the knight ran at him furiously, and struck him a violent blow with th e shaft of his spear, between the neck and the shoulder . "Haha! lad," said Pere dur, "my mother's servants were not used to play with me in this wise; therefore , thus will I play with thee." And thereupon he struck him with a sharp-pointed fork, and it hit him in the eye, and came out at the back of his neck, so that h e instantly fell down lifeless. "Verily," said Owain the son of Urien to Kai, "thou wert ill-advised, when thou didst send that madman after the knight. For one of two things must befall him. He must either be overthrown, or slain. If he is overthrown by the knight, he wi ll be counted by him to be an honourable person of the Court, and an eternal dis grace will it be to Arthur and his warriors. And if he is slain, the disgrace wi ll be the same, and moreover, his sin will be upon him; therefore will I go to s ee what has befallen him." So Owain went to the meadow, and he found Peredur dra gging the man about. "What art thou doing thus?" said Owain. "This iron coat ," said Peredur, "will never come from off him; not by my efforts, at any rate." An d Owain unfastened his armour and his [p. 87] clothes. "Here, my good soul," said he, "is a horse and armour better than thine

. Take them joyfully, and come with me to Arthur, to receive the order of knight hood, for thou dost merit it." "May I never shew my face again if I go," said Pe redur; "but take thou the goblet to Gwenhwyvar, and tell Arthur, that wherever I am, I will be his vassal, and will do him what profit and service I am able. An d say that I will not come to his Court until I have encountered the tall man th at is there, to revenge the injury he did to the dwarf and dwarfess." And Owain went back to the Court, and related all these things to Arthur and Gwenhwyvar, a nd to all the household. And Peredur rode forward. And as he proceeded, behold a knight met him. "Whence comest thou?" said the knight. "I come from Arthur's Court," said Peredur. "Art thou one of his men?" asked he. "Yes, by my faith," he answered. "A good service , truly, is that of Arthur." "Wherefore sayest thou so?" said Peredur. "I will t ell thee," said he; "I have always been Arthur's enemy, and all such of his men as I have ever encountered I have slain." And without further parlance they foug ht, and it was not long before Peredur brought him to the ground, over his horse 's crupper. Then the knight besought his mercy. "Mercy thou shalt have," said Pe redur, "if thou wilt make oath to me, that thou wilt go to Arthur's Court, and t ell him that it was I that overthrew thee, for the honour of his service; and sa y, that I will never come to the Court until I have avenged the insult offered t o the dwarf and dwarfess." The knight pledged him his faith of this, and proceed ed to the Court of Arthur, and said as he had promised, and conveyed the threat to Kai. And Peredur rode forward. And within that week he encountered sixteen knights, a nd overthrew them all shamefully. And they all went to Arthur's Court, taking wi th them the same message which the first knight had conveyed from Peredur, and t he same threat which he had sent to Kai. And thereupon Kai was reproved by Arthu r; and Kai was greatly grieved thereat. [p. 88] And Peredur rode forward. And he came to a vast and desert wood, on the confines of which was a lake. And on the other side was a fair castle. And on the border of the lake he saw a venerable, hoary-headed man, sitting upon a velvet cushion , and having a garment of velvet upon him. And his attendants were fishing in th e lake. When the hoary-headed man beheld Peredur approaching, he arose and went towards the castle. And the old man was lame. Peredur rode to the palace, and th e door was open, and he entered the hall. And there was the hoary-headed man sit ting on a cushion, and a large blazing fire burning before him. And the househol d and the company arose to meet Peredur, and disarrayed him. And the man asked t he youth to sit on the cushion; and they sat down, and conversed together. When it was time, the tables were laid, and they went to meat. And when they had fini shed their meal, the man inquired of Peredur if he knew well how to fight with t he sword. "I know not," said Peredur, "but were I to be taught, doubtless I shou ld." "Whoever can play well with the cudgel and shield, will also be able to fig ht with a sword." And the man had two sons; the one had yellow hair, and the oth er auburn. "Arise, youths," said he, "and play with the cudgel and the shield." And so did they. "Tell me, my soul," said the man, "which of the youths thinkest thou plays best." "I think," said Peredur, "that the yellow-haired youth could draw blood from the other, if he chose." "Arise thou, my life, and take the cudg el and the shield from the hand of the youth with the auburn hair, and draw bloo d from the yellow-haired youth if thou canst." So Peredur arose, and went to pla y with the yellow-haired youth; and he lifted up his arm, and struck him such a mighty blow, that his brow fell over his eye, and the blood flowed forth. "Ah, m y life," said the man, "come now, and sit down, for thou wilt become the best fi ghter with the sword of any in this island; and I am thy uncle, thy mother's bro ther. And with me shalt thou remain a space, in order to learn the manners and c ustoms of different countries, and

[p. 89] courtesy, and gentleness, and noble bearing. Leave, then, the habits and the dis course of thy mother, and I will be thy teacher; and I will raise thee to the ra nk of knight from this time forward. And thus do thou. If thou seest aught to ca use thee wonder, ask not the meaning of it; if no one has the courtesy to inform thee, the reproach will not fall upon thee, but upon me that am thy teacher." A nd they had abundance of honour and service. And when it was time they went to s leep. At the break of day, Peredur arose, and took his horse, and with his uncle 's permission he rode forth. And he came to a vast desert wood, and at the furth er end of the wood was a meadow, and on the other side of the meadow he saw a la rge castle. And thitherward Peredur bent his way, and he found the gate open, an d he proceeded to the hall. And he beheld a stately hoary-headed man sitting on one side of the hall, and many pages around him, who arose to receive and to hon our Peredur. And they placed him by the side of the owner of the palace. Then th ey discoursed together; and when it was time to eat, they caused Peredur to sit beside the nobleman during the repast. And when they had eaten and drunk as much as they desired, the nobleman asked Peredur whether he could fight with a sword ? "Were I to receive instruction," said Peredur, "I think I could." Now, there w as on the floor of the hall a huge staple, as large as a warrior could grasp. "T ake yonder sword," said the man to Peredur, "and strike the iron staple." So Per edur arose and struck the staple, so that he cut it in two; and the sword broke into two parts also. "Place the two parts together, and reunite them," and Pered ur placed them together, and they became entire as they were before. And a secon d time he struck upon the staple, so that both it and the sword broke in two, an d as before they reunited. And the third time he gave a like blow, and placed th e broken parts together, and neither the staple nor the sword would unite as bef ore. "Youth," said the nobleman, "come now, and sit down, and my blessing be upo n thee. Thou fightest best with the sword of any man in [p. 90] the kingdom. Thou hast arrived at two-thirds of thy strength, and the other thir d thou hast not yet obtained; and when thou attainest to thy full power, none wi ll be able to contend with thee. I am thy uncle, thy mother's brother, and I am brother to the man in whose house thou wast last night." Then Peredur and his un cle discoursed together, and he beheld two youths enter the hall, and proceed up to the chamber, bearing a spear of mighty size , with three streams of blood fl owing from the point to the ground. And when all the company saw this, they bega n wailing and lamenting. But for all that, the man did not break off his discour se with Peredur. And as he did not tell Peredur the meaning of what he saw, he f orbore to ask him concerning it. And when the clamour had a little subsided, beh old two maidens entered, with a large salver between them, in which was a man's head, surrounded by a profusion of blood. And thereupon the company of the court made so great an outcry, that it was irksome to be in the same hall with them. But at length they were silent. And when time was that they should sleep, Peredu r was brought into a fair chamber. And the next day, with his uncle's permission, he rode forth. And he came to a w ood, and far within the wood he heard a loud cry, and he saw a beautiful woman w ith auburn hair, and a horse with a saddle upon it, standing near her, and a cor pse by her side. And as she strove to place the corpse upon the horse, it fell t o the ground, and thereupon she made a great lamentation. "Tell me, sister," sai d Peredur, "wherefore art thou bewailing?" "Oh! accursed Peredur, little pity ha s my ill-fortune ever met with from thee." "Wherefore," said Peredur, "am I accu rsed?" "Because thou wast the cause of thy mother's death; for when thou didst r ide forth against her will, anguish seized upon her heart, so that she died; and therefore art thou accursed. And the dwarf and the dwarfess that thou sawest at Arthur's Court were the dwarfs of thy father and mother; and I am thy foster-si ster, and this was my wedded husband, and he was slain by the knight that is in

the glade in the wood; [p. 91] and do not thou go near him, lest thou shouldest be slain by him likewise." "My sister, thou dost reproach me wrongfully; through my having so long remained amo ngst you, I shall scarcely vanquish him; and had I continued longer, it would, i ndeed, be difficult for me to succeed. Cease, therefore, thy lamenting, for it i s of no avail, and I will bury the body, and then I will go in quest of the knig ht, and see if I can do vengeance upon him." And when he had buried the body, th ey went to the place where the knight was, and found him riding proudly along th e glade; and he inquired of Peredur whence he came. "I come from Arthur's Court. " "And art thou one of Arthur's men?" "Yes, by my faith." "A profitable alliance , truly, is that of Arthur." And without further parlance, they encountered one another, and immediately Peredur overthrew the knight, and he besought mercy of Peredur. "Mercy shalt thou have," said he, "upon these terms, that thou take thi s woman in marriage, and do her all the honour and reverence in thy power, seein g thou hast, without cause, slain her wedded husband; and that thou go to Arthur 's Court, and shew him that it was I that overthrew thee, to do him honour and s ervice; and that thou tell him that I will never come to his Court again until I have met with the tall man that is there, to take vengeance upon him for his in sult to the dwarf and dwarfess." And he took the knight's assurance, that he wou ld perform all this. Then the knight provided the lady with a horse and garments that were suitable for her, and took her with him to Arthur's Court. And he tol d Arthur all that had occurred, and gave the defiance to Kai. And Arthur and all his household reproved Kai, for having driven such a youth as Peredur from his Court. Said Owain the son of Urien, "This youth will never come into the Court until Ka i has gone forth from it." "By my faith," said Arthur, "I will search all the de serts in the Island of Britain, until I find Peredur, and then let him and his a dversary do their utmost to each other." Then Peredur rode forward. And he came to a desert wood, where he saw not the tr ack either of men or animals, [p. 92] and where there was nothing but bushes and weeds. And at the upper end of the wo od he saw a vast castle, wherein were many strong towers; and when he came near the gate, he found the weeds taller than he had seen them elsewhere. And he stru ck the gate with the shaft of his lance, and thereupon behold a lean, auburn-hai red youth came to an opening in the battlements. "Choose thou, chieftain," said he, "whether shall I open the gate unto thee, or shall I announce unto those tha t are chief, that thou art at the gateway?" "Say that I am here," said Peredur, "and if it is desired that I should enter, I will go in." And the youth came bac k, and opened the gate for Peredur. And when he went into the hall, he beheld ei ghteen youths, lean and red-headed, of the same height, and of the same aspect, and of the same dress, and of the same age as the one who had opened the gate fo r him. And they were well skilled in courtesy and in service. And they disarraye d him. Then they sat down to discourse. Thereupon, behold five maidens came from the chamber into the hall. And Peredur was certain that he had never seen anoth er of so fair an aspect as the chief of the maidens. And she had an old garment of satin upon her, which had once been handsome, but was then so tattered, that her skin could be seen through it. And whiter was her skin than the bloom of cry stal, and her hair and her two eyebrows were blacker than jet, and on her cheeks were two red spots, redder than whatever is reddest. And the maiden welcomed Pe redur, and put her arms about his neck, and made him sit down beside her. Not lo ng after this he saw two nuns enter, and a flask full of wine was borne by one, and six loaves of white bread by the other. "Lady," said they, "Heaven is witnes

s, that there is not so much of food and liquor as this left in yonder Convent t his night." Then they went to meat, and Peredur observed that the maiden wished to give more of the food and of the liquor to him than to any of the others. "My sister," said Peredur, "I will share out the food and the liquor." "Not so, my soul," said she. "By my faith but I will." So Peredur took the bread, and he gav e an equal portion of it to each [p. 93] alike, as well as a cup full of the liquor. And when it was time for them to sle ep, a chamber was prepared for Peredur, and he went to rest. "Behold, sister," said the youths to the fairest and most exalted of the maidens , "we have counsel for thee." "What may it be?" she inquired. "Go to the youth t hat is in the upper chamber, and offer to become his wife, or the lady of his lo ve, if it seem well to him." "That were indeed unfitting," said she. "Hitherto I have not been the lady-love of any knight, and to make him such an offer before I am wooed by him, that, truly, can I not do." "By our confession to Heaven, un less thou actest thus, we will leave thee here to thy enemies, to do as they wil l with thee." And through fear of this, the maiden went forth; and shedding tear s, she proceeded to the chamber. And with the noise of the door opening, Peredur awoke; and the maiden was weeping and lamenting. "Tell me, my sister," said Per edur, "wherefore dost thou weep?" "I will tell thee, lord," said she. "My father possessed these dominions as their chief, and this palace was his, and with it he held the best earldom in the kingdom; then the son of another earl sought me of my father, and I was not willing to be given unto him, and my father would no t give me against my will, either to him or any earl in the world. And my father had no child except myself. And after my father's death, these dominions came i nto my own hands, and then was I less willing to accept him than before. So he m ade war upon me, and conquered all my possessions, except this one house. And th rough the valour of the men whom thou hast seen, who are my foster-brothers, and the strength of the house, it can never be taken while food and drink remain. A nd now our provisions are exhausted; but, as thou hast seen, we have been fed by the nuns, to whom the country is free. And at length they also are without supp ly of food or liquor. And at no later date than to-morrow, the earl will come ag ainst this place with all his forces; and if I fall into his power, my fate will be no better than to be given over to the grooms of his horses. [p. 94] [paragraph continues] Therefore, lord, I am come to offer to place myself in thy hands, that thou mayest succour me, either by taking me hence, or by defending me here, whichever may seem best unto thee." "Go, my sister," said he, "and slee p; nor will I depart from thee until I do that which thou requirest, or prove wh ether I can assist thee or not." The maiden went again to rest; and the next mor ning she came to Peredur, and saluted him. "Heaven prosper thee, my soul, and wh at tidings dost thou bring?" "None other, than that the earl and all his forces have alighted at the gate, and I never beheld any place so covered with tents, a nd thronged with knights challenging others to the combat." "Truly," said Peredu r, "let my horse be made ready." So his horse was accoutred, and he arose and sa llied forth to the meadow. And there was a knight riding proudly along the meado w, having raised the signal for battle. And they encountered, and Peredur threw the knight over his horse's crupper to the ground. And at the close of the day, one of the chief knights came to fight with him, and he overthrew him also, so t hat he besought his mercy. "Who art thou?" said Peredur. "Verily," said he, "I a m Master of the Household to the earl." "And how much of the countess's possessi ons is there in thy power?" "The third part , verily," answered he. "Then," said Peredur, "restore to her the third of her possessions in full, and all the prof it thou hast made by them, and bring meat and drink for a hundred men, with thei r horses and arms, to her court this night. And thou shalt remain her captive, u

nless she wish to take thy life." And this he did forthwith. And that night the maiden was right joyful, and they fared plenteously. And the next day Peredur rode forth to the meadow; and that day he vanquished a multitude of the host. And at the close of the day, there came a proud and state ly knight, and Peredur overthrew him, and he besought his mercy. "Who art thou?" said Peredur. "I am Steward of the Palace," said he. "And how much of the maide n's possessions are under thy control?" "One-third part," answered [p. 95] he. "Verily," said Peredur, "thou shalt fully restore to the maiden her possessi ons, and, moreover, thou shalt give her meat and drink for two hundred men, and their horses and their arms. And for thyself, thou shalt be her captive." And im mediately it was so done. And the third day Peredur rode forth to the meadow; and he vanquished more that day than on either of the preceding. And at the close of the day, an earl came t o encounter him, and he overthrew him, and he besought his mercy. "Who art thou? " said Peredur. "I am the earl," said he. "I will not conceal it from thee." "Ve rily," said Peredur, "thou shalt restore the whole of the maiden's earldom, and shalt give her thine own earldom in addition thereto, and meat and drink for thr ee hundred men, and their horses and arms, and thou thyself shalt remain in her power." And thus it was fulfilled. And Peredur tarried three weeks in the countr y, causing tribute and obedience to be paid to the maiden, and the government to be placed in her hands. "With thy leave," said Peredur, "I will go hence." "Ver ily, my brother, desirest thou this?" "Yes, by my faith; and had it not been for love of thee, I should not have been here thus long." "My soul," said she, "who art thou?" "I am Peredur the son of Evrawc from the North; and if ever thou art in trouble or in danger, acquaint me therewith, and if I can, I will protect th ee." So Peredur rode forth. And far thence there met him a lady, mounted on a horse t hat was lean, and covered with sweat; and she saluted the youth. "Whence comest thou, my sister?" Then she told him the cause of her journey. Now she was the wi fe of the Lord of the Glade. "Behold," said he, "I am the knight through whom th ou art in trouble, and he shall repent it, who has treated thee thus." Thereupon , behold a knight rode up, and he inquired of Peredur, if he had seen a knight s uch as he was seeking. "Hold thy peace," said Peredur, "I am he whom thou seekes t; and by my faith, thou deservest ill of thy household for thy treatment of the maiden, for she is innocent concerning me." So [p. 96] they encountered, and they were not long in combat ere Peredur overthrew the kni ght, and he besought his mercy. "Mercy thou shalt have," said Peredur, "so thou wilt return by the way thou camest, and declare that thou holdest the maiden inn ocent, and so that thou wilt acknowledge unto her the reverse thou hast sustaine d at my hands." And the knight plighted him his faith thereto. Then Peredur rode forward. And above him he beheld a castle, and thitherward he went. And he struck upon the gate with his lance, and then, behold, a comely aub urn-haired youth opened the gate, and he had the stature of a warrior, and the y ears of a boy. And when Peredur came into the hall, there was a tall and stately lady sitting in a chair, and many handmaidens around her; and the lady rejoiced at his coming. And when it was time, they went to meat. And after their repast was finished, "It were well for thee, chieftain," said she, "to go elsewhere to sleep." "Wherefore can I not sleep here?" said Peredur. "Nine sorceresses are he re, my soul, of the sorceresses of Gloucester, and their father and their mother are with them; and unless we can make our escape before daybreak, we shall be s

lain; and already they have conquered and laid waste all the country, except thi s one dwelling." "Behold," said Peredur, "I will remain here to-night, and if yo u are in trouble, I will do you what service I can; but harm shall you not recei ve from me." So they went to rest. And with the break of day, Peredur heard a dr eadful outcry. And he hastily arose, and went forth in his vest and his doublet, with his sword about his neck, and he saw a sorceress overtake one of the watch , who cried out violently. Peredur attacked the sorceress, and struck her upon t he head with his sword, so that he flattened her helmet and her head-piece like a dish upon her head. "Thy mercy, goodly Peredur, son of Evrawc, and the mercy o f Heaven." "How knowest thou, hag, that I am Peredur?" "By destiny, and the fore knowledge that I should suffer harm from thee. And thou shalt take a horse and a rmour of me; and with me thou shalt go to learn [p. 97] chivalry and the use of thy arms." Said Peredur, "Thou shalt have mercy, if thou pledge thy faith thou wilt never more injure the dominions of the Countess." An d Peredur took surety of this, and with permission of the Countess, he set forth with the sorceress to the palace of the sorceresses. And there he remained for three weeks, and then he made choice of a horse and arms, and went his way. And in the evening he entered a valley, and at the head of the valley he came to a hermit's cell, and the hermit welcomed him gladly, and there he spent the nig ht. And in the morning he arose, and when he went forth, behold a shower of snow had fallen the night before, and a hawk had killed a wild fowl in front of the cell. And the noise of the horse scared the hawk away, and a raven alighted upon the bird. And Peredur stood, and compared the blackness of the raven and the wh iteness of the snow, and the redness of the blood, to the hair of the lady that best he loved, which was blacker than jet, and to her skin which was whiter than the snow, and to the two red spots upon her cheeks, which were redder than the blood upon the snow appeared to be. Now Arthur and his household were in search of Peredur. "Know ye," said Arthur, "who is the knight with the long spear that stands by the brook up yonder?" "Lor d," said one of them, "I will go and learn who he is." So the youth came to the place where Peredur was, and asked him what he did thus, and who he was. And fro m the intensity with which he thought upon the lady whom best he loved, he gave him no answer. Then the youth thrust at Peredur with his lance, and Peredur turn ed upon him, and struck him over his horse's crupper to the ground. And after th is, four-and-twenty youths came to him, and he did not answer one more than anot her, but gave the same reception to all, bringing them with one single thrust to the ground. And then came Kai, and spoke to Peredur rudely and angrily; and Per edur took him with his lance under the jaw, and cast him from him with a thrust, so that he broke his arm and his shoulder-blade, [p. 98] and he rode over him one-and-twenty times. And while he lay thus, stunned with t he violence of the pain that he had suffered, his horse returned back at a wild and prancing pace. And when the household saw the horse come back without his ri der, they rode forth in haste to the place where the encounter had been. And whe n they first came there, they thought that Kai was slain; but they found that if he had a skilful physician, he yet might live. And Peredur moved not from his m editation, on seeing the concourse that was around Kai. And Kai was brought to A rthur's tent, and Arthur caused skilful physicians to come to him. And Arthur wa s grieved that Kai had met with this reverse, for he loved him greatly. "Then," said Gwalchmai , "it is not fitting that any should disturb an honourabl e knight from his thought unadvisedly; for either he is pondering some damage th at he has sustained, or he is thinking of the lady whom best he loves. And throu

gh such ill-advised proceeding, perchance this misadventure has befallen him who last met with him. And if it seem well to thee, lord, I will go and see if this knight hath changed from his thought; and if he has, I will ask him courteously to come and visit thee." Then Kai was wroth, and he spoke angry and spiteful wo rds. "Gwalchmai," said he, "I know that thou wilt bring him because he is fatigu ed. Little praise and honour, nevertheless, wilt thou have from vanquishing a we ary knight, who is tired with fighting. Yet thus hast thou gained the advantage over many. And while thy speech and thy soft words last, a coat of thin linen we re armour sufficient for thee, and thou wilt not need to break either lance or s word in fighting with the knight in the state he is in." Then said Gwalchmai to Kai, "Thou mightest use more pleasant words, wert thou so minded: and it behoves thee not upon me to wreak thy wrath and thy displeasure. Methinks I shall bring the knight hither with me without breaking either my arm or my shoulder." Then said Arthur to Gwalchmai, "Thou speakest like a wise and prudent man; go, and ta ke enough of armour [p. 99] about thee, and choose thy horse." And Gwalchmai accoutred himself and rode forw ard hastily to the place where Peredur was. And Peredur was resting on the shaft of his spear, pondering the same thought, a nd Gwalchmai came to him without any signs of hostility, and said to him, "If I thought that it would be as agreeable to thee as it would be to me, I would conv erse with thee. I have also a message from Arthur unto thee, to pray thee to com e and visit him. And two men have been before on this errand." "That is true," s aid Peredur, "and uncourteously they came. They attacked me, and I was annoyed t hereat, for it was not pleasing to me to be drawn from the thought that I was in , for I was thinking of the lady whom best I love, and thus was she brought to m y mind:--I was looking upon the snow, and upon the raven, and upon the drops of the blood of the bird that the hawk had killed upon the snow. And I bethought me that her whiteness was like that of the snow, and that the blackness of her hai r and her eyebrows like that of the raven, and that the two red spots upon her c heeks were like the two drops of blood." Said Gwalchmai, "This was not an ungent le thought, and I should marvel if it were pleasant to thee to be drawn from it. " "Tell me," said Peredur, "is Kai in Arthur's Court?" "He is," said he, "and be hold he is the knight that fought with thee last; and it would have been better for him had he not come, for his arm and his shoulder-blade were broken with the fall which he had from thy spear." "Verily," said Peredur, "I am not sorry to h ave thus begun to avenge the insult to the dwarf and dwarfess." Then Gwalchmai m arvelled to hear him speak of the dwarf and the dwarfess; and he approached him, and threw his arms around his neck, and asked him what was his name. "Peredur t he son of Evrawc am I called," said he; "and thou, Who art thou?" "I am called G walchmai," he replied. "I am right glad to meet with thee," said Peredur, "for i n every country where I have been I have heard of thy fame for prowess and uprig htness, and I solicit thy fellowship." "Thou shalt have [p. 100] it, by my faith, and grant me thine," said he, "Gladly will I do so," answered P eredur. So they rode forth together joyfully towards the place where Arthur was, and whe n Kai saw them coming, he said, "I knew that Gwalchmai needed not to fight the k night. And it is no wonder that he should gain fame; more can he do by his fair words than I by the strength of my arm." And Peredur went with Gwalchmai to his tent, and they took off their armour. And Peredur put on garments like those tha t Gwalchmai wore, and they went together unto Arthur, and saluted him. "Behold, lord," said Gwalchmai, "him whom thou hast sought so long." "Welcome unto thee, chieftain," said Arthur. "With me thou shalt remain; and had I known thy valour

had been such, thou shouldst not have left me as thou didst; nevertheless, this was predicted of thee by the dwarf and the dwarfess, whom Kai ill-treated and wh om thou hast avenged." And hereupon, behold there came the Queen and her handmai dens, and Peredur saluted them. And they were rejoiced to see him, and bade him welcome. And Arthur did him great honour and respect, and they returned towards Caerlleon. And the first night Peredur came to Caerlleon to Arthur's Court, and as he walke d in the city after his repast, behold, there met him Angharad Law Eurawc . "By my faith, sister," said Peredur, "thou art a beauteous and lovely maiden; and, w ere it pleasing to thee, I could love thee above all women." "I pledge my faith, " said she, "that I do not love thee, nor will I ever do so." "I also pledge my faith," said Peredur, "that I will never speak a word to any Christian again , u ntil thou come to love me above all men." The next day Peredur went forth by the high road, along a mountain-ridge, and he saw a valley of a circular form, the confines of which were rocky and wooded. A nd the flat part of the valley was in meadows, and there were fields betwixt the meadows and the wood. And in the bosom of the wood he saw large black houses of uncouth workmanship. And he dismounted, and led his horse towards the [p. 101] wood. And a little way within the wood he saw a rocky ledge, along which the roa d lay. And upon the ledge was a lion bound by a chain, and sleeping. And beneath the lion he saw a deep pit of immense size, full of the bones of men and animal s. And Peredur drew his sword and struck the lion, so that he fell into the mout h of the pit and hung there by the chain; and with a second blow he struck the c hain and broke it, and the lion fell into the pit; and Peredur led his horse ove r the rocky ledge, until he came into the valley. And in the centre of the valle y he saw a fair castle, and he went towards it. And in the meadow by the castle he beheld a huge grey man sitting, who was larger than any man he had ever befor e seen. And two young pages were shooting the hilts of their daggers, of the bon e of the sea-horse. And one of the pages had red hair, and the other auburn. And they went before him to the place where the grey man was, and Peredur saluted h im. And the grey man said, "Disgrace to the beard of my porter." Then Peredur un derstood that the porter was the lion.--And the grey man and the pages went toge ther into the castle, and Peredur accompanied them; and he found it a fair and n oble place. And they proceeded to the hall, and the tables were already laid, an d upon them was abundance of food and liquor. And thereupon he saw an aged woman and a young woman come from the chamber; and they were the most stately women h e had ever seen. Then they washed and went to meat, and the grey man sat in the upper seat at the head of the table, and the aged woman next to him. And Peredur and the maiden were placed together, and the two young pages served them. And t he maiden gazed sorrowfully upon Peredur, and Peredur asked the maiden wherefore she was sad. "For thee, my soul; for, from when I first beheld thee, I have lov ed thee above all men. And it pains me to know that so gentle a youth as thou sh ould have such a doom as awaits thee to-morrow. Sawest thou the numerous black h ouses in the bosom of the wood? All these belong to the vassals of the grey man yonder, who is my father. And they are all giants. [p. 102] [paragraph continues] And to-morrow they will rise up against thee, and will sla y thee. And the Round Valley is this valley called." "Listen, fair maiden, wilt thou contrive that my horse and arms be in the same lodging with me to-night?" " Gladly will I cause it so to be, by Heaven, if I can." And when it was time for them to sleep rather than to carouse, they went to rest . And the maiden caused Peredur's horse and arms to be in the same lodging with

him. And the next morning Peredur heard a great tumult of men and horses around the castle. And Peredur arose, and armed himself and his horse, and went to the meadow. Then the aged woman and the maiden came to the grey man: "Lord," said th ey, "take the word of the youth, that he will never disclose what he has seen in this place, and we will be his sureties that he keep it." "I will not do so, by my faith," said the grey man. So Peredur fought with the host, and towards even ing he had slain the one-third of them without receiving any hurt himself. Then said the aged woman, "Behold, many of thy host have been slain by the youth; do thou, therefore, grant him mercy." "I will not grant it, by my faith," said he. And the aged woman and the fair maiden were upon the battlements of the castle, looking forth. And at that juncture, Peredur encountered the yellow-haired youth and slew him. "Lord," said the maiden, "grant the young man mercy." "That will I not do, by Heaven," he replied; and thereupon Peredur attacked the auburn-hair ed youth, and slew him likewise. "It were better that thou hadst accorded mercy to the youth before he had slain thy two sons; for now scarcely wilt thou thysel f escape from him." "Go, maiden, and beseech the youth to grant mercy unto us, f or we yield ourselves into his hands." So the maiden came to the place where Per edur was, and besought mercy for her father, and for all such of his vassals as had escaped alive. "Thou shalt have it, on condition that thy father and all tha t are under him go and render homage to Arthur, and tell him that it was his vas sal Peredur that did him this service." "This will we do willingly, by Heaven." "And you shall also receive baptism; [p. 103] and I will send to Arthur, and beseech him to bestow this valley upon thee and u pon thy heirs after thee for ever." Then they went in, and the grey man and the tall woman saluted Peredur. And the grey man said unto him, "Since I have posses sed this valley I have not seen any Christian depart with his life, save thyself . And we will go to do homage to Arthur, and to embrace the faith and be baptize d." Then said Peredur, "To Heaven I render thanks that I have not broken my vow to the lady that best I love, which was, that I would not speak one word unto an y Christian." That night they tarried there. And the next day, in the morning, the grey man, w ith his company, set forth to Arthur's Court; and they did homage unto Arthur, a nd he caused them to be baptized. And the grey man told Arthur that it was Pered ur that had vanquished them. And Arthur gave the valley to the grey man and his company, to hold it of him as Peredur had besought. And with Arthur's permission , the grey man went back to the Round Valley. Peredur rode forward next day, and he traversed a vast tract of desert, in which no dwellings were. And at length he came to a habitation, mean and small. And t here he heard that there was a serpent that lay upon a gold ring, and suffered n one to inhabit the country for seven miles around. And Peredur came to the place where he heard the serpent was. And angrily, furiously, and desperately fought he with the serpent; and at last he killed it, and took away the ring. And thus he was for a long time without speaking a word to any Christian. And therefrom h e lost his colour and his aspect, through extreme longing after the Court of Art hur, and the society of the lady whom best he loved, and of his companions. Then he proceeded forward to Arthur's Court, and on the road there met him Arthur's household going on a particular errand, with Kai at their head. And Peredur knew them all, but none of the household recognized him. "Whence comest thou, chieft ain?" said Kai. And this he asked him twice and three times, and he answered him not. [p. 104] [paragraph continues] And Kai thrust him through the thigh with his lance. And l est he should be compelled to speak, and to break his vow, he went on without st

opping. "Then," said Gwalchmai, "I declare to Heaven, Kai, that thou hast acted ill in committing such an outrage on a youth like this, who cannot speak." And Gwalchmai returned back to Arthur's Court. "Lady," said he to Gwenhwyvar, "s eest thou how wicked an outrage Kai has committed upon this youth who cannot spe ak; for Heaven's sake, and for mine, cause him to have medical care before I com e back, and I will repay thee the charge." And before the men returned from their errand, a knight came to the meadow besid e Arthur's Palace, to dare some one to the encounter. And his challenge was acce pted; and Peredur fought with him, and overthrew him. And for a week he overthre w one knight every day. And one day, Arthur and his household were going to Church, and they beheld a kn ight who had raised the signal for combat. "Verily," said Arthur, "by the valour of men, I will not go hence until I have my horse and my arms to overthrow yond er boor." Then went the attendants to fetch Arthur's horse and arms. And Peredur met the attendants as they were going back, and he took the horse and arms from them, and proceeded to the meadow; and all those who saw him arise and go to do battle with the knight, went upon the tops of the houses, and the mounds, and t he high places, to behold the combat. And Peredur beckoned with his hand to the knight to commence the fight. And the knight thrust at him, but he was not there by moved from where he stood. And Peredur spurred his horse, and ran at him wrat hfully, furiously, fiercely, desperately, and with mighty rage, and he gave him a thrust, deadly-wounding, severe, furious, adroit, and strong, under his jaw, a nd raised him out of his saddle, and cast him a long way from him. And Peredur w ent back, and left the horse and the arms with the attendant as before, and he w ent on foot to the Palace. [p. 105] Then Peredur went by the name of the Dumb Youth. And behold, Angharad Law Eurawc met him. "I declare to Heaven, chieftain," said she, "woful is it that thou can st not speak; for couldst thou speak, I would love thee best of all men; and by my faith, although thou canst not, I do love thee above all." "Heaven reward the e, my sister," said Peredur, "by my faith I also do love thee." Thereupon it was known that he was Peredur. And then he held fellowship with Gwalchmai, and Owai n the son of Urien, and all the household, and he remained in Arthur's Court.

Arthur was in Caerlleon upon Usk; and he went to hunt, and Peredur went with him . And Peredur let loose his dog upon a hart, and the dog killed the hart in a de sert place. And a short space from him he saw signs of a dwelling, and towards t he dwelling he went, and he beheld a hall, and at the door of the hall he found bald swarthy youths playing at chess. And when he entered, he beheld three maide ns sitting on a bench, and they were all clothed alike, as became persons of hig h rank. And he came, and sat by them upon the bench; and one of the maidens look ed steadfastly upon Peredur, and wept. And Peredur asked her wherefore she was w eeping. "Through grief, that I should see so fair a youth as thou art, slain." " Who will slay me?" inquired Peredur. "If thou art so daring as to remain here to -night, I will tell thee." "How great soever my danger may be from remaining her e, I will listen unto thee." "This Palace is owned by him who is my father," sai d the maiden, "and he slays every one who comes hither without his leave." "What sort of a man is thy father, that he is able to slay every one thus?" "A man wh o does violence and wrong unto his neighbours, and who renders justice unto none ." And hereupon he saw the youths arise and clear the chessmen from the board. A nd he heard a great tumult; and after the tumult there came in a huge black oneeyed man, and the maidens arose to meet him. And they disarrayed him, and he wen t and sat down; and after he had

[p. 106] rested and pondered awhile, he looked at Peredur, and asked who the knight was. "Lord," said one of the maidens, "he is the fairest and gentlest youth that ever thou didst see. And for the sake of Heaven, and of thine own dignity, have pati ence with him." "For thy sake I will have patience, and I will grant him his lif e this night." Then Peredur came towards them to the fire, and partook of food a nd liquor, and entered into discourse with the ladies. And being elated with the liquor, he said to the black man, "It is a marvel to me, so mighty as thou saye st thou art, who could have put out thine eye." "It is one of my habits," said t he black man, "that whosoever puts to me the question which thou hast asked, sha ll not escape with his life, either as a free gift or for a price." "Lord," said the maiden, "whatsoever he may say to thee in jest, and through the excitement of liquor, make good that which thou saidst and didst promise me just now." "I w ill do so, gladly, for thy sake," said he. "Willingly will I grant him his life this night." And that night thus they remained. And the next day the black man got up, and put on his armour, and said to Peredu r, "Arise, man, and suffer death." And Peredur said unto him, "Do one of two thi ngs, black man; if thou wilt fight with me, either throw off thy own armour, or give arms to me, that I may encounter thee." "Ha, man," said he, "couldst thou f ight, if thou hadst arms? Take, then, what arms thou dost choose." And thereupon the maiden came to Peredur with such arms as pleased him; and he fought with th e black man, and forced him to crave his mercy. "Black man, thou shalt have merc y, provided thou tell me who thou art, and who put out thine eye." "Lord, I will tell thee; I lost it in fighting with the Black Serpent of the Carn. There is a mound, which is called the Mound of Mourning; and on the mound there is a carn, and in the carn there is a serpent, and on the tail of the serpent there is a s tone, and the virtues of the stone are such, that whosoever should hold it in on e hand, in the other he will have as much gold as he may desire. And in fighting with this [p. 107] serpent was it that I lost my eye. And the Black Oppressor am I called. And for this reason I am called the Black Oppressor, that there is not a single man arou nd me whom I have not oppressed, and justice have I done unto none." "Tell me," said Peredur, "how far is it hence?" "The same day that thou settest forth, thou wilt come to the Palace of the Sons of the King of the Tortures." "Wherefore ar e they called thus?" "The Addanc of the Lake slays them once every day. When th ou goest thence, thou wilt come to the Court of the Countess of the Achievements ." "What achievements are there?" asked Peredur. "Three hundred men there are in her household, and unto every stranger that comes to the Court, the achievement s of her household are related. And this is the manner of it,--the three hundred men of the household sit next unto the Lady; and that not through disrespect un to the guests, but that they may relate the achievements of the household. And t he day that thou goest thence, thou wilt reach the Mound of Mourning, and round about the mound there are the owners of three hundred tents guarding the serpent ." "Since thou hast, indeed, been an oppressor so long," said Peredur, "I will c ause that thou continue so no longer." So he slew him. Then the maiden spoke, and began to converse with him. "If thou wast poor when t hou camest here, henceforth thou wilt be rich through the treasure of the black man whom thou hast slain. Thou seest the many lovely maidens that there are in t his Court; thou shalt have her whom thou best likest for the lady of thy love." "Lady, I came not hither from my country to woo; but match yourselves as it like th you with the comely youths I see here; and none of your goods do I desire, fo r I need them not." Then Peredur rode forward, and he came to the Palace of the Sons of the King of the Tortures; and when he entered the Palace, he saw none bu

t women; and they rose up, and were joyful at his coming; and as they began to d iscourse with him, he beheld a charger arrive, with a saddle upon it, and a corp se in the saddle. And one of the women arose, and took the corpse from the saddl e, [p. 108] and anointed it in a vessel of warm water, which was below the door, and placed precious balsam upon it; and the man rose up alive, and came to the place where Peredur was, and greeted him, and was joyful to see him. And two other men came in upon their saddles, and the maiden treated these two in the same manner as sh e had done the first. Then Peredur asked the chieftain wherefore it was thus. An d they told him, that there was an Addanc in a cave, which slew them once every day. And thus they remained that night. And next morning the youths arose to sally forth, and Peredur besought them, for the sake of the ladies of their love, to permit him to go with them; but they r efused him, saying, "If thou shouldst be slain there, thou hast none to bring th ee back to life again." And they rode forward, and Peredur followed after them; and, after they had disappeared out of his sight, he came to a mound, whereon sa t the fairest lady he had ever beheld. "I know thy quest," said she; "thou art g oing to encounter the Addanc, and he will slay thee, and that not by courage, bu t by craft. He has a cave, and at the entrance of the cave there is a stone pill ar, and he sees every one that enters, and none see him; and from behind the pil lar he slays every one with a poisonous dart. And if thou wouldst pledge me thy faith to love me above all women, I would give thee a stone, by which thou shoul dst see him when thou goest in, and he should not see thee." "I will, by my trot h," said Peredur, "for when first I beheld thee I loved thee; and where shall I seek thee?" "When thou seekest me, seek towards India." And the maiden vanished, after placing the stone in Peredur's hand. And he came towards a valley, through which ran a river; and the borders of the valley were wooded, and on each side of the river were level meadows. And on one side of the river he saw a flock of white sheep, and on the other a flock of bl ack sheep. And whenever one of the white sheep bleated, one of the black sheep w ould cross over and [p. 109] become white; and when one of the black sheep bleated, one of the white sheep wo uld cross over and become black. And he saw a tall tree by the side of the river , one half of which was in flames from the root to the top, and the other half w as green and in full leaf. And nigh thereto he saw a youth sitting upon a mound, and two greyhounds, white-breasted and spotted, in leashes, lying by his side. And certain was he that he had never seen a youth of so royal a bearing as he. A nd in the wood opposite he heard hounds raising a herd of deer. And Peredur salu ted the youth, and the youth greeted him in return. And there were three roads l eading from the mound; two of them were wide roads, and the third was more narro w. And Peredur inquired where the three roads went. "One of them goes to my pala ce," said the youth; "and one of two things I counsel thee to do; either to proc eed to my palace, which is before thee, and where thou wilt find my wife, or els e to remain here to see the hounds chasing the roused deer from the wood to the plain. And thou shalt see the best greyhounds thou didst ever behold, and the bo ldest in the chase, kill them by the water beside us; and when it is time to go to meat, my page will come with my horse to meet me, and thou shalt rest in my p alace to-night." "Heaven reward thee; but I cannot tarry, for onward must I go." "The other road leads to the town, which is near here, and wherein food and liq uor may be bought; and the road which is narrower than the others goes towards t he cave of the Addanc." "With thy permission, young man, I will go that way."

And Peredur went towards the cave. And he took the stone in his left hand, and h is lance in his right. And as he went in he perceived the Addanc, and he pierced him through with his lance, and cut off his head. And as he came from the cave, behold the three companions were at the entrance; and they saluted Peredur, and told him that there was a prediction that he should slay that monster. And Pere dur gave the head to the young men, and they offered [p. 110] him in marriage whichever of the three sisters he might choose, and half their k ingdom with her. "I came not hither to woo," said Peredur, "but if peradventure I took a wife, I should prefer your sister to all others." And Peredur rode forw ard, and he heard a noise behind him. And he looked back, and saw a man upon a r ed horse, with red armour upon him; and the man rode up by his side, and saluted him, and wished him the favour of Heaven and of man. And Peredur greeted the yo uth kindly. "Lord, I come to make a request unto thee." "What wouldest thou?" "T hat thou shouldest take me as thine attendant." "Whom then should I take as my a ttendant, if I did so?" "I will not conceal from thee what kindred I am of. Etly m Gleddyv Coch am I called, an Earl from the East Country." "I marvel that thou shouldest offer to become attendant to a man whose possessions are no greater t han thine own; for I have but an earldom like thyself. But since thou desirest t o be my attendant, I will take thee joyfully." And they went forward to the Court of the Countess, and all they of the Court we re glad at their coming; and they were told it was not through disrespect they w ere placed below the household, but that such was the usage of the Court. For, w hoever should overthrow the three hundred men of her household, would sit next t he Countess, and she would love him above all men. And Peredur having overthrown the three hundred men of her household, sat down beside her, and the Countess s aid, "I thank Heaven that I have a youth so fair and so valiant as thou, since I have not obtained the man whom best I love." "Who is he whom best thou lovest?" "By my faith, Etlym Gleddyv Coch is the man whom I love best, and I have never seen him." "Of a truth, Etlym is my companion; and behold here he is, and for hi s sake did I come to joust with thy household. And he could have done so better than I, had it pleased him. And I do give thee unto him." "Heaven reward thee, f air youth, and I will take the man whom I love above all others." And the Counte ss became Etlym's bride from that moment. [p. 111] And the next day Peredur set forth towards the Mound of Mourning. "By thy hand, lord, but I will go with thee," said Etlym. Then they went forwards till they ca me in sight of the mound and the tents. "Go unto yonder men," said Peredur to Et lym, "and desire them to come and do me homage." So Etlym went unto them, and sa id unto them thus,--"Come and do homage to my lord." "Who is thy lord?" said the y. "Peredur with the long lance is my lord," said Etlym. "Were it permitted to s lay a messenger, thou shouldest not go back to thy lord alive, for making unto K ings, and Earls, and Barons so arrogant a demand as to go and do him homage." Pe redur desired him to go back to them, and to give them their choice, either to d o him homage, or to do battle with him. And they chose rather to do battle. And that day Peredur overthrew the owners of a hundred tents; and the next day he ov erthrew the owners of a hundred more; and the third day the remaining hundred to ok counsel to do homage to Peredur. And Peredur inquired of them, wherefore they were there. And they told him they were guarding the serpent until he should di e. "For then should we fight for the stone among ourselves, and whoever should b e conqueror among us would have the stone." "Await here," said Peredur, "and I w ill go to encounter the serpent." "Not so, lord," said they; "we will go altoget her to encounter the serpent." "Verily," said Peredur, "that will I not permit; for if the serpent be slain, I shall derive no more fame therefrom than one of y ou." Then he went to the place where the serpent was, and slew it, and came back

to them, and said, "Reckon up what you have spent since you have been here, and I will repay you to the full." And he paid to each what he said was his claim. And he required of them only that they should acknowledge themselves his vassals . And he said to Etlym, "Go back unto her whom thou lovest best, and I will go f orwards, and I will reward thee for having been my attendant." And he gave Etlym the stone. "Heaven repay thee and prosper thee," said Etlym. And Peredur rode thence, and he came to the fairest valley [p. 112] he had ever seen, through which ran a river; and there he beheld many tents of v arious colours. And he marvelled still more at the number of water-mills and of wind-mills that he saw. And there rode up with him a tall auburn-haired man, in workman's garb, and Peredur inquired of him who he was. "I am the chief miller," said he, "of all the mills yonder." "Wilt thou give me lodging?" said Peredur. "I will, gladly," he answered. And Peredur came to the miller's house, and the m iller had a fair and pleasant dwelling. And Peredur asked money as a loan from t he miller, that he might buy meat and liquor for himself and for the household, and he promised that he would pay him again ere he went thence. And he inquired of the miller, wherefore such a multitude was there assembled. Said the miller t o Peredur, "One thing is certain: either thou art a man from afar, or thou art b eside thyself. The Empress of Cristinobyl the Great is here; and she will have n o one but the man who is most valiant; for riches does she not require. And it w as impossible to bring food for so many thousands as are here, therefore were al l these mills constructed." And that night they took their rest. And the next day Peredur arose, and he equipped himself and his horse for the to urnament. And among the other tents he beheld one, which was the fairest he had ever seen. And he saw a beauteous maiden leaning her head out of a window of the tent, and he had never seen a maiden more lovely than she. And upon her was a g arment of satin. And he gazed fixedly on the maiden, and began to love her great ly. And he remained there, gazing upon the maiden from morning until mid-day, an d from mid-day until evening; and then the tournament was ended and he went to h is lodging and drew off his armour. Then he asked money of the miller as a loan, and the miller's wife was wroth with Peredur; nevertheless, the miller lent him the money. And the next day he did in like manner as he had done the day before . And at night he came to his lodging, and took money as a loan from the miller. And the third day, as he was in the same place, gazing upon the maiden, he felt a hard blow [p. 113] between the neck and the shoulder, from the edge of an axe. And when he looked b ehind him, he saw that it was the miller; and the miller said to him, "Do one of two things: either turn thy head from hence, or go to the tournament." And Pere dur smiled on the miller, and went to the tournament; and all that encountered h im that day he overthrew. And as many as he vanquished he sent as a gift to the Empress, and their horses and arms he sent as a gift to the wife of the miller, in payment of the borrowed money. Peredur attended the tournament until all were overthrown, and he sent all the men to the prison of the Empress, and the horse s and arms to the wife of the miller, in payment of the borrowed money. And the Empress sent to the Knight of the Mill, to ask him to come and visit her. And Pe redur went not for the first nor for the second message. And the third time she sent a hundred knights to bring him against his will, and they went to him and t old him their mission from the Empress. And Peredur fought well with them, and c aused them to be bound like stags, and thrown into the mill-dyke. And the Empres s sought advice of a wise man who was in her counsel; and he said to her, "With thy permission, I will go to him myself." So he came to Peredur, and saluted him , and besought him, for the sake of the lady of his love, to come and visit the

Empress. And they went, together with the miller. And Peredur went and sat down in the outer chamber of the tent, and she came and placed herself by his side. A nd there was but little discourse between them. And Peredur took his leave, and went to his lodging. And the next day he came to visit her, and when he came into the tent there was no one chamber less decorated than the others. And they knew not where he would sit. And Peredur went and sat beside the Empress, and discoursed with her courte ously. And while they were thus, they beheld a black man enter with a goblet ful l of wine in his hand. And he dropped upon his knee before the Empress, and beso ught her to give it to no one who would not fight with him for it. And she looke d upon Peredur. "Lady," said he, [p. 114] [paragraph continues] "bestow on me the goblet." And Peredur drank the wine, and gave the goblet to the miller's wife. And while they were thus, behold there en tered a black man of larger stature than the other, with a wild beast's claw in his hand, wrought into the form of a goblet and filled with wine. And he present ed it to the Empress, and besought her to give it to no one but the man who woul d fight with him. "Lady," said Peredur, "bestow it on me." And she gave it to hi m. And Peredur drank the wine, and sent the goblet to the wife of the miller. An d while they were thus, behold a rough-looking, crisp-haired man, taller than ei ther of the others, came in with a bowl in his hand full of wine; and he bent up on his knee, and gave it into the hands of the Empress, and he besought her to g ive it to none but him who would fight with him for it; and she gave it to Pered ur, and he sent it to the miller's wife. And that night Peredur returned to his lodging; and the next day he accoutred himself and his horse, and went to the me adow and slew the three men. Then Peredur proceeded to the tent, and the Empress said to him, "Goodly Peredur, remember the faith thou didst pledge me when I ga ve thee the stone, and thou didst kill the Addanc." "Lady," answered he, "thou s ayest truth, I do remember it." And Peredur was entertained by the Empress fourt een years, as the story relates.

Arthur was at Caerlleon upon Usk, his principal palace; and in the centre of the floor of the hall were four men sitting on a carpet of velvet, Owain the son of Urien, and Gwalchmai the son of Gwyar, and Howel the son of Emyr Llydaw , and P eredur of the long lance. And thereupon they saw a black curly-headed maiden ent er, riding upon a yellow mule, with jagged thongs in her hand to urge it on; and having a rough and hideous aspect. Blacker were her face and her two hands than the blackest iron covered with pitch; and her hue was not more frightful than h er form. High cheeks had she, and a face lengthened downwards, and a short nose with distended nostrils. And one eye was of [p. 115] a piercing mottled grey, and the other was as black as jet, deep-sunk in her hea d. And her teeth were long and yellow, more yellow were they than the flower of the broom. And her stomach rose from the breast-bone, higher than her chin. And her back was in the shape of a crook, and her legs were large and bony. And her figure was very thin and spare, except her feet and her legs, which were of huge size. And she greeted Arthur and all his household except Peredur. And to Pered ur she spoke harsh and angry words. "Peredur, I greet thee not, seeing that thou dost not merit it. Blind was fate in giving thee fame and favour. When thou was t in the Court of the Lame King, and didst see there the youth bearing the strea ming spear, from the points of which were drops of blood flowing in streams, eve n to the hand of the youth, and many other wonders likewise, thou didst not inqu ire their meaning nor their cause. Hadst thou done so, the King would have been

restored to health, and his dominions to peace. Whereas from henceforth, he will have to endure battles and conflicts, and his knights will perish, and wives wi ll be widowed, and maidens will be left portionless, and all this is because of thee." Then said she unto Arthur, "May it please thee, lord, my dwelling is far hence, in the stately castle of which thou hast heard, and therein are five hund red and sixty-six knights of the order of Chivalry, and the lady whom best he lo ves with each; and whoever would acquire fame in arms, and encounters, and confl icts, he will gain it there, if he deserve it. And whoso would reach the summit of fame and of honour, I know where he may find it. There is a castle on a lofty mountain, and there is a maiden therein, and she is detained a prisoner there, and whoever shall set her free will attain the summit of the fame of the world." And thereupon she rode away. Said Gwalchmai, "By my faith, I will not rest tranquilly until I have proved if I can release the maiden." And many of Arthur's household joined themselves with him. Then, likewise, said Peredur, "By my faith, I will not rest tranquilly unt il I know the story and the meaning of the lance [p. 116] whereof the black maiden spoke." And while they were equipping themselves, behol d a knight came to the gate. And he had the size and the strength of a warrior, and was equipped with arms and habiliments. And he went forward, and saluted Art hur and all his household, except Gwalchmai. And the knight had upon his shoulde r a shield, ingrained with gold, with a fesse of azure blue upon it, and his who le armour was of the same hue. And he said to Gwalchmai, "Thou didst slay my lor d by thy treachery and deceit, and that will I prove upon thee." Then Gwalchmai rose up. "Behold," said he, "here is my gage against thee, to maintain, either i n this place or wherever else thou wilt, that I am not a traitor or deceiver." " Before the King whom I obey, will I that my encounter with thee take place," sai d the knight. "Willingly," said Gwalchmai; "go forward, and I will follow thee." So the knight went forth, and Gwalchmai accoutred himself, and there was offere d unto him abundance of armour, but he would take none but his own. And when Gwa lchmai and Peredur were equipped, they set forth to follow him, by reason of the ir fellowship and of the great friendship that was between them. And they did no t go after him in company together, but each went his own way. At the dawn of day Gwalchmai came to a valley, and in the valley he saw a fortre ss, and within the fortress a vast palace and lofty towers around it. And he beh eld a knight coming out to hunt from the other side, mounted on a spirited black snorting palfrey, that advanced at a prancing pace, proudly stepping, and nimbl y bounding, and sure of foot; and this was the man to whom the palace belonged. And Gwalchmai saluted him. "Heaven prosper thee, chieftain," said he, "and whenc e comest thou?" "I come," answered Gwalchmai, "from the Court of Arthur." "And a rt thou Arthur's vassal?" "Yes, by my faith," said Gwalchmai. "I will give thee good counsel," said the knight. "I see that thou art tired and weary; go unto my palace, if it may please thee, and tarry there to-night." "Willingly, lord," sa id he, "and Heaven reward thee." "Take this ring as a token to the [p. 117] porter, and go forward to yonder tower, and therein thou wilt find my sister." A nd Gwalchmai went to the gate, and showed the ring, and proceeded to the tower. And on entering he beheld a large blazing fire, burning without smoke and with a bright and lofty flame, and a beauteous and stately maiden was sitting on a cha ir by the fire. And the maiden was glad at his coming, and welcomed him, and adv anced to meet him. And he went and sat beside the maiden, and they took their re past. And when their repast was over, they discoursed pleasantly together. And w hile they were thus, behold there entered a venerable hoary-headed man. "Ah! bas e girl," said he, "if thou didst think it was right for thee to entertain and to

sit by yonder man, thou wouldest not do so." And he withdrew his head, and went forth. "Ah! chieftain," said the maiden, "if thou wilt do as I counsel thee, th ou wilt shut the door, lest the man should have a plot against thee." Upon that Gwalchmai arose, and when he came near unto the door, the man, with sixty others , fully armed, were ascending the tower. And Gwalchmai defended the door with a chessboard, that none might enter until the man should return from the chase. An d thereupon, behold the Earl arrived. "What is all this?" asked he. "It is a sad thing," said the hoary-headed man; "the young girl yonder has been sitting and eating with him who slew your father. He is Gwalchmai, the son of Gwyar." "Hold thy peace, then," said the Earl, "I will go in." And the Earl was joyful concern ing Gwalchmai. "Ha! chieftain," said he, "it was wrong of thee to come to my cou rt, when thou knewest that thou didst slay my father; and though we cannot aveng e him, Heaven will avenge him upon thee." "My soul," said Gwalchmai, "thus it is : I came not here either to acknowledge or to deny having slain thy father; but I am on a message from Arthur, and therefore do I crave the space of a year unti l I shall return from my embassy, and then, upon my faith, I will come back unto this palace, and do one of two things, either acknowledge it, or deny it." And the time was granted him willingly; and he remained [p. 118] there that night. And the next morning he rode forth. And the story relates noth ing further of Gwalchmai respecting this adventure. And Peredur rode forward. And he wandered over the whole island, seeking tidings of the black maiden, and he could meet with none. And he came to an unknown lan d, in the centre of a valley, watered by a river. And as he traversed the valley he beheld a horseman coming towards him, and wearing the garments of a priest; and he besought his blessing. "Wretched man," said he, "thou meritest no blessin g, and thou wouldest not be profited by one, seeing that thou art clad in armour on such a day as this." "And what day is to-day?" said Peredur. "To-day is Good Friday," he answered. "Chide me not that I knew not this, seeing that it is a y ear to-day since I journeyed forth from my country." Then he dismounted, and led his horse in his hand. And he had not proceeded far along the high road before he came to a cross road, and the cross road traversed a wood. And on the other s ide of the wood he saw an unfortified castle, which appeared to be inhabited. An d at the gate of the castle there met him the priest whom he had seen before, an d he asked his blessing. "The blessing of Heaven be unto thee," said he, "it is more fitting to travel in thy present guise than as thou wast erewhile; and this night thou shalt tarry with me." So he remained there that night. And the next day Peredur sought to go forth. "To-day may no one journey. Thou sh alt remain with me to-day and to-morrow, and the day following, and I will direc t thee as best I may to the place which thou art seeking." And the fourth day Pe redur sought to go forth, and he entreated the priest to tell him how he should find the Castle of Wonders. "What I know thereof I will tell thee," he replied. "Go over yonder mountain, and on the other side of the mountain thou wilt come t o a river, and in the valley wherein the river runs is a King's palace, wherein the King sojourned during Easter. And if thou mayest have tidings anywhere of th e Castle of Wonders, thou wilt have them there." [p. 119] Then Peredur rode forward. And he came to the valley in which was the river, and there met him a number of men going to hunt, and in the midst of them was a man of exalted rank, and Peredur saluted him. "Choose, chieftain," said the man, "w hether thou wilt go with me to the chase, or wilt proceed to my palace, and I wi ll dispatch one of my household to commend thee to my daughter, who is there, an d who will entertain thee with food and liquor until I return from hunting; and whatever may be thine errand, such as I can obtain for thee thou shalt gladly ha

ve." And the King sent a little yellow page with him as an attendant; and when t hey came to the palace the lady had arisen, and was about to wash before meat. P eredur went forward, and she saluted him joyfully, and placed him by her side. A nd they took their repast. And whatsoever Peredur said unto her, she laughed lou dly, so that all in the palace could hear. Then spoke the yellow page to the lad y. "By my faith," said he, "this youth is already thy husband; or if he be not, thy mind and thy thoughts are set upon him." And the little yellow page went unt o the King, and told him that it seemed to him that the youth whom he had met wi th was his daughter's husband, or if he were not so already that he would shortl y become so unless he were cautious. "What is thy counsel in this matter, youth? " said the King. "My counsel is," he replied, "that thou set strong men upon him , to seize him, until thou hast ascertained the truth respecting this." So he se t strong men upon Peredur, who seized him and cast him into prison. And the maid en went before her father, and asked him wherefore he had caused the youth from Arthur's Court to be imprisoned. "In truth," he answered, "he shall not be free to-night, nor to-morrow, nor the day following, and he shall not come from where he is." She replied not to what the King had said, but she went to the youth. " Is it unpleasant to thee to be here?" said she. "I should not care if I were not ," he replied. "Thy couch and thy treatment shall be in no wise inferior to that of the King himself, and thou shalt have the best entertainment that the palace affords. And if [p. 120] it were more pleasing to thee that my couch should be here, that I might discour se with thee, it should be so, cheerfully." "This can I not refuse," said Peredu r. And he remained in prison that night. And the maiden provided all that she ha d promised him. And the next day Peredur heard a tumult in the town. "Tell me, fair maiden, what is that tumult?" said Peredur. "All the King's hosts and his forces have come t o the town to-day." "And what seek they here?" he inquired. "There is an Earl ne ar this place who possesses two Earldoms, and is as powerful as a King; and an e ngagement will take place between them to-day." "I beseech thee," said Peredur, "to cause a horse and arms to be brought, that I may view the encounter, and I p romise to come back to my prison again." "Gladly," said she, "will I provide the e with horse and arms." So she gave him a horse and arms, and a bright scarlet r obe of honour over his armour, and a yellow shield upon his shoulder. And he wen t to the combat; and as many of the Earl's men as encountered him that day he ov erthrew; and he returned to his prison. And the maiden asked tidings of Peredur, and he answered her not a word. And she went and asked tidings of her father, a nd inquired who had acquitted himself best of the household. And he said that he knew not, but that it was a man with a scarlet robe of honour over his armour, and a yellow shield upon his shoulder. Then she smiled, and returned to where Pe redur was, and did him great honour that night. And for three days did Peredur s lay the Earl's men; and before any one could know who he was, he returned to his prison. And the fourth day Peredur slew the Earl himself. And the maiden went u nto her father, and inquired of him the news. "I have good news for thee," said the King; "the Earl is slain, and I am the owner of his two Earldoms." "Knowest thou, lord, who slew him?" "I do not know," said the King. "It was the knight wi th the scarlet robe of honour and the yellow shield." "Lord," said she, "I know who that is." "By Heaven!" he exclaimed, "who is he?" "Lord," she replied, "he i s the knight whom [p. 121] thou hast imprisoned." Then he went unto Peredur, and saluted him, and told him that he would reward the service he had done him, in any way he might desire. An d when they went to meat, Peredur was placed beside the King, and the maiden on the other side of Peredur. "I will give thee," said the King, "my daughter in ma

rriage, and half my kingdom with her, and the two Earldoms as a gift." "Heaven r eward thee, lord," said Peredur, "but I came not here to woo." "What seekest tho u then, chieftain?" "I am seeking tidings of the Castle of Wonders." "Thy enterp rise is greater, chieftain, than thou wilt wish to pursue," said the maiden, "ne vertheless, tidings shalt thou have of the Castle, and thou shalt have a guide t hrough my father's dominions, and a sufficiency of provisions for thy journey, f or thou art, O chieftain, the man whom best I love." Then she said to him, "Go o ver yonder mountain, and thou wilt find a lake, and in the middle of the lake th ere is a Castle, and that is the Castle that is called the Castle of Wonders; an d we know not what wonders are therein, but thus is it called." And Peredur proceeded towards the Castle, and the gate of the Castle was open. A nd when he came to the hall, the door was open, and he entered. And he beheld a chessboard in the hall, and the chessmen were playing against each other, by th emselves. And the side that he favoured lost the game, and thereupon the others set up a shout, as though they had been living men. And Peredur was wroth, and t ook the chessmen in his lap, and cast the chessboard into the lake. And when he had done thus, behold the black maiden came in, and she said to him, "The welcom e of Heaven be not unto thee. Thou hadst rather do evil than good." "What compla int hast thou against me, maiden?" said Peredur. "That thou hast occasioned unto the Empress the loss of her chessboard, which she would not have lost for all h er empire. And the way in which thou mayest recover the chessboard is, to repair to the Castle of Ysbidinongyl, where is a black man, who lays waste the dominio ns of the [p. 122] [paragraph continues] Empress; and if thou canst slay him, thou wilt recover the chessboard. But if thou goest there, thou wilt not return alive." "Wilt thou di rect me thither?" said Peredur. "I will show thee the way," she replied. So he w ent to the Castle of Ysbidinongyl, and he fought with the black man. And the bla ck man besought mercy of Peredur. "Mercy will I grant thee," said he, "on condit ion that thou cause the chessboard to be restored to the place where it was when I entered the hall." Then the maiden came to him, and said, "The malediction of Heaven attend thee for thy work, since thou hast left that monster alive, who l ays waste all the possessions of the Empress." "I granted him his life," said Pe redur, "that he might cause the chessboard to be restored." "The chessboard is n ot in the place where thou didst find it; go back, therefore, and slay him," ans wered she. So Peredur went back, and slew the black man. And when he returned to the palace, he found the black maiden there. "Ah! maiden," said Peredur, "where is the Empress?" "I declare to Heaven that thou wilt not see her now, unless th ou dost slay the monster that is in yonder forest." "What monster is there?" "It is a stag that is as swift as the swiftest bird; and he has one horn in his for ehead, as long as the shaft of a spear, and as sharp as whatever is sharpest. An d he destroys the branches of the best trees in the forest, and he kills every a nimal that he meets with therein; and those that he doth not slay perish of hung er. And what is worse than that, he comes every night, and drinks up the fish-po nd, and leaves the fishes exposed, so that for the most part they die before the water returns again." "Maiden," said Peredur, "wilt thou come and show me this animal?" "Not so," said the maiden, "for he has not permitted any mortal to ente r the forest for above a twelvemonth. Behold, here is a little dog belonging to the Empress, which will rouse the stag, and will chase him towards thee, and the stag will attack thee." Then the little dog went as a guide to Peredur, and rou sed the stag, and brought him towards the place where Peredur [p. 123] was. And the stag attacked Peredur, and he let him pass by him, and as he did so , he smote off his head with his sword. And while he was looking at the head of the stag, he saw a lady on horseback coming towards him. And she took the little

dog in the lappet of her cap, and the head and the body of the stag lay before her. And around the stag's neck was a golden collar. "Ha! chieftain," said she, "uncourteously hast thou acted in slaying the fairest jewel that was in my domin ions." "I was entreated so to do; and is there any way by which I can obtain thy friendship?" "There is," she replied. "Go thou forward unto yonder mountain, an d there thou wilt find a grove; and in the grove there is a cromlech; do thou th ere challenge a man three times to fight, and thou shalt have my friendship." So Peredur proceeded onward, and came to the side of the grove, and challenged a ny man to fight. And a black man arose from beneath the cromlech, mounted upon a bony horse, and both he and his horse were clad in huge rusty armour. And they fought. And as often as Peredur cast the black man to the earth, he would jump a gain into his saddle. And Peredur dismounted, and drew his sword; and thereupon the black man disappeared with Peredur's horse and his own, so that he could not gain sight of him a second time. And Peredur went along the mountain, and on th e other side of the mountain he beheld a castle in the valley, wherein was a riv er. And he went to the castle; and as he entered it, he saw a hall, and the door of the hall was open, and he went in. And there he saw a lame grey-headed man s itting on one side of the hall, with Gwalchmai beside him. And Peredur beheld hi s horse, which the black man had taken, in the same stall with that of Gwalchmai . And they were glad concerning Peredur. And he went and seated himself on the o ther side of the hoary-headed man. Then, behold a yellow-haired youth came, and bent upon the knee before Peredur, and besought his friendship. "Lord," said the youth, "it was I that came in the form of the black maiden to Arthur's Court, a nd when thou didst throw down [p. 124] the chessboard, and when thou didst slay the black man of Ysbidinongyl, and when thou didst slay the stag, and when thou didst go to fight the black man of the cromlech. And I came with the bloody head in the salver, and with the lance that streamed with blood from the point to the hand, all along the shaft; and the he ad was thy cousin's, and he was killed by the sorceresses of Gloucester, who als o lamed thine uncle; and I am thy cousin. And there is a prediction that thou ar t to avenge these things." Then Peredur and Gwalchmai took counsel, and sent to Arthur and his household, to beseech them to come against the sorceresses. And t hey began to fight with them; and one of the sorceresses slew one of Arthur's me n before Peredur's face, and Peredur bade her forbear. And the sorceress slew a man before Peredur's face a second time, and a second time he forbad her. And th e third time the sorceress slew a man before the face of Peredur; and then Pered ur drew his sword, and smote the sorceress on the helmet; and all her head-armou r was split in two parts. And she set up a cry, and desired the other sorceresse s to flee, and told them that this was Peredur, the man who had learnt Chivalry with them, and by whom they were destined to be slain. Then Arthur and his house hold fell upon the sorceresses, and slew the sorceresses of Gloucester every one . And thus is it related concerning the Castle of Wonders.

The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 125]


OF the real history of Peredur, nothing is known. It is probable that he fell in the battle of Cattraeth, in the beginning of the 6th century, as Aneurin mentio ns a chieftain of this name among the slain. "Warriors marched forth,--unanimously they bounded forward;-Short-lived were they,--they had revelled over the flowing mead ; The host of Mynyddawc renowned in battle; Their life was the price of their banquet. Caradawc, and Madawc, Pyll, and Yeuan, Gwgawn, and Gwiawn, Gwynn, and Kynvan, Peredur of steel arms, Gwawrdur, and Aedan. A defence in the tumult, a shield in the conflict; When they were slain they also slaughtered. None to his home returned." [p. 126] Peredur is frequently alluded trative of the high esteem in d ab Meredydd, who flourished Tudur ap Goronwy, one of the :-to by the which his about the ancestors Bards of the Middle Ages, in terms illus deeds of prowess then were held. Gruffyd end of the 13th century, in his Elegy on of the House of Tudor, thus mentions him

"O Bountiful Creator of the radiant sun and waning moon, Sad is the fall of the chief of valiant deeds, Eagle of the battle-charge, equal to Peredur, Tudor, assaulter of the Angles, he who never shunned the fight. " In the old Romances, as Morte d'Arthur, &c., be is celebrated, under the name of Perceval, as one of those engaged in the quest of the Sangreal , in which character he is also spoken of in the Triads, together with Bort, the son of the King of that name, and Galath, the son of Lancelot du Lac.--Tri. lxi . Myv. Ar. II. 14. Like Owain, his exploits were sung by Chrestiens de Troyes, and they also form t he subject of romantic compositions in German, and in other languages of Norther n Europe. Our own Chaucer alludes to him in his Rime of Sire Thopas, Cant. Tales , 1384-5-Himself drank water of the well, As did the Knight, Sire Percivell, So worthy under wede."

81b ATTENDING TOURNAMENTS.--Page <page 81>. WE find various instances of knights, who made it a practice to resort to Tourna ments as a lucrative occupation; for, on those occasions, not only the home and arms of the vanquished frequently became the property of the victor, but the pri zes contested for were often of so valuable a nature as greatly to enrich those who were fortunate enough to win them. Sometimes they consisted of diamonds and precious stones, and sometimes even of the revenues of different domains. [*1] I n the Romance of Ipomydon, "a thousand pound" is the guerdon bestowed on the suc cessful combatant. Our Henry the VII. proposed a ring of gold, set with a ruby,

and another set with a diamond, as the reward of the rious at a Tournament at which he was to be present. eristic story on record of the Chevalier Bayard, who of these occasions, refused to take the prize, which ducats attached to a lady's [p. 127]

knights who should be victo [*2] And there is a charact being the conqueror on one was a ruby worth a hundred

sleeve, saying that the honour of the victory was entirely due to the sleeve, fo r which he had contended. The ruby was accordingly presented to the knight who h ad acquitted himself best after Bayard, and the lady herself resumed possession of the sleeve, declaring that after what Bayard had said, she should keep it all her life for his sake. [*1]

81c WARS AND COMBATS.--Page <page 81>. FROM this passage we may probably infer that Evrawc was one of those knights who , during the Middle Ages, ranked themselves under the banners of such princes as were disposed to engage their services. Many of these adventurers were held in high estimation, and Froissart, in speaking of Sir John Hawkwood, who was one of the most distinguished of them, calls him "a right valiant English knight who h ad performed many most gallant deeds of arms." He gives the following account of Hawkwood's progress, from which an idea may be formed of the emoluments that ac crued to those mercenary bands, and of the manner in which they were employed. "He had left France at the conclusion of the peace of Bretigny, and was at that time a poor knight, who thought it would not be of any advantage to him to retur n home; but when he saw, that by the treaties, all men-at-arms would be forced t o leave France, he put himself at the head of those free companions called latecomers, and marched into Burgundy. Several such companions, composed of English, Gascons, Bretons, Germans, and of men from every nation, were collected there. Hawkwood was one of the principal leaders, with Bricquet and Carnelle, by whom t he battle of Brignais was fought, and who aided Bernard de la Salle to take the Pont du St. Esprit. "When they had harassed the country for some time, the marquis de Montferrat mad e a treaty with them to assist him in his war with the lords of Milan. This marq uis led them over the Alps, after he had paid them sixty thousand francs, of whi ch Hawkwood received, for himself and his troops, ten thousand. When they had fi nished the war for the marquis, the greater part of them returned to France; for sir Bertrand du Guesclin, the lords de la Marche, de Beaujeu, and sir Arnold d' Andreghen, marshal of France, wished to lead them into Spain, to don Henry de Tr astamare, against don Pedro, king of Spain. Sir John Hawkwood and his companions remained in Italy, and [p. 128] were employed by pope Urban as long as he lived, in his wars in the Milanese. Po pe Gregory, successor to Urban, engaged him in the same manner. Sir John had als o a profitable employment, under the lord de Coucy, against the count de Vertus and his barons; in which, some say, the lord de Coucy would have been slain, if sir John Hawkwood had not come to his assistance with five hundred combatants, w hich he was solely induced to do because the lord de Coucy had married one of th e king of England's daughters. This sir John Hawkwood was a knight much inured t o war, which he had long followed, and had gained great renown in Italy from his gallantry.

"The Romans, therefore, and Urban, who called himself leaving Italy, to send for Hawkwood, and appoint him their forces: they made him large offers of retaining a handsome subsidy, which he accepted, and acquitted Johnes's Froissart, 4to. II. c. 97.

pope, resolved, on Clement commander-in-chief of all him and his whole troop at himself loyally for it."--

82a THEY ARE ANGELS, MY SON.--Page <page 82>. INCIDENTS similar to that in the text are of frequent occurrence in the old Roma nces. St. John of Damascus, a Greek writer of the 8th century, has a story of a youth brought up in utter ignorance of all worldly affairs, in order to evade a prophecy which existed against him. Here, however, the compliment paid by Peredu r's mother to the knights, in calling them Angels, is far from being returned to her sex. For, in describing to him all the objects he meets on his first going out, and mixing with the world, the Greek writer makes the young man's father ap ply an appellation to the ladies, which is the very reverse of angelic. There is another story to the same effect, in a Latin Collection of Materials fo r composing Sermons, by John Herolt, sirnamed Discipulus, a Dominican friar of B asil, who flourished about 1450. [*1] From these the idea has been adopted and worked up by the Italian novelist.

83a POSSESS THYSELF OF IT, AND GIVE IT TO ANOTHER.--Page <page 83>. THE ideas of liberality entertained in the days of Chivalry were often widely at variance with every principle of justice. That the advice given to Peredur by h is mother was consistent with the [p. 129] feelings of the day, may be gathered from various passages in the works of conte mporary writers. An amusing anecdote, illustrative of this, is thus quoted by Mr . Hallam, from Joinville's celebrated History of St. Louis. "He is speaking of Henry count of Champagne, who acquired, says he, very deserve dly, the sirname of Liberal, and adduces the following proof of it:-A poor knight implored of him on his knees one day as much money as would serve to marry his two daughters. One Arthault de Nogent, a rich burgess, willing to r id the count, of this importunity, but rather awkward, we must own, in the turn of big argument, said to the petitioner: My lord has already given away so much that he has nothing left. Sir Villain, replied Henry, turning round to him, you do not speak truth, in saying that I have nothing left to give, when I have got yourself. Here, Sir Knight, I give you this man and warrant your possession of h im. Then, says Joinville, the poor knight was not at all confounded, but seized hold of the burgess fast by the collar, and told him he should not go till he ha d ransomed himself. And in the end he was forced to pay a ransom of five hundred pounds. The simple-minded writer who brings this evidence of the count of Champ agne's liberality is not at all struck with the facility of a virtue that is exe rcised at the cost of others." [*1]

85a THROUGH MAGIC OR CHARMS.--Page <page 85>.

THE dread of supernatural agency has in all ages exerted a powerful influence ov er the human mind. Even in the present day, instances are not wanting of men of the most approved natural courage, quailing with fear at the idea of an invisibl e enemy. It must, therefore, not be surprising, if, in less enlightened times, w e find this superstitious feeling interfering still more generally with the comm on affairs of life. So decidedly was it acknowledged in the Middle Ages, that a solemn oath was required to be taken by every knight previous to his engaging in wager of battle, that he did not bear about him any charm or spell, and that he was not protected by magic or enchantment.

86b THIS IRON COAT.--Page <page 86>. IN the English version, Perceval, after several vain attempts to [p. 130] disencumber the dead knight of his armour, betakes himself to rather a curious e xpedient for effecting his object:-"He sayd my moder bad me, When my dart solde broken be, Owte of ye Iren bren ye tree Now es me fyre ynede. Now he getis hy flynt, His fyre Iren he hent, And yen wt owtten any stynt, He kyndilt a glede."

86a BETWEEN THE NECK AND THE SHOULDER.--Page <page 86>. IT should seem that this was a favourite point of attack in the energetic encoun ters of those days; for in the Morte d'Arthur we meet with a similar expression to the above. It is stated, that when Arthur first assumed the government of Bri tain, several kings and knights would not acknowledge his authority, and assembl ed in order to oppose him. Believing their visit to have a friendly object, he s ent them many valuable presents, which they refused to accept, rebuking "the mes sagers shamefully," and sending Arthur "word, they wold none of his yeftes. But that they were come to gyue hym yeftes with hard swerdys betwixt the neck and th e sholders."--B. I. c. 8.

89a STAPLE.--Page <page 89>. THIS was, probably, a staple for fastening horses to, as it is well known that t he horses were often brought into the hall among the guests. In the account of t he thirteen rarities of the Island of Britain, as enumerated in an unpublished M S. in the possession of Mr. Justice Bosanquet, it is said that one chieftain had the staple for holding his horse at the foot of his bed. "The halter of Clydno Eiddyn, which was in a staple below the feet of his bed; a nd whatever horse he wished for in it, he would find there." 90a SPEAR OF MIGHTY SIZE.--Page 90.

IN the French version of this tale, the spear here alluded to is said to have be en the Holy Lance, and with it is brought in the celebrated Sangreal. The latter was the great object of research with the Knights of the Round Table, and its r ecovery was ultimately [p. 131] achieved by Perceval of Wales, the Peredur ab Evrawc of Welsh Romance.

94a THE THIRD PART.--Page <page 94>. THIS apportionment is strictly in accordance with ancient Welsh customs; for by the Laws of Howel Dda, it appears the Master of the Royal Household and the Stew ard (Penteulu and Distein), were each entitled to a third part of certain fines there mentioned; to express which portion the same word (trayan) is used as in t he present tale.

98a GWALCHMAI.--Page <page 98>. GWALCHMAI'S reputation for courtesy and eloquence is here admirably kept up, and we find him fully entitled to the appellation of the Golden Tongued, so poetica lly bestowed upon him in the Triads. No less faithfully is Kai's character for t he very opposite quality of detraction sustained.

100a ANGHARAD LAW EURAWC.--Page <page 100>. THIS name literally signifies Angharad with the Golden Hand, an epithet which wa s most probably bestowed on her, to designate her liberality.

100b SPEAK A WORD TO ANY CHRISTIAN AGAIN.--Page <page 100>. DURING the days of Chivalry, vows for the performance of some singular or romant ic feat, of a similar nature with that mentioned in the text, were greatly in vo gue. In an ancient French Poem, entitled Le Voeu du Heron, printed by Ste. Palay e, an amusing instance of this occurs. Robert of Artois presents himself at the Court of Edward the III. and incites th at Monarch to the conquest of France. One day he enters the hall in which the Ki ng and his courtiers are assembled, accompanied by musicians and two noble damse ls, and bearing in great pomp a Heron, which he had killed, and which be ironica lly offers to Edward, as a compensation for the French crown. Edward, roused by the taunt, immediately swears upon the Heron, that the year shall not elapse wit hout his entering France with fire and sword. His nobles follow his example. Amo ng them is the Earl of Salisbury, who is seated by the daughter of the Earl of D erby, to whom he was [p. 132] devotedly attached. He asks the lady to lend him one of her fingers and to place it upon his eye.

"Si pri a la pucelle, de ceur devotement, Qu'elle me preste un doit de sa main seulement, Et methe sur mon oeil destre parfaitement." She is complaisant enough to grant him two fingers, which she p uts upon his eye, so as to close it. Whereupon the Earl makes oath never more to open that eye until he shall have done battle against the army of the French Ki ng. And this he faithfully performs. "Les deux dois, sur l'oeil destre, li mist isnelement, [*1] Et si li a clos l'oeil, et freme [*2] fermement, Et chix [*3] a demande moult gracieusement: Bele, est-il bien clos? Oyl certainement. A dont dist, de la bouche, du ceur le pensement; Et je veu, et prometh a Dieu omnipotent, Et a sa douche mere, que de beaute resplent, Qu'i n'est jamais ouvers, pour ore, [*4] ne pour vent, Pour mal, ne pour martire, ne pour encombrement, [*5] Si seray dedans Franche, ou il a bonne gent, Et si aray le fu [*6] boute entierement, Et serai combatus a grand efforchement, Contre les gens Philype, qui taut a hardement; Je ne sui en bataille prins, par boin ensient, [*7] Bien li ederai [*8] a acomplir son talent: Or aviegne qu'aviegne, car il n'est autrement. Adonc osta son doit la puchelle an cors gent, Et li iex [*9] clos demeure, si ques virent le gent, Et quand Robert l'entent, moult de joie l'enprent. Quant li quens Salebrin ot voue son avis, [*10] Et demoura l'oeil clos en la guerre toudis. Li bers [*11] Robers d'Artois ne s'est mie alentis." [*12] In the same reign, Froissart mentions a number of young bachelo rs who appeared with a bandage over one eye, which they had sworn to their ladie s not to remove until they had distinguished themselves by come deed of prowess against the French. [p. 133] 105a SITTING ON A BENCH.--Page <page 105>. BENCHES were formerly much more general than chairs. Wherever the latter are spo ken of by our old English writers, it appears to have been as an article of luxu ry, and even of magnificence; and is very reason to believe that they were far from being common, even in the houses of the great. No mention whatever is made of chairs in the catalogue of the furniture in the chamber of the Bishop of Winc hester, in 1266, where benches, or forms, are, however, particularly enumerated. "Et de i. mensa cum tressellis in camera dom. episcopi. Et v. formis in eadem ca mera." [*1] This is also the case in the inventory preserved of the goods belonging to Conta rini, a rich Venetian trader, at his house in St Botolph's-lane, A.D. 1481, and in that of the furniture of Skipton Castle, the great honour of the Earls of Cum berland, and one of the most splendid mansions of the North, A.D. 1572. [*2] And the more general use of benches may be gathered from many passages in the el der poets. In the Geste of King Horne, we find,--

"Horne sett him abenche." And in Piers Plowman's Crede, the author, describing the luxury of the monks, tells us of "An halle for an hygh kynge an houshold to holden, With brode bordes abouten, ybenched wel clene." Ellis remarks, that "from this usage our Court of King's Bench had its name." [*3]

107a ADDANC.--Page <page 107>. IN the Triads mention is made of the Addanc, or Avanc of the Lake, as an aquatic monster which exercised a mysterious influence over some tremendous inundation, there alluded to and generally considered to have been the universal deluge, of which event most primitive nations have preserved a traditional recollection. T he drawing of the Avanc from the Lake was an exploit performed by the horned Oxe n of Hu Gadarn, or the Mighty, the hero who is [p. 134] recorded as having first conducted the nation of the Cymry into the Island of Br itain.--See Triad 4. Myv. Arch. II. 57. "The three great exploits of the Island of Britain: The ship of Nevydd Nav Neivi on, which carried in it a male and female of all things living, when the Lake of floods burst forth. And the horned oxen of Hu the Mighty, which drew the Avanc of the Lake to land, so that the Lake burst forth no more. And the stones of Gwy ddon Ganhebon, on which were read all the arts and sciences of the world."--T. 9 7. Myv. Arch. II. 71. There are many popular traditions connected with this event still existing in di fferent parts of the Principality.

110a ETLYM GLEDDYV COCH.--Page <page 110>. LITERALLY, Etlym. with the red sword.

114a HOWEL THE SON OF EMYR LLYDAW.--Page <page 114>. HOWEL, the Prince of Llydaw, or Armorica, distinguished himself greatly in Arthu r's wars against the Romans, and was one of the most strenuous in urging his Sov ereign to resist their unjust claims. When Arthur was called suddenly home, by t he news of Modred's treachery, he left Howel with part of his army in Gaul, to s ecure his possessions in that country. [*1] He was one of the three knights of princely bearing in Arthur's Court, who were so kind and gentle, and so courteous of demeanour, that it was difficult for any one in the world to refuse or deny them anything they asked.--T. 118. Myv. Arch . II. 74.

The Cambrian Biography places Howel's tomb at Llan. Illtyd Vawr, or Lantwit, in Glamorganshire. Emyr Llydaw, Howel's father, was nephew of the celebrated St. Germanus, or Garmo n. A great number of his descendants, headed by Cadvan, emigrated to this countr y from Armorica, and are ranked among the most eminent of the Welsh Saints. [*2] [p. 135] 121a CHESSMEN WERE PLAYING.--Page <page 121>. A CHESSBOARD and men possessed of similar qualities with those in the tale, belo nged to Gwenddolen, the celebrated beauty of Arthur's Court, and are thus descri bed:-"The Chessboard of Gwenddolen; when the men were placed upon it, they would play of themselves. The Chessboard was of gold, and the men of silver."--Bosanquet M S. Something of the same kind occurs in the Romance of Sir Gaheret. That champion i s entertained in the Enchanted Castle of a beautiful Fairy, who engages him in a party at Chess, in a large hall, where flags of black and white marble form the chequer, and the pieces, consisting of massive statues of gold and Silver, move at the touch of the magic rod held by the player. A similar adventure occurs in the Romance of Lancelot du Lac.--II. P. 101. [*1] Footnotes ^126:1 Mem. de Chev. I. 322. ^126:2 Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, 134. ^127:1 Hist. of the Chev. Bayard (Lond. 1825) I. 84. ^128:1 Hist. Eng. Poe. I. ccxxiv. cclxv. ^129:1 Middle Ages, III. 499, 500. ^132:1 Promptement. ^132:2 Ferme. ^132:3 Celui-ci. ^132:4 Temps, heure. ^132:5 Empechement. ^132:6 Feu. ^132:7 A bon escient, savoir ou certitude. ^132:8 Edouard aiderai. ^132:9 Oeil. ^132:10 Souhait, dessein. ^132:11 Baron.

^132:12 Mem Chev. II. 102 103. ^133:1 Warton's Hist. Eng. Poe. 1824. I. 43. ^133:2 Hallam's Middle Ages. Chap. on the State of Society,. 1834. III. 427 Ther e were, however, a few chairs in Mr. Fermor's house at Easton, according to the inventory printed by Strutt. ^133:3 Notes to Way's Fabliaux, I. 222. ^134:1 See Gruffydd ab Arthur, Wace's Brut, Rob. of Glou., &c. The tragical stor y of Howel's niece Helen, the victim of Dinabuc, the Spanish Giant of St. Michae l's Mount, forms a long episode in all these accounts of the expedition against Rome. The St. Michael's Mount here alluded to is that in Normandy. Arthur went t here with no other escort than his two knights, Kai and Bedwer, and had the sati sfaction of overcoming and slaying the Giant, who, from all the descriptions, mu st have been a most fierce and savage monster. ^134:2 See Professor Rees's Essay, p. 213. ^135:1 Sir W. Scott's Notes to Sir Tristram (1811), p. 275. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 136]

NOTICE OF VARIOUS OTHER VERSIONS. THE story of Peredur exists in the French language in two different forms: one o f these is a Metrical Romance, by Chrestien de Troyes, entitled "Perceval le Gal ois," of which several MSS. are deposited in the Bibliotheque du Roi; the other is a Prose Composition, and has appeared in print. This last is of small folio s ize, bearing the date of Paris, March 20, 1529. Copies of it are extremely rare. Of the English Metrical Romance of Perceval, only one ancient copy is known to b e extant. It is contained in a very curious folio MS. on paper, belonging to the library of Lincoln Cathedral, and which from the name of its transcriber, Rober t de Thornton, a monk who lived in the 15th century, is commonly known by the na me of the Thornton MS. Sir Frederick Madden, in his Introduction to the Romance of Sir Gawaine, gives a particular description of the MS. and its contents. I possess a transcript of it, which, by the kind permission of the Chapter, I ma de in 1840. Amongst the various Romances of the Round Table none appears to have enjoyed a l arger share of popularity in Germany than that of Perceval. It is the subject of a poem written by Wolfram von Eschenbach, about the year 1200, which he profess edly derived from a French original totally distinct from that of Chrestien. The author's name is given as Kyot, or Guyot, of Provence; apparently a different p erson from Guyot of Provins, whose satirical poem, written at the same period, i s well known in old French literature. Kyot seems to have been acquainted with t he wild fictions of the Arabic story-tellers in Spain, and to have blended them in his own work with the Welsh legends which, either in Latin or French form, ha d already made their way to Southern France, and were eagerly listened to at the court of Anjou.

Numerous MS. copies of Wolfram's poem are in existence, and a printed edition, n ow of extreme rarity, appeared as early as the [p. 137] end of the 15th century. It is also comprised in Myller's Selection of Ancient P oems, and in Karl Lachmann's edition of Wolfram von Eschenbach's Works. Berlin, 1833. 8vo. Mr. Albert Schulz (San Marte) has published a modern German translati on of it. Magdeburg, 1836. 8vo. The Romance of Peredur is found in Icelandic under the title of the Saga of Perc eval, of which there are copies in the British Museum and in the Royal Library a t Stockholm.

The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 141] Robert's Tower, Cardiff Castle, 1840.

GERAINT THE SON OF ERBIN Arthur was accustomed to hold his Court at Caerlleon upon Usk. And there he held it seven Easters and five Christmases . And once upon a time he held his Court there at Whitsuntide. For Caerlleon was the place most easy of access in his dom inions, both by sea and by land. And there were assembled nine crowned kings, wh o were his tributaries, and likewise earls and barons. For they were his invited guests at all the high festivals, unless they were prevented by any great hindr ance. And when he was at Caerlleon, holding his Court, thirteen churches were se t apart for mass . And thus were they appointed: one church for Arthur, and his kings, and his guests; and the second for Gwenhwyvar and her ladies; and the thi rd for the Steward of the Household and the suitors; and the fourth for the Fra nks and the other officers; and the other nine churches were for the nine Master s of the Household and chiefly for Gwalchmai; for he, from the [p. 142] eminence of his warlike fame, and from the nobleness of his birth, was the most exalted of the nine. And there was no other arrangement respecting the churches than that which we have mentioned above. Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr was the chief porter; but he did not himself perform the off ice, except at one of the three high festivals, for he had seven men to serve hi m, and they divided the year amongst them. They were Grynn, and Pen Pighon, and Llaes Cymyn, and Gogyfwlch, and Gwrdnei with cat's eyes, who could see as well b y night as by day, and Drem the son of Dremhitid, and Clust the son of Clustvein yd; and these were Arthur's guards . And on Whit-Tuesday, as the King sat at the banquet, lo! there entered a tall, fair-headed youth, clad in a coat and a surc oat of diapered satin , and a golden-hilted sword about his neck, and low shoes of leather upon his feet. And he came, and stood before Arthur. "Hail to thee, L ord!" said he. "Heaven prosper thee," he answered, "and be thou welcome. Dost th ou bring any new tidings?" "I do, Lord," he said. "I know thee not," said Arthur . "It is a marvel to me that thou dost not know me. I am one of thy foresters, L ord, in the Forest of Dean , and my name is Madawc, the son of Twrgadarn." "Tell me thine errand," said Arthur. "I will do so, Lord," said he. "In the Forest I

saw a stag, the like of which beheld I never yet." "What is there about him," as ked Arthur, "that thou never yet didst see his like?" "He is of pure white, Lord , and he does not herd with any other animal through stateliness and pride, so r oyal is his bearing. And I come to seek thy counsel, Lord, and to know thy will concerning him." "It seems best to me," said Arthur, "to go and hunt him to-morr ow at break of day; and to cause general notice thereof to be given to-night in all quarters of the Court." And Arryfuerys was Arthur's chief huntsman , and Are livri was his chief page . And all received notice; and thus it was arranged. An d they sent the youth before them. Then Gwenhwyvar said to Arthur , "Wilt thou p ermit me, Lord," said she, "to go to-morrow to see and hear the hunt of the [p. 143] stag of which the young man spoke?" "I will gladly," said Arthur. "Then will I g o," said she. And Gwalchmai said to Arthur, "Lord, if it seem well to thee, perm it that into whose hunt soever the stag shall come, that one, be he a knight, or one on foot, may cut off his head, and give it to whom he pleases , whether to his own lady-love, or to the lady of his friend." "I grant it gladly," said Arth ur, "and let the Steward of the Household be chastised, if all are not ready tomorrow for the chase." And they passed the night with songs, and diversions, and discourse, and ample e ntertainment. And when it was time for them all to go to sleep, they went. And w hen the next day came, they arose; and Arthur called the attendants, who guarded his couch. And these were four pages, whose names were Cadyrnerth the son of Po rthawr Gandwy , and Ambreu the son of Bedwor, and Amhar the son of Arthur, and G oreu the son of Custennin . And these men came to Arthur and saluted him, and ar rayed him in his garments. And Arthur wondered that Gwenhwyvar did not awake, an d did not move in her bed; and the attendants wished to awaken her. "Disturb her not," said Arthur, "for she had rather sleep than go to see the hunting." Then Arthur went forth, and he heard two horns sounding, one from near the lodgi ng of the chief huntsman, and the other from near that of the chief page. And th e whole assembly of the multitudes came to Arthur, and they took the road to the Forest. And after Arthur had gone forth from the palace, Gwenhwyvar awoke, and called to her maidens, and apparelled herself. "Maidens," said she, "I had leave last nig ht to go and see the hunt. Go one of you to the stable, and order hither a horse such as a woman may ride." And one of them went, and she found but two horses i n the stable, and Gwenhwyvar and one of her maidens mounted them, and went throu gh the Usk, and followed the track of the men and the horses. And as they rode t hus, they heard a loud and rushing sound; and they looked behind them, and behel d a knight [p. 144] upon a hunter foal of mighty size; and the rider was a fair-haired youth, bare-l egged, and of princely mien, and a golden-hilted sword was at his side, and a ro be and a surcoat of satin were upon him, and two low shoes of leather upon his f eet; and around him was a scarf of blue purple, at each corner of which was a go lden apple. And his horse stepped stately, and swift, and proud; and he overtook Gwenhwyvar, and saluted her. "Heaven prosper thee, Geraint," said she, "I knew thee when first I saw thee just now. And the welcome of Heaven be unto thee. An d why didst thou not go with thy lord to hunt?" "Because I knew not when he went ," said he. "I marvel, too," said she, "how he could go unknown to me." "Indeed, lady," said he. "I was asleep, and knew not when he went; but thou, O young man , art the most agreeable companion I could have in the whole kingdom; and it may be, that I shall be more amused with the hunting than they; for we shall hear t he horns when they sound, and we shall hear the dogs when they are let loose, an

d begin to cry." So they went to the edge of the Forest, and there they stood. " From this place," said she, "we shall hear when the dogs are let loose." And the reupon, they heard a loud noise, and they looked towards the spot whence it came , and they beheld a dwarf riding upon a horse, stately, and foaming, and prancin g, and strong, and spirited. And in the hand of the dwarf was a whip. And near t he dwarf they saw a lady upon a beautiful white horse, of steady and stately pac e; and she was clothed in a garment of gold brocade. And near her was a knight u pon a warhorse of large size, with heavy and bright armour both upon himself and upon his horse. And truly they never before saw a knight, or a horse, or armour , of such remarkable size. And they were all near to each other. "Geraint," said Gwenhwyvar, "knowest thou the name of that tall knight yonder?" "I know him not," said he, "and the strange armour that he wears prevents my eit her seeing his face or his features." "Go, maiden," said Gwenhwyvar, "and ask th e dwarf who that knight is." Then the [p. 145] maiden went up to the dwarf; and the dwarf waited for the maiden, when he saw he r coming towards him. And the maiden inquired of the dwarf who the knight was. " I will not tell thee," he answered. "Since thou art so churlish as not to tell m e," said she, "I will ask him himself." "Thou shalt not ask him, by my faith," s aid he. "Wherefore?" said she. "Because thou art not of honour sufficient to bef it thee to speak to my Lord." Then the maiden turned her horse's head towards th e knight, upon which the dwarf struck her with the whip that was in his hand acr oss the face and the eyes, until the blood flowed forth. And the maiden, through the hurt she received from the blow, returned to Gwenhwyvar, complaining of the pain. "Very rudely has the dwarf treated thee," said Geraint. "I will go myself to know who the knight is." "Go," said Gwenhwyvar. And Geraint went up to the d warf. "Who is yonder knight?" said Geraint. "I will not tell thee," said the dwa rf. "Then will I ask him himself," said he. "That wilt thou not, by my faith," s aid the dwarf, "thou art not honourable enough to speak with my Lord." Said Gera int, "I have spoken with men of equal rank with him." And he turned his horse's head towards the knight; but the dwarf overtook him, and struck him as he had do ne the maiden, so that the blood coloured the scarf that Geraint wore. Then Gera int put his hand upon the hilt of his sword, but he took counsel with himself, a nd considered that it would be no vengeance for him to slay the dwarf, and to be attacked unarmed by the armed knight, so he returned to where Gwenhwyvar was. "Thou hast acted wisely and discreetly," said she. "Lady," said he, "I will foll ow him yet, with thy permission; and at last he will come to some inhabited plac e, where I may have arms either as a loan or for a pledge, so that I may encount er the knight." "Go," said she, "and do not attack him until thou hast good arms , and I shall be very anxious concerning thee, until I hear tidings of thee." "I f I am alive," said he, "thou shalt hear tidings of me by to-morrow afternoon;" and with that he departed. [p. 146] And the road they took was below the palace of Caerlleon, and across the ford of the Usk; and they went along a fair, and even, and lofty ridge of ground, until they came to a town, and at the extremity of the town they saw a Fortress and a Castle. And they came to the extremity of the town. And as the knight passed th rough it, all the people arose, and saluted him, and bade him welcome. And when Geraint came into the town, he looked at every house, to see if he knew any of t hose whom he saw. But he knew none, and none knew him to do him the kindness to let him have arms either as a loan or for a pledge. And every house he saw was f ull of men, and arms, and horses. And they were polishing shields, and burnishin g swords, and washing armour, and shoeing horses. And the knight, and the lady, and the dwarf rode up to the Castle that was in the town, and every one was glad

in the Castle. And from the battlements and the gates they risked their necks, through their eagerness to greet them, and to show their joy. Geraint stood there to see whether the knight would remain in the Castle; and wh en he was certain that he would do so, he looked around him; and at a little dis tance from the town he saw an old palace in ruins, wherein was a hall that was f alling to decay. And as he knew not any one in the town, he went towards the old palace; and when he came near to the palace, he saw but one chamber, and a brid ge of marble-stone leading to it. And upon the bridge he saw sitting a hoary-hea ded man, upon whom were tattered garments. And Geraint gazed steadfastly upon hi m for a long time. Then the hoary-headed man spoke to him. "Young man," he said, "wherefore art thou thoughtful?" "I am thoughtful," said he, "because I know no t where to go to-night." "Wilt thou come forward this way, chieftain?" said he, "and thou shalt have of the best that can be procured for thee." So Geraint went forward. And the hoary-headed man preceded him into the hall. And in the hall h e dismounted, and he left there his horse. Then he went on to the upper chamber with the hoary-headed man. And in the chamber he beheld [p. 147] an old decrepit woman, sitting on a cushion, with old, tattered garments of sati n upon her; and it seemed to him that he had never seen a woman fairer than she must have been, when in the fulness of youth. And beside her was a maiden, upon whom were a vest and a veil, that were old, and beginning to be worn out. And tr uly, he never saw a maiden more full of comeliness, and grace, and beauty than s he. And the hoary-headed man said to the maiden, "There is no attendant for the horse of this youth but thyself." "I will render the best service I am able," sa id she, "both to him and to his horse." And the maiden disarrayed the youth, and then she furnished his horse with straw and with corn. And she went to the hall as before, and then she returned to the chamber. And the hoary-headed man said to the maiden, "Go to the town," said he, "and bring hither the best that thou c anst find both of food and of liquor." "I will, gladly, Lord," said she. And to the town went the maiden. And they conversed together while the maiden was at th e town. And, behold! the maiden came back, and a youth with her, bearing on his back a costrel full of good purchased mead, and a quarter of a young bullock. An d in the hands of the maiden was a quantity of white bread, and she had some man chet bread in her veil, and she came into the chamber. "I could not obtain bette r than this," said she, "nor with better should I have been trusted." "It is goo d enough," said Geraint. And they caused the meat to be boiled; and when their f ood was ready, they sat down. And it was on this wise; Geraint sat between the h oary-headed man and his wife, and the maiden served them. And they ate and drank . And when they had finished eating, Geraint talked with the hoary-headed man, and he asked him in the first place, to whom belonged the palace that he was in. "T ruly," said he, "it was I that built it, and to me also belonged the city and th e castle which thou sawest." "Alas!" said Geraint, "how is it that thou hast los t them now?" "I lost a great Earldom as well as these," said he; "and this is ho w I lost [p. 148] them. I had a nephew, the son of my brother, and I took his possessions to mysel f; and when he came to his strength, he demanded of me his property, but I withh eld it from him. So he made war upon me, and wrested from me all that I possesse d." "Good Sir," said Geraint, "wilt thou tell me wherefore came the knight, and the lady, and the dwarf, just now into the town, and what is the preparation whi ch I saw, and the putting of arms in order?" "I will do so," said he. "The prepa rations are for the game that is to be held to-morrow by the young Earl, which w ill be on this wise. In the midst of a meadow which is here, two forks will be s

et up, and upon the two forks a silver rod, and upon the silver rod a Sparrow-Ha wk , and for the Sparrow-Hawk there will be a tournament. And to the tournament will go all the array thou didst see in the city, of men, and of horses, and of arms. And with each man will go the lady he loves best; and no man can joust for the Sparrow-Hawk, except the lady he loves best be with him. And the knight tha t thou sawest has gained the Sparrow-Hawk these two years; and if he gains it th e third year, they will, from that time, send it every year to him, and he himse lf will come here no more. And he will be called the Knight of the Sparrow-Hawk from that time forth." "Sir," said Geraint, "what is thy counsel to me concernin g this knight, on account of the insult which I received from the dwarf, and tha t which was received by the maiden of Gwenhwyvar, the wife of Arthur?" And Gerai nt told the hoary-headed man what the insult was that he had received. "It is no t easy to counsel thee, inasmuch as thou hast neither dame nor maiden belonging to thee, for whom thou canst joust. Yet, I have arms here, which thou couldest h ave; and there is my horse also, if he seem to thee better than thine own." "Ah! Sir," said he, "Heaven reward thee. But my own horse, to which I am accustomed, together with thy arms, will suffice me. And if, when the appointed time shall come to-morrow, thou wilt permit me, Sir, to challenge for yonder maiden that is thy daughter, I will engage, if I escape from the tournament, to love the maide n as long as I [p. 149] live; and if I do not escape, she will remain unsullied as before." "Gladly will I permit thee," said the hoary-headed man, "and since thou dost thus resolve, i t is necessary that thy horse and arms should be ready to-morrow at break of day . For then the Knight of the Sparrow-Hawk will make proclamation, and ask the la dy he loves best to take the Sparrow-Hawk. 'For,' will he say to her, 'thou art the fairest of women, and thou didst possess it last year, and the year previous ; and if any deny it thee to-day, by force will I defend it for thee.' And there fore," said the hoary-headed man, "it is needful for thee to be there at daybrea k; and we three will be with thee." And thus was it settled. And at night, lo! they went to sleep; and before the dawn they arose, and arraye d themselves; and by the time that it was day, they were all four in the meadow. And there was the Knight of the Sparrow-Hawk making the proclamation, and askin g his lady-love to fetch the Sparrow-Hawk. "Fetch it not," said Geraint, "for th ere is here a maiden, who is fairer, and more noble, and more comely, and who ha s a better claim to it than thou." "If thou maintainest the Sparrow-Hawk to be d ue to her, come forward, and do battle with me." And Geraint went forward to the top of the meadow, having upon himself and upon his horse armour which was heav y, and rusty, and worthless, and of uncouth shape. Then they encountered each ot her, and they broke a set of lances, and they broke a second set, and a third. A nd thus they did at every onset, and they broke as many lances as were brought t o them. And when the Earl and his company saw the Knight of the Sparrow-Hawk gai ning the mastery, there was shouting, and joy, and mirth amongst them. And the h oary-headed man, and his wife, and his daughter were sorrowful. And the hoary-he aded man served Geraint lances as often as he broke them, and the dwarf served t he Knight of the Sparrow-Hawk. Then the hoary-headed man came to Geraint. "Oh! c hieftain," said he, "since no other will hold with thee, behold, here is the lan ce [p. 150] which was in my hand on the day when I received the honour of knighthood; and fr om that time to this I never broke it. And it has an excellent point." Then Gera int took the lance, thanking the hoary-headed man. And thereupon the dwarf also brought a lance to his lord. "Behold, here is a lance for thee, not less good th an his," said the dwarf. "And bethink thee, that no knight ever withstood thee b efore so long as this one has done." "I declare to Heaven," said Geraint, "that

unless death takes me quickly hence, he shall fare never the better for thy serv ice." And Geraint pricked his horse towards him from afar, and warning him, he r ushed upon him, and gave him a blow so severe, and furious, and fierce, upon the face of his shield, that he cleft it in two, and broke his armour, and burst hi s girths, so that both he and his saddle were borne to the ground over the horse 's crupper. And Geraint dismounted quickly. And he was wroth, and he drew his sw ord, and rushed fiercely upon him. Then the knight also arose, and drew his swor d against Geraint. And they fought on foot with their swords until their arms st ruck sparks of fire like stars from one another; and thus they continued fightin g until the blood and sweat obscured the light from their eyes. And when Geraint prevailed, the hoary-headed man, and his wife, and his daughter were glad; and when the knight prevailed, it rejoiced the Earl and his party. Then the hoary-he aded man saw Geraint receive a severe stroke, and he went up to him quickly, and said to him, "Oh, chieftain, remember the treatment which thou hadst from the d warf; and wilt thou not seek vengeance for the insult to thyself, and for the in sult to Gwenhwyvar the wife of Arthur!" And Geraint was roused by what he said t o him, and he called to him all his strength, and lifted up his sword, and struc k the knight upon the crown of his head, so that he broke all his head-armour, a nd cut through all the flesh and the skin, even to the skull, until he wounded t he bone. Then the knight fell upon his knees, and cast his sword from his hand, and besou ght mercy of Geraint. "Of a truth," [p. 151] said he, "I relinquish my overdaring and my pride in craving thy mercy; and unle ss I have time to commit myself to Heaven for my sins, and to talk with a priest , thy mercy will avail me little." "I will grant thee grace upon this condition, " said Geraint, "that thou wilt go to Gwenhwyvar the wife of Arthur, to do her satisfaction for the insult which her maiden received from thy dwarf. As to myse lf, for the insult which I received from thee and thy dwarf, I am content with t hat which I have done unto thee. Dismount not from the time thou goest hence unt il thou comest into the presence of Gwenhwyvar, to make her what atonement shall be adjudged at the Court of Arthur." "This will I do gladly. And who art thou?" said he. "I am Geraint the son of Erbin. And declare thou also who thou art." " I am Edeyrn the son of Nudd ." Then he threw himself upon his horse, and went fo rward to Arthur's Court, and the lady he loved best went before him and the dwar f, with much lamentation. And thus far this story up to that time.

Then came the little Earl and his hosts to Geraint, and saluted him, and bade hi m to his castle. "I may not go," said Geraint, "but where I was last night, ther e will I be to-night also." "Since thou wilt none of my inviting, thou shalt hav e abundance of all that I can command for thee, in the place thou wast last nigh t. And I will order ointment for thee, to recover thee from thy fatigues, and fr om the weariness that is upon thee." "Heaven reward thee," said Geraint, "and I will go to my lodging." And thus went Geraint, and Earl Ynywl, and his wife, and his daughter. And when they reached the chamber, the household servants and att endants of the young Earl had arrived at the Court, and they arranged all the ho uses, dressing them with straw and with fire; and in a short time the ointment w as ready, and Geraint came there, and they washed his head. Then came the young Earl, with forty honourable knights from among his attendants, and those who wer e bidden to the [p. 152] tournament. And Geraint came from the anointing. And the Earl asked him to go to the hall to eat. "Where is the Earl Ynywl," said Geraint, "and his wife, and hi

s daughter?" "They are in the chamber yonder," said the Earl's chamberlain, "arr aying themselves in garments which the Earl has caused to be brought for them." "Let not the damsel array herself," said he, "except in her vest and her veil, u ntil she come to the Court of Arthur, to be clad by Gwenhwyvar in such garments as she may choose." So the maiden did not array herself. Then they all entered the hall, and they washed, and went, and sat down to meat. And thus were they seated. On one side of Geraint sat the young Earl, and Earl Ynywl beyond him; and on the other side of Geraint were the maiden and her mothe r. And after these all sat according to their precedence in honour . And they at e. And they were served abundantly, and they received a profusion of divers kind of gifts. Then they conversed together. And the young Earl invited Geraint to v isit him next day. "I will not, by Heaven," said Geraint. "To the Court of Arthu r will I go with this maiden to-morrow. And it is enough for me, as long as Earl Ynywl is in poverty and trouble; and I go chiefly to seek to add to his mainten ance." "Ah, chieftain," said the young Earl, "it is not by my fault that Earl Yn ywl is without his possessions." "By my faith," said Geraint, "he shall not rema in without them, unless death quickly takes me hence." "Oh, chieftain," said he, "with regard to the disagreement between me and Ynywl, I will gladly abide by t hy counsel, and agree to what thou mayest judge right between us." "I but ask th ee," said Geraint, "to restore to him what is his, and what he should have recei ved from the time he lost his possessions, even until this day." "That I will do gladly, for thee," answered he. "Then," said Geraint, "whosoever is here who ow es homage to Ynywl, let him come forward, and perform it on the spot." And all t he men did so. And by that treaty they abided. And his castle, and his town, and all his possessions were restored to Ynywl. And [p. 153] he received back all that he had lost, even to the smallest jewel. Then spoke Earl Ynywl to Geraint. "Chieftain," said he, "behold the maiden for w hom thou didst challenge at the tournament, I bestow her upon thee." "She shall go with me," said Geraint, "to the Court of Arthur; and Arthur and Gwenhwyvar th ey shall dispose of her as they will." And the next day they proceeded to Arthur 's Court. So far concerning Geraint.

Now, this is how Arthur hunted the stag . The men and the dogs were divided into hunting parties, and the dogs were let loose upon the stag. And the last dog th at was let loose was the favourite dog of Arthur. Cavall was his name . And he l eft all the other dogs behind him, and turned the stag. And at the second turn, the stag came towards the hunting party of Arthur. And Arthur set upon him. And before he could be slain by any other, Arthur cut off his head. Then they sounde d the death horn for slaying , and they all gathered round. Then came Kadyrieith to Arthur, and spoke to him. "Lord," said he, "behold, yond er is Gwenhwyvar, and none with her save only one maiden." "Command Gildas the s on of Caw , and all the scholars of the Court," said Arthur, "to attend Gwenhwyv ar to the palace." And they did so. Then they all set forth, holding converse together concerning the head of the st ag, to whom it should be given. One wished that it should be given to the lady b est beloved by him, and another to the lady whom he loved best. And all they of the household, and the knights, disputed sharply concerning the head. And with t hat they came to the palace. And when Arthur and Gwenhwyvar heard them disputing about the head of the stag, Gwenhwyvar said to Arthur, "My lord, this is my cou nsel concerning the stag's head; let it not be given away until Geraint the son of Erbin shall return from the errand he is upon." And Gwenhwyvar

[p. 154] told Arthur what that errand was. "Right gladly shall it be so," said Arthur. An d thus it was settled. And the next day Gwenhwyvar caused a watch to be set upon the ramparts for Geraint's coming. And after mid-day they beheld an unshapely l ittle man upon a horse, and after him, as they supposed, a dame or a damsel, als o on horseback, and after her a knight of large stature, bowed down, and hanging his head low and sorrowfully, and clad in broken and worthless armour. And before they came near to the gate, one of the watch went to Gwenhwyvar, and told her what kind of people they saw, and what aspect they bore. "I know not wh o they are," said he. "But I know," said Gwenhwyvar; "this is the knight whom Ge raint pursued, and methinks that he comes not here by his own free will. But Ger aint has overtaken him, and avenged the insult to the maiden to the uttermost." And thereupon, behold a porter came to the spot where Gwenhwyvar was. "Lady," sa id he, "at the gate there is a knight, and I saw never a man of so pitiful an as pect to look upon as he. Miserable and broken is the armour that he wears, and t he hue of blood is more conspicuous upon it than its own colour." "Knowest thou his name?" said she. "I do," said he; "he tells me that he is Edeyrn the son of Nudd." Then she replied, "I know him not." So Gwenhwyvar went to the gate to meet him, and he entered. And Gwenhwyvar was s orry when she saw the condition he was in, even though he was accompanied by the churlish dwarf. Then Edeyrn saluted Gwenhwyvar. "Heaven protect thee," said she . "Lady," said he, "Geraint the son of Erbin, thy best and most valiant servant, greets thee." "Did he meet thee?" she asked. "Yes," said he, "and it was not to my advantage; and that was not his fault, but mine, Lady. And Geraint greets th ee well; and in greeting thee he compelled me to come hither to do thy pleasure for the insult which thy maiden received from the dwarf. He forgives the insult to himself, in consideration of his having put me in peril of my life. And he im posed on me a condition, [p. 155] manly, and honourable, and warrior-like, which was to do thee justice, Lady." "N ow, where did he overtake thee?" "At the place where we were jousting, and conte nding for the Sparrow-Hawk, in the town which is now called Cardiff . And there were none with him save three persons, of a mean and tattered condition. And the se were an aged, hoary-headed man, and a woman advanced in years, and a fair you ng maiden, clad in worn-out garments. And it was for the avouchment of the love of that maiden that Geraint jousted for the Sparrow-Hawk at the tournament, for he said that that maiden was better entitled to the Sparrow-Hawk than this maide n who was with me. And thereupon we encountered each other, and he left me, Lady , as thou seest." "Sir," said she, "when thinkest thou that Geraint will be here ?" "To-morrow, Lady, I think he will be here with the maiden." Then Arthur came to him, and he saluted Arthur; and Arthur gazed a long time upo n him, and was amazed to see him thus. And thinking that he knew him, he inquire d of him, "Art thou Edeyrn the son of Nudd?" "I am, Lord," said he, "and I have met with much trouble, and received wounds unsupportable." Then he told Arthur a ll his adventure. "Well," said Arthur, "from what I hear, it behoves Gwenhwyvar to be merciful towards thee." "The mercy which thou desirest, Lord," said she, " will I grant to him, since it is as insulting to thee that an insult should be o ffered to me as to thyself." "Thus will it be best to do," said Arthur; "let thi s man have medical care until it be known whether he may live. And if he live, h e shall do such satisfaction as shall be judged best by the men of the Court; an d take thou sureties to that effect. And if he die, too much will be the death o f such a youth as Edeyrn for an insult to a maiden." "This pleases me," said Gwe nhwyvar. And Arthur became surety for Edeyrn , and Caradawc the son of Llyr, Gwa

llawg the son of Llenawg and Owain the son of Nudd, and Gwalchmai, and many oth ers with them. And Arthur caused Morgan Tud to be called to him. He was the chi ef physician155e. "Take [p. 156] with thee Edeyrn the son of Nudd, and cause a chamber to be prepared for him, an d let him have the aid of medicine as thou wouldst do unto myself, if I were wou nded, and let none into his chamber to molest him, but thyself and thy disciples , to administer to him remedies." "I will do so gladly, Lord," said Morgan Tud. Then said the steward of the household, "Whither is it right, Lord, to order the maiden?" "To Gwenhwyvar and her handmaidens," said he. And the steward of the h ousehold so ordered her. Thus far concerning them.

The next day came Geraint towards the Court; and there was a watch set on the ra mparts by Gwenhwyvar, lest he should arrive unawares. And one of the watch came to the place where Gwenhwyvar was. "Lady," said he, "methinks that I see Geraint , and the maiden with him. He is on horseback, but he has his walking gear upon him, and the maiden appears to be in white, seeming to be clad in a garment of l inen." "Assemble all the women," said Gwenhwyvar, "and come to meet Geraint, to welcome him, and wish him joy." And Gwenhwyvar went to meet Geraint and the maid en. And when Geraint came to the place where Gwenhwyvar was, he saluted her. "He aven prosper thee," said she, "and welcome to thee. And thy career has been succ essful, and fortunate, and resistless, and glorious. And Heaven reward thee, tha t thou hast so proudly caused me to have retribution." "Lady," said he, "I earne stly desired to obtain thee satisfaction according to thy will; and, behold, her e is the maiden through whom thou hadst thy revenge." "Verily," said Gwenhwyvar, "the welcome of Heaven be unto her; and it is fitting that we should receive he r joyfully." Then they went in, and dismounted. And Geraint came to where Arthur was, and saluted him. "Heaven protect thee," said Arthur, "and the welcome of H eaven be unto thee. And since Edeyrn the son of Nudd has received his overthrow and wounds from thy hands, thou hast had a prosperous career." "Not upon me be t he blame," said Geraint, "it was through [p. 157] the arrogance of Edeyrn the son of Nudd himself that we were not friends. I woul d not quit him until I knew who he was, and until the one had vanquished the oth er." "Now," said Arthur, "where is the maiden for whom I heard thou didst give c hallenge?" "She is gone with Gwenhwyvar to her chamber." Then went Arthur to see the maiden. And Arthur, and all his companions, and his whole Court, were glad concerning the maiden. And certain were they all, that ha d her array been suitable to her beauty, they had never seen a maid fairer than she. And Arthur gave away the maiden to Geraint. And the usual bond made between two persons was made between Geraint and the maiden, and the choicest of all Gw enhwyvar's apparel was given to the maiden; and thus arrayed, she appeared comel y and graceful to all who beheld her. And that day and that night were spent in abundance of minstrelsy, and ample gifts of liquor, and a multitude of games. An d when it was time for them to go to sleep, they went. And in the chamber where the couch of Arthur and Gwenhwyvar was, the couch of Geraint and Enid was prepar ed. And from that time she became his bride. And the next day Arthur satisfied a ll the claimants upon Geraint with bountiful gifts. And the maiden took up her a bode in the palace; and she had many companions, both men and women, and there w as no maiden more esteemed than she in the Island of Britain. Then spake Gwenhwyvar. "Rightly did I judge," said she, "concerning the head of the stag, that it should not be given to any until Geraint's return; and, behold

, here is a fit occasion for bestowing it. Let it be given to Enid the daughter of Ynywl , the most illustrious maiden. And I do not believe that any will begru dge it her, for between her and every one here there exists nothing but love and friendship." Much applauded was this by them all, and by Arthur also. And the h ead of the stag was given to Enid. And thereupon her fame increased, and her fri ends thenceforward became more in number than before. And Geraint from [p. 158] that time forth loved the stag, and the tournament, and hard encounters; and he came victorious from them all. And a year, and a second, and a third, he proceed ed thus, until his fame had flown over the face of the kingdom.

And once upon a time Arthur was holding his Court at Caerlleon upon Usk, at Whit suntide. And, behold, there came to him ambassadors, wise and prudent, full of k nowledge, and eloquent of speech, and they saluted Arthur. "Heaven prosper you," said Arthur, "and the welcome of Heaven be unto you. And whence do you come?" " We come, Lord," said they, "from Cornwall; and we are ambassadors from Erbin the son of Custennin, thy uncle, and our mission is unto thee. And he greets thee w ell, as an uncle should greet his nephew, and as a vassal should greet his lord. And he represents unto thee that he waxes heavy and feeble, and is advancing in years. And the neighbouring chiefs, knowing this, grow insolent towards him, an d covet his land and possessions. And he earnestly beseeches thee, Lord, to perm it Geraint his son to return to him, to protect his possessions, and to become a cquainted with his boundaries. And unto him he represents that it were better fo r him to spend the flower of his youth and the prime of his age in preserving hi s own boundaries, than in tournaments, which are productive of no profit, althou gh he obtains glory in them." "Well," said Arthur, "go, and divest yourselves of your accoutrements, and take food, and refresh yourselves after your fatigues; and before you go forth hence you shall have an answer." And they went to eat. And Arthur considered that it w ould go hard with him to let Geraint depart from him and from his Court; neither did he think it fair that his cousin should be restrained from going to protect his dominions and his boundaries, seeing that his father was unable to do so. N o less was the grief and regret of Gwenhwyvar, and all her women, and all her da msels, through fear that the maiden would leave them. And that day and that [p. 159] night were spent in abundance of feasting. And Arthur showed Geraint the cause o f the mission, and of the coming of the ambassadors to him out of Cornwall. "Tru ly," said Geraint, "be it to my advantage or disadvantage, Lord, I will do accor ding to thy will concerning this embassy." "Behold," said Arthur, "though it gri eves me to part with thee, it is my counsel that thou go to dwell in thine own d ominions, and to defend thy boundaries, and to take with thee to accompany thee as many as thou wilt of those thou lovest best among my faithful ones, and among thy friends, and among thy companions in arms." "Heaven reward thee; and this w ill I do," said Geraint. "What discourse," said Gwenhwyvar, "do I hear between y ou? Is it of those who are to conduct Geraint to his country?" "It is," said Art hur. "Then it is needful for me to consider," said she, "concerning companions a nd a provision for the lady that is with me?" "Thou wilt do well," said Arthur. And that night they went to sleep. And the next day the ambassadors were permitt ed to depart, and they were told that Geraint should follow them. And on the thi rd day Geraint set forth, and many went with him. Gwalchmai the son of Gwyar, an d Riogonedd the son of the king of Ireland, and Ondyaw the son of the duke of Bu rgundy, Gwilim the son of the ruler of the Franks, Howel the son of Emyr of Brit

tany, Elivry, and Nawkyrd, Gwynn the son of Tringad, Goreu the son of Custennin, Gweir Gwrhyd Vawr , Garannaw the son of Golithmer, Peredur the son of Evrawc, G wynnllogell, Gwyr a judge in the Court of Arthur, Dyvyr the son of Alun of Dyved , Gwrei Gwalstawd Ieithoedd , Bedwyr the son of Bedrawd , Hadwry the son of Gwry on, Kai the son of Kynyr, Odyar the Frank, the Steward of Arthur's Court, and Ed eyrn the son of Nudd. Said Geraint, "I think that I shall have enough of knighth ood with me." "Yes," said Arthur, "but it will not be fitting for thee to take E deyrn with thee, although he is well, until peace shall be made between him and Gwenhwyvar." "Gwenhwyvar can permit him to go with me, if he give sureties." "If she please, she can [p. 160] let him go without sureties, for enough of pain and affliction has he suffered f or the insult which the maiden received from the dwarf." "Truly," said Gwenhwyva r, "since it seems well to thee and to Geraint, I will do this gladly, Lord." Th en she permitted Edeyrn freely to depart. And many there were who accompanied Ge raint, and they set forth; and never was there seen a fairer host journeying tow ards the Severn . And on the other side of the Severn were the nobles of Erbin t he son of Custennin, and his foster-father at their head, to welcome Geraint wit h gladness; and many of the women of the Court, with his mother, came to receive Enid the daughter of Ynywl, his wife. And there was great rejoicing and gladnes s throughout the whole Court, and throughout all the country, concerning Geraint , because of the greatness of their love towards him, and of the greatness of th e fame which he had gained since he went from amongst them, and because he was c ome to take possession of his dominions and to preserve his boundaries . And the y came to the Court. And in the Court they had ample entertainment, and a multit ude of gifts and abundance of liquor, and a sufficiency of service, and a variet y of minstrelsy and of games . And to do honour to Geraint, all the chief men of the country were invited that night to visit him. And they passed that day and that night in the utmost enjoyment. And at dawn next day Erbin arose, and summon ed to him Geraint, and the noble persons who had borne him company. And he said to Geraint, "I am a feeble and aged man, and whilst I was able to maintain the d ominion for thee and for myself, I did so. But thou art young, and in the flower of thy vigour and of thy youth; henceforth do thou preserve thy possessions." " Truly," said Geraint, "with my consent thou shalt not give the power over thy do minions at this time into my hands, and thou shalt not take me from Arthur's Cou rt." "Into thy hands will I give them," said Erbin, "and this day also shalt tho u receive the homage of thy subjects." Then said Gwalchmai, "It were better for thee to satisfy those who have boons to ask, to-day, and to-morrow thou [p. 161] canst receive the homage of thy dominions." So all that had boons to ask were su mmoned into one place. And Kadyrieith came to them, to know what were their requ ests. And every one asked that which he desired. And the followers of Arthur beg an to make gifts, and immediately the men of Cornwall came, and gave also. And t hey were not long in giving, so eager was every one to bestow gifts. And of thos e who came to ask gifts, none departed unsatisfied. And that day and that night were spent in the utmost enjoyment. And the next day, at dawn, Erbin desired Geraint to send messengers to the men, to ask them whether it was displeasing to them that he should come to receive th eir homage, and whether they had anything to object to him. Then Geraint sent am bassadors to the men of Cornwall, to ask them this. And they all said that it wo uld be the fulness of joy and honour to them for Geraint to come and receive the ir homage. So he received the homage of such as were there. And they remained wi th him till the third night. And the day after the followers of Arthur intended

to go away. "It is too soon for you to go away yet," said he, "stay with me unti l I have finished receiving the homage of my chief men, who have agreed to come to me." And they remained with him until he had done so. Then they set forth tow ards the Court of Arthur; and Geraint went to bear them company, and Enid also, as far as Diganhwy : there they parted. Then Ondyaw the son of the duke of Burgu ndy said to Geraint, "Go first of all and visit the uppermost parts of thy domin ions, and see well to the boundaries of thy territories; and if thou hast any tr ouble respecting them, send unto thy companions." "Heaven reward thee," said Ger aint, "and this will I do." And Geraint journeyed to the uttermost part of his d ominions. And experienced guides, and the chief men of his country, went with hi m. And the furthermost point that they showed him he kept possession of. And, as he had been used to do when he was at Arthur's Court, he frequented tour naments. And he became acquainted with valiant and mighty men, until he had gain ed as [p. 162] much fame there as he had formerly done elsewhere. And he enriched his Court, an d his companions, and his nobles, with the best horses and the best arms, and wi th the best and most valuable jewels, and he ceased not until his fame had flown over the face of the whole kingdom. And when he knew that it was thus, he began to love ease and pleasure, for there was no one who was worth his opposing. And he loved his wife, and liked to continue in the palace, with minstrelsy and div ersions. And for a long time he abode at home. And after that he began to shut h imself up in the chamber of his wife, and he took no delight in anything besides , insomuch that he gave up the friendship of his nobles, together with his hunti ng and his amusements, and lost the hearts of all the host in his Court; and the re was murmuring and scoffing concerning him among the inhabitants of the palace , on account of his relinquishing so completely their companionship for the love of his wife. And these tidings came to Erbin. And when Erbin had heard these th ings, he spoke unto Enid, and inquired of her whether it was she that had caused Geraint to act thus, and to forsake his people and his hosts. "Not I, by my con fession unto Heaven," said she, "there is nothing more hateful to me than this." And she knew not what she should do, for, although it was hard for her to own t his to Geraint, yet was it not more easy for her to listen to what she heard, wi thout warning Geraint concerning it. And she was very sorrowful. And one morning in the summer time, they were upon their couch, and Geraint lay upon the edge of it. And Enid was without sleep in the apartment, which had wind ows of glass . And the sun shone upon the couch. And the clothes had slipped fro m off his arms and his breast, and he was asleep. Then she gazed upon the marvel lous beauty of his appearance, and she said, "Alas, and am I the cause that thes e arms and this breast have lost their glory and the warlike fame which they onc e so richly enjoyed!" And as she said this, the tears dropped from her eyes, and they fell upon his breast. And the tears she shed, and the words she had [p. 163] spoken, awoke him; and another thing contributed to awaken him, and that was the idea that it was not in thinking of him that she spoke thus, but that it was be cause she loved some other man more than him, and that she wished for other soci ety, and thereupon Geraint was troubled in his mind, and he called his squire; a nd when he came to him, "Go quickly," said he, "and prepare my horse and my arms , and make them ready. And do thou arise," said he to Enid, "and apparel thyself ; and cause thy horse to be accoutred, and clothe thee in the worst riding-dress that thou hast in thy possession. And evil betide me," said he, "if thou return est here until thou knowest whether I have lost my strength so completely as tho u didst say. And if it be so, it will then be easy for thee to seek the society thou didst wish for of him of whom thou wast thinking." So she arose, and clothe

d herself in her meanest garments. "I know nothing, Lord," said she, "of thy mea ning." "Neither wilt thou know at this time," said he. Then Geraint went to see Erbin. "Sir," said he, "I am going upon a quest, and I am not certain when I may come back. Take heed, therefore, unto thy possessions, until my return." "I will do so," said he, "but it is strange to me that thou s houldest go so suddenly. And who will proceed with thee, since thou art not stro ng enough to traverse the land of Lloegyr alone?" "But one person only will go with me." "Heaven counsel thee, my son," said Erbin, "and may many attach themse lves to thee in Lloegyr." Then went Geraint to the place where his horse was, an d it was equipped with foreign armour, heavy and shining. And he desired Enid to mount her horse, and to ride forward, and to keep a long way before him. "And w hatever thou mayest see, and whatever thou mayest hear concerning me," said he, "do thou not turn back. And unless I speak unto thee, say not thou one word eith er." And they set forward. And he did not choose the pleasantest and most freque nted road, but that which was the wildest and most beset by thieves, and robbers , and venomous animals. And they came to a high [p. 164] road, which they followed till they saw a vast forest, and they went towards it, and they saw four armed horsemen come forth from the forest. When the horsemen had beheld them, one of them said to the others, "Behold, here is a good occasio n for us to capture two horses and armour, and a lady likewise; for this we shal l have no difficulty in doing against yonder single knight, who hangs his head s o pensively and heavily." And Enid heard this discourse, and she knew not what s he should do through fear of Geraint, who had told her to be silent. "The vengea nce of Heaven be upon me," she said, "if I would not rather receive my death fro m his hand than from the hand of any other; and though he should slay me yet wil l I speak to him, lest I should have the misery to witness his death." So she wa ited for Geraint until he came near to her. "Lord," said she, "didst thou hear t he words of those men concerning thee?" Then he lifted up his eyes, and looked a t her angrily. "Thou hadst only," said he, "to hold thy peace as I bade thee. I wish but for silence, and not for warning. And though thou shouldest desire to s ee my defeat and my death by the hands of those men, yet do I feel no dread." Th en the foremost of them couched his lance, and rushed upon Geraint. And he recei ved him, and that not feebly. But he let the thrust go by him, while he struck t he horseman upon the centre of his shield in such a manner that his shield was s plit, and his armour broken, and so that a cubit's length of the shaft of Gerain t's lance passed through his body, and sent him to the earth, the length of the lance over his horse's crupper. Then the second horseman attacked him furiously, being wroth at the death of his companion. But with one thrust Geraint overthre w him also, and killed him as he had done the other. Then the third set upon him , and he killed him in like manner. And thus also he slew the fourth. Sad and so rrowful was the maiden as she saw all this. Geraint dismounted from his horse, a nd took the arms of the men he had slain, and placed them upon their saddles, an d tied together the reins of their horses, and he mounted his horse again. "Beho ld what thou must do," [p. 165] said he; "take the four horses, and drive them before thee, and proceed forward, as I bade thee just now. And say not one word unto me, unless I speak first unt o thee. And I declare unto Heaven," said he, "if thou doest not thus, it will be to thy cost." "I will do, as far as I can, Lord," said she, "according to thy d esire." Then they went forward through the forest; and when they left the forest , they came to a vast plain, in the centre of which was a group of thickly tangl ed copse-wood; and from out thereof they beheld three horsemen coming towards th em, well equipped with armour, both they and their horses. Then the maiden looke d steadfastly upon them; and when they had come near, she heard them say one to

another, "Behold, here is a good arrival for us; here are coming for us four hor ses and four suits of armour. We shall easily obtain them spite of yonder doloro us knight, and the maiden also will fall into our power." "This is but too true, " said she to herself, "for my husband is tired with his former combat. The veng eance of Heaven will be upon me, unless I warn him of this." So the maiden waite d until Geraint came up to her. "Lord," said she, "dust thou not hear the discou rse of yonder men concerning thee?" "What was it?" asked he. "They say to one an other, that they will easily obtain all this spoil." "I declare to Heaven," he a nswered, "that their words are less grievous to me than that thou wilt not be si lent, and abide by my counsel." "My Lord," said she, "I feared lest they should surprise thee unawares." "Hold thy peace, then," said he, "do not I desire silen ce?" And thereupon one of the horsemen couched his lance, and attacked Geraint. And he made a thrust at him, which he thought would be very effective; but Gerai nt received it carelessly, and struck it aside, and then he rushed upon him, and aimed at the centre of his person, and from the shock of man and horse, the qua ntity of his armour did not avail him, and the head of the lance and part of the shaft passed through him, so that he was carried to the ground an arm and a spe ar's length over the crupper of his horse. And both the other horsemen came forw ard in their turn, but their [p. 166] onset was not more successful than that of their companion. And the maiden stood by, looking at all this; and on the one hand she was in trouble lest Geraint sh ould be wounded in his encounter with the men, and on the other hand she was joy ful to see him victorious. Then Geraint dismounted, and bound the three suits of armour upon the three saddles, and he fastened the reins of all the horses toge ther, so that he had seven horses with him. And he mounted his own horse, and co mmanded the maiden to drive forward the others. "It is no more use for me to spe ak to thee than to refrain, for thou wilt not attend to my advice." "I will do s o, as far as I am able, Lord," said she; "but I cannot conceal from thee the fie rce and threatening words which I may hear against thee, Lord, from such strange people as those that haunt this wilderness." "I declare to Heaven," said he, "t hat I desire nought but silence; therefore, hold thy peace." "I will, Lord, whil e I can." And the maiden went on with the horses before her, and she pursued her way straight onwards. And from the copse-wood already mentioned, they journeyed over a vast and dreary open plain. And at a great distance from them they behel d a wood, and they could see neither end nor boundary to the wood, except on tha t side that was nearest to them, and they went towards it. Then there came from out the wood five horsemen, eager, and bold, and mighty, and strong, mounted upo n chargers that were powerful, and large of bone, and high-mettled, and proudly snorting, and both the men and the horses were well equipped with arms. And when they drew near to them, Enid heard them say, "Behold, here is a fine booty comi ng to us, which we shall obtain easily and without labour, for we shall have no trouble in taking all those horses and arms, and the lady also, from yonder sing le knight, so doleful and sad." Sorely grieved was the maiden upon hearing this discourse, so that she knew not in the world what she should do. At last, however, she determined to warn Gerain t; so she turned her horse's head towards him. "Lord," said she, "if thou hadst heard as I did what yonder horsemen said concerning [p. 167] thee, thy heaviness would be greater than it is." Angrily and bitterly did Gerai nt smile upon her, and he said, "Thee do I hear doing everything that I forbade thee; but it may be that thou will repent this yet." And immediately, behold, th e men met them, and victoriously and gallantly did Geraint overcome them all fiv e. And he placed the five suits of armour upon the five saddles, and tied togeth er the reins of the twelve horses, and gave them in charge to Enid. "I know not,

" said he, "what good it is for me to order thee; but this time I charge thee in an especial manner." So the maiden went forward towards the wood, keeping in ad vance of Geraint, as he had desired her; and it grieved him as much as his wrath would permit, to see a maiden so illustrious as she having so much trouble with the care of the horses. Then they reached the wood, and it was both deep and va st; and in the wood night overtook them. "Ah, maiden," said he, "it is vain to a ttempt proceeding forward!" "Well, Lord," said she, "whatsoever thou wishest, we will do." "It will be best for us," he answered, "to turn out of the wood, and to rest, and wait for the day, in order to pursue our journey." "That will we, g ladly," said she. And they did so. Having dismounted himself, he took her down f rom her horse. "I cannot, by any means, refrain from sleep, through weariness," said he. "Do thou, therefore, watch the horses, and sleep not." "I will, Lord," said she. Then he went to sleep in his armour, and thus passed the night, which was not long at that season. And when she saw the dawn of day appear, she looked around her, to see if he were waking, and thereupon he woke. "My Lord," she sai d, "I have desired to awake thee for some time." But he spake nothing to her abo ut fatigue, as he had desired her to be silent. Then he arose, and said unto her , "Take the horses, and ride on; and keep straight on before thee as thou didst yesterday." And early in the day they left the wood, and they came to an open co untry, with meadows on one hand, and mowers mowing the meadows. And there was a river before them, and the horses bent down, and drank the water. And they went up out of the river by [p. 168] a lofty steep; and there they met a slender stripling, with a satchel about his neck, and they saw that there was something in the satchel, but they knew not wh at it was. And he had a small blue pitcher in his hand, and a bowl on the mouth of the pitcher. And the youth saluted Geraint. "Heaven prosper thee," said Gerai nt, "and whence dost thou come?" "I come," said he, "from the city that lies bef ore thee. My Lord," he added, "will it be displeasing to thee if I ask whence th ou comest also?" "By no means--through yonder wood did I come." "Thou camest not through the wood to-day." "No," he replied, "we were in the wood last night." " I warrant," said the youth, "that thy condition there last night was not the mos t pleasant, and that thou hadst neither meat nor drink." "No, by my faith," said he. "Wilt thou follow my counsel," said the youth, "and take thy meal from me?" "What sort of meal?" he inquired. "The breakfast which is sent for yonder mower s, nothing less than bread and meat and wine; and if thou wilt, Sir, they shall have none of it." "I will," said he, "and Heaven reward thee for it." So Geraint alighted, and the youth took the maiden from off her horse. Then they washed, and took their repast. And the youth cut the bread in slices, and gave them drink, and served them withal. And when they had finished, the youth arose, and said to Geraint, "My Lord, with thy permission, I will now go and fetch som e food for the mowers." "Go, first, to the town," said Geraint, "and take a lodg ing for me in the best place that thou knowest, and the most commodious one for the horses, and take thou whichever horse and arms thou choosest in payment for thy service and thy gift." "Heaven reward thee, Lord," said the youth, "and this would be ample to repay services much greater than those I have rendered unto t hee." And to the town went the youth, and he took the best and the most pleasant lodgings that he knew; and after that he went to the palace, having the horse a nd armour with him, and proceeded to the place where the Earl was, and told him all his adventure. "I go now, Lord," said [p. 169] he, "to meet the young man, and to conduct him to his lodging." "Go, gladly," sa id the Earl, "and right joyfully shall he be received here, if he so come." And the youth went to meet Geraint, and told him that he would be received gladly by the Earl in his own palace; but he would go only to his lodgings. And he had a

goodly chamber, in which was plenty of straw, and drapery, and a spacious and co mmodious place he had for the horses; and the youth prepared for them plenty of provender. And after they had disarrayed themselves, Geraint spoke thus to Enid: "Go," said he, "to the other side of the chamber, and come not to this side of the house; and thou mayest call to thee the woman of the house, if thou wilt." " I will do, Lord," said she, "as thou sayest." And thereupon the man of the house came to Geraint, and welcomed him. "Oh, chieftain," he said, "hast thou taken t hy meal?" "I have," said he. Then the youth spoke to him, and inquired if he wou ld not drink something before he met the Earl. "Truly I will," said he. So the y outh went into the town, and brought them drink. And they drank. "I must needs s leep," said Geraint. "Well," said the youth; "and whilst thou sleepest, I will g o to see the Earl." "Go, gladly," he said, "and come here again when I require t hee." And Geraint went to sleep; and so did Enid also. And the youth came to the place where the Earl was, and the Earl asked him where the lodgings of the knight were, and he told him. "I must go," said the youth, "to wait on him in the evening." "Go," answered the Earl, "and greet him well fr om me, and tell him that in the evening I will go to see him." "This will I do," said the youth. So he came when it was time for them to awake. And they arose, and went forth. And when it was time for them to take their food, they took it. And the youth served them. And Geraint inquired of the man of the house, whether there were any of his companions that he wished to invite to him, and he said t hat there were. "Bring them hither, and entertain them at my cost with the best thou canst buy in the town." [p. 170] And the man of the house brought there those whom he chose, and feasted them at Geraint's expense. Thereupon, behold, the Earl came to visit Geraint, and his tw elve honourable knights with him. And Geraint rose up, and welcomed him. "Heaven preserve thee," said the Earl. Then they all sat down according to their preced ence in honour. And the Earl conversed with Geraint, and inquired of him the obj ect of his journey. "I have none," he replied, "but to seek adventures, and to f ollow my own inclination." Then the Earl cast his eye upon Enid, and he looked a t her steadfastly. And he thought he had never seen a maiden fairer or more come ly than she. And he set all his thoughts and his affections upon her. Then he as ked of Geraint, "Have I thy permission to go and converse with yonder maiden, fo r I see that she is apart from thee?" "Thou hast it gladly," said he. So the Ear l went to the place where the maiden was, and spake with her. "Ah, maiden," said he, "it cannot be pleasant to thee to journey thus with yonder man!" "It is not unpleasant to me," said she, "to journey the same road that he journeys." "Thou hast neither youths nor maidens to serve thee," said he. "Truly," she replied, "it is more pleasant for me to follow yonder man, than to be served by youths an d maidens." "I will give thee good counsel," said he. "All my Earldom will I pla ce in thy possession, if thou wilt dwell with me." "That will I not, by Heaven," she said; "yonder man was the first to whom my faith was ever pledged; and shal l I prove inconstant to him!" "Thou art in the wrong," said the Earl; "if I slay the man yonder, I can keep thee with me as long as I choose; and when thou no l onger pleasest me I can turn thee away. But if thou goest with me by thine own g ood will, I protest that our union shall continue eternal and undivided as long as I remain alive." Then she pondered these words of his, and she considered tha t it was advisable to encourage him in his request. "Behold, then, chieftain, th is is most expedient for thee to do to save me any needless imputation; come her e to-morrow, and take me away as though I knew nothing thereof." "I [p. 171] will do so," said he. So he arose, and took his leave, and went forth with his a ttendants. And she told not then to Geraint any of the conversation which she ha d had with the Earl, lest it should rouse his anger, and cause him uneasiness an

d care. And at the usual hour they went to sleep. And at the beginning of the night Enid slept a little; and at midnight she arose, and placed all Geraint's armour toge ther, so that it might be ready to put on. And although fearful of her errand, s he came to the side of Geraint's bed; and she spoke to him softly and gently, sa ying, "My Lord, arise, and clothe thyself, for these were the words of the Earl to me, and his intention concerning me." So she told Geraint all that had passed . And although he was wroth with her, he took warning, and clothed himself. And she lighted a candle, that he might have light to do so. "Leave there the candle ," said he, "and desire the man of the house to come here." Then she went, and t he man of the house came to him. "Dost thou know how much I owe thee?" asked Ger aint. "I think thou owest but little." "Take the eleven horses and the eleven su its of armour." "Heaven reward thee, lord," said he, "but I spent not the value of one suit of armour upon thee." "For that reason," said he, "thou wilt be the richer. And now, wilt thou come to guide me out of the town?" "I will, gladly," said he, "and in which direction dost thou intend to go?" "I wish to leave the t own by a different way from that by which I entered it." So the man of the lodgi ngs accompanied him as far as he desired. Then he bade the maiden to go on befor e him; and she did so, and went straight forward, and his host returned home. An d he had only just reached his house, when, behold, the greatest tumult approach ed that was ever heard. And when he looked out, he saw fourscore knights in comp lete armour around the house, with the Earl Dwrm at their head. "Where is the kn ight that was here?" said the Earl. "By thy hand," said he, "he went hence some time ago." "Wherefore, villain," said he, "didst thou let him go without informi ng [p. 172] me?" "My Lord, thou didst not command me to do so, else would I not have allowed him to depart." "What way dost thou think that he took?" "I know not, except th at he went along the high road." And they turned their horses' heads that way, a nd seeing the tracks of the horses upon the high road, they followed. And when t he maiden beheld the dawning of the day, she looked behind her, and saw vast clo uds of dust coming nearer and nearer to her. And thereupon she became uneasy, an d she thought that it was the Earl and his host coming after them. And thereupon she beheld a knight appearing through the mist. "By my faith," said she, "thoug h he should slay me, it were better for me to receive my death at his hands, tha n to see him killed without warning him. My Lord," she said to him, "seest thou yonder man hastening after thee, and many others with him?" "I do see him," said he; "and in despite of all my orders, I see that thou wilt never keep silence." Then he turned upon the knight, and with the first thrust he threw him down und er his horse's feet. And as long as there remained one of the fourscore knights, he overthrew every one of them at the first onset. And from the weakest to the strongest, they all attacked him one after the other, except the Earl: and last of all the Earl came against him also. And he broke his lance, and then he broke a second. But Geraint turned upon him, and struck him with his lance upon the c entre of his shield, so that by that single thrust the shield was split, and all his armour broken, and he himself was brought over his horse's crupper to the g round, and was in peril of his life. And Geraint drew near to him; and at the no ise of the trampling of his horse the Earl revived. "Mercy, Lord," said he to Ge raint. And Geraint granted him mercy. But through the hardness of the ground whe re they had fallen, and the violence of the stroke which they had received, ther e was not a single knight amongst them that escaped without receiving a fall, mo rtally severe, and grievously painful, and desperately wounding, from the hand o f Geraint. And Geraint journeyed along the high road that was before [p. 173]

him, and the maiden went on first; and near them they beheld a valley which was the fairest ever seen, and which had a large river running through it; and there was a bridge over the river, and the high road led to the bridge. And above the bridge upon the opposite side of the river, they beheld a fortified town, the f airest ever seen. And as they approached the bridge, Geraint saw coming towards him from a thick copse a man mounted upon a large and lofty steed, even of pace and spirited though tractable. "Ah, knight," said Geraint, "whence comest thou?" "I come," said he, "from the valley below us." "Canst thou tell me," said Gerai nt, "who is the owner of this fair valley and yonder walled town?" "I will tell thee, willingly," said he. "Gwiffert Petit he is called by the Franks, but the C ymry call him the Little King." "Can I go by yonder bridge," said Geraint, "and by the lower highway that is beneath the town?" Said the knight, "Thou canst not go by his tower on the other side of the bridge, unless thou dost intend to com bat him; because it is his custom to encounter every knight that comes upon his lands." "I declare to Heaven," said Geraint, "that I will, nevertheless, pursue my journey that way." "If thou dost so," said the knight, "thou wilt probably me et with shame and disgrace in reward for thy daring." Then Geraint proceeded alo ng the road that led to the town, and the road brought him to a ground that was hard, and rugged, and high, and ridgy. And as he journeyed thus, he beheld a kni ght following him upon a warhorse, strong, and large, and proudly-stepping, and wide-hoofed, and broad-chested. And he never saw a man of smaller stature than h e who was upon the horse. And both he and his horse were completely armed. When he had overtaken Geraint, he said to him, "Tell me, chieftain, whether it is thr ough ignorance or through presumption that thou seekest to insult my dignity, an d to infringe my rules." "Nay," answered Geraint, "I knew not this road was forb id to any." "Thou didst know it," said the other; "come with me to my Court, to give me satisfaction." "That will I not, by my [p. 174] faith," said Geraint; "I would not go even to thy Lord's Court, excepting Arthur were thy Lord." "By the hand of Arthur himself," said the knight, "I will have satisfaction of thee, or receive my overthrow at thy hands." And immediately the y charged one another. And a squire of his came to serve him with lances as he b roke them. And they gave each other such hard and severe strokes that their shie lds lost all their colour . But it was very difficult for Geraint to fight with him on account of his small size, for he was hardly able to get a full aim at hi m with all the efforts he could make. And they fought thus until their horses we re brought down upon their knees; and at length Geraint threw the knight headlon g to the ground; and then they fought on foot, and they gave one another blows s o boldly fierce, so frequent, and so severely powerful, that their helmets were pierced, and their skullcaps were broken, and their arms were shattered, and the light of their eyes was darkened by sweat and blood. At the last Geraint became enraged, and he called to him all his strength; and boldly angry, and swiftly r esolute, and furiously determined, he lifted up his sword, and struck him on the crown of his head a blow so mortally painful, so violent, so fierce, and so pen etrating, that it cut through all his head armour, and his skin, and his flesh, until it wounded the very bone, and the sword flew out of the hand of the Little King to the furthest end of the plain, and he besought Geraint that he would ha ve mercy and compassion upon him. "Though thou hast been neither courteous nor j ust," said Geraint, "thou shalt have mercy, upon condition that thou wilt become my ally, and engage never to fight against me again, but to come to my assistan ce whenever thou hearest of my being in trouble." "This will I do, gladly, Lord, " said he. So he pledged him his faith thereof. "And now, Lord, come with me," s aid he, "to my Court yonder, to recover from thy weariness and fatigue." "That w ill I not, by Heaven," said he. Then Gwiffert Petit beheld Enid where she stood, and it grieved him to see one o f her noble mien appear so deeply

[p. 175] afflicted. And he said to Geraint, "My Lord, thou doest wrong not to take repose , and refresh thyself awhile; for, if thou meetest with any difficulty in thy pr esent condition, it will not be easy for thee to surmount it." But Geraint would do no other than proceed on his journey, and he mounted his horse in pain, and all covered with blood. And the maiden went on first, and they proceeded towards the wood which they saw before them. And the heat of the sun was very great, and through the blood and sweat, Geraint 's armour cleaved to his flesh; and when they came into the wood, he stood under a tree, to avoid the sun's heat; and his wounds pained him more than they had d one at the time when he received them. And the maiden stood under another tree. And lo! they heard the sound of horns, and a tumultuous noise; and the occasion of it was, that Arthur and his company had come down to the wood. And while Gera int was considering which way he should go to avoid them, behold, he was espied by a foot-page, who was an attendant on the Steward of the Household; and he wen t to the Steward, and told him what kind of man he had seen in the wood. Then th e Steward caused his horse to be saddled, and he took his lance and his shield, and went to the place where Geraint was. "Ah, knight!" said he, "what dost thou here?" "I am standing under a shady tree, to avoid the heat and the rays of the sun." "Wherefore is thy journey, and who art thou?" "I seek adventures, and go w here I list." "Indeed," said Kai; "then come with me to see Arthur, who is here hard by." "That will I not, by Heaven," said Geraint. "Thou must needs come," sa id Kai. Then Geraint knew who he was, but Kai did not know Geraint. And Kai atta cked Geraint as best he could. And Geraint became wroth, and he struck him with the shaft of his lance, so that he rolled headlong to the ground. But chastiseme nt worse than this would he not inflict on him. Scared and wildly Kai arose, and he mounted his horse, and went back to his lodg ing. And thence he proceeded to [p. 176] Gwalchmai's tent. "Oh, Sir," said he to Gwalchmai, "I was told by one of the att endants, that he saw in the wood above a wounded knight, having on battered armo ur; and if thou dost right, thou wilt go and see if this be true." "I care not i f I do so," said Gwalchmai. "Take, then, thy horse, and some of thy armour," sai d Kai; "for I hear that he is not over courteous to those who approach him." So Gwalchmai took his spear and his shield, and mounted his horse, and came to the spot where Geraint was. "Sir Knight," said he, "wherefore is thy journey?" "I jo urney for my own pleasure, and to seek the adventures of the world." "Wilt thou tell me who thou art; or wilt thou come and visit Arthur, who is near at hand?" "I will make no alliance with thee, nor will I go and visit Arthur," said he. An d he knew that it was Gwalchmai, but Gwalchmai knew him not. "I purpose not to l eave thee," said Gwalchmai, "till I know who thou art." And he charged him with his lance, and struck him on his shield, so that the shaft was shivered into spl inters, and their horses were front to front. Then Gwalchmai gazed fixedly upon him, and he knew him. "Ah, Geraint," said he, "is it thou that art here?" "I am not Geraint," said he. "Geraint thou art, by Heaven," he replied, "and a wretche d and insane expedition is this." Then he looked around, and beheld Enid, and he welcomed her gladly. "Geraint," said Gwalchmai, "come thou and see Arthur; he i s thy lord and thy cousin." "I will not," said he, "for I am not in a fit state to go and see any one." Thereupon, behold, one of the pages came after Gwalchmai to speak to him. So he sent him to apprise Arthur that Geraint was there wounde d, and that he would not go to visit him, and that it was pitiable to see the pl ight that he was in. And this he did without Geraint's knowledge, inasmuch as he spoke in a whisper to the page. "Entreat Arthur," said he, "to have his tent br ought near to the road, for he will not meet him willingly, and it is not easy t

o compel him in the mood he is in." So the page came to Arthur, and told him thi s. And he caused his tent to be removed unto the side of the road. And the maide n rejoiced [p. 177] in her heart. And Gwalchmai led Geraint onwards along the road, till they came t o the place where Arthur was encamped, and the pages were pitching his tent by t he roadside. "Lord," said Geraint, "all hail unto thee." "Heaven prosper thee; a nd who art thou?" said Arthur. "It is Geraint," said Gwalchmai, "and of his own free will would he not come to meet thee." "Verily," said Arthur, "he is bereft of his reason." Then came Enid, and saluted Arthur. "Heaven protect thee," said he. And thereupon he caused one of the pages to take her from her horse. "Alas! Enid," said Arthur, "what expedition is this?" "I know not, Lord," said she, "sa ve that it behoves me to journey by the same road that he journeys." "My Lord," said Geraint, "with thy permission we will depart." "Whither wilt thou go?" said Arthur. "Thou canst not proceed now, unless it be unto thy death." "He will not suffer himself to be invited by me," said Gwalchmai. "But by me he will," said Arthur; "and, moreover, he does not go from here until he is healed." "I had rat her, Lord," said Geraint, "that thou wouldest let me go forth." "That will I not , I declare to Heaven," said he. Then he caused a maiden to be sent for to condu ct Enid to the tent where Gwenhwyvar's chamber was. And Gwenhwyvar and all her w omen were joyful at her coming; and they took off her riding-dress, and placed o ther garments upon her. Arthur also called Kadyrieith, and ordered him to pitch a tent for Geraint and the physicians; and he enjoined him to provide him with a bundance of all that might be requisite for him. And Kadyrieith did as he had co mmanded him. And Morgan Tud and his disciples were brought to Geraint. And Arthur and his hosts remained there nearly a month, whilst Geraint was being healed. And when he was fully recovered, Geraint came to Arthur, and asked his permission to depart. "I know not if thou art quite well." "In truth I am, Lord, " said Geraint. "I shall not believe thee concerning that, but the physicians th at were with thee." So Arthur caused the physicians to be summoned to him, and a sked them if it were true. "It is true, Lord," said Morgan [p. 178] [paragraph continues] Tud. So the next day Arthur permitted him to go forth, and he pursued his journey. And on the same day Arthur removed thence. And Geraint desired Enid to go on, and to keep before him, as she had formerly done. And she went forward along the high road. And as they journeyed thus, they heard an exc eeding loud wailing near to them. "Stay thou here," said he, "and I will go and see what is the cause of this wailing." "I will," said she. Then he went forward unto an open glade that was near the road. And in the glade he saw two horses, one having a man's saddle, and the other a woman's saddle upon it. And, behold, there was a knight lying dead in his armour, and a young damsel in a riding-dre ss standing over him, lamenting. "Ah! Lady," said Geraint, "what hath befallen t hee?" "Behold," she answered, "I journeyed here with my beloved husband, when, l o! three giants came upon us, and without any cause in the world, they slew him. " "Which way went they hence?" said Geraint. "Yonder by the high road," she repl ied. So he returned to Enid. "Go," said he, "to the lady that is below yonder, a nd await me there till I come." She was sad when he ordered her to do thus, but nevertheless she went to the damsel, whom it was ruth to hear, and she felt cert ain that Geraint would never return. Meanwhile Geraint followed the giants, and overtook them. And each of them was greater of stature than three other men, and a huge club was on the shoulder of each. Then he rushed upon one of them, and t hrust his lance through his body. And having drawn it forth again, he pierced an other of them through likewise. But the third turned upon him, and struck him wi th his club, so that he split his shield, and crushed his shoulder, and opened h is wounds anew, and all his blood began to flow from him. But Geraint drew his s

word, and attacked the giant, and gave him a blow on the crown of his head so se vere, and fierce, and violent, that his head and his neck were split down to his shoulders, and he fell dead. So Geraint left him thus, and returned to Enid. An d when he saw her, he fell down lifeless from his horse. Piercing, and loud, and thrilling was the cry [p. 179] that Enid uttered. And she came and stood over him where he had fallen. And at t he sound of her cries came the Earl of Limours, and the host that journeyed with him, whom her lamentations brought out of their road. And the Earl said to Enid , "Alas, Lady, what hath befallen thee?" "Ah! good Sir," said she, "the only man I have loved, or ever shall love, is slain." Then he said to the other, "And wh at is the cause of thy grief?" "They have slain my beloved husband also," said s he. "And who was it that slew them?" "Some giants," she answered, "slew my bestbeloved, and the other knight went in pursuit of them, and came back in the stat e thou seest, his blood flowing excessively; but it appears to me that he did no t leave the giants without killing some of them, if not all." The Earl caused th e knight that was dead to be buried, but he thought that there still remained so me life in Geraint; and to see if he yet would live, he had him carried with him in the hollow of his shield, and upon a bier. And the two damsels went to the C ourt; and when they arrived there, Geraint was placed upon a litter-couch in fro nt of the table that was in the hall. Then they all took off their travelling ge ar, and the Earl besought Enid to do the same, and to clothe herself in other ga rments. "I will not, by Heaven," said she. "Ah! Lady," said he, "be not so sorro wful for this matter." "It were hard to persuade me to be otherwise," said she. "I will act towards thee in such wise, that thou needest not be sorrowful, wheth er yonder knight live or die. Behold, a good Earldom, together with myself, will I bestow on thee; be, therefore, happy and joyful." "I declare to Heaven," said she, "that henceforth I shall never be joyful while I live." "Come, then," said he, "and eat." "No, by Heaven, I will not," she answered. "But, by Heaven, thou shalt," said he. So he took her with him to the table against her will, and man y times desired her to eat. "I call Heaven to witness," said she, "that I will n ot eat until the man that is upon yonder bier shall eat likewise." "Thou canst n ot fulfil that," said the Earl, "yonder man is dead already." "I will prove that I can," said she. Then [p. 180] he offered her a goblet of liquor. "Drink this goblet," he said, "and it will ca use thee to change thy mind." "Evil betide me," she answered, "if I drink aught until he drink also." "Truly," said the Earl, "it is of no more avail for me to be gentle with thee than ungentle." And he gave her a box on the ear. Thereupon she raised a loud and piercing shriek, and her lamentations were much greater th an they had been before, for she considered in her mind that had Geraint been al ive, he durst not have struck her thus. But, behold, at the sound of her cry, Ge raint revived from his swoon, and he sat up on the bier, and finding his sword i n the hollow of his shield, he rushed to the place where the Earl was, and struc k him a fiercely-wounding, severely-venomous, and sternly-smiting blow upon the crown of his head, so that he clove him in twain, until his sword was stayed by the table. Then all left the board, and fled away. And this was not so much thro ugh fear of the living as through the dread they felt at seeing the dead man ris e up to slay them. And Geraint looked upon Enid, and he was grieved for two caus es; one was, to see that Enid had lost her colour and her wonted aspect, and the other, to know that she was in the right. "Lady," said he, "knowest thou where our horses are?" "I know, Lord, where thy horse is," she replied, "but I know no t where is the other. Thy horse is in the house yonder." So he went to the house , and brought forth his horse, and mounted him, and took up Enid from the ground , and placed her upon the horse with him. And he rode forward. And their road la y between two hedges. And the night was gaining on the day. And lo! they saw beh

ind them the shafts of spears betwixt them and the sky, and they heard the tramp ling of horses, and the noise of a host approaching. "I hear something following us," said he, "and I will put thee on the other side of the hedge." And thus he did. And thereupon, behold, a knight pricked towards him, and couched his lance . When Enid saw this, she cried out, saying, "Oh! chieftain, whoever thou art, w hat renown wilt thou gain by slaying a dead man?" "Oh! Heaven," said [p. 181] he, "is it Geraint?" "Yes, in truth," said she. "And who art thou?" "I am the Li ttle King," he answered, "coming to thy assistance, for I heard that thou wast i n trouble. And if thou hadst followed my advice, none of these hardships would h ave befallen thee." "Nothing can happen," said Geraint, "without the will of Hea ven, though much good results from counsel." "Yes," said the Little King, "and I know good counsel for thee now. Come with me to the court of a son-in-law of my sister, which is near here, and thou shalt have the best medical assistance in the kingdom." "I will do so gladly," said Geraint. And Enid was placed upon the horse of one of the Little King's squires, and they went forward to the Baron's palace. And they were received there with gladness, and they met with hospitalit y and attention. And the next morning they went to seek physicians; and it was n ot long before they came, and they attended Geraint until he was perfectly well. And while Geraint was under medical care, the Little King caused his armour to be repaired, until it was as good as it had ever been. And they remained there a fortnight and a month. Then the Little King said to Geraint, "Now will we go towards my own Court, to t ake rest, and amuse ourselves." "Not so," said Geraint, "we will first journey f or one day more, and return again." "With all my heart," said the Little King, " do thou go then." And early in the day they set forth. And more gladly and more joyfully did Enid journey with them that day than she had ever done. And they ca me to the main road. And when they reached a place where the road divided in two , they beheld a man on foot coming towards them along one of these roads, and Gw iffert asked the man whence he came. "I come," said he, "from an errand in the c ountry." "Tell me," said Geraint, "which is the best for me to follow of these t wo roads?" "That is the best for thee to follow," answered he, "for if thou goes t by this one, thou wilt never return. Below us," said he, "there is a hedge of mist, and within it are enchanted games , and no one who has gone there has ever returned. And [p. 182] the Court of the Earl Owain is there, and he permits no one to go to lodge in th e town, except he will go to his Court." "I declare to Heaven," said Geraint, "t hat we will take the lower road." And they went along it until they came to the town. And they took the fairest and pleasantest place in the town for their lodg ing. And while they were thus, behold, a young man came to them, and greeted the m. "Heaven be propitious to thee," said they. "Good Sirs," said he, "what prepar ations are you making here?" "We are taking up our lodging," said they, "to pass the night." "It is not the custom with him who owns the town," he answered, "to permit any of gentle birth, unless they come to stay in his Court, to abide her e; therefore, come ye to the Court." "We will come, gladly," said Geraint. And t hey went with the page, and they were joyfully received. And the Earl came to th e hall to meet them, and he commanded the tables to be laid. And they washed, an d sat down. And this is the order in which they sat: Geraint on one side of the Earl, and Enid on the other side, and next to Enid the Little King, and then the Countess next to Geraint; and all after that as became their rank. Then Geraint recollected the games, and thought that he should not go to them; and on that a ccount he did not eat. Then the Earl looked upon Geraint, and considered, and he bethought him that his not eating was because of the games, and it grieved him that he had ever established those games, were it only on account of losing such

a youth as Geraint. And if Geraint had asked him to abolish the games, he would gladly have done so. Then the Earl said to Geraint, "What thought occupies thy mind, that thou dost not eat? If thou hesitatest about going to the games, thou shalt not go, and no other of thy rank shall ever go either." "Heaven reward the e," said Geraint, "but I wish nothing better than to go to the games, and to be shown the way thither." "If that is what thou dost prefer, thou shalt obtain it willingly." "I do prefer it, indeed," said he. Then they ate, and they were ampl y served, and they had a variety of gifts, and abundance of liquor. And when the y had finished [p. 183] eating they arose. And Geraint called for his horse and his armour, and he accou tred both himself and his horse. And all the hosts went forth until they came to the side of the hedge, and the hedge was so lofty, that it reached as high as t hey could see in the air, and upon every stake in the hedge, except two, there w as the head of a man, and the number of stakes throughout the hedge was very gre at. Then said the Little King, "May no one go in with the chieftain?" "No one ma y," said Earl Owain. "Which way can I enter?" inquired Geraint. "I know not," sa id Owain, "but enter by the way that thou wilt, and that seemeth easiest to thee ." Then fearlessly and unhesitatingly Geraint dashed forward into the mist. And on leaving the mist, he came to a large orchard; and in the orchard he saw an open space, wherein was a tent of red satin; and the door of the tent was open, and a n apple-tree stood in front of the door of the tent; and on a branch of the appl e-tree hung a huge hunting-horn. Then he dismounted, and went into the tent; and there was no one in the tent save one maiden sitting in a golden chair, and ano ther chair was opposite to her, empty. And Geraint went to the empty chair, and sat down therein. "Ah! chieftain," said the maiden, "I would not counsel thee to sit in that chair." "Wherefore?" said Geraint. "The man to whom that chair belo ngs has never suffered another to sit in it." "I care not," said Geraint, "thoug h it displease him that I sit in the chair." And thereupon they heard a mighty t umult around the tent. And Geraint looked to see what was the cause of the tumul t. And he beheld without a knight mounted upon a warhorse, proudly snorting, hig h-mettled, and large of bone; and a robe of honour in two parts was upon him and upon his horse, and beneath it was plenty of armour. "Tell me, chieftain," said he to Geraint, "who it was that bade thee sit there?" "Myself," answered he. "I t was wrong of thee to do me this shame and disgrace. Arise, and do me satisfact ion for thine insolence." Then Geraint arose; and they encountered immediately; and they broke a set of lances, and a second set, and a third; and they gave eac h [p. 184] other fierce and frequent strokes; and at last Geraint became enraged, and he ur ged on his horse, and rushed upon him, and gave him a thrust on the centre of hi s shield, so that it was split, and so that the head of his lance went through h is armour, and his girths were broken, and he himself was borne headlong to the ground the length of Geraint's lance and arm, over his horse's crupper. "Oh, my Lord!" said he, "thy mercy, and thou shalt have what thou wilt." "I only desire, " said Geraint, "that this game shall no longer exist here, nor the hedge of mis t, nor magic, nor enchantment." "Thou shalt have this gladly, Lord," he replied. "Cause, then, the mist to disappear from this place," said Geraint. "Sound yond er horn," said he, "and when thou soundest it, the mist will vanish; but it will not go hence unless the horn be blown by the knight by whom I am vanquished." A nd sad and sorrowful was Enid where she remained, through anxiety concerning Ger aint. Then Geraint went and sounded the horn. And at the first blast he gave, th e mist vanished. And all the hosts came together, and they all became reconciled to each other. And the Earl invited Geraint and the Little King to stay with hi

m that night. And the next morning they separated. And Geraint went towards his own dominions; and thenceforth he reigned prosperously, and his warlike fame and splendour lasted with renown and honour both to him and to Enid from that time forth. (Cardiff Castle: the Keep, as it appeared in 1840.)

The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 185]

NOTES TO GERAINT THE SON OF ERBIN. 141a EASTER--CHRISTMAS--WHITSUNTIDE.--Page <page 141>. RITSON, in a note to his "Metrical Romancees," mentions, that our early historia ns, as Roger Hoveden, Matthew Paris, &c., often advert to the custom of the anci ent monarchs of France and England, of holding a cour pleniere, or plenary court , at the three principal of Easter, Whitsuntide, and Christmas. On those occasi ons "they were attended by the earls and barons of the kingdom, their ladys and children; who dine'd at the royal table with great pomp and eclat; minstrels flo cking thither from all parts; justs and tournaments being perform'd, and various other kinds of divertisements, which lasted several days."--III. 235. These three principal festivals, or prif wyl, "Pasc, Nadolic, a Sulgwyn," are co mmemorated as such in one of the Triads, lvii.

141b CHURCHES WERE SET APART FOR MASS.--Page <page 141>. IN another part of this work, the word Offeren is rendered offering; but here it has been thought advisable to use the more general term [p. 186] [paragraph continues] Mass, although the former seems to correspond best with th e language of the day. Thus Chaucer, in his description of the Wif of Bathe, tells us, that In all the parish wif ne was ther non, That to the offring before hire shulde gon, And if ther did, certain so wroth was She, That she was out of alle charitee." Pro. v. 451-4.

141c STEWARD OF THE HOUSEHOLD.--Page <page 141>. HE was the chief of all the officers of the Court, who had each to pay him a fee of twenty-four pence upon their installation. On him devolved the important car e of providing food for the kitchen, and liquor for the mead-cellar; and he had

the charge of the king's share of booty, until the king desired to dispose of it , when he was allowed to choose from it a steer, as his own share. It was his pa rticular duty, "to swear for the king." Besides his clothes, and four horse-shoe s, and various perquisites of the skins of beasts, he was entitled to a "male ha wk, from the master of the hawks, every feast of St. Michael."--Welsh Laws.

141d MASTER OF THE HOUSEHOLD.--Page <page 141>. THE post of Master of the Household was one of much honour and distinction; and in the Laws of Howel Dda it is ordained that it should be filled by the king's s on or nephew, or one of dignity sufficient for so high a situation. Gwalchmai wa s therefore peculiarly eligible to it from the relation in which he stood to Kin g Arthur. The privileges attached to this office were important, while its duties do not a ppear to have been of a very arduous nature; one of them consisted in giving the harp into the hands of the domestic bard at the three great festivals. The Master of the Household had the largest and most central house in the town f or his lodging. He was entitled to the second most honourable dish in the Court, and to be served first after the king; and his allowance was three dishes and t hree hornfuls of the best liquor in the Court. Besides other perquisites, some o f which were in money, he claimed his clothes at the three great festivals, and also his horses, his dogs, his hawks, and his arms, from the king; and from the smith of the Court he had four horse-shoes once a year, with their complement of nails. [p. 187] 142a GRYNN, AND PEN PIGEON, &c.--Page <page 142>. THESE personages appear to have received their names altogether from the office which they held; and we cannot expect to find any very authentic records concern ing "Sight the son of Seer," and "Ear the son of Hearer," which is the interpret ation of Drem vab Dremhitid, and Clust vab Clustveinyd. To these two worthies, however, the following allusion is made in a composition attributed to Iolo Goch, 1400. "When will that be? "When Bleuddyn Rabi Rhol is as quick-sighted as Tremydd ap Tremhidydd, the man w ho could discern a mote in the sunbeam, in the four corners of the world. "When the ears of deaf Deicin Fongam of Machynlleth are as good as those of Clus tfain ap Clustfeinydd, the man who could hear the sound of the dewdrop, in June falling from the grass stalk, in the four corners of the world." It may be well to remark in this place, that several of the characters which are incidentally introduced in Geraint ab Erbin, appear again in others of the Mabi nogion, where they will be more particularly noticed.

142b DIAPERED SATIN.--Page <page 142>. HAVE ventured thus to translate the words Pali caerawg," though the strict meani ng of "caerawg" is "mural"; and Dr. Owen Pughe, in his Dictionary, gives it the

signification of "kersey-woven," as applied to a particular kind of cloth, and s ays that the epithet is derived "from the similitude of its texture to the work in stone walls." In speaking of satin, it seemed, however, more appropriate to u se the term diapered, which Wharton, who has a long note upon the subject (Eng. Poe. II. 9, 1824), believes, properly, to signify "embroidering on a rich ground , as tissue, cloth of gold, &c." Thus, in the Squire of Low Degree, the King of Hungary promises his daughter "clothes of fyne golds" for her head. With damaske Whyte and asure blewe, Well dyaperd with lyllyes newe." And Chaucer talks of * * "a stede bay, trapped in stele, Covered with cloth of gold diapred wele." Cant. T. v. 2159.

[p. 188] 142c FOREST OF DEAN.--Page <page 142>. THE history of the Forest of Dean is much too interesting and important to be co mpressed within the limits of a note; the very derivation of its name having alo ne afforded materials for very lengthened discussion. Many suppose that it was s o called in consequence of the Danes having taken up their residence there; and Giraldus Cambrensis appears to have inclined to this opinion, at least if we may judge from the name by which he designates it, Danubiae Sylva, which is similar to that used by Asser Menevensis, in speaking of Denmark. [*1] It argues, howev er, greatly against this etymology, that Dean was a common name in forests among the Celts, both of Britain and Gaul. Besides Ardennes in France, and Arden in W arwickshire, many forest towns still bear the appellation, as Dean in Rockingham Forest, Dean in the New Forest, &c. From this circumstance, it has occurred to me that the name was very probably derived from the Welsh or Celtic word DIN, wh ich signifies "a fortified mount, or fort." For Sharon Turner informs us, on the authority of Caesar, Strabo, and Diodorus Siculus, that the Britons "cleared a space in the wood, on which they built their huts and folded their cattle; and t hey fenced the avenues by ditches and barriers of trees. Such a collection of ho uses formed one of their towns."--Ang.-Sax. B. I. c. v. Din is the root of Dinas , the Welsh word in actual use for a city. The Rev. T. Price, in his History of Wales, gives it as his opinion, that the Fo rest of Dean was the original Feryllwg, or land betwixt the Wye and the Severn, which at one time formed a part of one of the five divisions of Wales. The name of Feryllwg, corrupted into Ferleg and Ferreg, he supposes to have been given to this district from the iron-works with which it abounded, the word Feryll signi fying "a worker in metal." It appears also to have been considered as one of the three Gwents, and to have borne the appellation of "Gwent Coch yn y Dena," or t he Red Gwent in the Deans, for which epithet it is most likely indebted to the c olour of its ferruginous soil. In the time of Giraldus Cambrensis, this district "amply supplied Gloucester wit h iron and venison." The renowned Spanish Armada was strictly charged to destroy its noble oaks, which were then considered of the highest importance to our nav al pre-eminence. I will not here enter into detail upon the mining history of the Forest of Dean,

as I shall probably have occasion again to allude to [p. 189] it. it is said that the peculiar and extensive mining privileges of its inhabita nts were confirmed to them by the grant of one of our sovereigns, in acknowledgm ent for the good service done him by its archers against the Scots; for, like mo st foresters, they were skilful bowmen. The yew-tree, sacred to archers, which i s still seen to mark the site of almost every ancient mine in the forest, might seem to have a fanciful allusion to the nature of the grant, and a lingering des ire to perpetuate the recollection of its origin.

142d CHIEF HUNTSMAN.--Page <page 142>. IN the Laws of Howel Dda, this important personage ranks as the tenth officer of the Court, and his duties and immunities are very clearly defined. From Christm as to February he was to be with the king when required, and took the seat appoi nted for him in the palace, which was "about the recess with the domestic chapla in." After the 8th of February he was to go with his dogs, his horns, and his gr eyhounds to hunt the young stags until the feast of St. John, which is in the mi ddle of summer; and during that time he was not bound to make compensation (that is, in a Court of Law) to any one who had a claim upon him, except it were one of his fellow-officers. He was to hunt deer from the feast of St. John till the ninth day of winter; and unless he could be taken before he had risen from his b ed, and put on his boots, he was not obliged to render compensation to any who h ad a claim upon him during all that period. From the ninth day of winter to the 1st of December he went to hunt badgers, and was not accountable for his conduct to any except his fellow-officers; and after that he was employed in sharing th e skins of the beasts that had been slain, to a portion of which he had himself a right. His lodging was in the kilnhouse, and his allowance was three hornfuls of liquor and a dish of meat. The value of his horn was one pound, and it was to be of buffalo-horn (buelin). 142e CHIEF PAGE.--Page <page 142>. THE Chief Page, or Penn Mackwy, appears to have been the officer designated in t he Welsh Laws as the Gwas Ystavell, and, as that name implies, he was required t o attend to the arrangements of the king's chamber. It was his business to seek the burden of straw for the king to lie on, to make his bed, and to spread the c lothes upon it; and in his keeping were the king's treasures, "his cups, his [p. 190] horns, and his rings," for the losing of which he was punished. He lodged in the royal chamber, and, except during the three great festivals, acted as cupbearer to the king. 142f GWENHWYVAR SAID TO ARTHUR, "WILT THOU PERMIT ME, LORD TO GO TO-MORROW TO SE E AND HEAR THE HUNT OF THE STAG?"--Page <page 142>. IT was formerly very customary for ladies to join in the pleasures of the chase; and Strutt informs us that when they did so it was usual to draw the game into a small compass by means of inclosures; and temporary stands were erected for th em, from which, when not contented with being merely spectators of the sport, th ey shot at the game with arrows as it passed by. This appears to be the manner i n which the hunting party was to be conducted, which was promised by the king of Hungary to his daughter in the old romance of the Squire of Low Degree, where h e tells her,

"A lese of grehound with you to stryke, And hert and hynde and other lyke, Ye shal be set at such a tryst, That herte and hynde shall come to your fyst."---765-8. Strutt is of opinion that the ladies had even separate hunting parties of their own.--Sports and Pastimes, p. 12.

143a GIVE IT TO WHOM HE PLEASES.--Page <page 143>. GAWAIN (Gwalchmai) gives a different counsel in the French Romance of Eric and E nide, and endeavours to dissuade the King from the hunting of the White Stag. "Monsignor Gauvain ne plot mie Quant il ot la parole oie. Sire, fet-il, de ceste cace N'aurois vous ja ne gre, ne grace, Nous savons bien trestot pieca Quel costume le blanc cerf a; Qui le blanc cerf ocire puet, Par raison baisier li estuet Le plus bele a quanqu'il cort, Des puceles de vostre cort; Mais en porroit venir molt grant Error, A il caians cinq cens [p. 191] Damoiselles de halt paraiges Filles a Roi gentis et saiges Ne n'i a nul qui n'ait ami Chevalier vaillant et hardi Qui tost desrainer la voldroit Ou fust a tort, ou fust a droit Que cele qui li atalente Ert la plus bele et la plus gente. Li Rois respont ce sai ge bien Mais porce nel lairrai jo rien; Mais ne puest estre contredite Parole, puisque Rois l'a dite." This recalls the words which Chaucer puts into the mouth of "Pl uto, that is the King of Faerie," when urged by his Queen to deviate from a reso lution once declared: "I am a king, it sit me not to lie." Cant. Tales, 1. 10189.

143b CADYRNERTH THE SON OF PORTHAWR GANDWY.--Page <page 143>. CADYRNERTH the son of Porthawr Gandwy appears to have been a very courtly person age, and a man of most polished manners; as in one Triad we find him ranked with the courteous Gwalchmai for his urbanity towards guests and strangers; [*1] and in another he is said to have preferred residing with King Arthur to exercising the sovereignty over his own dominions, which was, doubtless, in some measure b

ecause the refined habits of the Court were more congenial to a person of his cu ltivation and taste. "The three sovereigns of the Court of Arthur, Goronwy the son of Echel Vorddwytw ll, and Cadreith the son of Porthfawr Gadw, and Ffleidwr Fflam the son of Godo; [*2] because they were princes possessing territory and dominion, and in prefere nce to which they remained as knights in the Court of Arthur, as that was consid ered the chief of honour and gentility in the opinion of the Three Just Knights. " [*3] Nor is this characteristic lost sight of in the present Tale, for, a little furt her on, while every one else is engrossed by the pleasures of the chase, we find all Cadyrnerth's ideas of propriety violated by Gwenhwyvar's riding up with no other retinue than a single handmaiden; [p. 192] and he hastens to Arthur, to make him acquainted with so flagrant a breach of et iquette, who instantly rectifies it by commanding Gildas and the scholars of the Court to attend her.

143c GOREU THE SON OF CUSTENNIN.--Page <page 143>. HE is recorded as the deliverer of Arthur from the three imprisonments assigned to him in the Triads. "The three supreme prisoners of the Island of Britain, Llyr Liediaith, in the pr ison of Euroswydd Wledig, [*1] and Madoc, or Mabon, [*2] son of Modron, and Geyr the son of Geyrybed, or Geiryoed; [*2] and one more exalted than the three, and that was Arthur, who was for three nights in the Castle of Oeth and Anoeth, and three nights in the prison of Wen Pendragon, and three nights in the dark priso n under the stone ------ And one youth released him from these three prisons; th at youth was Goreu the son of Custennin, his cousin."--Tr. L. The Castle of Oeth and Anoeth is spoken of in the Mabinogion and in another seri es of the Triads it is named as the prison of the above-mentioned Geyr. In this version, Arthur is not alluded to, but all the members of the families of the ot her prisoners are said to have shared their captivity, which is designated as th e most complete ever known to have taken place.--Tr. 61.

144a HEAVEN PROSPER THEE, GERAINT.--Page <page 144>. THE name of Geraint ab Erbin is familiar to all lovers of ancient Welsh literatu re, through the beautiful Elegy composed on him by his fellow warrior, the vener able bard Llywarch Hen. He was a Prince of Dyvnaint (Devon), and fell fighting v aliantly against the Saxons, under Arthur's banner, in the battle of Llongborth. Before Geraint, the terror of the foe, I saw steeds fatigued with the toil of battle, And after the shout was given, bow dreadful was the onset. ________ At Llongborth I saw the tumult, And the slain drenched in gore,

And red-stained warriors from the assault of the foe. [p. 193] Before Geraint, the scourge of the enemy, I saw steeds white with foam, And after the shout of battle, a fearful torrent. At Llongborth I saw the raging of slaughter, And an excessive carnage, And warriors blood-stained from the assault of Geraint. ________ At Llongborth was Geraint slain, A valiant warrior from the woodlands of Devon, Slaughtering his foes as he fell." [*1] Llongborth, where this fatal conflict took place, is by some be lieved to have been Portsmouth, and the name literally signifies the Haven of Sh ips. But the Rev. T. Price supposes it to be Langport, in Somersetshire. This op inion he founds on the similarity of the names, and the locality; Langport being situated on the river Parret, the Peryddon of the Welsh bards, and the Pedridan of the Saxon Chronicle. From the Triads we learn that Geraint was also a naval commander. Gwenwynwyn the son of Nav, and March the son of Meirchion, are ranked with him as such; and we are told that with each of them were six score ships, having six score men in e ach.--Tr. 68. In the Gododin of Aneurin he is Spoken of in terms of high eulogium.--Myv. Arch. I. 13. Geraint ab Erbin has had the honour of being canonized. It is said that a church was dedicated to him at Caerffawydd, or Hereford. Four of his sons, Selyf, Cyng an, Iestin, and Cado, or Cataw, are also included in the list of Saints, and wer e members of the college of St. Garmon. Garwy, another of his sons, appears in a very different character from his brothers, in the Triads, where he is celebrat ed as one of the three amorous and courteous knights of the Court of Arthur.--Tr . 119. We can hardly identify Geraint ab Erbin with the Geraint Carnwys or Garwys of Gr uffydd ab Arthur, who, in the Brut, is called Gerin de Chartres; and in Robert o f Gloucester, "Ger###7823###n erl of Carco###7823###s." This hero figures in Art hur's very latest battles, whereas Geraint ab Erbin, as we have already seen, fe ll at Llongborth, in [p. 194] an encounter with the Saxons, which must have taken place at an earlier period o f that monarch's reign;--according to Dr. O. Pughe, about the year 530. [*1] In the Life of Saint Teiliaw, the second bishop of Llandaff, mention occurs of a person named Gerennius, and an account is given of his death, which is describe d as having taken place very differently from that of the subject of Llywarch He n's Elegy. It is probable, however, that the same person is alluded to; but the whole narrative is of too legendary a character to be received as history, espec ially in opposition to the testimony of an eye-witness. In this composition, it is stated that Saint Teiliaw, when retiring to Armorica with a number of his cou ntrymen, in order to escape from a pestilence, called Pestis Flava, [*2] which w as then desolating Britain, was, on his way, hospitably entertained by Gerennius , or Geraint, King of Cornwall, to whom, on his departure, the Saint confidently

promised that he should not die until he had received the Holy Communion at his hands. Accordingly when the King approached his death, Teiliaw was miraculously informed of his situation, and immediately made preparations to fulfil his prom ise, and at the same time to return to his own country, the pestilence having th en subsided. As they were going to embark, Teiliaw desired his followers to take with them a huge sarcophagus, which he had destined for the reception of Gerenn ius's body; and on their declaring their inability to comply, on account of its great magnitude, inasmuch as ten yoke of oxen could scarcely move it from its pl ace, the Saint instructed them that it should, by Divine assistance, he conveyed across the sea before the prow of the ship; which was accordingly done, and the sarcophagus reached the shore without the intervention of human aid. Having lan ded at the port called Dingerein, [*3] Teiliaw proceeded forthwith to visit the King, whom be found still alive, but who, after the ministration of the Holy Ord inance, immediately expired; and his remains were placed by the Saint in the abo ve-mentioned sarcophagus. [*4] [p. 195] 148a SPARROW-HAWK.--Page <page 148>. A SIMILAR prize was contended for at the nuptials of Maximilian and Mary of Burg undy, when there were great jousts and rejoicing. In the very interesting Chroni cle of the events of the reign of these two illustrious persons, translated from the Flemish by M. Octave Delepierre, and published at Brussels, it is recorded that upon that joyful occasion, "Le Margrave de Brandebourg remporta un des prix , qui consistait en un faucon d'or."

151a THAT THOU WILT GO TO GWENHWYVAR.--Page <page 151>. THIS custom of sending a conquered foe as a present to the victorious knight's l ady-love forms a frequent incident in chivalric Romances. It is admirably ridicu led by Don Quixote, when he desires the released criminals to go and offer thems elves to his Dulcinea. In the old French poem, entitled the Combat des Trente, which celebrates the enc ounter which took place in Brittany between thirty English and thirty French kni ghts, during the reign of Edward III, Pembroke calls to Beaumanoir to surrender, telling him that he will not kill him, but will send him as a present to the la dy of his affections. "Rent toi tost Biaumanoir je ne tochiray mie, Mais je feray de toy un present a ma mie."

151b EDEYRN THE SON OF NUDD.--Page <page 151>. OF Edeyrn ap Nudd but little is known, except that he was one of the most valian t knights of Arthur's Court, and that in the celebrated expedition against the E mperor of Rome he was sent by his royal master, with five thousand men under his command, to the aid of Gawain and the other ambassadors to the Roman camp, who were treacherously assailed in returning from their mission. Gruffydd ab Arthur. Myv. Arch. II. 339. In Wace's Brut, l. 12,336 (as in the romance of Eric and En ide), he is called Yder le fils Nut, or Nu. In the account of the antiquities of Glastonbury, attributed to William of Malme sbury, the author says, "It is written in the Acts of the illustrious King Arthu

r, that at a certain festival of the Nativity, at Caerleon, that monarch having conferred military distinction upon a valiant youth of the name of Ider the son of King Nuth, in order to prove him, conducted him to the hill of Brentenol, for the purpose [p. 196] of fighting three most atrocious giants. And Ider going before the rest of the c ompany, attacked the giants valorously, and slew them. And when Arthur came up h e found him apparently dead, having fainted with the immense toil he had undergo ne, whereupon he reproached himself with having been the cause of his death, thr ough his tardiness in coming to his aid; and arriving at Glastonbury, he appoint ed there four-and-twenty monks to say mass for his soul, and endowed them most a mply with lands, and with gold and silver, chalices, and other ecclesiastical or naments." The name of Edeyrn ab Nudd occurs in the Catalogue of Welsh Saints, where he is noticed as a bard, who embraced a life of sanctity, and to whom the Chapel of Bo dedeyrn, under Holyhead, is dedicated. [*1]

152a SAT ACCORDING TO THEIR PRECEDENCE IN HONOUR.--Page <page 152>. PRECEDENCE at table was formerly considered a point of great importance, and was even a subject of legislation with the Welsh. In the Laws of Howel Dda, all the officers of the palace have their places in the hall very particularly allotted to them; some having their seats above, and some below the partition. [*2] This partition may be supposed to answer to the raised platform called the dais, sti ll seen at the upper end of all ancient baronial halls, and where the table was placed, at which the lord and his guests, and the most distinguished of his reta iners, sat at meat. The honour of being admitted to it was greatly esteemed, of which innumerable instances might be adduced from passages in the older writers. Chaucer, to give a favourable idea of the consideration in which some of the ch aracters in his Prologue were held, says, "Wel semed eche of hem a fayre burgeis, To sitten in a gild halle, on the deis."--v. 372.

153a THIS IS HOW ARTHUR HUNTED THE STAG.--Page <page 153>. STRUTT gives a description of the various preparations formerly made or a royal hunting party, from a treatise, entitled, "The Maister of the Game," written for the use of Prince Henry, by the Master of the Game to Henry IV. It exists in th e Harleian MSS., and is an enlargement of one previously composed in French, by William Twici, or Twety, grand huntsman to Edward II. The name of John Gyfford [p. 197] is coupled with that of Twety in an English version, of nearly the same date. It was from these two that the treatise upon hunting, contained in the Book of St. Alban's, was compiled. As the passage is very curious, I shall make no apology for giving it at length. "When the king shall think proper to hunt the hart in the parks or forests, eith er with bows or greyhounds, the master of the game, and the park-keeper, or the

forester, being made acquainted with his pleasure, shall see that everything be provided necessary for the purpose. It is the duty of the sheriff of the county, wherein the hunting was to be performed, to furnish fit stabling for the king's horses, and carts to take away the dead game. The hunters and officers under th e forester, with their assistants, were commanded to erect a sufficient number o f temporary buildings for the reception of the royal family and their train; and , if I understand my author clearly, these buildings are directed to be covered with green boughs, to answer the double purpose of shading the company and the h ounds from the heat of the sun, and to protect them from any inconveniency in ca se of foul weather. Early in the morning, upon the day appointed for the sport, the master of the game, with the officers deputed by him, ought to see that the greyhounds were properly placed, and the persons nominated to blow the horn, who se office was to watch what kind of game was turned out, and, by the manner of w inding his horn, signify the same to the company, that they might, be prepared f or its reception upon its quitting the cover. Proper persons were then to be app ointed, at different parts of the inclosure, to keep the populace at due distanc e. The yeomen of the king's bow, and the grooms of his tutored greyhounds, had i n charge to secure the king's standing, and prevent any noise being made to dist urb the game before the arrival of his majesty. When the royal family and the no bility were conducted to the places appointed for their reception, the master of the game, or his lieutenant, sounded three long mootes, for the uncoupling of t he hart hounds. The game was then driven from the cover, and tamed by the huntsm en and the hounds so as to pass by the stands belonging to the king and queen, a nd such of the nobility as were permitted to have a share in the pastime; who mi ght either shoot at them with their bows, or pursue them with the greyhounds, at their pleasure. We are then informed that the game which the king, the queen, o r the princes or princesses, slew with their own bows, or particularly commanded to be let run, was not liable to any claim by the huntsmen or their attendants; but of all the rest that was killed they had certain parts assigned to them by the master of [p. 198] the game, according to the ancient custom."--Sports and Pastimes, 18, 19.

153b CAVALL WAS HIS NAME.--Page <page 153>. THE dog Cavall is mentioned in another of the Mabinogion--that of Kilhwch and Ol wen.

153c HORN FOR SLAYING.--Page <page 153>. THE several incidents of the chase were wont to be announced by the different wa ys in which the horn was sounded. A list of these various modes of winding the h orn is given in the Book of Sir Tristram, where we find,-"14. The death of the bucke eyther with bowe hounds or grehoundes,--One longe no te. 15. Knowledge of the same,--Two short and one longe. 16. The death of the bucke with houndes,--Two longe notes and the rechace." [*1]

153d GILDAS THE SON OF CAW.--Page <page 153>.

GILDAS was one of the numerous Sons of Caw, who sought refuge with Arthur, and w ere hospitably received by him, when their father, who was a prince of Strath Cl yde, was expelled from his possessions by the inroads of the Saxons. It is said that Gildas was a member of the congregation of Cattwg, and also that he establi shed a school, or college, at Caer Badon, or Bath. He is well known as the autho r of an "Epistle" on the vices and miseries of his country, and of the Lamentati ons over the Destruction of Britain, which procured for him the title of the Bri tish Jeremiah. Some identify him with the poet Aneurin, but his history has been a subject of much controversy.

155a CARDIFF.--Page. <page 155>. WHETHER regarded as the scene of Roman [*2] and Norman enterprise, or of British patriotism and valour, [*3] Cardiff is a spot to which [p. 199] much historical interest must ever attach. Its annals, however, do not always re fer to deeds of open and honourable warfare; and some of the events which have t aken place within its precincts are of a nature to excite feelings of pity and r egret. Among the early recollections that its name revives, is that of the unfortunate Robert, Duke of Normandy, who suffered there his six-and-twenty years of hopeles s captivity. The tower which tradition has assigned as the dungeon he occupied, is pointed out at the Castle to this day, and is a most venerable ruin; [*1] and there is still extant a spirited poem in the Welsh language, which he is said t o have composed to beguile the tedious hours of his imprisonment. It is addresse d to a solitary oak on the summit of Pennarth Point, which was visible from the scene of his sufferings, and is as follows, together with the explanatory headin g. "When Robert, Prince of Normandy, was imprisoned in Cardiff Castle, by Robert, s on of Amon, he acquired the Welsh language, and seeing the Welsh bards there at the festivals, he admired them, and became a bard; and these are verses which he composed,-'Oak that grew on battle mound, Where crimson torrents drench'd the ground;-----Woe waits the maddening broils where sparkling wine goes round! Oak that grew on verdant plain, Where gush'd the blood of warriors slain;-----The wretch in hatred's grasp may well of woes complain! Oak that grew in verdure strong, After bloodshed's direful wrong;-----Woe waits the wretch who sits the sons of strife among! Oak that grew on greensward bourn, Its once fair branches tempest-torn;-----Whom envy's hate pursues shall long in anguish mourn [p. 200] Oak that grew on woodcliff high, Where Severn's waves to winds reply;-----Woe waits the wretch whose years tell not that death is nigh!

Oak that grew through year of woes, Mid battle broil's unequall'd throes;------Forlorn is he who prays that death his life may close!'" [*1] About the year 1091, the Normans were called into Glamorganshir e by the native princes, who were in a state of enmity and warfare, and unwisely sought for foreign aid against each other. The Normans took advantage of their weakness and dissensions, and remained to conquer the province for themselves. T heir leader, Robert Fitz-Hammon, while he divided the principal lordships among the twelve knights who had accompanied him in the expedition, retained that of C ardiff, as the most important, for his own portion of the spoil. His family did not, however, enjoy his newly-acquired possessions in uninterrupted tranquillity ; for his descendant, William, Earl of Gloucester, having endeavoured to wrest a large tract of mountainous and woody country from a native chieftain, named Ivo r Bach, or Ivor the little; "a man," as Giraldus describes him, "of small statur e, but of immense courage," [*2] provoked the resolute Welshman to hostilities. One of Ivor's strongholds is said to have been the fortress of Castell Coch, who se beautiful ruin is one of the most picturesque ornaments of the lovely valley of the Taff; another was the rugged mountain-keep of Morlais, whose mound still forms a striking feature in the outline of the rising ground behind Merthyr and Dowlais, and in the vicinity of which is a spot [*3] which local tradition yet p oints out as the scene of one of his battles. The Castle of Cardiff was at that time surrounded with high walls, guarded by on e hundred and twenty soldiers, a numerous body of archers, and a strong watch; t he city also contained many stipendiary troops. Notwithstanding all these precau tions, however, the daring chief, descending from his fastnesses, scaled the cas tle walls in the dead of night, and carried off the Earl and Countess, together with their only son, into the woods; nor did he set them free until he not only recovered all of which he had been unjustly [p. 201] deprived, but also had ceded to him a large additional extent of territory. In a curious old composition, printed in 1825, by Sir Thomas Phillipps, and enti tled, "A Book of Glamorganshire Antiquities, by Rice Merrick, Esq., 1578," it is mentioned that "the Earle gave him of his owne Landes a Meadow near Romney, of whose name it is at this day called Morva Yvor. And unto Griffith, Sonne to Yvor Petit, another Medowe of his name, called Morva Ryffidd, which at this day reta yne those names."--29, 30. The same authority goes on to state that Sir Gilbert de Clare, successor to the Earl of Gloucester, gave his daughter in marriage to Griffith the son of Ivor, "by whome hee had diverse Sonnes, whose Grandchildren were starved in Cardiff Castle, having their eyes put out (Griffith ab Rys ab Gr e_ ab Ifor Petit being the heire) by Sir Richard de Clare their ffather's Cousen -German, saving Ho: Vel###7713###. then being with his Nurse; of whom God multip lied a great people."--59. There is a curious story in Giraldus Cambrensis, of a mysterious warning which K ing Henry II. received at Cardiff, where he passed the night on his return from Ireland, the first Sunday after Easter. It was accompanied by a prophecy, the du e fulfilment of which the worthy historian has not neglected to note. The great name of Owain Glendower is also connected with the history of Cardiff. Leland tells us, that "In the year 1404, and in the fourth year of the reign of King Henry, Owen Glendwr burnt the southern parts of Wales, and besieged the to wn and castle of Caerdyf. The besieged sent to the king for succour; but he neit her came in person or sent them any assistance. Owen, therefore, took the town, and burnt it all except one street, in which the friars minors dwelled; which, t

ogether with their convent, he left standing for the love he bore them. He after wards made himself master of the castle, and destroyed it, carrying away a rich booty which he found deposited there. But when the friars petitioned to him for their books and chalices, which they had lodged in the castle, he replied, why d id you put your goods in the castle? If you had kept them in your convent, they would have been secure."--Collect. I. 313.

155b SURETY FOR EDEYRN.--Page <page 155>. THE knights of old were very good-natured in coming forward as surety for one an other; and of this we have an instance in the interesting Lai de Lanval, ("Poeme s de Marie de France," I. 232). Ellis, in a note upon Mr. Way's English version of this tale, gives a [p. 202] curious anecdote on the subject of pledges or securities, out of the Life of St. Louis. "On his return from Egypt to France, being in danger of shipwreck, his queen vow ed to St. Nicholas a vessel of silver, and, as a further security to the saint, insisted that Joinville should become her pledge for the execution of the promis e."--Fab. II. 225. The Welsh legislator of the 10th century seems to have given the subject of bail or surety his particular attention, and his celebrated code contains a long ser ies of enactments relating to it. The following is a specimen of their character : "If a surety and debtor meet upon a bridge formed of a single tree, the debtor m ust not refuse to do one of these three things: either to pay, to give a pledge, or to go to law; and he must not move the toe of one foot towards the heel of t he other," (that is to say, he must not stir from the spot,) "until he does one of these three things."

155c GWALLAWG THE SON OF LLENAWG.--Page <page 155>. IN the Triads, we find him celebrated with Dunawd Fur and Cynvelyn Drwsgl, as on e of the pillars of battle of the Island of Britain, which is explained to mean that these chieftains were skilled in the disposition of the order of battle, an d were battle leaders, superior to all others that ever existed. [*1]--Tr. 71. M yv. Arch. II. 69. And in a subsequent Triad, he is called one of the "Grave-slaughtering ones," fr om his having avenged his wrongs from his grave.--Tr. 76. Myv. Arch. II. 69. Amongst the compositions of the early bards in the Myvyrian Archaeology, there a re several pieces expressly in honour of Gwallawg. In some of these the scenes o f his battles are named, and one of then, signifies that his fame extended from Caer Clud to Caer Caradawc, that is, from Dumbarton to Salisbury. His name occurs in Llywarch Hen's Elegy upon Urien Rheged; and he has been alrea dy spoken of (<page 34>) as one of the three northern kings, who united themselv es with that prince for the purpose of opposing the progress of Ida's successors .--See also Turner's "Anglo-Saxons," B. III. c. iv.

[p. 203] In Gruffydd ab Arthur, [*1] he is mentioned as one of the knights who were prese nt at Arthur's coronation; and his death is recorded to have taken place in the last conflict between that Sovereign and the Romans. The "Englynion y Beddau" pl ace his tomb in Carrawc.

155d MORGAN TUD.--Page <page 155>. THIS sapient personage is very probably the same as that Morgan the Wise who pre pared the ointment which restored Owain to a state of health and sanity, in the romance of Ywaine and Gawin, and whom Ritson, [*2] on what grounds, I know not, considered to be the same as the celebrated schismatic Pelagius. His reputation appears to have extended to Brittany, where the inhabitants still call by the na me of Morgan Tut an herb, to which they ascribe the most universal healing prope rties. Morgant was the name of the Bishop of Caer Vudei, (Silchester,) in Arthur 's reign. [*3] But the appellation is a very common one in Wales.

155e CHIEF PHYSICIAN.--Page <page 155>. THE chief physician, from the nature of his office, was necessarily in very cons tant attendance upon the royal person; and this was carried so far, that not onl y was he unable to leave the palace without the king's permission, but it was or dained by the law of the land, that his seat in the hall should be near to that occupied by the monarch. His lodging was appointed him with the Pennteulu, or th e master of the household, and he received his linen clothes from the queen, and his woollen clothes from the king. He was obliged to supply medicine gratis to all the four-and-twenty officers of the Court, except in the case of one of the three dangerous wounds, which are explained to be a blow on the head penetrating the brain, a thrust in the body penetrating the intestines, and the breaking of one of the limbs. And for every one of these three dangerous wounds he was enti tled to one hundred and eighty pence and his meat. He was to take security of th e family of the wounded man [p. 204] [paragraph continues] (that he should not be prosecuted), in case he should die of the medicines administered to him; and if he neglected this precaution, he ha d to answer for the consequence. The price of some of his medicaments was establ ished by law. For a plaster of red ointment, he was allowed to charge twelve pen ce, and eight pence for one of medicinal herbs.

157a ENID THE DAUGHTER OF YNYWL.--Page <page 157>. THROUGHOUT the broad and varied region of romance, it would be difficult to find a character of greater simplicity and truth than that of Enid the daughter of E arl Ynywl. Conspicuous for her beauty and noble bearing, we are at a loss whethe r most to admire the untiring patience with which she bore all the hardships she was destined to undergo, or the unshaken constancy and devoted affection which finally achieved the triumph she so richly deserved. The character of Enid is admirably sustained throughout the whole tale; and as i t is more natural, because less overstrained, so, perhaps, it is even more touch ing than that of Griselda, over which, however, Chaucer has thrown a charm that

leads us to forget the improbability of her story. There is a Triad, in which Enid's name is preserved as one of the fairest and mo st illustrious ladies of the Court of Arthur.--Tr. 108. The bards of the Middle Ages have frequent allusions to her in their poems; and Davydd ap Gwilym could pay no higher compliment to his lady-love than to call he r a second Enid. Mr. Tennyson has turned the tale of Geraint and Enid into noble blank verse, hei ghtening the picture with some additional touches of his own.

159a GWEIR GWRHYD VAWR.--Page <page 159>. WE find him noticed in the Triads as one of the three stubborn ones of the islan d of Britain, whom no one could turn from their purpose. Tr. 78.

159b GWREI GWALSTAWD IEITHOEDD.--Page 159. THIS singular personage acts a somewhat conspicuous part in another of the Mabin ogion, Kilhwch and Olwen, in which he is described knowing all languages, and be ing able to interpret even those of the birds and the beasts. In an old Welsh co mposition, attributed to Iolo Goch, and printed in the "Cydymaith Diddan," befor e quoted, he is alluded to under the corrupted appellation of Uriel Wastadiaith, [p. 205] and is spoken of as having had so wonderful an aptitude for acquiring languages, that he never heard one with his ears, that he would not utter it with his tong ue as fast as he heard it.

159c BEDWYR THE SON OF BEDRAWD.--Page <page 159>. BEDWYR was one of the most valiant of Arthur's knights, and rendered him valuabl e service in the different wars in which be was engaged. In the king's household too he filled a very important office, that of chief butler, and there is no do ubt, from the estimation in which he was ever held by his sovereign, that he acq uitted himself equally well of the duties which devolved upon him in that capaci ty. His name is often coupled with that of the seneschal, Sir Kai, and their fortune s in many respects appear to have been very similar. They were the two knights w hom Arthur selected as his sole companions in his expedition to St. Michael's Mo unt, to avenge the death of Helen, the niece of Howel ab, Emyr Llydaw (already a dverted to, <page 134>). And he took the same means of recompensing the valour a nd fidelity of both, by bestowing upon each of them the sovereignty of a valuabl e French province, which Robert of Gloucester quaintly records in these words,-"He ###658###ef yat lond of Normand###7823###e Bedwer ###7823### s boteler, And yat lond of Aungeo Kaxe ###7823###s panter."--I. 187. Finally, they both shared the same fate, being slain side by si

de, while fighting against the Romans in the last engagement of that war, in whi ch they had so greatly distinguished themselves. Arthur, whose supremacy was est ablished by the event of that glorious encounter, was careful to pay every tribu te to the memory of the faithful knights who had fallen in his service. He cause d Bedwyr to be interred at Bayeux, which he had founded himself, as the capital of his Norman dominions, and Kai to be buried at Chinon, which town, as Wace [*1 ] informs us, derived its name from that circumstance. [*2] The etymology, it mu st be confessed, is not very apparent. The names of these two heroes occur together in the Triads, where Kai is styled one of the Three Diademed Chiefs of battle, superior [p. 206] to both of whom was the subject of this note, Bedwyr the son of Pedrawc. T. 69. The place of Bedwyr's sepulture is thus recorded in the "Graves of the Warriors, " together with that of another chieftain, whose name is not given. The grave of the son of Ossvran is in Camlan, After many a conflict. The grave of Bedwyr is in the woody steep of Tryvan. There is a lofty mountain bearing the name of Trivaen, at the h ead of the valley of Nant-ffrancon, in Snowdon. Dunraven Castle, in Glamorganshi re, is also, in ancient writings, called Dindryvan, but whether either of these is the place mentioned in the above stanza, it is not easy to determine.

160a THE SEVERN.--Page <page 160>. THE derivation of the name of this majestic river involves a very pretty though tragical story. King; Locryn, the son of the Trojan Brutus, and sovereign of these realms, fell in love with Astrild, the King of Germany's beautiful daughter, who came over to this island in the retinue of Homber, [*1] King of Hungary, when that monarch u ndertook his disastrous expedition to endeavour to dispossess Albanak, Locryn's brother, of his dominions in the North. Locryn, as soon as he beheld the damsel, determined to wed her, but unfortunately he had before become betrothed to Gwen dolen, the daughter of Corineus, Duke of Cornwall, the conqueror of Gog and Mago g; and this stern slayer of giants, on hearing of the change in his intention, d eclared that he would not brook so great an insult to his family. This declarati on of Corineus was not to be disregarded, particularly as he made it more impres sive by taking his great axe in his hand, which, in the king's presence, "So grisliche he schok & faste, yat ye kyng quakede & ys men, so sore heo were a gaste." [paragraph continues] So Locryn deemed it expedient to marry Gw endolen, but he could not wean his affections from the beautiful Astrild, and he had a secret subterraneous habitation contrived, where he concealed her [p. 207] during Corineus's lifetime, giving out, when he visited her, that he went to sac rifice to his gods. On the death of Corineus he did not consider it necessary to

keep up this deception any longer, but dismissed Gwendolen, and elevated Astril d to the rank of Queen. Gwendolen, however, was far from submitting tamely to th is indignity; and summoning her father's Cornish vassals to her aid she brought them into the field against her faithless husband, who was slain in the first en counter. Astrild and her daughter Averne then fell into the power of Gwendolen, who, according to old Robert of Gloucester, was a "sturne wommon," and caused th em both to be drowned in the Severn. "And for yt was hire lorde's do###658###ter yat mayde Auerne, And for honour of hire lord, and for heo was of hys kynde, Heo wolde yat hire name euer more in mynde, And lette clepe [*1] yat watur after Auerne, And seyye yor###514### diuerse tonge me clepede hit Seuerne, And dey a letre per to, and no more y wys, In yis manner yike water Seuerne y cleped is".--I. 27. Havren, the Welsh name for this river, bears a very near affini ty to that of Gwelldolen's innocent and unfortunate victim, Averne.

160b BOUNDARIES.--Page <page 160>. IN Wales, the penalties for disturbing boundaries were severe. Howel Dda enacted , that whoever should destroy a boundary between two villages, by ploughing it u p, should forfeit to the king the oxen with which he ploughed, together with the wood and iron of the plough, and the value of the ploughman's right foot, [*2] and the driver's left hand; and that he should pay fourpence to the owner of the land, and also restore the boundary to its original state. Parochial perambulations were formerly performed with much solemnity in the prin cipality, the procession being headed by the clergyman and the begun and ended with a form of prayer, the surplice and Prayer Book being carried by an attendan t, to be used when required. Remains of this custom are still observable in some districts. Upon an appointed day, the inhabitants of the adjoining parishes mee t at a certain spot, and proceed along the boundary line, which in the cultivate d land is generally [p. 208] a brook or a hedge-row, until they come to some particular object, which, where no natural line of demarcation exists, serves as a mark of division. This is fre quently a stone or mound of earth, or perhaps an ancient carn or tumulus, especi ally in the mountainous part of the country. Here the procession halts, and the clergyman asks if they are all agreed upon the boundary, and being answered in t he affirmative, the parties then range themselves around, each on his proper sid e of the earn, at the same time baring their heads, while the clergyman ascends to the top with the book in his hand, and with a loud voice pronounces the words "Cursed is he that removeth his neighbour's landmark," upon which all the peopl e answer "Amen." He then descends, and they proceed to some similar object, wher e the same proceedings are repeated. A person who has witnessed this ceremony assures me that its effect is exceeding ly striking, especially when occurring upon some lonely part of the mountain. Th e sudden halt round the carn, the clergyman ascending with the book in his hand, --the baring of the head,--the imprecation,--and the simultaneous response, alto gether form a rite so extremely impressive, that it cannot fail to contribute gr eatly towards preserving a recollection of the spot, and affording to landmarks in lonely situations a protection against removal, to which by design or acciden

t, they might otherwise be liable.

160c VARIETY OF MINSTRELSY AND OF GAMES.--Page <page 160>. CHAUCER has a pretty passage illustrative of what were the diversions admitted i n a baronial hall on similar occasions of state, and one which is highly descrip tive of the manners of the age in which it was written. "This Theseus, this duk, this worthy knight, When he had brought hem into his citee, And inned hem, everich at his degree, He festeth hem, and doth so gret labour To esen hem, and don hem all honour, That yet men wenen that no mannes wit Of non estat ne coud amenden it. The minstralcie, the service at the feste, The grete yeftes to the most and leste, The riche array of Theseus paleis, Ne who sate first ne last upon the deis, [p. 209] What ladies fayrest ben or best dancing Or which of hem can carole best or sing, Ne who most felingly speketh of love; What haukes sitten on the perche above, What houndes liggen on the floor adoun Of all this now make I no mentioun." Knightes Tale, v. 2192-2208.

161a DIGANHWY.--Page <page 161>. CONFUSED as the geography of Romance is known to be, yet we hardly suppose that this is Diganwy on the Conway, in North Wales. May it not have been an error of the scribe's for Trefynwy, the Welsh name for Monmouth?

162a WINDOWS OF GLASS.--Page <page 162>. THE terms of admiration in which the older writers invariably speak of glass win dows would be sufficient proof, if other evidence were wanting, how rare an arti cle of luxury they were in the houses of our ancestors. They were first introduc ed in ecclesiastical architecture, [*1] to which they were for a long time confi ned. Mr. Hallam remarks that French artificers were brought to England to furnis h the windows in some new churches in the seventh century. [*2] "It is said," he continues, "that in the reign of Henry III. a few ecclesiastical buildings had glazed windows. [*3] Suger, however, a century before, had adorned his great wor k, the Abbey of St. Denis, with windows not only glazed, but painted; [*4] and I presume that other churches of the same class, both in France and England, espe cially after the lancet-shaped window had yielded to one of ampler dimensions, w ere generally decorated in a similar manner. Yet glass is said not to have been employed in the domestic architecture of France before the fourteenth century; [ *5] and its introduction into [p. 210] [paragraph continues] England was, very likely, by no means earlier. Nor, indeed

, did it come into general use during the period of the Middle Ages. Glazed wind ows were considered as movable furniture, and probably bore a high price. When t he earls of Northumberland, as late as the reign of Elizabeth, left Alnwick Cast le, the windows were taken out of their frames, and carefully laid by." [*1]--Mi ddle Ages. 1834. III. 425-6 [*2] A monastery having a hall "With wyndowes of glass, wrought as a chirche," is spoken of in Pierce Plowman's Crede as an instance of the ex treme luxury of the monks; [*3] and they occur in some of the descriptions of ve ry great regal splendour given by the old romancers. In Candace's Chamber, descr ibed in the Geste of Alexander, "Theo wyndowes weoren of riche glas: Theo pinnes weore of ivorye." [*4] [paragraph continues] And they were sometimes even painted. The King of Hungary's daughter, in the "Squyer of Lowe Degre," is represented "In her oryall there she was, Closyd well with royall glas, Fulfylled yt was with ymagery. Every windowe by and by, On eche syde had ther a gynne, Sperde with manie a dyvers pynne. Anone that ladie fayre and fre, Undyd a pynne of yvere." [*5] From both these quotations, their very fastenings appear to hav e been of the most costly materials.

163a LLOEGYR.--Page <page 163>. LLOEGYR is the term used by the Welsh to designate England. The writers of the M iddle Ages derive the name from the son of the [p. 211] [paragraph continues] Trojan Brutus, Locryn (already alluded to, <page 206>), an d whose brother, Camber, bequeathed his name to the Principality. But, from another authority, that of the Triads, we collect that the name was gi ven to the country by an ancient British tribe, called the Lloegrwys.

174a THEIR SHIELDS LOST ALL THEIR COLOUR.--Page <page 174>. THE custom of painting and decorating shields is one which might be illustrated by innumerable instances. Sharon Turner says that they were ornamented with gold and brilliant colours, and that some knights placed on them the portrait of the ir favourite lady. Among these he particularizes the Count of Poitou; and he quo tes a German poet, who describes a knight "with a shield fulgens auro, and a hel

met vermiculated with amber."--Middle Ages, c. xiv. Notices of arms ornamented with gold are frequently met with in the works of the Welsh Bards. Gwalchmai the son of Meilir, who flourished in the twelfth century , speaking of himself, says,-"Bright is my sword, gleaming in battle, Glittering and bright is the gold on my buckler." [paragraph continues] And that he does not allude to the tempor ary decorations of the tournament is evident, from his immediately mentioning se veral of the battles of Owain Gwynedd, in which he was himself engaged.

178a WOMAN'S SADDLE.--Page <page 178>. THE saddles used by the ladies of former days were often very richly decorated, and frequent descriptions of their costliness occur in the old Romances. The Lad y Triamour, in that of Sir Launfal is represented to have ridden on a saddle of the most magnificent kind when she visited Arthur's Court. "Here sadelle was semyly sett, The sambus [*1] were grene felvet, Ipaynted with ymagerye, The bordure was of belles, [*2] Of ryche gold and nothyng elles, That any man myte aspye. [p. 212] In the arsouns, before and behynde, Were twey stones of Ynde, Gay for the maystrye; The paytrelle [*1] of her palfraye Was worth an erldome, stoute and gay, The best yn Lumbardye."--v. 949-60. Strutt accuses the ladies of former times of not having adopted a very feminine mode of riding on horseback, particularly when they joined in h unting expeditions; and he quotes the authority of certain illuminations in anci ent MSS. [*2] which is, I fear, rather conclusive evidence. But the mention of t he Lady's saddle and riding-dress [*3] in Geraint ab Erbin, will, I trust, rescu e the ladies of the present Tale from the imputation of so unbecoming a practice , and show that they wore a peculiar and appropriate costume whenever they rode out. Catherine de Medicis is said to have been the first who rode like the ladie s of the present age, with a high crutch to her saddle.--Mem. de Chev. II. 336.

181a ENCHANTED GAMES.--Page <page 181>. THE extent to which the belief in magic was carried, even by the most enlightene d, during the Middle Ages, is really wonderful, and we cannot be surprised at it s being frequently employed in the machinery of Romance, when an historian like Froissart gravely tells us of castles that were lost and won by means of optical deceptions. In the case he cites they were produced by an enchanter, "a conning man in nigromancy," who was with the army of the Duke of Anjou and the Earl of Savoy, then lying before the city of Naples. This magician proposed, by his art, to put into the power of these

[p. 213] two princes the castle which they were besieging, and which he boasted having al ready delivered to Sir Charles de la Paye, who was then in possession of it. Sho cked, however, at his treachery towards his former employer, they assured him th at he should "never do more enchauntments to deceyve hym, nor yet any other," an d repaid his offers of service by causing him to be beheaded on the spot. The Welsh have preserved some curious Triads on the subject of magic, stating th e names of their principal enchanters (who are styled, "Men of Illusion and Phan tasy") to have been "Math ab Mathonwy, who declared his illusion to Gwdion the s on of Don; Menyw the son of Teirgwaedd, who taught his illusion to Uthyr Pendrag on; and Rhuddlwm the Giant, who learnt his illusion from Eiddilig the Dwarf, and Coll the son of Collfrewi."--T. 90. The same names occur in other Triads relating to this subject, with the addition of that of Drych ail Cibddar. May it not be fairly presumed, that it is to the Coll mab Collfrewi above mentio ned, whose fame had descended to his times, that Chaucer alludes in the followin g lines?-"There saw I Coll Tragetour, [*1] Upon a table of sicamour, Play an uncouth thing to tell, I saw him carry a wind-mell, Under a walnote shale." House of Fame, B. III. The Welsh Chronicle, entitled Brut y Tywysogion, states, that i n the year 1135, Gruffudd ab Rhys, Prince of South Wales, after recovering his d ominions, made a great feast in Ystrad Towi, to which he invited all that chose to come from the neighbouring provinces, and entertained them with minstrelsy an d manly games, and with exhibitions of magic and illusions (hud a lledrith).--My v. Arch. II. 558. Footnotes ^188:1 Asser Menevensis speaks of a great fleet of Pagans Corning to Britain, "d e Danubio."--Annales de rebus gestis Aelfredi. ^191:1 T. xc. The other was Gadwy the son of Geraint. ^191:2 T. xv. ^191:3 T. 114. ^192:1 Probably Ostorius, the Roman commander. ^192:2 In the Triads contained in the Llyfr Coch, these names are written Mabon, and Geiryoed (Myv. Arch. II. 6); and in the Mabinogion it is Mabon vab Modron. ^193:1 See the remainder of the Elegy in Llywarch Hen's Poems, edited by Dr. Owe n Pughe. ^194:1 Poems of Llywarch Hen. p. 3. ^194:2 Called in Welsh "Y Fad Felen."

^194:3 Perhaps Gerrans, near Falmouth, which, as Hale suggests, was probably nam ed after Geraint.--(Davies Gilbert's Hist. of Cornwall, II. 50.) The Welsh Chron icle mentions the Castle of Dingeraint (Cilgerran), on the river Teivy, in Pembr okeshire, as fortified in the 12th century; but it is more likely that the forme r is the place referred to here. ^194:4 The Life of Saint Teiliaw forms part of the Liber Landavensis, published by the Welsh Manuscript Society. ^196:1 Rees's Welsh Saints, p. 298. ^196:2 Myv. Arch. III. 363. ^198:1 Reprint of the Book of St. Alban's, p. 83, the original edition of which by Wynkn de Worde, bl. let. 1486, was the first treatise upon hunting that ever issued from the press. ^198:2 It is asserted by some that Cardiff was known to the Romans by the name o f Tibia Amnis. ^198:3 Besides the contests upon record, the situation of Cardiff makes it proba ble [p. 199] that it was the scene of many others of which no notice remains. Fr om the expression, "And an armed band Around Cogawn Penardd," it is possible that it is the neighbourhood of Cardiff that is alluded to in the poem called Armes Brydain (Myv. Arch. I. 49), and attributed t o Taliesin, as there is a place called Cogan Penarth in the vicinity of this tow n. ^199:1 A representation of this tower is introduced in the first vignette to the tale of Geraint ab Erbin, while the last vignette presents a view of the Keep a s it appeared in 1840 and 1841. Unhappily the hand of restoration has since defa ced the beauty of those interesting ruins. ^200:1 The original poem is printed in the "Gentleman's Magazine" for 1794. The translation given in the text is due to Mr. Taliesin Williams (ab Iolo), and fir st appeared in the notes to his poem of "Cardiff Castle." ^200:2 Giraldus Cambrensis, from whom this account is taken. ^200:3 Pant Cad Ivor, which is, according to the tradition of the place, the Val ley of the Battle of Ivor. ^202:1 In another series of the Triads, Urien ap Cynvarch's name is substituted for that of Gwallawg, as one of the pillars of battle.--(Tr xxxi Myv Arch. II. 1 4.) ^203:1 Myv. Arch. II. 320, 347. He is there mentioned in the different versions of the Brut under the designation of Gwallawc of Amwythic (Shrewsbury), and also under that of the Earl of Salisbury. Robert of Gloucester also calls him "Gallu c, erl of Salesbury," from the Gallucus Salesberiensis of Geoffrey of Monmouth. In the Cambrian Biography, Dr. Pughe says that he was a chieftain of the Vale of Shrewsbury; and Camden confounds him with the celebrated Galgacus, though he li ved some centuries later.

^203:2 Met. Rom. III. 239. ^203:3 Gruff. ab Ar. Myv. Arch. II. 325. ^205:1 Brut. l. 13,404. ^205:2 The Welsh Brut names Diarnum as the place of Kai's sepulture (Myv. Arch. II. 352), and in the Latin of Geoffrey of Monmouth it is said he was buried at C aen. ^206:1 He ended his days in the Humber, which took its name from that circumstan ce. ^207:1 Clepe, to call. ^207:2 The value of a foot was fixed by law, to be six cows and one hundred and twenty pence. ^209:1 Paulus Silentiarius, a poet and historian of the 6th century, (about A.D. 534), speaks of the brightness of the sun's rays passing through the eastern wi ndows of the Church of St. Sophia, at Constantinople, which windows were covered with glass. St. Jerome, about the beginning of the fifth century, also mentions glass windows. I suppose the question as to whether the ancients were acquainte d with this mode of applying glass, is set at rest by the discoveries made of la te years at Pompeii. ^209:2 "Du Cauge, v. Vitreae. Bentham's History of Ely, p. 22." ^209:3 "Matt. Paris, Vitae Abbatum St. Alb. 122." ^209:4 "Recueil des Hist. t. xii. p. 101." ^209:5 "Paulmy, t, iii. p. 132. Villaret, t. xi. p. 141. Macpherson, p. 679." ^210:1 Northumberland Household Book, preface, p. 16. Bishop Percy says, on the authority of Harrison, that glass was not commonly used in the reign of Henry VI II." ^210:2 Aeneas Silvius, afterwards Pope Pius II., in his Treatise, De Moribus Ger manorum, written in the 15th century, records that there were then glass windows in all the houses of Vienna. ^210:3 Warton's Hist. Eng. Poetry, II. 140. ^210:4 Ibid. III. 409. ^210:5 Ibid. II. 8. ^211:1 The sambus or sambuca, was a kind of saddle-cloth, and its ornaments were usually very splendid. To such an excess were they at one time carried, that Fr ederick, King of Sicily, in a sumptuary law, Const. c. 92 (quoted by Warton, His t. Poet. I. ccxiii.), forbad women, even of the highest rank, to use sambuca, or saddle-cloth, on which were gold, silver, or pearls. ^211:2 Of the well-known custom of decking the harness and trappings of horses [ p. 212] with bells, many instances might be mentioned. Chaucer says of the monk, -"And when he rode, men mighte his bridel here

Gingeling in a whistling wind as clere, And eke as loude, as doth the chapell belle."--Pro. v. 169-71. [paragraph continues] Which our "hoste of the Tabard" humorousl y alludes to at a subsequent stage of the Pilgrimage, v. 14,800. A traditional recollection of this custom is still preserved amongst the Welsh, who say that the Fairies may sometimes be seen riding over the mountains, on hor ses decorated with small silver bells, of a very shrill and musical sound. ^212:1 Breastplate. ^212:2 MS. in Royal Lib. marked 2 B. vii. Sports and Pastimes, p. 12. ^212:3 See <page 178>. ^213:1 Treggetour, a juggler. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 214]

NOTICE OF VARIOUS OTHER VERSIONS. IT is to Chrestien de Troyes, the author of the "Chevalier au Lyon" and "Perceva l le Galois," that we are also indebted for the French metrical version of Gerai nt ab Erbin, entitled "Erec et Enide." Several copies of his Romance are preserv ed in the Bibliotheque Nationale. In like manner, we find that the German version of the Tale, under the title of Erec and Enite, is the production of Hartmann von der Aue, to whom the poem of " Iwein" is to be attributed. Hartmann's "Erec" was edited in 1839 by Herr Moriz Haupt, from a MS. in the Impe rial Ambraser Collection at Vienna. The Royal Library at Stockholm possesses an Icelandic composition, called "Erik Saga," on the subject of this Tale. In our own language I know of no other version of the Mabinogi of Geraint except that so beautifully rendered by Mr. Tennyson in his Idyll of Enid.

The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 217]



TWRCH TRWYTH KILYDD the son of Prince Kelyddon desired a wife as a helpmate, and the wife tha t he chose was Goleuddydd, the daughter of Prince Anlawdd . And after their unio n, the people put up prayers that they might have an heir. And they had a son th rough the prayers of the people. From the time of her pregnancy Goleuddydd becam e wild, and wandered about, without habitation; but when her delivery was at han d, her reason came back to her. Then she went to a mountain where there was a sw ineherd, keeping a herd of swine. And through fear of the swine the queen was de livered. And the swineherd took the boy, and brought him to the palace; and he w as christened, and they called him Kilhwch, because he had been found in a swine 's burrow. Nevertheless the boy was of gentle lineage, and cousin unto Arthur; a nd they put him out to nurse. [p. 218] After this the boy's mother, Goleuddydd, the daughter of Prince Anlawdd, fell si ck. Then she called her husband unto her, and said to him, "Of this sickness I s hall die, and thou wilt take another wife. Now wives are the gift of the Lord, b ut it would be wrong for thee to harm thy son. Therefore I charge thee that thou take not a wife until thou see a briar with two blossoms upon my grave." And th is he promised her. Then she besought him to dress her grave every year, that no thing might grow thereon. So the queen died. Now the king sent an attendant ever y morning to see if anything were growing upon the grave. And at the end of the seventh year the master neglected that which he had promised to the queen. One day the king went to hunt, and he rode to the place of burial to see the gra ve, and to know if it were time that he should take a wife; and the king saw the briar. And when he saw it, the king took counsel where he should find a wife. S aid one of his counsellors, "I know a wife that will suit thee well, and she is the wife of King Doged ." And they resolved to go to seek her; and they slew the king, and brought away his wife and one daughter that she had along with her. A nd they conquered the king's lands. On a certain day, as the lady walked abroad, she came to the house of an old cro ne that dwelt in the town, and that had no tooth in her head. And the queen said to her, "Old woman, tell me that which I shall ask thee, for the love of Heaven . Where are the children of the man who has carried me away by violence?" Said t he crone, "He has not children." Said the queen, "Woe is me, that I should have come to one who is childless!" Then said the hag, "Thou needest not lament on ac count of that, for there is a prediction he shall have an heir by thee, and by n one other. Moreover, be not sorrowful, for he has one son." The lady returned home with joy; and she asked her consort, "Wherefore hast thou concealed thy children from me?" The king said, "I will do so no longer." And h e sent messengers for his son, and he was brought to the Court. His [p. 219] stepmother said unto him, "It were well for thee to have a wife, and I have a da ughter who is sought of every man of renown in the world." "I am not yet of an a ge to wed," answered the youth. Then said she unto him, "I declare to thee, that it is thy destiny not to be suited with a wife until thou obtain Olwen , the da ughter of Yspaddaden Penkawr." And the youth blushed, and the love of the maiden diffused itself through all his frame, although he had never seen her. And his father inquired of him, "What has come over thee, my son, and what aileth thee?" "My stepmother has declared to me that I shall never have a wife until I obtain Olwen, the daughter of Yspaddaden Penkawr." "That will be easy for thee," answe

red his father. "Arthur is thy cousin. Go, therefore, unto Arthur, to cut thy ha ir , and ask this of him as a boon." And the youth pricked forth upon a steed with head dappled grey, of four winters old, firm of limb, with shell-formed hoofs, having a bridle of linked gold on h is head, and upon him a saddle of costly gold. And in the youth's hand were two spears of silver, sharp, well-tempered, headed with steel, three ells in length, of an edge to wound the wind, and cause blood to flow, and swifter than the fal l of the dewdrop from the blade of reed-grass upon the earth when the dew of Jun e is at the heaviest. A gold-hilted sword was upon his thigh, the blade of which was of gold, bearing a cross of inlaid gold of the hue of the lightning of heav en: his war-horn was of ivory. Before him were two brindled white-breasted greyh ounds, having strong collars of rubies about their necks, reaching from the shou lder to the ear. And the one that was on the left side bounded across to the rig ht side, and the one on the right to the left, and like two sea-swallows sported around him. And his courser cast up four sods with his four hoofs, like four sw allows in the air, about his head, now above, now below. About him was a four-co rnered cloth of purple, and an apple of gold was at each corner, and every one o f the apples was of the value of an hundred kine . And there was precious gold o f the value of three hundred kine upon his [p. 220] shoes, and upon his stirrups, from his knee to the tip of his toe. And the blade of grass bent not beneath him, so light was his courser's tread as he journeyed towards the gate of Arthur's Palace. Spoke the youth, "Is there a porter?" "There is; and if thou holdest not thy pea ce, small will be thy welcome. I am Arthur's porter every first day of January. And during every other part of the year but this, the office is filled by Huanda w, and Gogigwc, and Llaeskenym, and Pennpingyon, who goes upon his head to save his feet, neither towards the sky nor towards the earth, but like a rolling ston e upon the floor of the court." "Open the portal." "I will not open it." "Wheref ore not?" "The knife is in the meat, and the drink is in the horn, and there is revelry in Arthur's Hall, and none may enter therein but the son of a king of a privileged country, or a craftsman bringing his craft. But there will be refresh ment for thy dogs, and for thy horses; and for thee there will be collops cooked and peppered, and luscious wine and mirthful songs, and food for fifty men shal l be brought unto thee in the guest chamber, where the stranger and the sons of other countries eat, who come not unto the precincts of the Palace of Arthur. Th ou wilt fare no worse there than thou wouldest with Arthur in the Court. A lady shall smooth thy couch, and shall lull thee with songs; and early to-morrow morn ing, when the gate is open for the multitude that come hither to-day, for thee s hall it be opened first, and thou mayest sit in the place that thou shalt choose in Arthur's Hall, from the upper end to the lower." Said the youth, "That will I not do. If thou openest the gate, it is well. If thou dost not open it, I will bring disgrace upon thy Lord, and evil report upon thee. And I will set up thre e shouts at this very gate, than which none were ever more deadly, from the top of Pengwaed in Cornwall to the bottom of Dinsol, in the North, and to Esgair Oe rvel, in Ireland. And all the women in this Palace that are pregnant shall lose their offspring; and such as are not pregnant, their hearts shall be turned by [p. 221] illness, so that they shall never bear children from this day forward." "What cl amour soever thou mayest make," said Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr, "against the laws of A rthur's Palace shalt thou not enter therein, until I first go and speak with Art hur." Then Glewlwyd went into the Hall. And Arthur said to him, "Hast thou news from t

he gate?"--"Half of my life is past, and half of thine. I was heretofore in Kaer Se and Asse, in Sach and Salach, in Lotor and Fotor; and I have been heretofore in India the Great and India the Lesser; and I was in the battle of Dau Ynyr, w hen the twelve hostages were brought from Llychlyn. And I have also been in Euro pe, and in Africa, and in the islands of Corsica, and in Caer Brythwch, and Bryt hach, and Verthach; and I was present when formerly thou didst slay the family o f Clis the son of Merin, and when thou didst slay Mil Du the son of Ducum, and w hen thou didst conquer Greece in the East. And I have been in Caer Oeth and Anno eth, and in Caer Nevenhyr; nine supreme sovereigns, handsome men, saw we there, but never did I behold a man of equal dignity with him who is now at the door of the portal." Then said Arthur, "If walking thou didst enter in here, return tho u running. And every one that beholds the light, and every one that opens and sh uts the eye, let them shew him respect, and serve him, some with gold-mounted dr inking-horns, others with collops cooked and peppered, until food and drink can be prepared for him. It is unbecoming to keep such a man as thou sayest he is, i n the wind and the rain." Said Kai, "By the hand of my friend, if thou wouldest follow my counsel, thou wouldest not break through the laws of the Court because of him." "Not so, blessed Kai. It is an honour to us to be resorted to, and the greater our courtesy the greater will be our renown, and our fame, and our glor y." And Glewlwyd came to the gate, and opened the gate before him; and although all dismounted upon the horseblock at the gate, yet did he not dismount, but rode in [p. 222] upon his charger. Then said Kilhwch, "Greeting be unto thee, Sovereign Ruler of this Island; and be this greeting no less unto the lowest than unto the highest, and be it equally unto thy guests, and thy warriors, and thy chieftains--let al l partake of it as completely as thyself. And complete be thy favour, and thy fa me, and thy glory, throughout all this Island." "Greeting unto thee also," said Arthur; "sit thou between two of my warriors, and thou shalt have minstrels befo re thee, and thou shalt enjoy the privileges of a king born to a throne, as long as thou remainest here. And when I dispense my presents to the visitors and str angers in this Court, they shall be in thy hand at my commencing." Said the yout h, "I came not here to consume meat and drink; but if I obtain the boon that I s eek, I will requite it thee, and extol thee; and if I have it not, I will bear f orth thy dispraise to the four quarters of the world, as far as thy renown has e xtended." Then said Arthur, "Since thou wilt not remain here, chieftain, thou sh alt receive the boon whatsoever thy tongue may name, as far as the wind dries, a nd the rain moistens, and the sun revolves, and the sea encircles, and the earth extends; save only my ship; and my mantle ; and Caledvwlch, my sword; and Rhong omyant, my lance; and Wynebgwrthucher, my shield; and Carnwenhau, my dagger; and Gwenhwyvar, my wife. By the truth of Heaven, thou shalt have it cheerfully, nam e what thou wilt." "I would that thou bless my hair." "That shall be granted the e." And Arthur took a golden comb, and scissors, whereof the loops were of silver, a nd he combed his hair. And Arthur inquired of him who he was. "For my heart warm s unto thee, and I know that thou art come of my blood. Tell me, therefore, who thou art." "I will tell thee," said the youth. "I am Kilhwch, the son of Kilydd, the son of Prince Kelyddon, by Goleuddydd, my mother, the daughter of Prince An lawdd." "That is true," said Arthur; "thou art my cousin. Whatsoever boon thou m ayest ask, thou shalt receive, be it what it may that thy tongue shall name." [p. 223] [paragraph continues] "Pledge the truth of Heaven and the faith of thy kingdom t hereof." "I pledge it thee, gladly." "I crave of thee then, that thou obtain for me Olwen, the daughter of Yspaddaden Penkawr; and this boon I likewise seek at

the hands of thy warriors. I seek it from Kai, and Bedwyr, and Greidawl Galldony d , and Gwythyr the son of Greidawl , and Greid the son of Eri, and Kynddelig Ky varwydd, and Tathal Twyll Goleu, and Maelwys the son of Baeddan, and Crychwr the son of Nes, and Cubert the son of Daere, and Percos the son of Poch, and Lluber Beuthach, and Corvil Bervach, and Gwynn the son of Nudd , and Edeyrn the son of Nudd , and Gadwy the son of Geraint , and Prince Fflewddur Fflam , and Ruawn Pe byr the son of Dorath, and Bradwen the son of Moren Mynawc, and Moren Mynawc hi mself, and Dalldav the son of Kimin Cov , and the son of Alun Dyved, and the son of Saidi, and the son of Gwryon, and Uchtryd Ardywad Kad, and Kynwas Curvagyl, and Gwrhyr Gwarthegvras, and Isperyr Ewingath , and Gallcoyt Govynynat, and Duac h, and Grathach, and Nerthach, the sons of Gwawrddur Kyrvach (these men came for th from the confines of hell), and Kilydd Canhastyr, and Canastyr Kanllaw, and C ors Cant-Ewin, and Esgeir Gulhwch Govynkawn, and Drustwrn Hayarn, and Glewlwyd G avaelvawr, and Lloch Llawwynnyawc , and Aunwas Adeiniawc , and Sinnoch the son o f Seithved, and Gwennwynwyn the son of Naw , and Bedyw the son of Seithved, and Gobrwy the son of Echel Vorddwyttwll, and Echel Vorddwyttwll himself, and Mael the son of Roycol, and Dadweir Dallpenn , and Garwyli the son of Gwythawc Gwyr, and Gwythawc Gwyr himself, and Gormant the son of Ricca, and Menw the son of Tei rgwaedd , and Digon the son of Alar, and Selyf the son of Smoit, and Gusg the so n of Atheu, and Nerth the son of Kedarn, and Drudwas the son of Tryffin , and Tw rch the son of Perif, and Twrch the son of Annwas, and Iona king of France, and Sel the son of Selgi, and Teregud the son of Iaen, and Sulyen the son of Iaen, a nd Bradwen the son of Iaen, and Moren the son of Iaen, and Siawn the son of Iaen , and Cradawc the son of Iaen. [p. 224] [paragraph continues] (They were men of Caerdathal , of Arthur's kindred on his father's side.) Dirmyg the son of Kaw , and Justic the son of Kaw, and Etmic the son of Kaw, and Anghawd the son of Kaw, and Ovan the son of Kaw, and Kelin the son of Kaw, and Connyn the son of Kaw, and Mabsant the son of Kaw, and Gwyngad t he son of Kaw, and Llwybyr the son of Kaw, and Coth the son of Kaw, and Meilic t he son of Kaw, and Kynwas the son of Kaw, and Ardwyad the son of Kaw, and Ergyry ad the son of Kaw, and Neb the son of Kaw, and Gilda the son of Kaw, and Calcas the son of Kaw, and Hueil the son of Kaw (he never yet made a request at the han d of any Lord). And Samson Vinsych, and Taliesin the chief of the bards , and Ma nawyddan the son of Llyr , and Llary the son of Prince Kasnar, and Ysperni the s on of Fflergant king of Armorica, and Saranhon, the son of Glythwyr, and Llawr E ilerw, and Annyanniawc the son of Menw the son of Teirgwaedd, and Gwynn the son of Nwyvre, and Fflam the son of Nwyvre, and Geraint the son of Erbin , and Ermid the son of Erbin, and Dyvel the son of Erbin , and Gwynn the son of Ermid, and Kyndrwyn the son of Ermid, and Hyveidd Unllenn, and Eiddon Vawr Vrydic, and Reid wn Arwy, and Gormant the son of Ricca (Arthur's brother by his mother's side; th e Penhynev of Cornwall was his father), and Llawnrodded Varvawc , and Nodawl Var yf Twrch, and Berth the son of Kado, and Rheidwn the son of Beli, and Iscovan Ha el, and Iscawin the son of Panon, and Morvran the son of Tegid (no one struck h im in the battle of Camlan by reason of his ugliness; all thought he was an auxi liary devil. Hair had he upon him like the hair of a stag). And Sandde Bryd Ange l (no one touched him with a spear in the battle of Camlan because of his beauty ; all thought he was a ministering angel). And Kynwyl Sant (the third man that e scaped from the battle of Camlan, and he was the last who parted from Arthur on Hengroen his horse). And Uchtryd the son of Erim, and Eus the son of Erim, and H enwas Adeinawg the son of Erim, and Henbedestyr the son of Erim, and Sgilti Ysca wndroed the son of Erim. (Unto these three men belonged these three qualities,-[p. 225] [paragraph continues] With Henbedestyr there was not any one who could keep pace , either on horseback or on foot; with Henwas Adeinawg, no four-footed beast cou ld run the distance of an acre, much less could it go beyond it; and as to Sgilt

i Yscawndroed, when he intended to go upon a message for his Lord, he never soug ht to find a path, but knowing whither he was to go, if his way lay through a wo od he went along the tops of the trees. During his whole life, a blade of reed g rass bent not beneath his feet, much less did one ever break, so lightly did he tread.) Teithi Hen the son of Gwynhan (his dominions were swallowed up by the se a, and he himself hardly escaped, and he came to Arthur; and his knife had this peculiarity, that from the time that he came there no haft would ever remain upo n it, and owing to this a sickness came over him, and he pined away during the r emainder of his life, and of this he died). And Carneddyr the son of Govynyon He n, and Gwenwynwyn the son of Nav Gyssevin, Arthur's champion, and Llysgadrudd Em ys, and Gwrbothu Hen (uncles unto Arthur were they, his mother's brothers). Kulv anawyd the son of Goryon, and Llenlleawg Wyddel from the headland of Ganion, an d Dyvynwal Moel , and Dunard king of the North, Teirnon Twryf Bliant, and Tegvan Gloff, and Tegyr Talgellawg, Gwrdinal the son of Ebrei, and Morgant Hael, Gwyst yl the son of Rhun the son of Nwython , and Llwyddeu the son of Nwython, and Gwy dre the son of Llwyddeu (Gwenabwy the daughter of [Kaw] was his mother, Hueil hi s uncle stabbed him, and hatred was between Hueil and Arthur because of the woun d). Drem the son of Dremidyd (when the gnat arose in the morning with the sun, he could see it from Gelli Wic in Cornwall, as far off as Pen Blathaon in North Britain ). And Eidyol the son of Ner, and Glwyddyn Saer (who constructed Ehangw en, Arthur's Hall). Kynyr Keinvarvawc (when he was told he had a son born he sai d to his wife, 'Damsel, if thy son be mine, his heart will be always cold, and t here will be no warmth in his hands; and he will have another peculiarity, [p. 226] if he is my son he will always be stubborn; and he will have another peculiarity , when he carries a burden, whether it be large or small, no one will be able to see it, either before him or at his back; and he will have another peculiarity, no one will be able to resist fire and water so well as he will; and he will ha ve another peculiarity, there will never be a servant or an officer equal to him '). Henwas, and Henwyneb (an old companion to Arthur). Gwallgoyc (another; when he came to a town, though there were three hundred houses in it, if he wanted an ything, he would not let sleep come to the eyes of any one whilst he remained th ere). Berwyn the son of Gerenhir, and Paris king of France, and Osla Gyllellvawr (who bore a short broad dagger. When Arthur and his hosts came before a torrent , they would seek for a narrow place where they might pass the water, and would lay the sheathed dagger across the torrent, and it would form a bridge sufficien t for the armies of the three Islands of Britain, and of the three islands adjac ent , with their spoil). Gwyddawg the son of Menestyr (who slew Kai, and whom Ar thur slew, together with his brothers, to revenge Kai). Garanwyn the son of Kai, and Amren the son of Bedwyr, and Ely Amyr, and Rheu Rhwyd Dyrys, and Rhun Rhudw ern, and Eli, and Trachmyr (Arthur's chief huntsmen). And Llwyddeu the son of Ke lcoed, and Hunabwy the son of Gwryon, and Gwynn Godyvron , and Gweir Datharwenni ddawg, and Gweir the son of Cadell the son of Talaryant, and Gweir Gwrhyd Ennwir , and Gweir Paladyr Hir (the uncles of Arthur, the brothers of his mother). The sons of Llwch Llawwynnyawg (from beyond the raging sea). Llenlleawg Wyddel, and Ardderchawg Prydain. Cas the son of Saidi, Gwrvan Gwallt Avwyn, and Gwyllennhin the king of France, and Gwittart the son of Oedd king of Ireland, Garselit Wydde l , Panawr Pen Bagad, and Ffleudor the son of Nav, Gwynnhyvar mayor of Cornwall and Devon (the ninth man that rallied the battle of Camlan ). Keli and Kueli, an d Gilla Coes Hydd (he would clear three hundred acres at one bound: the chief le aper of Ireland was he). Sol, and Gwadyn Ossol, and Gwadyn Odyeith. (Sol could s tand all day upon one foot. [p. 227] [paragraph continues] Gwadyn Ossol, if he stood upon the top of the highest moun tain in the world, it would become a level plain under his feet. Gwadyn Odyeith, the soles of his feet emitted sparks of fire when they struck upon things hard,

like the heated mass when drawn out of the forge. He cleared the way for Arthur when he came to any stoppage.) Hirerwm and Hiratrwm. (The day they went on a vi sit three Cantrevs provided for their entertainment, and they feasted until noon and drank until night, when they went to sleep. And then they devoured the head s of the vermin through hunger, as if they had never eaten anything. When they m ade a visit they left neither the fat nor the lean, neither the hot nor the cold , the sour nor the sweet, the fresh nor the salt, the boiled nor the raw.) Huarw ar the son of Aflawn (who asked Arthur such a boon as would satisfy him. It was the third great plague of Cornwall when he received it. None could get a smile f rom him but when he was satisfied). Gware Gwallt Euryn . The two cubs of Gast Rh ymi, Gwyddrud and Gwyddneu Astrus. Sugyn the son of Sugnedydd (who would suck up the sea on which were three hundred ships so as to leave nothing but a dry stra nd. He was broad-chested). Rhacymwri, the attendant of Arthur (whatever barn he was shown, were there the produce of thirty ploughs within it, he would strike i t with an iron flail until the rafters, the beams, and the boards were no better than the small oats in the mow upon the floor of the barn). Dygyflwng and Anoet h Veidawg. And Hir Eiddyl, and Hir Amreu (they were two attendants of Arthur). A nd Gwevyl the son of Gwestad (on the day that he was sad, he would let one of hi s lips drop below his waist, while he turned up the other like a cap upon his he ad). Uchtryd Varyf Draws (who spread his red untrimmed beard over the eight-andforty rafters which were in Arthur's Hall). Elidyr Gyvarwydd. Yskyrdav and Yscud ydd (two attendants of Gwenhwyvar were they. Their feet were swift as their thou ghts when bearing a message). Brys the son of Bryssethach (from the Hill of the Black Fernbrake [p. 228] in North Britain). And Grudlwyn Gorr. Bwlch, and Kyfwlch, and Sefwlch, the sons of Cleddyf Kyfwlch, the grandsons of Cleddyf Difwlch. (Their three shields were three gleaming glitterers; their three spears were three pointed piercers; their three swords were three grinding gashers; Glas, Glessic, and Gleisad. Their thr ee dogs, Call, Cuall, and Cavall. Their three horses, Hwyrdyddwd, and Drwgdyddwd , and Llwyrdyddwg. Their three wives, Och, and Garym, and Diaspad. Their three g randchildren, Lluched, and Neved, and Eissiwed. Their three daughters, Drwg, and Gwaeth, and Gwaethav Oll. Their three hand-maids, Eheubryd the daughter of Kyfw lch, Gorascwrn the daughter of Nerth, Ewaedan the daughter of Kynvelyn Keudawd P wyll the half-man .) Dwnn Diessic Unbenn, Eiladyr the son of Pen Llarcau, Kynedy r Wyllt the son of Hettwn Talaryant, Sawyl Ben Uchel , Gwalchmai the son of Gwya r, Gwalhaved the son of Gwyar, Gwrhyr Gwastawd Ieithoedd (to whom all tongues w ere known), and Kethcrwm the Priest. Clust the son of Clustveinad (though he wer e buried seven cubits beneath the earth, he would hear the ant fifty miles off r ise from her nest in the morning). Medyr the son of Methredydd (from Gelli Wic h e could, in a twinkling, shoot the wren through the two legs upon Esgeir Oervel in Ireland). Gwiawn Llygad Cath (who could cut a haw from the eye of the gnat wi thout hurting him). Ol the son of Olwydd (seven years before he was born his fat her's swine were carried off, and when he grew up a man he tracked the swine, an d brought them back in seven herds). Bedwini the Bishop (who blessed Arthur's m eat and drink). For the sake of the golden-chained daughters of this island. For the sake of Gwenhwyvar its chief lady, and Gwennhwyach her sister, and Rathtyeu the only daughter of Clemenhill, and Rhelemon the daughter of Kai, and Tannwen the daughter of Gweir Datharweniddawg. Gwenn Alarch the daughter of Kynwyl Canbw ch. Eurneid the daughter of Clydno Eiddin. Eneuawc the daughter of Bedwyr. Enryd reg the daughter of Tudvathar. Gwennwledyr the daughter of Gwaledyr Kyrvach. Erd dudnid the daughter [p. 229] of Tryffin. Eurolwen the daughter of Gwdolwyn Gorr. Teleri the daughter of Peul. Indeg the daughter of Garwy Hir. Morvudd the daughter of Urien Rheged. Gwenlli an Deg the majestic maiden. Creiddylad the daughter of Lludd Llaw Ereint. (She w

as the most splendid maiden in the three Islands of the mighty, and in the three Islands adjacent, and for her Gwythyr the son of Greidawl and Gwynn the son of Nudd fight every first of May until the day of doom.) Ellylw the daughter of Neo l Kynn-Crog (she lived three ages). Essyllt Vinwen and Essyllt Vingul." And all these did Kilhwch the son of Kilydd adjure to obtain his boon. Then said Arthur, "Oh! chieftain, I have never heard of the maiden of whom thou speakest, nor of her kindred, but I will gladly send messengers in search of her . Give me time to seek her." And the youth said, "I will willingly grant from th is night to that at the end of the year to do so." Then Arthur sent messengers t o every land within his dominions to seek for the maiden; and at the end of the year Arthur's messengers returned without having gained any knowledge or intelli gence concerning Olwen more than on the first day. Then said Kilhwch, "Every one has received his boon, and I yet lack mine. I will depart and bear away thy hon our with me." Then said Kai, "Rash chieftain! dost thou reproach Arthur? Go with us, and we will not part until thou dost either confess that the maiden exists not in the world, or until we obtain her." Thereupon Kai rose up. Kai had this p eculiarity, that his breath lasted nine nights and nine days under water, and he could exist nine nights and nine days without sleep. A wound from Kai's sword n o physician could heal. Very subtle was Kai. When it pleased him he could render himself as tall as the highest tree in the forest. And he had another peculiari ty,--so great was the heat of his nature, that, when it rained hardest, whatever he carried remained dry for a handbreadth above and a handbreadth below his han d; and when his companions were coldest, it was to them as fuel with which to li ght their fire. [p. 230] And Arthur called Bedwyr, who never shrank from any enterprise upon which Kai wa s bound. None was equal to him in swiftness throughout this island except Arthur and Drych Ail Kibddar . And although he was one-handed, three warriors could no t shed blood faster than he on the field of battle. Another property he had; his lance would produce a wound equal to those of nine opposing lances. And Arthur called to Kynddelig the Guide, "Go thou upon this expedition with the chieftain." For as good a guide was he in a land which he had never seen as he was in his own. He called Gwrhyr Gwalstawt Ieithoedd, because he knew all tongues. He called Gwalchmai the son of Gwyar, because he never returned home without ach ieving the adventure of which he went in quest. He was the best of footmen and t he best of knights. He was nephew to Arthur, the son of his sister, and his cous in. And Arthur called Menw the son of Teirgwaedd, in order that if they went into a savage country, he might cast a charm and an illusion over them, so that none mi ght see them whilst they could see every one. They journeyed until they came to a vast open plain, wherein they saw a great ca stle, which was the fairest of the castles of the world. And they journeyed that day until the evening, and when they thought they were nigh to the castle, they were no nearer to it than they had been in the morning. And the second and the third day they journeyed, and even then scarcely could they reach so far. And wh en they came before the castle, they beheld a vast flock of sheep, which was bou ndless and without an end. And upon the top of a mound there was a herdsman, kee ping the sheep. And a rug made of skins was upon him; and by his side was a shag gy mastiff, larger than a steed nine winters old. Never had he lost even a lamb from his flock, much less a large sheep. He let no occasion ever pass without do ing some hurt and harm. All the dead trees and bushes in the plain he burnt with

his breath down to the very ground. Then said Kai, "Gwrhyr Gwalstawt Ieithoedd, go thou and salute yonder man." "Kai ," said he, "I engaged not to go further than thou thyself." "Let us go then tog ether," answered Kai. Said Menw the son of Teirgwaedd, "Fear not to go thither, for I will cast a spell upon the dog, so that he shall injure no one." And they went up to the mound whereon the herdsman was, and they said to him, "How dost t hou fare, O herdsman?" "No less fair be it to you than to me." "Truly, art thou the chief?" "There is no hurt to injure me but my own." [*1] "Whose are the shee p that thou dost keep, and to whom does yonder castle belong?" "Stupid are ye, t ruly! Through the whole world is it known that this is the castle of Yspaddaden Penkawr." "And who art thou?" "I am called Custennin the son of Dyfnedig, and my brother Yspaddaden Penkawr oppressed me because of my possessions. And ye also, who are ye?" "We are an embassy from Arthur, come to seek Olwen the daughter of Yspaddaden Penkawr." "Oh men! the mercy of Heaven be upon you, do not that for all the world. None who ever came hither on this quest has returned alive." And the herdsman rose up. And as he arose, Kilhwch gave unto him a ring of gold. And he sought to put on the ring, but it was too small for him, so he placed it in the finger of his glove. And he went home, and gave the glove to his spouse to k eep. And she took the ring from the glove when it was given her, and she said, " Whence came this ring, for thou art not wont to have good fortune?" "I went," sa id he, "to the sea to seek for fish, and lo, I saw a corpse borne by the waves. And a fairer corpse than it did I never behold. And from its finger did I take t his ring." "O man! does the sea permit its dead to wear jewels? Show me then thi s body." "Oh wife, him to whom this ring belonged thou shalt see here in the eve ning." [p. 232] [paragraph continues] "And who is he?" asked the woman, "Kilhwch the son of Kily dd, the son of Prince Kelyddon, by Goleuddydd the daughter of Prince Anlawdd, hi s mother, who is come to seek Olwen as his wife." And when she heard that, her f eelings were divided between the joy that she had that her nephew, the son of he r sister, was coming to her, and sorrow because she had never known any one depa rt alive who had come on that quest. And they went forward to the gate of Custennin the herdsman's dwelling. And when she heard their footsteps approaching, she ran out with joy to meet them. And K ai snatched a billet out of the pile. And when she met them she sought to throw her arms about their necks. And Kai placed the log between her two hands, and sh e squeezed it so that it became a twisted coil. "Oh woman," said Kai, "if thou h adst squeezed me thus, none could ever again have set their affections on me. Ev il love were this." They entered into the house, and were served; and soon after they all went forth to amuse themselves. Then the woman opened a stone chest th at was before the chimney-corner, and out of it arose a youth with yellow curlin g hair. Said Gwrhyr, "It is a pity to hide this youth. I know that it is not his own crime that is thus visited upon him." "This is but a remnant," said the wom an. "Three-and-twenty of my sons has Yspaddaden Penkawr slain, and I have no mor e hope of this one than of the others." Then said Kai, "Let him come and be a co mpanion with me, and he shall not be slain unless I also am slain with him." And they ate. And the woman asked them, "Upon what errand come you here?" "We come to seek Olwen for this youth." Then said the woman, "In the name of Heaven, sinc e no one from the castle hath yet seen you, return again whence you came." "Heav en is our witness, that we will not return until we have seen the maiden." Said Kai, "Does she ever come hither, so that she may be seen?" "She comes here every Saturday to wash her head, and in the vessel where she washes, she leaves all h er rings, and she never either comes [p. 233]

herself or sends any messengers to fetch them." "Will she come here if she is sent to?" "Heaven knows that I will not destroy my soul, nor will I betray those that trust me; unless you will pledge me your fai th that you will not harm her, I will not send to her." "We pledge it," said the y. So a message was sent, and she came. The maiden was clothed in a robe of flame-coloured silk, and about her neck was a collar of ruddy gold, on which were precious emeralds and rubies. More yellow was her head than the flower of the broom, and her skin was whiter than the foam of the wave, and fairer were her hands and her fingers than the blossoms of the wood anemone amidst the spray of the meadow fountain. The eye of the trained ha wk, the glance of the three-mewed falcon was not brighter than hers. Her bosom w as more snowy than the breast of the white swan, her cheek was redder than the r eddest roses. Whoso beheld her was filled with her love. Four white trefoils spr ung up wherever she trod. And therefore was she called Olwen. She entered the house, and sat beside Kilhwch upon the foremost bench; and as so on as he saw her he knew her. And Kilhwch said unto her, "Ah! maiden, thou art s he whom I have loved; come away with me, lest they speak evil of thee and of me. Many a day have I loved thee." "I cannot do this, for I have pledged my faith t o my father not to go without his counsel, for his life will last only until the time of my espousals. Whatever is, must be. But I will give thee advice if thou wilt take it. Go, ask me of my father, and that which he shall require of thee, grant it, and thou wilt obtain me; but if thou deny him anything, thou wilt not obtain me, and it will be well for thee if thou escape with thy life." "I promi se all this, if occasion offer," said he. She returned to her chamber, and they all rose up and followed her to the castle . And they slew the nine porters that were at the nine gates in silence. And the y slew the nine watch-dogs without one of them barking. And they went forward to the hall. [p. 234] "The greeting of Heaven and of man be unto thee, Yspaddaden Penkawr," said they. "And you, wherefore come you?" "We come to ask thy daughter Olwen, for Kilhwch the son of Kilydd, the son of Prince Kelyddon." "Where are my pages and my serva nts? Raise up the forks beneath my two eyebrows which have fallen over my eyes, that I may see the fashion of my son-in-law." And they did so. "Come hither to-m orrow, and you shall have an answer." They rose to go forth, and Yspaddaden Penkawr seized one of the three poisoned d arts that lay beside him, and threw it after them. And Bedwyr caught it, and flu ng it, and pierced Yspaddaden Penkawr grievously with it through the knee. Then he said, "A cursed ungentle son-in-law, truly. I shall ever walk the worse for h is rudeness, and shall ever be without a cure. This poisoned iron pains me like the bite of a gadfly. Cursed be the smith who forged it, and the anvil whereon i t was wrought! So sharp is it!" That night also they took up their abode in the house of Custennin the herdsman. The next day with the dawn they arrayed themselves in haste and proceeded to th e castle, and entered the hall, and they said, "Yspaddaden Penkawr, give us thy daughter in consideration of her dower and her maiden fee, which we will pay to thee and to her two kinswomen likewise. And unless thou wilt do so, thou shalt m eet with thy death on her account." Then he said, "Her four great-grandmothers, and her four great-grandsires are yet alive, it is needful that I take counsel o f them." "Be it so," answered they, "we will go to meat." As they rose up, he to ok the second dart that was beside him, and cast it after them. And Menw the son of Gwaedd caught it, and flung it back at him, and wounded him in the centre of

the breast, so that it came out at the small of his back. "A cursed ungentle so n-in-law, truly," said he, "the hard iron pains me like the bite of a horse-leec h. Cursed be the hearth whereon it was heated, and the smith who formed it! So s harp is it! Henceforth, whenever I go up a hill, I shall have [p. 235] a scant in my breath, and a pain in my chest, and I shall often loathe my food." And they went to meat. And the third day they returned to the palace. And Yspaddaden Penkawr said to th em, "Shoot not at me again unless you desire death. Where are my attendants? Lif t up the forks of my eyebrows which have fallen over my eyeballs, that I may see the fashion of my son-in-law." Then they arose, and, as they did so, Yspaddaden Penkawr took the third poisoned dart and cast it at them. And Kilhwch caught it and threw it vigorously, and wounded him through the eyeball, so that the dart came out at the back of his head. "A cursed ungentle son-in-law, truly! As long as I remain alive, my eyesight will be the worse. Whenever I go against the wind , my eyes will water; and peradventure my head will burn, and I shall have a gid diness every new moon. Cursed be the fire in which it was forged. Like the bite of a mad dog is the stroke of this poisoned iron." And they went to meat. And the next day they came again to the palace, and they said, "Shoot not at us any more, unless thou desirest such hurt, and harm, and torture as thou now hast , and even more." "Give me thy daughter, and if thou wilt not give her, thou sha lt receive thy death because of her." "Where is he that seeks my daughter? Come hither where I may see thee." And they placed him a chair face to face with him. Said Yspaddaden Penkawr, "Is it thou that seekest my daughter?" "It is I," answe red Kilhwch. "I must have thy pledge that thou wilt not do towards me otherwise than is just, and when I have gotten that which I shall name, my daughter thou s halt have." "I promise thee that willingly," said Kilhwch, "name what thou wilt. " "I will do so," said he. "Seest thou yonder vast hill?" "I see it." "I require that it be rooted up, and that the grubbings be burned for manure on the face of the land, and that it be ploughed and sown in one day, and in one day that the grain ripen. And of that w heat I intend to make food and liquor fit for the [p. 236] wedding of thee and my daughter. And all this I require done in one day." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though this be easy for thee, there is yet that which will not be so. No husban dman can till or prepare this land, so wild is it, except Amaethon the son of Do n , and he will not come with thee by his own free will, and thou wilt not be ab le to compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Govannon the s on of Don to come to the headland to rid the iron, he will do no work of his own good will except for a lawful king, and thou wilt not be able to compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this."

"Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get; the two dun ox en of Gwlwlyd , both yoked together, to plough the wild land yonder stoutly. He will not give them of his own free will, and thou wilt not be able to compel him ." "It will be easy for me to compass this." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get; the yellow and the brindled bull yoked together do I require." "It will be easy for me to compass this." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get; the two horned oxen, one of which is beyond, and the other this side of the peaked mountain, y oked together in the same plough. And these are Nynniaw and Peibaw whom God tur ned into oxen on account of their sins." "It will be easy for me to compass this." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Seest thou yon der red tilled ground?" "I see it." "When first I met the mother of this maiden, nine bushels [p. 237] of flax were sown therein, and none has yet sprung up, neither white nor black; and I have the measure by me still. I require to have the flax to sow in the new land yonder, that when it grows up it may make a white wimple for my daughter's head, on the day of thy wedding." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Honey that is nine times sweeter than the honey of the virgin swarm, without scum and bees, do I require to make bragget for the feast." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "The vessel of Llwyr the son of Llwyryon, which is of the utmost value. There is no other vessel in the world that can hold this drink. Of his free will thou wi lt not get it, and thou canst not compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. The basket of Gwyddneu Garanhir , if the whole world should come together, thrice nine men at a time, the meat that each of them desired would be found within it. I require t o eat therefrom on the night that my daughter becomes thy bride. He will give it to no one of his own free will, and thou canst not compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. The horn of Gw

lgawd Gododin to serve us with liquor that night. He will not give it of his own free will, and thou wilt not be able to compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. The harp of Te irtu to play to us that night. When a man desires that it should play, it does so of itself, and when he desires that it should cease, it ceases. And this he w ill not give of his own free will, and thou wilt not be able to compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. The cauldron o f Diwrnach Wyddel, the steward of Odgar the son of Aedd, king of Ireland, to boi l the meat for thy marriage feast." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. It is needful for me to wash my head, and shave my beard, and I require the tusk of Yskithyrwy n Penbaedd to shave myself withal, neither shall I profit by its use if it be no t plucked alive out of his head." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. There is no on e in the world that can pluck it out of his head except Odgar the son of Aedd, k ing of Ireland." "It will be easy for me to compass this." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. I will not tru st any one to keep the tusk except Gado of North Britain. Now the threescore Can trevs of North Britain are under his sway, and of his own free will he will not come out of his kingdom, and thou wilt not be able to compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. I must spread out my hair in order to shave it, and it will never be spread out unless I have the blood of the jet-black sorceress, the daughter of the pure white sorceress, from Pen Nant Govid, on the confines of Hell." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." [p. 239] "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. I will not hav e the blood unless I have it warm, and no vessels will keep warm the liquid that is put therein except the bottles of Gwyddolwyd Gorr, which preserve the heat o f the liquor that is put into them in the east, until they arrive at the west. A nd he will not give them of his own free will, and thou wilt not be able to comp el him."

"It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Some will desi re fresh milk, and it will not be possible to have fresh milk for all, unless we have the bottles of Rhinnon Rhin Barnawd, wherein no liquor ever turns sour. An d he will not give them of his own free will, and thou wilt not be able to compe l him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Throughout the world there is not a comb or scissors with which I can arrange my hair, on acco unt of its rankness, except the comb and scissors that are between the two ears of Twrch Trwyth , the son of Prince Tared. He will not give them of his own free will, and thou wilt not be able to compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. It will not be possible to hunt Twrch Trwyth without Drudwyn the whelp of Greid, the son of Er i." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Throughout the world there is not a leash that can hold him, except the leash of Cwrs Cant Ewi n." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." [p. 240] "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Throughout the world there is no collar that will hold the leash except the collar of Canhasty r Canllaw." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. The chain of K ilydd Canhastyr to fasten the collar to the leash." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Throughout the world there is not a huntsman who can hunt with this dog, except Mabon the son of Modron . He was taken from his mother when three nights old, and it is not kn own where he now is, nor whether he is living or dead." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Gwynn Mygdwn, the horse of Gweddw, that is as swift as the wave, to carry Mabon the son of Mod

ron to hunt the boar Trwyth. He will not give him of his own free will, and thou wilt not be able to compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Thou wilt not get Mabon, for it is not known where he is, unless thou find Eidoel, his kinsman in blood, the son of Aer. For it would be useless to seek for him. He is his co usin." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Garselit the G wyddelian is the chief huntsman of Ireland; the Twrch Trwyth can never be hunted without him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." [p. 241] "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. A leash made f rom the beard of Dissull Varvawc, for that is the only one that can hold those t wo cubs. And the leash will be of no avail unless it be plucked from his beard w hile he is alive, and twitched out with wooden tweezers. While he lives he will not suffer this to be done to him, and the leash will be of no use should he be dead, because it will be brittle." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Throughout the world there is no huntsman that can hold those two whelps except Kynedyr Wyllt, the son of Hettwn Glafyrawc; he is nine times more wild than the wildest beast upon the mountains. Him wilt thou never get, neither wilt thou ever get my daugh ter." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. It is not poss ible to hunt the boar Trwyth without Gwynn the son of Nudd, whom God has placed over the brood of devils in Annwn, lest they should destroy the present race. He will never be spared thence." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. There is not a horse in the world that can carry Gwynn to hunt the Twrch Trwyth, except Du, th e horse of Mor of Oerveddawg." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Until Gilennhi n the king of France shall come, the Twrch Trwyth cannot be hunted. It will be u nseemly for him to leave his kingdom for thy sake, and he will never come hither

." [p. 242] "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. The Twrch Trwy th can never be hunted without the son of Alun Dyved; he is well skilled in lett ing loose the dogs." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. The Twrch Trwy th cannot be hunted unless thou get Aned and Aethlem. They are as swift as the g ale of wind, and they were never let loose upon a beast that they did not kill h im." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get; Arthur and his companions to hunt the Twrch Trwyth. He is a mighty man, and he will not come f or thee, neither wilt thou be able to compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. The Twrch Trwy th cannot be hunted unless thou get Bwlch, and Kyfwlch [and Sefwlch], the grands ons of Cleddyf Difwlch. Their three shields are three gleaming glitterers. Their three spears are three pointed piercers. Their three swords are three griding g ashers, Glas, Glessic, and Clersag. Their three dogs, Call, Cuall, and Cavall. T heir three horses, Hwyrdydwg, and Drwgdydwg, and Llwyrdydwg. Their three wives, Och, and Garam, and Diaspad. Their three grandchildren, Lluched, and Vyned, and Eissiwed. Their three daughters, Drwg, and Gwaeth, and Gwaethav Oll. Their three hand-maids [Eheubryd, the daughter of Kyfwlch; Gorasgwrn, the daughter of Nerth ; and Gwaedan, the daughter of Kynvelyn]. These three men shall sound the horn, and all the others shall shout, so that all will think that the sky is falling t o the earth." [p. 243] "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. The sword of G wrnach the Giant; he will never be slain except therewith. Of his own free will he will not give it, either for a price or as a gift, and thou wilt never be abl e to compel him." "It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that it will not be easy." "Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Difficulties s halt thou meet with, and nights without sleep, in seeking this, and if thou obta in it not, neither shalt thou obtain my daughter." "Horses shall I have, and chivalry; and my lord and kinsman Arthur will obtain f

or me all these things. And I shall gain thy daughter, and thou shalt lose thy l ife." "Go forward. And thou shalt not be chargeable for food or raiment for my daughte r while thou art seeking these things; and when thou hast compassed all these ma rvels, thou shalt have my daughter for thy wife."

All that day they journeyed until the evening, and then they beheld a vast castl e, which was the largest in the world. And lo, a black man, huger than three of the men of this world, came out from the castle. And they spoke unto him, "Whenc e comest thou, O man?" "From the castle which you see yonder." "Whose castle is that?" asked they. "Stupid are ye truly, O men. There is no one in the world tha t does not know to whom this castle belongs. It is the castle of Gwrnach the Gia nt." "What treatment is there for guests and strangers that alight in that castl e?" "Oh! Chieftain, Heaven protect thee. No guest ever returned thence alive, an d no one may enter therein unless he brings with him his craft." Then they proceeded towards the gate. Said Gwrhyr Gwalstawt Ieithoedd, "Is there a porter?" "There is. And thou, if thy tongue be not mute in thy head, wherefor e [p. 244] dost thou call?" "Open the gate." "I will not open it." "Wherefore wilt thou not ?" "The knife is in the meat, and the drink is in the horn, and there is revelry in the hall of Gwrnach the Giant, and except for a craftsman who brings his cra ft, the gate will not be opened to-night." "Verily, porter," then said Kai, "my craft bring I with me." "What is thy craft?" "The best burnisher of swords am I in the world." "I will go and tell this unto Gwrnach the Giant, and I will bring thee an answer." So the porter went in, and Gwrnach said to him, "Hast thou any news from the gat e?" "I have. There is a party at the door of the gate who desire to come in." "D idst thou inquire of them if they possessed any art?" "I did inquire," said he, "and one told me that he was well skilled in the burnishing of swords." "We have need of him then. For some time have I sought for some one to polish my sword, and could find no one. Let this man enter, since he brings with him his craft." The porter thereupon returned and opened the gate. And Kai went in by himself, a nd he saluted Gwrnach the Giant. And a chair was placed for him opposite to Gwrn ach. And Gwrnach said to him, "Oh man! is it true that is reported of thee, that thou knowest how to burnish swords?" "I know full well how to do so," answered Kai. Then was the sword of Gwrnach brought to him. And Kai took a blue whetstone from under his arm, and asked him whether he would have it burnished white or b lue. "Do with it as it seems good to thee, and as thou wouldest if it were thine own." Then Kai polished one half of the blade and put it in his hand. "Will thi s please thee?" asked he. "I would rather than all that is in my dominions that the whole of it were like unto this. It is a marvel to me that such a man as tho u should be without a companion." "Oh! noble sir, I have a companion, albeit he is not skilled in this art." "Who may he be?" "Let the porter go forth, and I wi ll tell him whereby he may know him. The head of his lance will leave its shaft, and draw blood from the wind, and will descend upon its shaft again." Then the [p. 245] gate was opened, and Bedwyr entered. And Kai said, "Bedwyr is very skilful, alth ough he knows not this art." And there was much discourse among those who were without, because that Kai and

Bedwyr had gone in. And a young man who was with them, the only son of Custennin the herdsman, got in also. And he caused all his companions to keep close to hi m as he passed the three wards, and until he came into the midst of the castle. And his companions said unto the son of Custennin, "Thou hast done this! Thou ar t the best of all men." And thenceforth he was called Goreu, the son of Custenni n. Then they dispersed to their lodgings, that they might slay those who lodged therein, unknown to the Giant. The sword was now polished, and Kai gave it unto the hand of Gwrnach the Giant, to see if he were pleased with his work. And the Giant said, "The work is good, I am content therewith." Said Kai, "It is thy scabbard that hath rusted thy swor d, give it to me that I may take out the wooden sides of it and put in new ones. " And he took the scabbard from him, and the sword in the other hand. And he cam e and stood over against the Giant, as if he would have put the sword into the s cabbard; and with it he struck at the head of the Giant, and cut off his head at one blow. Then they despoiled the castle, and took from it what goods and jewel s they would. And again on the same day, at the beginning of the year, they came to Arthur's Court, bearing with them the sword of Gwrnach the Giant. Now, when they told Arthur how they had sped, Arthur said, "Which of these marve ls will it be best for us to seek first?" "It will be best," said they, "to seek Mabon the son of Modron; and he will not be found unless we first find Eidoel t he son of Aer, his kinsman." Then Arthur rose up, and the warriors of the Island s of Britain with him, to seek for Eidoel; and they proceeded until they came be fore the Castle of Glivi, where Eidoel was imprisoned. Glivi stood on the summit of his castle, and he said, "Arthur, what requirest thou of me, since nothing r emains to me in [p. 246] this fortress, and I have neither joy nor ? Seek not therefore to do me harm." Said her, but to seek for the prisoner that is ner, though I had not thought to give him u have my support and my aid." pleasure in it; neither wheat nor oats Arthur, "Not to injure thee came I hit with thee." "I will give thee my priso up to any one; and therewith shalt tho

His followers said unto Arthur, "Lord, go thou home, thou canst not proceed with thy host in quest of such small adventures as these." Then said Arthur, "It wer e well for thee, Gwrhyr Gwalstawt Ieithoedd, to go upon this quest, for thou kno west all languages, and art familiar with those of the birds and the beasts. Tho u, Eidoel, oughtest likewise to go with my men in search of thy cousin. And as f or you, Kai and Bedwyr, I have hope of whatever adventure ye are in quest of, th at ye will achieve it. Achieve ye this adventure for me." They went forward until they came to the Ousel of Cilgwri . And Gwrhyr adjured h er for the sake of Heaven, saying, "Tell me if thou knowest aught of Mabon the s on of Modron, who was taken when three nights old from between his mother and th e wall." And the Ousel answered, "When I first came here, there was a smith's an vil in this place, and I was then a young bird; and from that time no work has b een done upon it, save the pecking of my beak every evening, and now there is no t so much as the size of a nut remaining thereof; yet the vengeance of Heaven be upon me, if during all that time I have ever heard of the man for whom you inqu ire. Nevertheless I will do that which is right, and that which it is fitting th at I should do for an embassy from Arthur. There is a race of animals who were f ormed before me, and I will be your guide to them." So they proceeded to the place where was the Stag of Redynvre. "Stag of Redynvre , behold we are come to thee, an embassy from Arthur, for we have not heard of a ny animal older than thou. Say, knowest thou aught of Mabon the son of Modron, w ho was taken from his mother when three nights old?" The Stag said, "When first

I came hither, there was [p. 247] a plain all around me, without any trees save one oak sapling, which grew up to be an oak with an hundred branches. And that oak has since perished, so that now nothing remains of it but the withered stump; and from that day to this I have been here, yet have I never heard of the man for whom you inquire. Nevertheless, being an embassy from Arthur, I will be your guide to the place where there is an animal which was formed before I was." So they proceeded to the place where was the Owl of Cwm Cawlwyd. "Owl of Cwm Caw lwyd, here is an embassy from Arthur; knowest thou aught of Mabon the son of Mod ron, who was taken after three nights from his mother?" "If I knew I would tell you. When first I came hither, the wide valley you see was a wooded glen. And a race of men came and rooted it up. And there grew there a second wood; and this wood is the third. My wings, are they not withered stumps? Yet all this time, ev en until to-day, I have never heard of the man for whom you inquire. Nevertheles s, I will be the guide of Arthur's embassy until you come to the place where is the oldest animal in this world, and the one that has travelled most, the Eagle of Gwern Abwy." Gwrhyr said, "Eagle of Gwern Abwy, we have come to thee an embassy from Arthur, to ask thee if thou knowest aught of Mabon the son of Modron, who was taken from his mother when he was three nights old." The Eagle said, "I have been here for a great space of time, and when I first came hither there was a rock here, from the top of which I pecked at the stars every evening; and now it is not so much as a span high. From that day to this I have been here, and I have never heard of the man for whom you inquire, except once when I went in search of food as fa r as Llyn Llyw. And when I came there, I struck my talons into a salmon, thinkin g he would serve me as food for a long time. But he drew me into the deep, and I was scarcely able to escape from him. After that I went with my whole kindred t o attack him, and to try to destroy him, but he sent messengers, and made peace with me; and came and besought me to take fifty [p. 248] fish spears out of his back. Unless he know something of him whom you seek, I ca nnot tell who may. However, I will guide you to the place where he is." So they went thither; and the Eagle said, "Salmon of Llyn Llyw, I have come to t hee with an embassy from Arthur, to ask thee if thou knowest aught concerning Ma bon the son of Modron, who was taken away at three nights old from his mother." "As much as I know I will tell thee. With every tide I go along the river upward s, until I come near to the walls of Gloucester, and there have I found such wro ng as I never found elsewhere; and to the end that ye may give credence thereto, let one of you go thither upon each of my two shoulders." So Kai and Gwrhyr Gwa lstawt Ieithoedd went upon the two shoulders of the salmon, and they proceeded u ntil they came unto the wall of the prison, and they heard a great wailing and l amenting from the dungeon. Said Gwrhyr, "Who is it that laments in this house of stone?" "Alas, there is reason enough for whoever is here to lament. It is Mabo n the son of Modron who is here imprisoned; and no imprisonment was ever so grie vous as mine, neither that of Lludd Llaw Ereint , nor that of Greid the son of E ri." "Hast thou hope of being released for gold or for silver, or for any gifts of wealth, or through battle and fighting?" "By fighting will whatever I may gai n be obtained." Then they went thence, and returned to Arthur, and they told him where Mabon the son of Modron was imprisoned. And Arthur summoned the warriors of the Island, a nd they journeyed as far as Gloucester, to the place where Mabon was in prison.

Kai and Bedwyr went upon the shoulders of the fish, whilst the warriors of Arthu r attacked the castle. And Kai broke through the wall into the dungeon, and brou ght away the prisoner upon his back, whilst the fight was going on between the w arriors. And Arthur returned home, and Mabon with him at liberty.

Said Arthur, "Which of the marvels will it be best for us now to seek first?" "I t will be best to seek for the two [p. 249] cubs of Gast Rhymhi." "Is it known," asked Arthur, "where she is?" "She is in Ab er Deu ," said one. Then Arthur went to the house of Tringad, in Aber Cleddyf, a nd he inquired of him whether he had heard of her there. "In what form may she b e?" "She is in the form of a she-wolf," said he; "and with her there are two cub s." "She has often slain my herds, and she is there below in a cave in Aber Cled dyf." So Arthur went in his ship Prydwen by sea, and the others went by land, to hunt her. And they surrounded her and her two cubs, and God did change them again for Arthur into their own form. And the host of Arthur dispersed themselves into pa rties of one and two.

On a certain day, as Gwythyr the son of Greidawl was walking over a mountain, he heard a wailing and a grievous cry. And when he heard it, he sprang forward, an d went towards it. And when he came there, he drew his sword, and smote off an a nt-hill close to the earth, whereby it escaped being burned in the fire. And the ants said to him, "Receive from us the blessing of Heaven, and that which no ma n can give we will give thee." Then they fetched the nine bushels of flax-seed w hich Yspaddaden Penkawr had required of Kilhwch, and they brought the full measu re without lacking any, except one flax-seed, and that the lame pismire brought in before night.

As Kai and Bedwyr sat on a beacon carn on the summit of Plinlimmon, in the highe st wind that ever was in the world, they looked around them, and saw a great smo ke towards the south, afar off, which did not bend with the wind. Then said Kai, "By the hand of my friend, behold, yonder is the fire of a robber!" Then they h astened towards the smoke, and they came so near to it, that they could see Dill us Varvawc scorching a wild boar. "Behold, yonder is the greatest robber that ev er fled from Arthur," said Bedwyr unto Kai. "Dost thou know him?" "I do know him ," answered Kai, [p. 250] "he is Dillus Varvawc, and no leash in the world will be able to hold Drudwyn, t he cub of Greid the son of Eri, save a leash made from the beard of him thou see st yonder. And even that will be useless, unless his beard be plucked alive with wooden tweezers; for if dead, it will be brittle." "What thinkest thou that we should do concerning this?" said Bedwyr. "Let us suffer him," said Kai, "to eat as much as he will of the meat, and after that he will fall asleep." And during that time they employed themselves in making the wooden tweezers. And when Kai k new certainly that he was asleep, he made a pit under his feet, the largest in t he world, and he struck him a violent blow, and squeezed him into the pit. And t here they twitched out his beard completely with the wooden tweezers; and after that they slew him altogether.

And from thence they both went to Gelli Wic, in Cornwall, and took the leash mad e of Dillus Varvawc's beard with them, and they gave it into Arthur's hand. Then Arthur composed this Englyn-Kai made a leash Of Dillus son of Eurei's beard. Were he alive, thy death he'd be. And thereupon Kai was wroth, so that the warriors of the Island could scarcely make peace between Kai and Arthur. And thenceforth, neither in A rthur's troubles, nor for the slaying of his men, would Kai come forward to his aid for ever after.

Said Arthur, "Which of the marvels is it best for us now to seek?" "It is best f or us to seek Drudwyn, the cub of Greid the son of Eri." A little while before this, Creiddylad the daughter of Lludd Llaw Ereint, and Gw ythyr the son of Greidawl, were betrothed. And before she had become his bride, Gwyn ap Nudd came and carried her away by force; and Gwythyr the son of Greidawl gathered his host together, and went to fight with Gwyn ap Nudd. But Gwyn overc ame him, and captured [p. 251] [paragraph continues] Greid the son of Eri, and Glinneu the son of Taran, and Gw rgwst Ledlwm, and Dynvarth his son. And he captured Penn the son of Nethawg, and Nwython, and Kyledyr Wyllt his son. And they slew Nwython, and took out his hea rt, and constrained Kyledyr to eat the heart of his father. And therefrom Kyledy r became mad. When Arthur heard of this, he went to the North, and summoned Gwyn ap Nudd before him, and set free the nobles whom he had put in prison, and made peace between Gwyn ap Nudd and Gwythyr the son of Griedawl. And this was the pe ace that was made:--that the maiden should remain in her father's house, without advantage to either of them, and that Gwyn ap Nudd and Gwythyr the son of Greid awl should fight for her every first of May, from thenceforth until the day of d oom, and that whichever of them should then be conqueror should have the maiden. And when Arthur had thus reconciled these chieftains, he obtained Mygdwn, Gweddw 's horse, and the leash of Cwrs Cant Ewin. And after that Arthur went into Armorica, and with him Mabon the son of Mellt, a nd Gware Gwallt Euryn, to seek the two dogs of Glythmyr Ledewic. And when he had got them, he went to the West of Ireland, in search of Gwrgi Severi; and Odgar the son of Aedd king of Ireland went with him. And thence went Arthur into the N orth, and captured Kyledyr Wyllt; and he went after Yskithyrwyn Penbaedd. And Ma bon the son of Mellt came with the two dogs of Glythmyr Ledewic in his hand, and Drudwyn, the cub of Greid the son of Eri. And Arthur went himself to the chase, leading his own dog Cavall. And Kaw, of North Britain, mounted Arthur's mare Ll amrei , and was first in the attack. Then Kaw, of North Britain, wielded a might y axe, and absolutely daring he came valiantly up to the boar, and clave his hea d in twain. And Kaw took away the tusk. Now the boar was not slain by the dogs t hat Yspaddaden had mentioned, but by Cavall, Arthur's own dog. And after Yskithyrwyn Penbaedd was killed, Arthur and his host departed to Gelli Wic in Cornwall. And thence [p. 252]

he sent Menw the son of Teirgwaedd to see if the precious things were between th e two ears of Twrch Trwyth, since it were useless to encounter him if they were not there. Albeit it was certain where he was, for he had laid waste the third p art of Ireland. And Menw went to seek for him, and he met with him in Ireland, i n Esgeir Oervel. And Menw took the form of a bird; and he descended upon the top of his lair, and strove to snatch away one of the precious things from him, but he carried away nothing but one of his bristles. And the boar rose up angrily a nd shook himself so that some of his venom fell upon Menw, and he was never well from that day forward. After this Arthur sent an embassy to Odgar, the son of Aedd king of Ireland, to ask for the cauldron of Diwrnach Wyddel, his purveyor. And Odgar commanded him t o give it. But Diwrnach said, "Heaven is my witness, if it would avail him anyth ing even to look at it, he should not do so." And the embassy of Arthur returned from Ireland with this denial. And Arthur set forward with a small retinue, and entered into Prydwen, his ship, and went over to Ireland. And they proceeded in to the house of Diwrnach Wyddel. And the hosts of Odgar saw their strength. When they had eaten and drunk as much as they desired, Arthur demanded to have the c auldron. And he answered, "If I would have given it to any one, I would have giv en it at the word of Odgar king of Ireland." When he had given them this denial, Bedwyr arose and seized hold of the cauldron , and placed it upon the back of Hygwyd, Arthur's servant, who was brother, by t he mother's side, to Arthur's servant, Cachamwri. His office was always to carry Arthur's cauldron, and to place fire under it. And Llenlleawg Wyddel seized Cal edvwlch, and brandished it. And they slew Diwrnach Wyddel and his company. Then came the Irish and fought with them. And when he had put them to flight, Arthur with his men went forward to the ship, carrying away the cauldron full of Irish money. And he disembarked at the house of Llwydden the son of Kelcoed, [p. 253] at Porth Kerddin in Dyved. And there is the measure of the cauldron. Then Arthur summoned unto him all the warriors that were in the three Islands of Britain, and in the three Islands adjacent, and all that were in France and in Armorica, in Normandy and in the Summer Country , and all that were chosen footm en and valiant horsemen. And with all these he went into Ireland. And in Ireland there was great fear and terror concerning him. And when Arthur had landed in t he country, there came unto him the saints of Ireland and besought his protectio n. And he granted his protection unto them, and they gave him their blessing. Th en the men of Ireland came unto Arthur, and brought him provisions. And Arthur w ent as far as Esgeir Oervel in Ireland, to the place where the Boar Trwyth was w ith his seven young pigs. And the dogs were let loose upon him from all sides. T hat day until evening the Irish fought with him, nevertheless he laid waste the fifth part of Ireland. And on the day following the household of Arthur fought w ith him, and they were worsted by him, and got no advantage. And the third day A rthur himself encountered him, and he fought with him nine nights and nine days without so much as killing even one little pig. The warriors inquired of Arthur what was the origin of that swine; and he told them that he was once a king, and that God had transformed him into a swine for his sins. Then Arthur sent Gwrhyr Gwalstawt Ieithoedd, to endeavour to speak with him. And Gwrhyr assumed the form of a bird, and alighted upon the top of the lair, where he was with the seven young pigs. And Gwrhyr Gwalstawt Ieithoedd asked him, "By him who turned you into this form, if you can speak, let some one of you, I bes eech you, come and talk with Arthur." Grugyn Gwrych Ereint made answer to him. ( Now his bristles were like silver wire, and whether he went through the wood or through the plain, he was to be traced by the glittering of his bristles.) And t

his was the answer that Grugyn made: "By him who turned us into this form, we wi ll not do so, and we will not speak [p. 254] with Arthur. That we have been transformed thus is enough for us to suffer, with out your coming here to fight with us." "I will tell you. Arthur comes but to fi ght for the comb, and the razor, and the scissors which are between the two ears of Twrch Trwyth." Said Grugyn, "Except he first take his life, he will never ha ve those precious things. And to-morrow morning we will rise up hence, and we wi ll go into Arthur's country, and there will we do all the mischief that we can." So they set forth through the sea towards Wales. And Arthur and his hosts, and h is horses and his dogs, entered Prydwen, that they might encounter them without delay. Twrch Trwyth landed in Porth Cleis in Dyved, and Arthur came to Mynyw. T he next day it was told to Arthur that they had gone by, and he overtook them as they were killing the cattle of Kynnwas Kwrr y Vagyl, having slain all that wer e at Aber Gleddyf, of man and beast, before the coming of Arthur. Now when Arthur approached, Twrch Trwyth went on as far as Preseleu, and Arthur and his hosts followed him thither, and Arthur sent men to hunt him; Eli and Tra chmyr, leading Drudwyn the whelp of Greid the son of Eri, and Gwarthegyd the son of Kaw, in another quarter, with the two dogs of Glythmyr Ledewic, and Bedwyr l eading Cavall, Arthur's own dog. And all the warriors ranged themselves around t he Nyver. And there came there the three sons of Cleddyf Divwlch, men who had ga ined much fame at the slaying of Yskithyrwyn Penbaedd; and they went on from Gly n Nyver, and came to Cwm Kerwyn. And there Twrch Trwyth made a stand, and slew four of Arthur's champions, Gwarth egyd the son of Kaw, and Tarawc of Allt Clwyd, and Rheidwn the son of Eli Atver, and Iscovan Hael. And after he had slain these men, he made a second stand in t he same place. And there he slew Gwydre the son of Arthur, and Garselit Wyddel, and Glew the son of Ysgawd, and Iscawyn the son of Panon; and there he himself w as wounded. And the next morning before it was day, some of the men [p. 255] came up with him. And he slew Huandaw, and Gogigwr, and Penpingon, three attenda nts upon Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr, so that Heaven knows he had not an attendant remai ning, excepting only Llaesgevyn, a man from whom no one ever derived any good. A nd together with these he slew many of the men of that country, and Gwlydyn Saer , Arthur's chief Architect. Then Arthur overtook him at Pelumyawc, and there he slew Madawc the son of Teith yon, and Gwyn the son of Tringad, the son of Neved, and Eiryawn Penllorau. Thenc e he went to Aberteivi, where he made another stand, and where he slew Kyflas th e son of Kynan, and Gwilenhin king of France. Then he went as far as Glyn Ystu, and there the men and the dogs lost him. Then Arthur summoned unto him Gwyn ab Nudd, and he asked him if he knew aught of Twrch Trwyth. And he said that he did not. And all the huntsmen went to hunt the swine as far as Dyffryn Llychwr. And Grugy n Gwallt Ereint and Llwydawg Govynnyad closed with them and killed all the hunts men, so that there escaped but one man only. And Arthur and his hosts came to th e place where Grugyn and Llwydawg were. And there he let loose the whole of the dogs upon them, and with the shout and barking that was set up, Twrch Trwyth cam e to their assistance.

And from the time that they came across the Irish sea, Arthur had never got sigh t of him until then. So he set men and dogs upon him, and thereupon he started o ff and went to Mynydd Amanw. And there one of his young pigs was killed. Then th ey set upon him life for life, and Twrch Llawin was slain, and then there was sl ain another of the swine, Gwys was his name. After that he went on to Dyffryn Am anw, and there Banw and Bennwig were killed. Of all his pigs there went with him alive from that place none save Grugyn Gwallt Ereint and Llwydawg Govynnyad. Thence he went on to Llwch Ewin, and Arthur overtook him there, and he made a st and. And there he slew Echel Forddwytwll, and Garwyli the son of Gwyddawg Gwyr, and [p. 256] many men and dogs likewise. And thence they went to Llwch Tawy. Grugyn Gwrych Er eint parted from them there, and went to Din Tywi. And thence he proceeded to Ce redigiawn, and Eli and Trachmyr with him, and a multitude likewise. Then he came to Garth Gregyn, and there Llwydawg Govynnyad fought in the midst of them, and slew Rhudvyw Rhys and many others with him. Then Llwydawg went thence to Ystrad Yw, and there the men of Armorica met him, and there he slew Hirpeissawg the kin g of Armorica, and Llygatrudd Emys, and Gwrbothu, Arthur's uncles, his mother's brothers, and there was he himself slain. Twrch Trwyth went from there to between Tawy and Euyas, and Arthur summoned all Cornwall and Devon unto him, to the estuary of the Severn, and he said to the wa rriors of this Island, "Twrch Trwyth has slain many of my men, but, by the valou r of warriors, while I live he shall not go into Cornwall. And I will not follow him any longer, but I will oppose him life to life. Do ye as ye will." And he r esolved that he would send a body of knights, with the dogs of the Island, as fa r as Euyas, who should return thence to the Severn, and that tried warriors shou ld traverse the Island, and force him into the Severn. And Mabon the son of Modr on came up with him at the Severn, upon Gwynn Mygdwn, the horse of Gweddw, and G oreu the son of Custennin, and Menw the son of Teirgwaedd; this was betwixt Llyn Lliwan and Aber Gwy. And Arthur fell upon him together with the champions of B ritain. And Osla Kyllellvawr drew near, and Manawyddan the son of Llyr, and Kacm wri the servant of Arthur, and Gwyngelli, and they seized hold of him, catching him first by his feet, and plunged him in the Severn, so that it overwhelmed him . On the one side, Mabon the son of Modron spurred his steed and snatched his ra zor from him, and Kyledyr Wyllt came up with him on the other side, upon another steed, in the Severn, and took from him the scissors. But before they could obt ain the comb, he had regained the ground with his feet, and from the moment that he reached the shore, neither dog, nor man, nor [p. 257] horse could overtake him until he came to Cornwall. If they had had trouble in g etting the jewels from him, much more had they in seeking to save the two men fr om being drowned. Kacmwri, as they drew him forth, was dragged by two millstones into the deep. And as Osla Kyllellvawr was running after the boar, his knife ha d dropped out of the sheath, and he had lost it, and after that, the sheath beca me full of water, and its weight drew him down into the deep, as they were drawi ng him forth. Then Arthur and his hosts proceeded until they overtook the boar in Cornwall, an d the trouble which they had met with before was mere play to what they encounte red in seeking the comb. But from one difficulty to another, the comb was at len gth obtained. And then he was hunted from Cornwall, and driven straight forward into the deep sea. And thenceforth it was never known whither he went; and Aned and Aethlem with him. Then went Arthur to Gelli Wic, in Cornwall, to anoint hims

elf, and to rest from his fatigues. Said Arthur, "Is there any one of the marvels yet unobtained?" Said one of his m en, "There is--the blood of the witch Orddu, the daughter of the witch Orwen, of Pen Nant Govid, on the confines of Hell." Arthur set forth towards the North, a nd came to the place where was the witch's cave. And Gwyn ab Nudd, and Gwythyr t he son of Greidawl, counselled him to send Kacmwri, and Hygwyd his brother, to f ight with the witch. And as they entered the cave, the witch seized upon them, a nd she caught Hygwyd by the hair of his head, and threw him on the floor beneath her. And Kacmwri caught her by the hair of her head, and dragged her to the ear th from off Hygwyd, but she turned again upon them both, and drove them both out with kicks and with cuffs. And Arthur was wroth at seeing his two attendants almost slain, and he sought to enter the cave; but Gwyn and Gwythyr said unto him, "It would not be fitting or seemly for us to see thee squabbling with a hag. Let Hiramreu and Hireidil go t o the cave." So they went. But if great was the trouble of the first two that we nt, much greater was [p. 258] that of these two. And Heaven knows that not one of the four could move from the spot, until they placed them all upon Llamrei, Arthur's mare. And then Arthur r ushed to the door of the cave, and at the door he struck at the witch, with Carn wennan his dagger, and clove her in twain, so that she fell in two parts. And Ka w, of North Britain, took the blood of the witch and kept it. Then Kilhwch set forward, and Goreu the son of Custennin with him, and as many a s wished ill to Yspaddaden Penkawr. And they took the marvels with them to his c ourt. And Kaw of North Britain came and shaved his beard, skin, and flesh clean off to the very bone from ear to ear. "Art thou shaved, man?" said Kilhwch. "I a m shaved," answered he. "Is thy daughter mine now?" "She is thine," said he, "bu t therefore needest thou not thank me, but Arthur who hath accomplished this for thee. By my free will thou shouldest never have had her, for with her I lose my life." Then Goreu the son of Custennin seized him by the hair of his head, and dragged him after him to the keep, and cut off his head and placed it on a stake on the citadel. Then they took possession of his castle, and of his treasures. And that night Olwen became Kilhwch's bride, and she continued to be his wife as long as she lived. And the hosts of Arthur dispersed themselves, each man to hi s own country. And thus did Kilhwch obtain Olwen, the daughter of Yspaddaden Pen kawr. Footnotes ^230:1 This dialogue consists of a series of repartees with a play upon words wh ich it is impossible to follow without the translation. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 259]

NOTES TO KILHWCH AND OLWEN. 217a KILHWCH AND OLWEN.--Page <page 217>. THE curious tale of Kilhwch and Olwen appears to be purely British. The characte

rs and events which it celebrates are altogether of native origin, nor has any p arallel or counterpart been discovered in any other language. It abounds in allusions to traditions of personages and incidents belonging to a remote period, and, though it is true that some few of these have now become ob scure or unintelligible, yet many are, even to the present day, current in the p rincipality. Of a much greater number, though all distinct recollection has ceas ed to exist, yet the frequent references made to them in Bardic and other remain s, prove that, to our ancestors at least, they were well known; and so numerous are the instances we meet with of this class, that we may safely infer that all the allusions this Mabinogi contains were generally familiar to those for whom i t was designed. Beyond the adventures here ascribed to him, no particulars of the hero Kilhwch m ab Kilydd mab Kelyddon have come down to us. [p. 260] 217b ANLAWDD WLEDIG.--Page <page 217>. THE name of this prince occurs in the Pedigrees as being father of Tywynwedd the mother of Tyvrydog mab Arwystli Gloff. Tyvrydog was a saint who flourished in t he sixth century. (Rees's Welsh Saints, p. 276.) In the Pedigrees, Tywynwedd is mentioned as the mother of Caradawc Vreichvras, of Gwyn ab Nudd, and Gwallawc ab Lleenawg. Eigr, the fair Ygraine of romance and mother of King Arthur, is likewise said to have been the daughter of Anlawdd, by Gwen, the daughter of Cunedda Wledig. Thi s explains the relationship between Kilhwch and Arthur.

218a KING DOGGED.--Page <page 218>. THE name of this most unfortunate king is enrolled among the number of the Saint s of Wales, and he is recorded as the founder or the church of Llauddogged in De nbighshire. King Dogged was the son of Cedig ab Ceredig [*1] ab Cunedda. Wledig, and brother of Avan Buallt, a bishop, whose tomb still remains at the church of Llanavan Fawr, in Breconshire, which he founded. The date assigned to these bro thers is from 500 to 542.--Rees's Welsh Saints, p. 209.

219a OLWEN.--Page <page 219>. OF Olwen, the daughter of Yspaddaden Penkawr, but little is now known beyond wha t is related concerning her in the present tale; but with the bards of old her b eauty had passed into a proverb. Amongst those who made frequent allusion to her charms, we may instance Davydd ap Gwilym, the Petrarch of Wales; and Sion Brwyn og, a poet who flourished in the sixteenth century, commences some complimentary verses addressed to a young damsel, by comparing her to "Olwen of slender eyebrow, pure of heart."

219b CUT THY HAIR.--Page <page 219>. IN the eighth century, it was the custom of people of consideration to have thei r children's hair cut the first time by persons for whom they had a particular h

onour and esteem, who in virtue of this ceremony were reputed a sort of spiritua l parents, or godfathers to them. This practice appears, however, to have been s till more ancient, inasmuch [p. 261] as we read that Constantine sent the Pope the hair of his son Heraclius, as a to ken that he desired him to be his adoptive father.--See Rees's Cyclopaedia.

219c A HUNDRED KINE.--Page <page 219>. IT appears that in early times cows formed the standard of currency among the We lsh; for in the laws of Howel Dda, after a certain enactment concerning the paym ent of fines, the following remark is added, "For with cows all payments were ma de formerly." And the price of a cow is stated to be forty pence. The Liber Landavensis furnishes numerous examples of the custom of resorting to this method of valuation. Amongst others may be instanced the case of Brychan, t he son of Gwyngon, who bought three uncias of land, on which three villages were situated, "for seven horses of the value of twenty-eight cows, and the whole ap parel of one man of the value of fourteen cows, and a sword of the value of twel ve cows, and a hawk of the value of six cows, with four dogs of the value of fou rteen cows," p. 456. This property, consisting of about 324 acres, was purchased by him to present to the Church of Llandaff, in the time of Bishop Trychan, who is supposed to have lived about the early part of the seventh century.

220a PENGWAED IN CORNWALL.--Page <page 220>. PENGWAED is the Land's End. In the Triad on the three divisions of Britain, it i s named as the extreme point to the south of the island, which was distant nine hundred miles from Penrhyn Blathaon, supposed to be Caithness in North Britain.-Triad ii.

222a SAVE ONLY MY SHIP AND MY MANTLE.--Page <page 222>. ARTHUR'S ship is mentioned several times in the course of the present tale. Its name was Prydwen, and under that appellation it is alluded to by Taliesin in his Preidden Annwn, [*1] the Spoils of Hell. In that mystical poem, which appears t o be full of allusions to traditions now no longer intelligible, various expedit ions, consisting of as many warriors as would have thrice filled Prydwen, are re presented as setting forth on different enterprises, from each of which only sev en returned. The ancient chroniclers speak of these treasures of Arthur's with due reverence. Sometimes, however, they bestow the name of Prydwen on his shield instead of hi s ship. Thus old Robert of Gloucester, in the following quaint description, [p. 262] The kynn, was aboue yarmed wyy haubert noble & r###7823###che, w###7823###y helm of gold on ys heued, (nas nour h###7823###m # ##7823###l###7823###che) The fourme of a dragon yeron was ycast.

Hys sseld, yat het Prydwen, was yanne ###7823###honge wast Aboute ys ssoldren, and yeron ###7823###peynt was and ###7823## #wort The ###7823###mage of our Lady, inwan was al ys yo###658###t. M###7823###d ###7823###s suerd he was ###7823###gurd, yat so st rong was & kene, Cal###7823###bourne yt was ###7823###cluped, nas nour no such y e wene. In ys r###7823######658###t hond ###7823###s lance he nom, pat ycluped was Ron, Long & gret & strong ynow, hym ne m###7823######658###t atsytte non. I. 174. Gruffydd ab Arthur's account of King Arthur's arms agrees with this; but respecting his sword Caledvwlch, or Caleburn, he adds the information that it was formed in the Isle of Avallon. [*1] It has already been detailed in a previous portion of this work (<page 32>), how Arthur finding himself mortally wounded at the battle of Camlan, confided his sword to one of his knights, char ging him to cast it into the lake, and how when the knight proceeded to fulfil h is behest, a hand and arm arose from the water, and seizing the precious weapon, brandished it three times, and disappeared with it in the lake. This circumstan ce must have been unknown to Richard the First, or he would hardly have sent to Tancred, King of Sicily, as a valuable present, a sword which was supposed to ha ve been the, sword of Arthur. [*2] The Llenn, here rendered, the Mantle, but which appears to have served sometimes as a covering, and sometimes as a carpet, was celebrated as one of the thirteen precious things of the Island of Britain. Its property was to render invisible any one who was either under or upon it, while everything around was visible to him. In another Mabinogi it is said to have been called Gwenn.

223a GREIDAWL GALLDONYD, OR GALLDOVYDD.--Page <page 223>. ONE of the three architects of the island of Britain, whose privilege it was to go wheresoever they would, so that they did not go unlawfully.--Triad 32.

223b GWYTHYR THE SON OF GREIDAWL.--Page <page 223>. This warrior, whose grave is noticed in the Englynion Beddau, [p. 263] [paragraph continues] (see <page 33>), was father to one of the three wives of A rthur, who all bore the name of Gwenhwyvar. [*1] It is he that fights with Gwyn ab Nudd, for the fair Cordelia, every first of Ma y. [*2]

223c GWYN THE SON OF NUDD.--Page <page 223>. IN Gwyn ab Nudd, we become acquainted with one of the most poetical characters o f Welsh romance. He is no less a personage than the King of Faerie, a realm, the

extent and importance of which is nowhere better appreciated, or held in greate r reverence, than in Wales. Very numerous indeed are the subjects of Gwyn ab Nud d, and very various are they in their natures. He is the sovereign of those bene ficent and joyous beings, the Tylwyth Teg, or Family of Beauty (sometimes also c alled Bendith i Mammau, or Blessing of Mothers), who dance in the moonlight on t he velvet sward, in their airy and flowing robes of blue or green, or white or s carlet, and who delight in showering benefits on the more favoured of the human race; and equally does his authority extend over the fantastic, though no less p icturesque class of Elves, who in Welsh bear the name of Ellyllon, and who, on t he other hand, enjoy nothing so much as to mislead and torment the inhabitants o f earth. Indeed, if Davydd ap Gwylim may be believed, Gwyn ab Nudd himself is no t averse to indulging in a little mischievous amusement of this kind; for one da rk night the bard, having ridden into a turf bog on the mountain, calls it the " Fishpond of Gwyn ab Nudd, a palace for goblins and their tribe," to whom he evid ently gives credit for having decoyed him into its mire. Perhaps he may have bee n tempted to exclaim like Shakespeare, "Heavens defend me from that Welsh fairy." According to the same testimony, the Owl was more particularly considered as the bird of Gwyn ab Nudd. There is, in the Myvyrian Archaiology, a dialogue between Gwyn ab Nudd, and Gwyd dno Garanhir, [*3] in which he is represented as a victorious warrior. Gwyddno a postrophizes him thus, "Gwyn, son of Nudd, the hope of armies, legions fall before thy conquering arm, swifter than broken rushes to the ground." In the same composition, Gwyn ab Nudd styles himself the lover of Cordelia the d aughter of Ludd, or Lear, for whom his contest with Gwythyr mab Greidawl, on eve ry first of May till the [p. 264] day of doom, is recorded in the text; he also mentions that Karngrwn was the nam e of his horse. The Triads commemorate Gwyn ab Nudd, as one of the three distinguished astronome rs of the Island of Britain, who by their knowledge of the nature and qualities of the stars, could predict whatever was wished to be known to the end of the wo rld. [*1] A very curious legend, in which Gwynn ab Nudd bears a conspicuous part, is conta ined in the Life of St. Collen (Buchedd Collen), which is printed in a collectio n of Welsh remains, entitled the Greal. [*2] This Saint was the son of Gwynawc, ab Caledawc, ab Cawrdav, ab Caradawc Vreichvras, and having distinguished himsel f greatly in foreign countries [*3] by his zeal and piety, be returned to Britai n and became Abbot of Glastonbury; after a time Collen desired to lead a life of greater austerity than his high office at Glastonbury permitted; so he departed thence, and went forth to preach to the people. The impiety, however, which he met with distressed him so much, that at length he withdrew to a mountain, "wher e he made himself a cell under the shelter of a rock, in a remote and secluded s pot. "And as he was one day in his cell, he heard two men conversing about Gwyn ab Nu dd, and saying that he was king of Annwn and of the Fairies. And Collen put his head out of his cell, and said to them, 'Hold your tongues quickly, those are bu t Devils.'--Hold thou thy tongue,' said they, I thou shalt receive a reproof fro m him.' And Collen shut his cell as before.

"And, soon after, he heard a knocking at the door of his cell, and some one inqu ired if he were within. Then said Collen, 'I am; who is it that asks?' 'It is I, a messenger from Gwyn ab Nudd, the king of Annwn, to command thee to come and s peak with him on the top of the hill at noon.' [*4] "But Collen did not go. And the next day behold the same messenger came, orderin g Collen to go and speak with the king on the top of the hill at noon. "But Collen did not go. And the third day behold the same messenger came, orderi ng Collen to go and speak with the king on [p. 265] the top of the hill at noon. 'And if thou dost not go, Collen, thou wilt be the worse for it.' "Then Collen, being afraid, arose, and prepared some holy water, and put it in a flask at his side, and went to the top of the hill. And when he came there, he saw the fairest castle he had ever beheld, and around it the best appointed troo ps, and numbers of minstrels, and every kind of music of voice and string, and s teeds with youths upon them the comeliest in the world, and maidens of elegant a spect, sprightly, light of foot, of graceful apparel, and in the bloom of youth; and every magnificence becoming the court of a puissant sovereign. And he behel d a courteous man on the top of the castle, who bade him enter, saying that the king was waiting for him to come to meat. And Collen went into the castle, and w hen he came there, the king was sitting in a golden chair. And he welcomed Colle n honourably and desired him to eat, assuring him that, besides what he saw, he should have the most luxurious of every dainty and delicacy that the mind could desire, and should be supplied with every drink and liquor that his heart could wish; and that there should be in readiness for him every luxury of courtesy and service, of banquet and of honourable entertainment, of rank and of presents: a nd every respect and welcome due to a man of his wisdom. "'I will not eat the leaves of the trees,' said Collen. 'Didst thou ever see men of better equipment than those in red and blue?' asked the king. "'Their equipment is good enough,' said Collen, 'for such equipment as it is.' "'What kind of equipment is that?' said the king. "Then said Collen, 'The red on the one part signifies burning, and the blue on t he other signifies coldness.' And with that Collen drew out his flask, and threw the holy water on their heads, whereupon they vanished from his sight, so that there was neither castle, nor troops, nor men, nor maidens, nor music, nor song, nor steeds, nor youth, nor banquet, nor the appearance of any thing whatever, b ut the green hillocks."

223d EDEYRN THE SON OF NUDD.--Page <page 223>. See Page <page 195>.

223e GADWY THE SON OF GERAINT.--Page <page 223>. GADWY MAB GERAINT was noticed for his courtesy to guests and strangers, as we le arn from Triad xc.

[p. 266] 223f FFLEWDDUR FFLAM.--Page <page 223>. A NOTICE concerning Flewddur Flam, occurs in Triad 114, where under the appellat ion of Fleidur Flam mab Godo he is ranked as one of the three sovereigns of Arth ur's Court who preferred remaining with him as knights, although they had territ ories and dominion, of their own.--For this Triad, see the note on Cadyrnerth ma b Porthawr Gandwy, <page 191>.

223g RHUAWN PEBYR.--Page <page 223>. RHUAWN or Rhuvawn Pebyr stands conspicuous amongst those who distinguished thems elves in the battle of Cattraeth. Aneurin says,-"The warriors went to Caltraeth with marshalled array and shout of war, With powerful steeds and dark blue harness, and with shields. The spears were mustered--the piercing lances, The glittering breastplates, and the swords. The chieftain would penetrate through the host Five battalions fell before his blade. Rhuvawn Hir--he gave gold to the altar, And gifts and precious jewels to the minstrel." Gododin, Myv. Arch. I. p. 6. His name occurs again in the same poem, as having approved hims elf an intrepid warrior, standing firm in the hour of battle.--Myv. Arch. I. p. 12. It is said that he fell in battle, and that it is owing to the circumstance of h is body having been redeemed for its weight in gold that he became recorded as o ne of the three golden corpses of the Island of Britain. [*1] He is also spoken of with Rhun ab Maelgwn, and Owain ab Urien, as one of the Thr ee blessed Kings; [*2] and another Triad ranks him with the three imperious ones . [*3] Other versions, however, of the same triad, read Rhun mab Einiawn, in the place of Rhuvawn Pebyr. There is extant a poem composed by Hywel, the son of Owain Gwynedd, about 1160, and printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology, I. p. 277, which commences with these l ines,-The white wave mantled with foam, bedews the grave, The resting place of Rhuvawn Pebyr, chief of kings."

[p. 267] Upwards of a century after this, we find the grave of Rhuvawn mentioned by the b ard, Gwilym Ddu, in a manner that makes it evident that its locality was then we ll known.--Myv. Arch. I. p. 411.

223h DALLDAV THE SON OF KIMIN COV.--Page <page 223>. HE was one of the three compeers of the Court of Arthur with Trystan mab March, and Rhyhawd mab Morgant ab Adras. The name of his horse was Fferlas.--Triad 113, and Trioedd y Meirch, v.

223i ISPERYR EWINGATH.--Page <page 223>. THERE is an Esperir mentioned in the Englynion y Clyweid. Hast thou heard what Esperir said, When he discoursed with Meni Hir?-In adversity is the true friend known. Myv. Arch. I. p. 173. It is uncertain whether he is identical with the Isperyr Ewinga th of the Twrch Trwyth.

223j LLOCH LLAWWYNNYAWC.--Page <page 223>. LLOCH LLAWWYNNAWC is named, with several of the other warriors adjured by Kilhwc h, in the curious dialogue between Arthur, and Kai, and Glewlwyd, of which menti on has been made.--Page <page 42>.

223k AUNWAS ADEINIAWC.--Page <page 223>. THE preceding note applies as well to Aunwas as to Lloch Llawwynnawc. It is doubtful whether he may be considered as the Aedenawc of the Triads, celeb rated with his brothers, Gruduei, and Henbrien, as the three brave ones of the I sland of Britain, who returned from battle on their biers. The parents of these three brothers were Gleissiar Gogled and Haernwed Vradawc.--Triad xxxiii. Myv. A rch. II. p. 15.

223l GWENNWYNWYN THE SON OF NAW.--Page <page 223>. has been already noticed with Geraint ab Erbin, and March ab Meirchion, ai one o f the three who had the command of the fleets of the Island of Britain. Each of them had six score vessels with Six score men in each.--See page <page 193>. [p. 268] 223m ECHEL VORDDWYTTWLL.--Page <page 223>. His son Goronwy has already been cited as one of the Sovereigns who preferred re siding at Arthur's Court, to remaining in their own dominions.--See <page 191>, where the triad is given.

223n DADWEIR DALLPENN.--Page <page 223>. A VERY curious story concerning the sow of Dadweir (or, as he is there called, D allweir) Dallpenn, is contained in the Triads. It is there related that Coll ab Collfrewi was one of the three powerful swineherds of the Island of Britain, and that he kept the swine of Dallweir Dallben, in the valley of Dallwyr in Cornwal l. And one of these swine, named Henwen, was with young, and it was prophesied t hat this circumstance would bring evil to the Island of Britain. So Arthur assem bled his host and sought to destroy the swine; but she went burrowing along till she came to Penhyn Austin, where she plunged into the sea, and she landed again at Aberdarogi, in Gwent Iscoed. And all the way she went Coll ab Collfrewi held by her bristles, both by sea and by land, and at Maes Gwenith (Wheatfield) in G went, she left three grains of wheat and three bees, since which time the best w heat and the best honey have been in Gwent. And thence she went into Dyved, and there, at Llonnio Llonnwen, she left a grain of barley and a little pig; and Dyv ed has produced the best pigs and barley from that time to this. And from Dyved she went into Arvon, and she left a grain of rye at Lleyn in Arvon, and thencefo rth the best rye has been found at Lleyn, and at Eivionydd. And by the side of R hiwgyverthwch, she left a wolf cub and a young eaglet, and the wolf was given to Brynach Wyddel, of Dinas Affaraon, and the eagle to Benwaedd, the lord of Arlle chwedd, and there was much talk concerning the wolf of Brynach, and the eagle of Benwaedd. And when she came to Maen Du in Arvon she left there a kitten, and Co ll ab Collfrew, took it, and threw it into the Menai. But the sons of Palug in M ona (Anglesey), reared this kitten, to their cost; for it became the Palug Cat, which, we are told, was one of the three plagues of the Isle of Mona which were reared therein, the second being Daronwy, and the third, Edwin king of England. These particulars are collected from the three series of Triads, printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology. The version given in the second series is the fullest of t hem.--Triad lvi. This story is supposed to have a figurative meaning, and, under the appellation of Henwen, the sow of Dallweir Dallpen, to allude to [p. 269] some vessel that brought to this island various sorts of grain and animals not p reviously known here. Indeed, there is another triad, which attributes to Coll a b Collfrewi the introduction of wheat and barley into Britain, where only oats a nd rye were cultivated before his time.--Triad 56. Coll ab Collfrewi, the keeper of this marvellous sow, was one nters of this island, and his magical arts were taught him by has already been suggested as probable that it is to him that his House of Fame, under the title of Coll Tragetour, or Coll <page 213>. of the chief encha Rhuddlwm Gawr. It Chaucer refers in the Juggler.--See

223o MENW THE SON OF TEIRGWAEDD.--Page <page 223>. THE part assigned to Menw ab Teirgwaedd in the present tale, is in precise accor dance with the character in which he appears in the Triads, and other legendary remains of the Welsh. He is there commemorated as one of the three men of Phanta sy and Illusion in the Island of Britain, and it is said that be taught his ench antments to Uthyr Pendragon, the father of King Arthur.--See <page 213>. In the Abergavenny Prize Essay, [*1] on the Genuineness of the Coelbren y Beirdd , or Bardic Alphabet, by Mr. Taliesin Williams (Ab Iolo), there is a curious all

egorical tale, which connects Menw with the discovery of that alphabet. The subs tance of the tale is as follows.--Einigan Gawr saw three rays of light, on which were inscribed all knowledge and science. And he took three rods of mountain as h, and inscribed all the sciences upon them, as it should seem in imitation of t he three rays of light. And those who saw them, deified the rods, which so griev ed Einigan, that he broke the rods and died. And after the space of a year and a day, Menw ab Teirgwaedd saw three rods growing out of the mouth of Einigan, and upon them was every kind of knowledge and science written. Then Menw took the t hree rods, and learned all the sciences, and taught them all, except the name of God, which has originated the Bardic secret, and blessed is he who possesses it .--P. 6. It may be remarked that the Bardic symbol is formed of three radiating lines wh ich, it is said, are intended to represent the three diverging rays of light, wh ich Einigan Gawr saw descending towards the earth; and it is somewhat curious th at these three lines contain all the elements of the Bardic alphabet, as there i s not a single letter in it that is not formed from them. No less singular is it , that this alphabet, which is alleged to have been only used [p. 270] upon wood (perhaps also implied by the three rods), is so constructed as altoget her to avoid horizontal or circular lines, which could not be cut on wooden rods without splintering or running, on account of the grain of the wood. For the proofs of the genuineness of this alphabet the reader is referred to the Essay itself.

223p DRUDWAS THE SON OF TRYFFIN.--Page <page 223>. CONCERNING Drudwas mab Tryffin, a curious tradition is presented in an interesti ng letter from the celebrated antiquary, Robert Vaughan, to Mr. Meredydd Lloyd, dated July 24th, 1655. It is printed in the Cambrian Register (III. p. 311). In the following extract we have that portion of it which relates to Drudwas. "The story (or rather fable) of Adar Llwch guin, I have, but cannot finde it. Th e birds were two griffins, which were Drudwas ab Tryffin's birds, whoe had taugh t them to seise upon the first man that should enter into a certain fielde, and to kill him. It chanced, that having appointed a day to meete with King Arthur t o fight a duell in the same fielde, he himselfe protracting the tyme of his comi ng soe long that he thought surely Arthur had come there long before, came first to the place, whereupon the birds presently fell upon him, and killed him; and they perceiving that he, whom they had killed was theire master, much lamented h is death with fearfull screechings and mournfull cryings a long tyme; in memory whereof there is a lesson to be played upon the crowde, the which I have often h eard played, which was made then, called Caniad Adar llwchgwin; and, to confirm this history in some parte, there's a British epigram extant, which I cannot rem ember, but, if you have the story and it, I pray you send it me." According to the Triads, Drudwas mab Tryffin was one of the three Golden-tongued Knights, whom no one could refuse whatsoever they might ask; Gwalchmai, and Eli wlod ab Madawc ab Uthur were the other two.--Triad 115.

224a CAERDATHAL.--Page <page 224>. CAERDATHAL, which the Mabinogion assign as a residence to Math ab Mathonwy, is i

n Caernarvonshire, and crowns the summit of all eminence near Llanrwst. It is pe culiar for having large stones set upright to guard its entrance. The name of this place occurs in Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr's Elegy on the death of h is patron Owain Gwynedd, circa 1160. The [p. 271] passage in the Myvyrian Archaiology, I. p. 206, is imperfect, but the Cambro-Bri ton, II. p. 3, gives it in the following manner:-"Around the region of Caer Dathal Lay those whom the vultures had mangled, Reddening the hill and the headland and the dale."

224b KAW.--Page <page 224>. CONSIDERABLE variations exist in the different catalogues which axe extant of th e numerous sons of Kaw. In that, however, given by Jones, in his Welsh Bards, II . p. 22, the names exactly correspond with those in the text. Some of these pers onages are enumerated amongst the Saints of Wales, but of the individual history of the greater number little is known. Some account has already been given of o ne of the most eminent of them, Gildas mab Kaw, p. 1913. Huail, another of the b rothers, obtained a less honourable notoriety for his vices which eventually cos t him his life. Jones details the circumstances of his ignominious death, from t he authority of Edward Llwyd, who derived them from a Welsh MS. in the handwriti ng of John Jones, of Gelli Lyfdy, dated June the 27th, 1611. From this account, it appears that Huail was imprudent enough to court a lady of whom Arthur was enamoured. The monarch's suspicions being aroused, and his jeal ousy excited, he armed himself secretly, and determined to observe the movements of his rival. Having watched him going to the lady's house, some angry words pa ssed between them, and they fought. After a sharp combat, Huail got the better o f Arthur, and wounded him severely in the thigh, whereupon the contest ceased, a nd reconciliation was made upon condition that Huail, under the penalty of losin g his head, should never reproach Arthur with the advantage he had obtained over him. Arthur retired to his palace, which was then at Caerwys, in Flintshire, to be cured of his wound. He recovered, but it caused him to limp a little ever af ter. A short time after his recovery, Arthur fell in love with a lady at Rhuthyn, in Denbighshire, and, in order the more frequently to enjoy the pleasure of her soc iety, he disguised himself in female attire. One day he was dancing with this la dy, and her companions, when Huail happened to see him. He recognized him on acc ount of his lameness, and said, "This dancing might do very well, but for the th igh." It chanced that Arthur overheard his remark; he withdrew from the dance, a nd summoning Huail before him, upbraided him angrily for the breach of his promi se and oath, and commanded him [p. 272] to be beheaded upon a stone, which lay in the street of the town, and which, fro m this event, acquired the appellation of Maen Huail. [*1] This stone is still t o be seen in the town of Rhuthyn. In the Triads, Huail the son of Kaw of North Britain, Lord of Cwm Cawlwyd, is re presented as one of the three Diademed Chiefs of Battle (Triad 69) and the Engly

nion y Clyweid appropriate a stanza to one of his Sayings-Hast thou, heard what was Sung by Huail The son of Kaw, whose saying was just? Often will a curse fall from the bosom."-Myv. Arch. I. p. 173.

224c TALIESIN, THE CHIEF OF THE BARDS.--Page <page 224>. THE history of Taliesin, which is exceedingly wild and interesting, forms the su bject of a separate Mabinogi, and as such will be given in its proper place.

224d MANAWYDDAN THE SON OF LLYR.--Page <page 224>. THIS chieftain, who figures in the Triads, will be alluded to hereafter in the n otes to one of the Mabinogion more particularly relating to him.

224e GERAINT THE SON, OF ERBIN.--Page <page 224>. OF this chieftain a full account has been given in the notes to the Mabinogi bea ring his name.--It may be added that a saying of his is preserved in the Englyni on y Clyweid: it is as follows:-"Hast thou heard what Geraint sang, The son of Erbin just and Skilful? Short-lived is the hater of the saints."-Myv. Arch. 1. p 172. Geraint's own designation of "the friend of the saints" (Car i Saint) appears to be alluded to in this Englyn.--See Llyw. Hen's Elegies.

224f DYVEL THE SON OF ERBIN.--Page <page 224>. THE death of Dyvel mab Erbin is mentioned in the dialogue between Myrddin Wyllt and Taliesin, where the former says:-[p. 273] "Through and through with rush and bound they came, Yonder and still beyond, were Bran and Melgan seen approaching, And by them, at the battle's close, Dyvel ab Erbin and his hosts were slain."-Myv. Arch. I. p. 4 8. His grave was in the plains of Gwesledin.--Ib. I. p. 80.

224g LLAWNRODDED VARVAWC.--Page <page 224>. IN days when, as we have already seen (<page 219>), the value of articles, even of luxury and ornament, was estimated by the number of cows they were worth, we cannot be surprised that the herdsmen were sometimes men of rank and distinction , and considered worthy to occupy a place in the Triads. Accordingly we find tha t the subject of the present note figured in those curious records, as one of th e three Tribe Herdsmen of the Island of Britain. He tended the kine of Nudd Hael , the son of Senyllt, in whose herd were twenty-one thousand milch cows. The oth er two herdsmen (and they had each a like number of cows under their care) were Bennren, who kept the herd of Caradawc the son of Bran and big tribe, in Gorweny dd in Glamorganshire; and Gwdion the son of Don, the celebrated enchanter, who k ept the herd of the tribe of Gwynedd, above the Conwy.--Triad 85. His own cow went by the name of Cornillo, and was one of the three chief cows of the Island.--Trioedd y Meirch, xi. Of the no less remarkable personages, who tended the swine of the Island of Brit ain, an account has already been given, <page 268>. Llawnrodded's knife was one of the thirteen precious things possessing marvellou s properties. It would serve four-and-twenty men at once with meat.

224h MORVRAN THE SON OF TEGID.--Page <page 224>. THIS circumstance of the three warriors escaping from the battle of Camlan is re lated in the Triads, in words very nearly corresponding With those in the text. The two accounts differ only as regards the name of the third man, whom the Tria d-, instead of Kynwyl Sant, represent to have been Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr, to whom, as King Arthur's Porter, we have already been introduced.--Triad 83. From the Hanes Taliesin, we learn that Morvran was the son of Tegid Voel and Cer idwen. [p. 274] 225a LLENLLEAWG WYDDEL.--Page <page 225>. THIS name occurs in the Englynion y Clyweid.-Hast thou heard what Llenlleawg Gwyddel sang, The noble chief wearing the golden torques? The grave is better than a life of want."-Myv. Arch. I. p. 174.

225b DYVYNWAL MOEL.--Page <page 225>. DYVYNWAL MOELMUD, King of Britain, and the first lawgiver whom the nation boasts , is supposed to have lived about 400 years before the Christian era. There are four Triads relating to him, in all of which he is represented as a great benefa ctor to his people. [*1] In one of these he is styled one of the three National Pillars of the Island: in another, one of the three Primary Inventors: and in a third, one of the beneficent Sovereigns of the Cymry, because he had first reduc ed to a system, and improved, and extended their laws, institutions, customs, an d privileges, "so that right and justice might be obtained by every one in Brita

in, under the protection of God and His peace, and under the protection of the c ountry, and the nation." Again we find him designated as one of three chief Syst em-formers of Royalty, by reason of the excellency of his mode of government. Howel tenth s and yrian Dda, the Welsh Legislator, in compiling his celebrated Welsh Code, in the century, made great use of the laws of Dyvynwal Moelmud, some of the Triad institutes ascribed to whom are to be found in the third volume of the Myv Archaiology, and are very curious and interesting remains.

225c GWYSTYL THE SON OF RHUN THE SON OF NWYTHON.--Page <page 225>. RHUN the father of Gwystyl, was one of the chieftains mentioned by Gruffydd ab A rthur, [*2] as being present at King Arthur's Coronation, at Caerlleon upon Usk. --Both he and Nwython are named in Taliesin's poem addressed to Gwallawg. [*3]

225d DREM THE SON OF DREMIDYD.--Page <page 225>. IN addition to the notice already given (<page 187>), of this fantastic personag e, who was so sharp-sighted, that he could descry a mote in the sunbeam in the f our corners of the world, we may remark that in the [p. 275] [paragraph continues] Englynion y Clyweid, he is represented to have pronounced the very sensible opinion recorded in the following lines:-"Hast thou heard what Dremhidydd sang, An ancient watchman on the castle walls! A refusal is better than a promise unperformed."-Myv. Arch. I. p. 174.

225e GELLI WIC.--Page <page 225>. OF Gelli Wic (or, as it is generally written, Gelliwig), in Cornwall, frequent m ention is made in the Triads, where it is named as one of the three national thr ones of the Island of Britain, [*1] and one of King Arthur's chief seats of empi re, in which he was used to celebrate the high festivals of Christmas, Easter, a nd Whitsuntide. At the time of Arthur's sovereignty, when he was Supreme Ruler ( Penrhaith as it is called in Welsh), Bedwin was the chief Bishop, and Caradawc V reichvras was the chief Elder, of Gelliwig. It was one of the three Archbishopri cs of Britain. [*2] When Medrawd, Arthur's wicked nephew, usurped the government of the island during his uncle's absence, he went to Gelliwig, and dragged Gwen hwyvar from her throne with contumely, and left neither meat nor drink in the co urt, "not even so much as would feed a fly," but consumed and wasted all. [*3] T he fatal battle of Camlan was fought to avenge this insult. The site of Gelliwig is now a matter of some doubt. Hals places it at Callington (Kellington or Killiwick), as we learn from the following extract from his MS. quoted by Polwhele:-"I take this to be the same place mentioned by the Welsh poets or bards, and cal led by them Kellywick, and Kinge Arthur's palace or court, viz., his court-leet or baylywick. Such in his time vndoubtedly it was, as Duke of Cornwall or Kinge

of Britaine; for this manor of land with its appurtenances was, by act of Parlia ment, given to Edward the Black Prince as parcell of the lands of the ancient ki nges or earles of Cornwall, then translated into a dutchy or dukedom." [*4] It may be taken as some confirmation of this opinion with regard to the locality of Gelliwig, that there is a place in the vicinity of [p. 276] [paragraph continues] Callington still bearing the appellation of Arthur's Hall. It is on a rocky tor in the parish of North-hill, which is in the same hundred as Callington, and within a short distance of it. Norden gives the following des cription of the spot:--"It is a square Plott, about 60 foote long and about 3.5 foote broade situate in a playne Mountayne, wrowghte some 3 foote in the grounds and by reason of the depression of the place there standeth a otarige or poole of water, the place (being) sett round about with flat stones." Near to the Hall are many rocky basins, called by the common people Arthur's Troughs, and in whi ch, according to tradition, that monarch used to feed his dogs; for (says Gilber t, from whom this account is taken) it is "the custom in Cornwall to ascribe eve rything that is great and whose use is unknown to that immortal hero." [*1]

225f PEN BLATHAON IN NORTH BRITAIN.--Page <page 225>. PEN or Penrhyn Blathaon (supposed to be Caithness in Scotland) has already been noticed [*2] as the extreme point from Penwaeth or Pengwaed, in Cornwall, from w hich it was distant nine hundred miles. [*3] The distance between these two plac es was determined by the British Legislator, Dyvynwal Moelmud. In the Welsh Laws is given the following passage, relating to the admeasurement of the island mad e by him:-"Before the Saxons seized the crown of London and the sceptre, Dyvynwal Moelmud was King of this Island; and he was the Earl of Cornwall, by the daughter of the King of Lloegr. And after the male line of inheritance became extinct, he came into the possession of the kingdom, by the distaff (that is by the female line), as being the grandson of the King. Now he was a man of great wisdom, and he fir st made laws for this Island, and those laws continued to the time of Rowel Dda, the son of Cadell. And afterwards Rowel Dda made new laws, and changed some of the laws of Dyvynwal. But Howel did not alter the measurements of the lands of t his Island, but left them as Dyvynwal framed them; for he was an excellent measu rer. He measured this Island from the Promontory of Blathaon, in North Britain, to the Promontory of Pengwaed, in Cornwall, which is nine hundred miles, and tha t is the length of the Island, and from Crugyll, in Anglesey, to Sorram (Shoreha m) on the shore of the sea of Udd (the Channel), that is the breadth of the [p. 277] island. And the reason of his measuring it was to know the number of miles in hi s journeys. "And this measurement Dyvynwal made by a grain of barley. Three lengths of a bar ley corn in an inch, three inches in a handbreadth, three handbreadths in a foot , three feet in a step, three steps in a jump, three jumps in a land, which is i n later Welsh a ridge, and a thousand lands or ridges make a mile, and this meas ure is used here till now."

226a THE THREE ISLANDS ADJACENT.--Page <page 226>.

ORKNEY, the Isle of Wight, and the Isle of Man, are the three primary islands ly ing adjacent to Britain, according to the authority of the Triads, which proceed to mention, that subsequently Anglesey was separated from the main land, and be came an island, and that in like manner the Island of Orkney was divided, and be came a multitude of islands, and that other parts of Wales and Scotland became i slands likewise.--Triad 67. This coincides with Nennius's account of the three islands adjacent to Britain, which is given in these words:-"Tres magnas insulas habet [Britannia], quarum, una vergit contra Armoricas, et vocatur Inisgueith; secunda sita est in umbilico maris inter Hiberniam et Britta nniam, et vocatur nomen ejus Eubonia, id est, Manau, alia sita est in extremo li mits orbis Brittanniae ultra Pictos, et vocatur Orc. Sic in proverbio, antiquo d icitar, quando de judicibus vel regibus sermo fuit, 'Judicavit Brittanniam cum t ribus insulis.'"--P. 7, ed. 1838.

226b GWYNN GODYVRON.--Page <page 226>. MENTIONED in the dialogue between Arthur, Kai, and Glewlwyd see <page 42>, where the passage is given.

226c GARSELIT WYDDEL.--Page <page 226>. "Hast thou heard what Garselit sang, The Irishman whom it is safe to follow? Sin is bad when long pursued."-Englynion y Clyweid. [*1]

[p. 278] 226d THE NINTH MAN THAT RALLIED THE BATTLE OF CAMLAN.--Page <page 226>. THIS is very probably an allusion to the disposition made by Arthur of his force s, previous to the battle of Camlan. Geoffrey of Monmonth states that he arrange d his army in nine divisions, with a commander over each, of whom Gwynnhyvar was possibly one.

227a GWARE GWALLT EURYN.--Page <page 227>. GWARE GWALLT EURYN was the son of Pwyll and Rhianon. The mysterious circumstance s connected with his birth are detailed in another Mabinogi.

228a KYNVELYN KEUDAWD PWYLL, THE HALF MAN.--Page <page 228>. THE Welsh have a fable on the subject of the Hanner Dyn or Half Man, taken to be illustrative of the force of habit. In this allegory Arthur is supposed to be m et by a sprite, who appears at first in a small and indistinct form, but who on

approaching nearer increases in size, and, assuming the semblance of half a man, endeavours to provoke the king to wrestle. Despising his weakness, and consider ing that he should gain no credit by the encounter, Arthur refuses to do so, and delays the contest, until at length the Half Man (Habit) becomes so strong that it requires his utmost efforts to overcome him.

228b SAWYL BEN UCHEL.--Page <page 228>. SAWYL BEN UCHEL is accused of being one of those whose arrogance produced anarch y in the Island of Britain; and the lawless party united with the Saxons, and th emselves became Saxons at last.--Triad 74.

228c GWRHYR GWASTAWD IETTHOEDD.--Page <page 228>. IOLO GOCH'S allusion to Gwrhyr's extraordinary aptitude for acquiring languages has already been noticed, in the notes to Geraint ab Erbin. The Englynion y Clyw eid refer in like manner to the singular talent by which he was characterised:-Hast thou heard what Gwrhyr Gwalstawt sang, He who was perfect in all languages? Who practises deceit will be deceived."-Myv. Arch. I. p. 172.

[p. 279] 228d BEDWINI THE BISHOP.--Page <page 228>. BEDWINI was Bishop of Gelliwig in Cornwall, and as such is spoken of in the Tria ds, [*1] and in the British Chronicles. One of his sayings is preserved in the E nglynion y Clyweid:-Hast thou heard what Bedwini sung, A gifted Bishop of exalted rank? Consider thy word before it is given." [*2]

229a INDEG.--Page <page 229>. SOME of the ladies here adjured are celebrated in the Triads, and others figure in the writings of the Romancers of the Middle Ages. Indeg, the daughter of Garwy or Afarwy hir, of Maelienydd, was one of the three ladies best beloved by Arthur. [*3] Her beauty is often the theme of the bards. Morvudd was the daughter of Urien Rheged, the twin sister of Owain, and the belo ved of Cynon the son of Clydno Eiddyn. Her mother's name was Modron, the daughte r of Avallach. [*4] Creiddylad is no other than Shakespeare's Cordelia, whose father, King Lear, is, by the Welsh authorities, called indiscriminately Llyr and Lludd Law Ereint. Al l the old chroniclers, from the Brut to Milton, give the story of her devotion t

o her aged parent, but none of them seem to have been aware that she is destined to remain with him until the day of doom, whilst Gwyn ab Nudd, the King of the Fairies, and Gwythyr mab Greidiawl, fight for her every first of May; and whiche ver of them may be fortunate enough to be the conqueror at that time, will obtai n her as his bride. She is quoted in the Englynion y Clyweid:-Hast thou heard what Creiddylad sang, The daughter of Lludd, the constant maiden? Much will the faithful messenger effect."-Myv. Arch. I. p. 174. Essyllt Vinwen or Fyngwen, the daughter of Culvanawyd Prydain, and sister of Owain's faithless wife Penarwen, is mentioned very disparagingly i n the Triads. [*5] She was married to March ab Meirchion, and acquired a very un desirable celebrity for her attachment to her husband's nephew Tristan ab Tallwc h, the renowned Sir Tristan of [p. 280] the Romancers, who bestow upon Essyllt the appellation of Yseult La Belle. Essyllt Vingul, we may presume to be the Yseullt aux Blanche Mains of romantic f iction, whom Sir Tristan, although at the same time deeply enamoured of her fair er namesake, married out of gratitude for her having effected his cure, when wou nded by a poisoned arrow.

230a DRYCH AIL KIBDDAR.--Page <page 230>. ONLY the first series of the Triads, printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology, takes notice of Drych ail Kibddar, and there be is classed among the dealers in phanta sy or enchantment.--Triad xxxiii.

236a AMAETHON THE SON OF DON.--Page <page 236>. AMAETHON, the signification of whose name is "husbandman," would seem to have be en a very proper person to send for to perform the office. required by Yspaddade n Penkawr. He was brother to the celebrated illusionist or enchanter, Gwydion ab Don, and he appears to have had himself some dealings with the powers of darkne ss; for it is fabled that he brought from Annwn (the Lower Regions), a white roe buck, and a whelp, which were the occasion of the Cad Goddeu, or Battle of the T rees. Taliesin has a long mystical poem on the subject of this battle; and some curious lines relative to it are given in the Myvyrian Archaiology. [*1] These, with the prose heading that accompanies them, are as follows:-These are the Englyns that were sung at the Cad Goddeu (the Battle of the Trees) , or, as others call it, the Battle of Achren, which was on account of a white r oebuck, and a whelp; and they came from Hell, and Amathaon ab Don brought them. And therefore Amathaon ab Don, and Arawn, King of Annwn (Hell), fought. And ther e was a man in that battle, unless his name were known he could not be overcome; and there was on the other side a woman called Achren, and unless her name were known her party could not be overcome. And Gwydion ab Don guessed the name of t he man, and sang the two Englyns following:-'Sure-hoofed is my steed impelled by the spur;

The high sprigs of alder are on thy shield: Bran art thou called, of the glittering branches.'

[p. 281] And thus, 'Sure-hoofed is my steed in the day of battle The high sprigs of alder are on thy hand: the branch thou bearest Has Amathaon the good prevailed.'" These lines have the appearance of being transcribed from a ver y ancient and probably mutilated manuscript. Some of the words are scarcely inte lligible; but perhaps the foregoing will be found not very remote from the meani ng of the original. This battle, in the Triads, is styled one of the three frivolous battles (oferga d) of the Island of Britain, and is said to have been on account of a bitch, a h ind, and a lapwing; and it is added that it cost the lives of seventy-one thousa nd men.--Triad 50. The brothers, Gwydion and Amaethon, are mentioned as being efficient of counsel, in Taliesin's Elegy on Aeddon of Mon. [*1]

236b OXEN OF GWLWLYD.--Page <page 236>. THESE animals, to which some fabulous story probably attached, are spoken of in the Triads, together with those required by Yspaddaden in the subsequent paragra ph.--Tr. y Meirch x. One of these is alluded to in Taliesin's mystical poem, entitled Preiddeu Annwn, the spoils of Hell. [*2] "They know not the brindled ox with the broad headband Seven score handbreadths are in his yoke."

236c NYNNIAW AND PEBIAW.--Page <page 236>. ON turning to the ancient records, we meet with kings bearing the names of those who were turned into oxen for their crimes. Nynniaw was a prince of Glamorgan, and his descendants appear to have profited b y the lesson which his disastrous fate afforded; for we find that Marchell, his great grand-daughter, was the mother of the celebrated and canonized Brychan Bry cheiniog, [*3] who had himself the happiness of being father to no less than for ty-eight saints, twenty-three of whom were sons, and five-and-twenty daughters. According to the Liber Landavensis, King Pebiaw, who was the son of Erb, was equ ally fortunate in the character of his descendants, one of whom was Saint Dubric ius himself, the particulars of whose miraculous birth are there given in the fo llowing words. [p. 282]

"There was a certain king of the region of Ergyng [*1] (Archenfield) of the name of Pebiau, called, in the British language, Claforawg, and in Latin, Spumosus, who undertook an expedition against his enemies, and returning from thence be or dered his daughter Eurddil to wash his head." The legend then goes on to state t hat circumstances led him to suspect that Eurddil was pregnant, and that "the Ki ng, therefore, being angry, ordered her to be put into a sack, and cast headlong into the river, that she might suffer whatever might befall; which, however, ha ppened contrary to what was expected, for as often as she was placed in the rive r, so often was she, through the guidance of God, impelled to the bank. Her fath er, then, being indignant because he could not drown her in the river, resolved to destroy her with fire. A funeral pile was therefore prepared, into which his daughter was thrown alive. In the following morning, the messengers who had been sent by her father to ascertain whether any of the bones of his daughter remain ed, found her holding her son in her lap, at a spot where a stone is placed in t estimony of the wonderful nativity of the boy; and the place is called Madle, [* 2] because therein was born the holy man. The father, bearing this, ordered his daughter with her son to be brought to him; and when they came he embraced the i nfant with paternal affection, as is usual, and kissing him, from the restlessne ss of infancy, he touched with his hands the face and mouth of his grandfather, and that not without divine appointment; for by the contact of the hands of the infant, he was healed of the incurable disease wherewith be was afflicted, for h e incessantly emitted foam from his mouth which two persons who constantly atten ded him could scarcely wipe off with handkerchiefs. "Who, when he knew that he had been healed by the touch of the infant, rejoiced greatly, like one who had come to a harbour after having suffered shipwreck. And he, who at first was as a roaring lion, was now turned to a lamb, and he began to love the infant above all his sons and grandsons; and of that place, Madle (t hat is, Mad, good, lle, place, and whence Madle, a good place), he made him heir , and also of the whole island, which took its name from his mother Eurddil, tha t is, Ynys Eurddyl, which by others is called Maes Mail Lecheu." [*3] [p. 283] Whether these events took place before or after King Pebiaw's distressing transf ormation does not appear. All the further information concerning him, in the Lib er Landavensis, consists of the due. recital of sundry grants of land which be m ade to the Church, "being penitent, with an humble heart, and mindful of his evi l deeds." Lewis, in his "History of Great Britain," printed in 1729, mentions Pebiaw as Ki ng of Erchenfield, and states that in a parish church in Herefordshire is a pict ure of a king, with a man on each side of him, wiping his face with napkins, "wh ich king the country people call King Dravellor." The insane arrogance of these wicked kings is recorded in a curious Welsh legend , a translation of which is printed by Mr. Taliesin Williams, in the notes to hi s poem of Colyn Dolphyn. It is as follows:-"There were two Kings, formerly in Britain, named Nynniaw and Peibiaw. As these two ranged the fields one starlight night, 'See,' said Nynniaw, 'what a beautifu l and extensive field I possess!' 'Where is it?' said Peibiaw; 'the whole Firmam ent,' said Nynniaw, 'far as vision can extend.' 'And do thou see,' said Peibiaw, 'what countless herds and flocks of cattle and sheep I have depasturing thy fie ld.' 'Where are they?' said Nynniaw; 'why the whole host of stars which thou see st,' said Peibiaw, 'and each of golden effulgence, with the Moon for their sheph erdess, to superintend their wanderings.' 'They shall not graze in MY pasture,' said Nynniaw; 'They shall,' said Peibiaw; 'They shall not,' said one: 'They shal l.' said the other, repeatedly, in bandied contradiction, until at last it arose

to wild contention between them, and from contention it came to furious war; un til the armies and subjects of both were nearly annihilated in the desolation. R HITTA, the Giant, King of Wales, hearing of the carnage committed by these two m aniac kings, determined on hostility against them; and, having previously consul ted the laws and his people, he arose and marched against them because they had, as stated, followed the courses of depopulation and devastation, under the sugg estions of phrenzy. He vanquished them, and then cut off their beards. But, when the other Sovereigns included in the twenty-eight kings of the island of Britai n, heard these things, they combined all their legions to revenge the degradatio n committed on the two disbearded kings, and made a fierce onset on Rhitta the G iant, and his forces; and furiously bold was the engagement, But Rhitta the Gian t won the day. 'This is my extensive field,' said he, then, and immediately disb earded the other kings. When the kings of the surrounding countries [p. 284] heard of the disgrace inflicted on all these disbearded kings, they armed themse lves against Rhitta. the Giant and his men; and tremendous was the conflict; but Rhitta the Giant achieved a most decisive victory, and then exclaimed: 'This is MY immense field!' and at once the kings were disbearded by him and his men. Th en pointing to the irrational monarchs, 'These,' said he, 'are the animals that grazed my field, but I have driven them out: they shall no longer depasture ther e.' After that he took up all the beards, and made out of them a mantle for hims elf that extended from head to heel; and Rhitta was twice as large as any other person ever seen." This Rhitta Gawr is none other than King Ryons of North Wales, who appears to ha ve been almost as presumptuous as the unfortunate monarchs whom he so deservedly chastised. The Morte d'Arthur represents him as sending to demand the beard of Arthur himself, which it need hardly be added that he failed to obtain. [*1] We are told that Nynniaw and Pebiaw were the names of the horned oxen (Ychain Ba nawg) employed by Hu Gadarn [*2] to draw the Avanc out of the Lake of Floods, so that the lake burst no more. This bursting of the lake is considered to bear re ference to the universal Deluge, as it is said in the same Triad, that when that occurrence took place, the male and the female of every living thing were prese rved in the ship of Nevydd Nav Neivion. It would be useless to follow all the th eories which have been founded on the name of Hu Gadarn, and his connexion with that important event. For these, reference may be made to Davies's Mythology of the [p. 285] [paragraph continues] Druids, and Celtic Researches, Dr. Owen Pughe, in his Dict ionary, and Cambrian Biography, &c. &c. Suffice it to say, that Hu Gadarn or the Mighty is looked upon as a patriarch, and that there are seven [*1] Triads comm emorative of the benefits which he is said to have conferred upon "the Cymry," w hom he is recorded to have instructed in the useful arts of agriculture, before their arrival in Britain, and while they remained in the Summer country, which a n ancient commentator has described to be that part of the East now called Const antinople. The next benefit that he conferred on the people, of whom he thus app ears to have been the head, was the dividing of them into various tribes, and di recting them at the same time to unity of action, for which he is represented as one of the three primary System-formers of the nation of the Cymry. In addition to this, he is further commemorated as having been the first who devised the ap plication of song to the preservation of record and invention, and as having con tributed thereby to the institution of Bardism. The occurrence, last in successi on, appears to have been his arrival in the Isle of Britain, with the nation of the Cymry, whom he is stated, in two Triads, to have conducted from the Summer c ountry already noticed, here called Deffrobani, and a colony of whom he is also

said to have fixed at the same time in Armorica, on the coast of Gaul. And his l anding in this country, as we find from another of these ancient documents, was not marked by any characteristics of violence; for he is described as not desiro us of obtaining dominion by war and bloodshed, but by justice and peace, for whi ch reason his followers are ranked among the three gentle tribes of the Isle of Britain. [*2]

237a THE BASKET OF GWYDDNEU GARANHIR.--Page <page 237>. THIS marvellous basket is reckoned amongst the thirteen precious things of the I sland of Britain. In the following catalogue of these treasures, which is copied from an old MS. in the collection of Mr. Justice Bosanquet, its properties are, however, made to differ slightly from those assigned to it by Yspaddaden:-1. Dyrnwyn the sword of Rhydderch Hael; if any man drew it except himself, it bu rst into a flame from the cross to the point, and all who asked it received it; but because of this property all shunned it: and therefore was he called Rhydder ch Hael. [p. 286] 2. The basket of Gwyddno Garanhir; if food for one man were put into it, when op ened it would be found to contain food for one hundred. 3. The horn of Bran Galed; what liquor soever was desired was found therein. 4. The chariot of Morgan Mwynvawr; whoever sat in it would be immediately wheres oever he wished. 5. The halter of Clydno Eiddyn, which was in a staple below the feet of his bed; and whatever horse he wished for in it, he would find it there. 6. The knife of Llawfrodded Farchawg; which would serve four-and-twenty men at m eat all at once. 7. The cauldron of Tyrnog; if meat were put in it to boil for a coward it would never be boiled, but if meat were put in it for a brave man it would be boiled f orthwith. 8. The whetstone of Tudwal Tudclud; if the sword of a brave man were sharpened t hereon, and any one were wounded therewith, he would be sure to die, but if it w ere that of a coward that was sharpened on it, he would be none the worse. 9. The garment of Padarn Beisrudd; if a man of gentle birth put it on, it suited him well, but if a churl it would not fit him. 10, 11. The pan and the platter of Rhegynydd Ysgolhaig; whatever food was requir ed was found therein. 12. The chessboard of Gwenddolen; when the men were placed upon it, they would p lay of themselves. The chessboard was of gold, and the men of silver. 13. The mantle of Arthur; whosoever was beneath it could see everything, while n o one could see him. This version is rather different from that given by Jones, in his Welsh Bards, [ *1] which omits the halter of Clydno Eiddyn, but adds the mantle of Tegau Eurvro n, which would only fit such ladies as were perfectly correct in their conduct,

and the ring of Luned, by which she effected the release of Owain the son of Uri en, as bas already been seen in the story of the Lady of the Fountain; whoever c oncealed the stone of this ring became invisible. Gwyddno Garanhir, the possessor of the basket, was the Prince of Cantref y Gwael od, which was overflowed by the sea. This event will be detailed hereafter in th e notes to another Mabinogi, where it is more particularly referred to. [p. 287] 237b THE HARP OF TEIRTU.--Page <page 237>. THE harp of Teirtu appears to be alluded to by Davydd ab Edmwnt, a bard who flou rished about the middle of the fifteenth century. In an elegy which he composed on a celebrated harper, named Sion Eos, or John the Nightingale (who suffered de ath for manslaughter, although his weight in gold was offered to redeem his life ), the bard, addressing Reinallt, a once rival harper, says:-"His companion has become silent, The turtle-dove of the Harp of Teirtud." [*1] This passage has generally been considered to refer to the Trip le Harp; and it is likely that Teirtu, who was probably the inventor as well as the possessor of this harp, may have derived his name or cognomen from the instr ument's triple row of strings. St. Dunstan's harp is said to have been endued with the same miraculous powers a s that of Teirtu; when suspended against the walls of his cell, it was wont to p our forth the most harmonious sounds, without the intervention of any visible ha nd. I have heard that a Welsh nursery tale is still current, of a harp possessing eq ually wonderful properties. This harp belonged to a giant; and a dwarf, named De wryn Fychan, endeavoured to purloin it; but as he carried it off the harp, comme nced playing, and aroused the giant, who immediately set off in pursuit of the o ffender. A similar tale exists in English. There is a place called Castell Teirtud, mentioned in the Liber Landavensis, as being in Breconshire, in the hundred of Builth.--P. 374.

239a TWRCH TRWYTH.--Page <page 239>. IT may be a matter of controversy, which in the present imperfect state of Welsh MSS. might be difficult to determine, whether certain lines of Aneurin's Gorcha n Cynvelyn (Incantation of Cynvelyn) were intended to refer to the very ancient tradition of the Twrch Trwyth.--Myv. Arch. I. p. 60. Davies, in his "Mythology of the Druids," [*2] and Jones, in his "Relies of the Welsh Bards," [*3] appear to have no doubt upon the subject, and in that spirit quote the passage, which the learned Dr. Owen Pughe has also thus translated. [* 4] [p. 288] "Were I to compose the strain--were I to sing--magic spell, would spring, like t hose produced by the circle and wand of Twrch Trwyth."

Such authority is of great weight, when we consider the mass of information poss essed by Dr. O. Pughe, on matters of this kind, and his facilities for consultin g the various readings of different MSS. between which important variations some times exist. Davies states that he considers that a passage in a very old and curious MS. of Aneurin, now in the possession of the Rev. Thomas Price, of Crickhowel, alludes to objects represented on the ancient British coins; and when the description co ntained in his translation is compared with the figures referred to, it must be acknowledged that the coincidence appears very striking. The Gorchegin, high sho ots, appear on several coins, but more particularly do we remark the Trychetin T rychinffwrch, or monstrous horse cut off from the haunches; the Carn Caffan, or hoof with the capped stick; the Esgyrnvyr, short bones, of the legs separated fr om the body; yr vach varchogion, the diminutive riders (beads or circles on the mane and the back); the ysfach, bird's beak, instead of the horse's head: and wh en we add to this the Incantation of Cynvelyn, corresponding with the name of Cu nobeline on the coin, we can hardly suppose that the whole is the effect of acci dent; if the connexion is so far established, we may perhaps be allowed to sugge st that the figure of the boar on some of the coins is referred to in the words Trychdrwyt in the third line of the poem. Some have supposed that the distorted figure of the horse is merely the result o f want of skill in the artist, but it is evidently a mistake, as the other parts of the coins are finished in such a manner as totally to preclude any such idea . Even the bird's beak, and the small object which it holds, are executed with c onsiderable attention, and no small care seems to have been taken to preserve th e separation between the bones of the legs and the body of the animal. All this occurring on coins of different dies, clearly Shows an uniformity of design, and tends greatly to corroborate Davies's hypothesis. Besides the specimens in the British Museum, there is a beautiful gold coin of t his class in the possession of the Rev. John Jones (Tegid), found near Oxford, w hich shows the above characteristics very distinctly. During the middle ages, the story of the Twrch Trwyth was current amongst the We lsh, and Lewis Glyn Cothi alludes to him in these words, [p. 289] "He would destroy the towns with wrath, wounds, and violence he would tear down all the towers like the Twrch Trwyth." [*1] We find a direct reference to the hunt of the Twrch Trwyth in the catalogue of t he marvels of the Island of Britain, which in some copies is appended to the "Hi storia Britonum" of Nennius. The MS. from which the passage is copied into this place is preserved in the British Museum (Harleian MSS. 3859), and is pronounced by the learned editor of "Nennius" to be of the tenth century. [*2] "Est aliud mirabile in regione quae dicitur Buelt. Est ibi cumulus lapidum, et u nus lapis superpositus super congestum, cum vestigio canis in eo. Quando venatus est porcum Troynt, impressit Cabal, qui erat canis Arthuri militis, vestigium i n lapide, et Arthur postea congregavit congestum lapidum sub lapide in quo erat vestigium canis sui, et vocatur Carn Cabal. Et veniunt homines et tollunt lapide m in manibus suis per spacium diei et noctis, et in crastino die invenitur super congestum suum."--P. 60. --There is another wonder in the region called Buelt. There is a heap of stones, and one stone laid on the heap having upon it the footmark of a dog. When he hu nted the swine Troynt, [*3] Cabal, which was a dog of the warrior Arthur, impres sed the stone with the print of his foot, and Arthur afterwards collected a heap

of stones beneath the stone in which was the print of his dog's foot, and it is called Carn Cabal. And people come and take away the stone in their hands for t he space of a day and a night, and on the next day it is found on its heap.-The fact of this story of the Twrch Trwyth being found in a MS. of so early a da te, appeared at once so interesting and important that a facsimile of the whole passage relating to the event was taken from the venerable document, and inserte d in my edition of the Mabinogion, II. 1840. But if we are surprised to find thi s singular hunt thus recorded, and even the name of Arthur's dog Cavall preserve d in connection with it, much more may we be astonished to learn that Carn Caval l is no fabulous mound, the creation of the poet or romancer's fancy, but is act ually a mountain in the district of Builth, to the south of Rhayader Gwy, and wi thin sight of that town. Such was the interest excited in my mind by the discove ry of the existence of such a remarkable piece of evidence, corroborative of the great antiquity of the traditions contained in the Mabinogi of Kilhwch, that I prevailed upon a gentleman to undertake a pilgrimage [p. 290] for me to the summit of Cefn Carn Cavall. The following is the account he wrote me of his expedition; whether he has succeeded in finding the stone itself, bear ing the imprint of Cavall's footstep, I must leave to others to determine. "Carn Cavall, or, as it is generally pronounced, Corn Cavall, is a lofty and rug ged mountain, in the upper part of the district anciently called Buellt, now wri tten Builth, in Breconshire. Scattered over this mountain are several carns of v arious dimensions, some of which are of very considerable magnitude, being at le ast a hundred and fifty feet in circumference. On one of these carns may still b e seen a stone, so nearly corresponding with the description in Nennius, as to f urnish strong presumption that it is the identical object referred to. It is nea r two feet in length, and not quite a foot wide, and such as a man might without any great exertion, carry away in his hands. On the one side is an oval indenta tion, rounded at the bottom, nearly four inches long by three wide, about two in ches deep, and altogether presenting such an appearance as might, without any gr eat strain of imagination, be thought to resemble the print of a dog's foot; on a more minute inspection it will be found that although there is towards the mid dle part a slight mark corresponding with the ball of the foot, yet the division s of the toes and marks of the nails are wanting; but when we make allowance for the effect of a thousand winters in this high and stormy region, it is not too much to suppose that at one time the resemblance was still more striking. "As the stone is a species of conglomerate, it is possible that some unimaginati ve geologist may persist in maintaining that this footprint is nothing more than the cavity, left by the removal of a rounded pebble, which was once imbedded in the stone; such all opinion scarcely requires a remark. The following sketch wi ll give an idea of the stone."

240a MABON THE SON OF MODRON.--Page <page 240>. BOTH the Triads relating to Mabon's mysterious captivity having already been cit ed in this volume, <page 192>, it is considered unnecessary [p. 291] to repeat them in this place. One of them (Triad 61), places his prison among th e Gwyddyl Ffichti in Alban, and represents his whole kindred as having shared it with him. In the Graves of the Warriors we find,

The grave in the upland of Nanllau; His story no one knows, Mabon the son of Modron the sincere."--Myv. Arch. I. p. 78. He would seem to be alluded to, as Mab a Mydron, the servant of Uthir Pendragon, in the dialogue between Arthur, Kai, and Glewlwyd, where Mabon ab Mellt is also mentioned.--See <page 267>.

246a OUSEL OF CILGWRI.--Page <page 246>. DAVYDD AP GWILYM was acquainted with the tradition of these ancient animals, as is proved by his poem entitled "Yr Oed." He has, however, altered their localiti es. His mistress having disappointed him in keeping an engagement, he complains that the delay was so tedious to him that he might be compared to the inhabitant of Gwernabwy; for though it was true he was no Eagle, still, having waited for three generations, he had, through long tarrying, come to resemble that venerabl e bird; and he adds that for love he had grown as infirm as the stag of Cilgwri, and as grey as the owl of Cwm Cawlwyd. The Cwm Cawlwyd is probably the territory which belonged to Caw and his descenda nts, who are always styled Lords of Cwm Cawlywd, in North Britain. There is a pl ace of this name in Caernarvonshire, and another in Carmarthenshire. Cilgwri is in Flintsbire.

248a LLUDD LLAW EREINT.--Page <page 248>. LLUDD LLAW EREINT, an ancient king of Britain, will be better known to the Engli sh reader by the name of King Lear, or Llyr, as it is written by the Welsh, who celebrate him under the appellation of Lludd and Llyr, indiscriminately.

251a LLAMREI.--Page <page 251>. THIS Mare of Arthur's was very celebrated. Her name implies bounding or curvetti ng. Taliesin speaks of her in his Can y Meirch, as "Llamrei full of vigour."--My v. Arch. I. p. 44.

253a PORTH KERDDIN.--Page <page 253>. THE precise position of this harbour is not easily ascertained. The proximity of places called Pen Arthyr and Trelethin (probably, Tre [p. 292] [paragraph continues] Lwydden ap Kelcoed), would induce a conjecture of Porthmaw r, near St. David's Head, Pembrokeshire, being the site of Porth Kerddin. The wo rds in the text, however, "And there is the measure of the cauldron," would favo ur the supposition of Porth Kerddin being another place in the same county, now called Pwll Crochan (the pool of the cauldron), about five miles westward from t he town of Fishguard. It may not be irrelevant to remark that the whole surround ing district abounds with Druidical and other ancient remains. Not far from it i s a small village alleged to have been the birthplace of the celebrated Asser Me

nevensis, whose name it bears; and about two miles from Tre Asser is a place whe re an ancient British town is said to have been founded by the hero of the prese nt tale, and after him called Tref Kilhwch, the only remains of which are some f oundations of houses occasionally met with in ploughing.

253b THE SUMMER COUNTRY (GWLAD YR HAF).--Page <page 253>. THIS name stands translated in the text as the Summer Country, which is its lite ral meaning. This is the way in which it is usually rendered with reference to T riad 4, where it is said that Hu Gadarn came over with the race of the Cymry fro m the Gwlad yr Hav, considered to be somewhere near Constantinople. In the prese nt instance, however, it may have been intended to allude to Somersetshire, of w hich Gwlad yr Hav is the Welsh appellation, and with which the etymology of the Havren (Severn) is probably connected.

254a PORTH CLEIS.--Page <page 254>. THIS place, at which the Twrch Trwyth landed, and commenced his devastating expe dition through the Principality, is a small but well-known harbour in Pembrokesh ire, at the estuary of the river Alun: Although it is only capable of affording accommodation to what are now termed small craft, it was, in times past, a much frequented port, and was the landing-place in several marauding excursions of th e Gwyddyl Ffichti, one of whom, named Boia, is recorded in the Liber Landavensis as having been the source of great annoyance to St. David and St. Telliaw. The former of these saints is traditionally reputed to have been a native of Porth C leis, and to have been baptized at a holy well in its immediate vicinity. Mynyw, or St. David's, is the next place mentioned in the progress of the Twrch Trwyth, and we thence trace him to Aber deu Gleddyf, [p. 293] or Milford Haven, On leaving Aber deu Gleddyf, we find him overtaken by Arthur w hile destroying the herds of Kynwas Kwrr y Vagyl, and this we may conjecture to have occurred at a place still called Kynwaston or Canaston, not far from Narber th. Blaengwaith Noe ab Arthur, near Lampeter Velfrey, and Buarth Arthur, and the Cromlech of Gwal y Filast, or Bwrdd Arthur (Arthur's Table), in the parish of L lanboipy, probably mark the course of this singular hunt to the Preselly Mountai ns, the highest range in Pembrokeshire. At the eastern extremity of these mounta ins rises the river Nyver, or Nevern, on the banks of which the British warriors drew themselves up in array, and close to the highest peak of the range, named Preselly Top, is the dingle of Cwm Kerwyn, where the Twrch Trwyth is said to hav e committed such dreadful havoc among Arthur's champions. Within a distance of t wo miles, Arthur's name is again perpetuated in the rugged summit of Carn Arthur , whence the imagination may easily trace some remembrance of the Twrch Trwyth a nd his progeny, in the names of the opposite eminence, Moel Dyrch; and of Tre Dy rch, the adjacent farm. Leaving the Preselly Mountains, and passing through Aberteivi or Cardigan town, the Twrch Trwyth again appears in Dyffryn Llychwr, or Loughor, on the confines o f Carmarthenshire and Glamorgan. The Dyffryn Amanw of the tale is identical with the valley of the river Amman, which falls into the Llychwr some few miles from the sea. In the Mynydd Amanw we recognize the lofty heights, which form a natur al boundary between the counties of Brecon and Carmarthen, called Mynydd Du, and Bannau Sir Gaer, or the Black Mountain and Carmarthenshire Vans. On this range tradition has assigned to Arthur a resting-place of the most ample dimensions, c

alled Gwely Arthur, or Arthur's Bed, and near to the spot where the river Amman rises is an elevated knoll, called Twyn y Moch, at the foot of which is Llwyn y Moch, both of which names may bear some allusion to the adventures detailed in t he text. The same remark may be said to apply to the adjacent river Twrch, which rises on the Van, and runs into the Tawy, below Ystradgynlais. Another singular coincidence may be traced between the name of 'a brook in this neighbourhood, c alled Echel, and the Echel Forddwyttwl, who is recorded in the tale as having be en slain at this period of the chase. On the Llangadock side of the Black Mounta in we meet with fresh reminiscences of the British monarch in Pen Arthur, and Co iten Arthur. The latter is one of two large rocks in the bed of the Sawdde river , said to have been the hero's quoit, which be flung from the summit of Pen Arth ur to its present position; a distance of [p. 294] about a mile. The rock beside the Coiten was thrown into the stream from the sam e eminence by a lady of those days, being a pebble in her shoe which gave her so me annoyance. As there are several localities on the Tywi bearing the appellatio n of Dinas, it would be difficult to determine to which of them Din Tywi is inte nded to refer. At Ystrad Yw, we find ourselves once more on well-known ground, and hence we may conjecture that the course of the Twrch Trwyth lay across Carn Cavall and the B recon Mountains [*1] to Abergwy, where the Wye falls into the Severn below Cheps tow, and where the princely monster also dashes into the flood, to appear again but for a moment in Cornwall, before he vanishes entirely from our view.

256a LLYN LLIWAN.--Page <page 256>. WHETHER the immersion of the boar Trwyth into the Severn near Llyn Lliwan, or Ll inlivan, as it is generally called, has any reference to the wonders that charac terise that remarkable spot, does not appear, but it would seem reasonable to su ppose that something more than a natural cause must have led to the marvellous r esults thus related in the tract De Mirabilibus Britanniae, attached to some of the copies of Nennius. "There is another wonder, which is Oper Linn Liuan, [*2] the mouth of which rive r opens into the Severn; and when the tide flows into the Severn, the sea in the like manner flows into the mouth of the above-named river, and is received into a pool at its mouth, as into a gulf, and does not proceed higher up. And there is a beach near the river, and when the tide is in the Severn, that beach is not covered; and when the sea and the Severn recede, then the pool Liuan disgorges all that it had swallowed from the sea, and that beach is covered therewith, and it discharges and pours it out in one wave, in size like to a mountain. And if there should be the whole army of all that country there, and they should turn t heir faces towards the wave, it would draw the army to it by force, their clothe s being full of moisture, and their horses would be drawn in like manner. But sh ould the army turn their backs towards the wave, it will not injure them. And wh en the sea has receded, then the whole beach which the wave had covered is left bare again, and the sea retires from it. [*3] [p. 295] In an expedition of Arthur's to the North, the Scots fled before him, and betook themselves to the Lake Llumonyw (probably Loch Lomond), in which were sixty isl ands and sixty rocks, and on each an eagle's nest. Every first of May these came together, and from the sound of their voices the men of that country knew what should befall during the coming year. And sixty rivers fell into this remarkable

lake, but only one river ran from the lake to the sea. Arthur soon dislodged his opponents from their stronghold, the singular nature o f which excited great surprise in the mind of Howel the son of Emyr Llydaw, who accompanied him. But when Howel expressed his wonder at it, Arthur told him that there was a still more marvellous lake not far thence, which was twenty feet lo ng and twenty feet broad, and consequently square; and it contained four differe nt races of fishes, and a fish was never found in a part of the lake occupied by a race to which it did not belong. [*1] And he told him also that there was ano ther lake in Wales near the Severn, which the men of that country called Llyn Ll ivan; and that lake, when the sea flowed, received water into it, and swallowed it as though it had been a mountain, until it overflowed its banks; and if it ch anced that any stood with their faces towards the lake, and any of the spray of the water touched their clothes, it was hard for them to avoid being drawn into the lake; but if their backs were towards it, how near soever they might stand t o its edge, it would have no effect upon them. Brut Gruffudd ab Arthur.--Myv. Ar ch. II. p. 310. Footnotes ^260:1 From him the county of Cardigan (Ceredigion) received its name. ^261:1 Myvyrian Archaiology, I. p. 45. ^262:1 Myvyrian Archaiology, II. p. 306. ^262:2 Lord Lyttelton's History of Henry II. ^263:1 Myvyrian Archaiology, II. p. 14. ^263:2 See page <page 251>. ^263:3 Myv. Arch. I. p. 165. ^264:1 Myv. Arch. II. p. 71. ^264:2 Greal, p. 337, 8vo. London, 1805. ^264:3 St. Collen, having rendered essential services against the Pagans in Gree ce, the Pope bestowed upon him, on his return into Britain, a precious relic, wh ich was the lily that had suddenly blossomed before the glory on some one's sayi ng, "It is no more true that the Virgin has a son, than that the withered lily i n yonder vessel bears blossoms." "And that lily did St. Collen bring to this Isl and, and it is said that it is in Worcester to this day." ^264:4 We are told that Gwyn ab Nudd greatly affects the tops of mountains. ^266:1 Triad 77. In this triad, he is styled the son of Gwyddno Garanhir, and no t of Dewrath (or Dorath) Wledig, as in Triad 25, and in the text. ^266:2 Triad 25. ^266:3 Triad xxxiv. Myv. Arch. II. p. 15. ^269:1 Published at Llandovery 1840. ^272:1 Welsh Bards, II. p. 22. ^274:1 Triads, 4, 57, 59, 36.

^274:2 Myv. Arch. II. p. 321. ^274:3 Myv. Arch. I. p. 58. ^275:1 The other two cities which ranked with Gelliwig, were Caerlleon upon Usk, and Penrhyn Rhionydd, in the North. ^275:2 Triads 62, 64, 111. ^275:3 Triad 52. ^275:4 Powhele's Hist. of Cornwall, 4to. II. p. 50. ^276:1 C. S. Gilbert's Historical Survey of Cornwall, I. p. 170. ^276:2 See <page 261>. ^276:3 Triad ii. ^277:1 Myv. Arch. I. p. 174. ^279:1 Triad 64. ^279:2 Myv. Arch. I. p. 173. ^279:3 Triad 110. ^279:4 Tr. lii. liii. ^279:5 Triad 105. ^280:1 Myv. Arch. I. p. 167. ^281:1 Myv. Arch. I. p. 70. ^281:2 Myv. Arch. I. p. 45. ^281:3 Jones's Hist. of Breconshire, I. p. 42. ^282:1 Ergyng, or Archenfield, comprehended the portion of Herefordshire, S.W. o f the river Wye, of which the present Ecclesiastical Deanery of Archfield, or Ir chenfield, constitutes a part. ^282:2 "Madley is a parish in Herefordshire, on the S. of the river Wye." ^282:3 Liber Landavensis, p. 323, 4. ^284:1 "This meane wbyle came a messager from kynge Ryons of Northwalys. And kyn ge he was of all Ireland and of many Iles. And this was his message gretynge wel kynge Arthur in this manere wyse sayenge, that kynge Ryons had discomfyte and o uercome xi kynges, and everyche of hem did hym homage, and that was this, they g af hym their berdys clene flayne of, as moche as ther was, wherfor the messager came for kyng Arthurs berd. For kyng Ryons had purfyled a mantel with kynges ber des, and there lacked one place of the mantel, wherfor he sent for his berd or e ls he wold entre in to his landes, and brenne and slee, & neuer leas tyl he haue the hede and the berd. Wel sayd Arthur thow hast said thy message, the whiche i s the most vylaynous and lewdest message that euer man herde sente vnto a kynge. Also thow mayst see, my berd is ful yong yet to make a purfyl of hit. But telle thow thy kynge this, I owe hym none homage, ne none of myn elders, but or it be longe to, he shall do me hommage on bothe his kneys, or els he shall lose his h

ede by the feith of my body, for this is the most shamefullest message that euer I herd spoke of. I have aspyed, thy kyng met neuer yet with worshipful man, but telle hym, I wyll haue his hede withoute he doo me homage, thenne the messager departed."--Morte Arthur, I, c. xxvii. ^284:2 Cambro-Briton, I. p. 129-11. p. 61. Cambrian Register, III. p. 165. ^285:1 Triads 4, 5, 54, 56, 57, 92, 97. ^285:2 Cambro Briton II. p. 61, where will be found a summary of the opinions co ncerning Hu Gadarn. ^286:1 Jones's Welsh Bards, II. p. 47. ^287:1 Jones's Welsh Bards, I. p. 44. ^287:2 Myth. of the Druids, p. 42. ^287:3 Jones's Welsh Bards, II. p. 13. ^287:4 Gentleman's Magazine, Nov. 1790. ^289:1 See Dr. Owen Pughe's Dictionary, II. p, 206. 8vo. 1832. ^289:2 See Mr. Stevenson's Preface to the Edition of Nennius, published by the E nglish Historical Society. London, 1838, p. xxi. ^289:3 Another MS. has Troit, which is still nearer to the Welsh Trwyth. ^294:1 The summit of which still retains the name of Cadair Arthur. There is als o in Breconshire a valley bearing the name of one of the pigs; Cwm Banw. ^294:2 Probably a corrupted form of the Welsh "Aber Llyn Llivan." ^294:3 Nennius. Published by the English Historical Society. London, 1838, p. 57 . ^295:1 This appears to be the same as the marvel described in the Catalogue appe nded to Nennius, where it is styled Finnaun Guur Helic, and is placed in the reg ion of Cinlipluc. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 299]

THE DREAM OF RHONABWY Madawc the son of Maredudd possessed Powys within its boundaries , from Porfoed to Gwauan in the uplands of Arwystli. And at that time he had a brother, Iorwer th the son of Maredudd , in rank not equal to himself. And Iorwerth had great so rrow and heaviness because of the honour and power that his brother enjoyed, whi ch he shared not. And he sought his fellows and his foster-brothers, and took co unsel with them what he should do in this matter. And they resolved to dispatch some of their number to go and seek a maintenance for him. Then Madawc offered h im to become Master of the Household and to have horses, and arms, and honour, a nd to fare like as himself. But Iorwerth refused this.

And Iorwerth made an inroad into Loegria, slaying the inhabitants, and burning h ouses, and carrying away prisoners. And Madawc took counsel with the men of Powy s, and they determined to place an hundred men in each of the three Commots of P owys to seek for him. And thus did they in [p. 300] the plains of Powys from Aber Ceirawc, and in Allictwn Ver, and in Rhyd Wilure , on the Vyrnwy, the three best Commots of Powys. So he was none the better, he n or his household, in Powys, nor in the plains thereof. And they spread these men over the plains as far as Nillystwn Trevan. Now one of the men who was upon this quest was called Rhonabwy. And Rhonabwy and Kynwrig Vrychgoch, a man of Mawddwy , and Cadwgan Vras, a man of Moelvre in Kyn lleith , came together to the house of Heilyn Goch the son of Cadwgan the son of Iddon. And when they came near to the house, they saw an old hall, very black a nd having an upright gable, whence issued a great smoke; and on entering, they f ound the floor full of puddles and mounds; and it was difficult to stand thereon , so slippery was it with the mire of cattle. And where the puddles were, a man might go up to his ankles in water and dirt. And there were boughs of holly spre ad over the floor, whereof the cattle had browsed the sprigs. When they came to the hall of the house, they beheld cells full of dust, and very gloomy, and on o ne side an old hag making a fire. And whenever she felt cold, she cast a lapful of chaff upon the fire, and raised such a smoke, that it was scarcely to be born e, as it rose up the nostrils. And on the other side was a yellow calf-skin on t he floor; a main privilege was it to any one who should get upon that hide. And when they had sat down, they asked the hag where were the people of the hous e. And the hag spoke not, but muttered. Thereupon behold the people of the house entered; a ruddy, clownish, curly-headed man, with a burthen of faggots on his back, and a pale slender woman, also carrying a bundle under her arm. And they b arely welcomed the men, and kindled a fire with the boughs. And the woman cooked something, and gave them to eat, barley bread, and cheese, and milk and water. And there arose a storm of wind and rain, so that it was hardly possible to go f orth with safety. And being weary with their journey, they laid themselves down and sought to [p. 301] sleep. And when they looked at the couch, it seemed to be made but of a little c oarse straw full of dust and vermin, with the stems of boughs sticking up therethrough, for the cattle had eaten all the straw that was placed at the head and the foot. And upon it was stretched an old russet-coloured rug, threadbare and r agged; and a coarse sheet, full of slits, was upon the rug, and an ill-stuffed p illow, and a worn-out cover upon the sheet. And after much suffering from the ve rmin, and from the discomfort of their couch, a heavy sleep fell on Rhonabwy's c ompanions. But Rhonabwy, not being able either to sleep or to rest, thought he s hould suffer less if he went to lie upon the yellow calf-skin that was stretched out on the floor. And there he slept. As soon as sleep had come upon his eyes, it seemed to him that he was journeying with his companions across the plain of Argyngroeg , and he thought that he wen t towards Rhyd y Groes on the Severn. As he journeyed, he heard a mighty noise, the like whereof heard he never before; and looking behind him, he beheld a yout h with yellow curling hair, and with his beard newly trimmed, mounted on a chest nut horse, whereof the legs were grey from the top of the forelegs, and from the bend of the hindlegs downwards. And the rider wore a coat of yellow satin sewn with green silk, and on his thigh was a gold-hilted sword, with a scabbard of ne w leather of Cordova, belted with the skin of the deer, and clasped with gold. A

nd over this was a scarf of yellow satin wrought with green silk, the borders wh ereof were likewise green. And the green of the caparison of the horse, and of h is rider, was as green as the leaves of the fir-tree, and the yellow was as yell ow as the blossom of the broom. So fierce was the aspect of the knight, that fea r seized upon them, and they began to flee. And the knight pursued them. And whe n the horse breathed forth, the men became distant from him, and when he drew in his breath, they were drawn near to him, even to the horse's chest. And when he had overtaken them, they besought his mercy. "You have it gladly," said he, "fe ar nought." "Ha, chieftain, since thou hast [p. 302] mercy upon me, tell me also who thou art," said Rhonabwy. "I will not conceal my lineage from thee, I am Iddawc the son of Mynyo, yet not by my name, but by my nickname am I best known." "And wilt thou tell us what thy nickname is?" "I will tell you; it is Iddawc Cordd Prydain ." "Ha, chieftain," said Rhonabwy, "why ar t thou called thus?" "I will tell thee. I was one of the messengers between Arth ur and Medrawd his nephew, at the battle of Camlan ; and I was then a reckless y outh, and through my desire for battle, I kindled strife between them, and stirr ed up wrath, when I was sent by Arthur the Emperor to reason with Medrawd, and t o show him, that he was his foster-father and his uncle, and to seek for peace, lest the sons of the Kings of the Island of Britain, and of the nobles, should b e slain. And whereas Arthur charged me with the fairest sayings he could think o f, I uttered unto Medrawd the harshest I could devise. And therefore am I called Iddawc Cordd Prydain, for from this did the battle of Camlan ensue. And three n ights before the end of the battle of Camlan I left them, and went to the Llech Las in North Britain to do penance. And there I remained doing penance seven yea rs, and after that I gained pardon." Then lo! they heard a mighty sound which was much louder than that which they ha d heard before, and when they looked round towards the sound, they beheld a rudd y youth, without beard or whiskers, noble of mien, and mounted on a stately cour ser. And from the shoulders and the front of the knees downwards the horse was b ay. And upon the man was a dress of red satin wrought with yellow silk, and yell ow were the borders of his scarf. And such parts of his apparel and of the trapp ings of his horse as were yellow, as yellow were they as the blossom of the broo m, and such as were red, were as ruddy as the ruddiest blood in the world. Then, behold the horseman overtook them, and he asked of Iddawc a share of the l ittle men that were with him. "That which is fitting for me to grant I will gran t, and thou shalt be a companion to them as I have been." And the horseman [p. 303] went away. "Iddawc," inquired Rhonabwy, "who was that horseman?" "Rhuvawn Pebyr the son of Prince Deorthach." And they journeyed over the plain of Argyngroeg as far as the ford of Rhyd y Gro es on the Severn. And for a mile around the ford on both sides of the road, they saw tents and encampments, and there was the clamour of a mighty host. And they came to the edge of the ford, and there they beheld Arthur sitting on a flat is land below the ford, having Bedwini the Bishop on one side of him, and Gwarthegy d the son of Kaw on the other. And a tall, auburn-haired youth stood before him, with his sheathed sword in his hand, and clad in a coat and cap of jet-black sa tin. And his face was white as ivory, and his eyebrows black as jet, and such pa rt of his wrist as could be seen between his glove and his sleeve, was whiter th an the lily, and thicker than a warrior's ankle. Then came Iddawc and they that were with him, and stood before Arthur and salute d him. "Heaven grant thee good," said Arthur. "And where, Iddawc, didst thou fin

d these little men?" "I found them, lord, up yonder on the road." Then the Emper or smiled. "Lord," said Iddawc, "wherefore dost thou laugh?" "Iddawc," replied A rthur, "I laugh not; but it pitieth me that men of such stature as these should have this island in their keeping, after the men that guarded it of yore." Then said Iddawc, "Rhonabwy, dost thou see the ring with a stone set in it, that is u pon the Emperor's hand?" "I see it," he answered. "It is one of the properties o f that stone to enable thee to remember that thou seest here to-night, and hadst thou not seen the stone, thou wouldest never have been able to remember aught t hereof." After this they saw a troop coming towards the ford. "Iddawc," inquired Rhonabwy , "to whom does yonder troop belong?" "They are the fellows of Rhuvawn Pebyr the son of Prince Deorthach. And these men are honourably served with mead and brag get, and are freely beloved by the daughters of the kings of the Island of Brita in. And this [p. 304] they merit, for they were ever in the front and saw but one hue upon the men and the horses of red as blood. And when one of the knights rode like a pillar of fire glancing athwart the sky. e ford. the rear in every peril." And he this troop, for they were all as forth from the troop, he looked And this troop encamped above th

Then they beheld another troop coming towards the ford, and these from their hor ses' chests upwards were whiter than the lily, and below blacker than jet. And t hey saw one of these knights go before the rest, and spur his horse into the for d in such a manner that the water dashed over Arthur and the Bishop, and those h olding counsel with them, so that they were as wet as if they had been drenched in the river. And as he turned the head of his horse, the youth who stood before Arthur struck the horse over the nostrils with his sheathed sword, so that, had it been with the bare blade, it would have been a marvel if the bone had not be en wounded as well as the flesh. And the knight drew his sword half out of the s cabbard, and asked of him, "Wherefore didst thou strike my horse? Whether was it in insult or in counsel unto me?" "Thou dost indeed lack counsel. What madness caused thee to ride so furiously as to dash the water of the ford over Arthur, a nd the consecrated Bishop, and their counsellors, so that they were as wet as if they had been dragged out of the river?" "As counsel then will I take it." So h e turned his horse's head round towards his army. "Iddawc," said Rhonabwy, "who was yonder knight?" "The most eloquent and the wis est youth that is in this island; Adaon, the son of Taliesin ." "Who was the man that struck his horse?" "A youth of froward nature; Elphin , the son of Gwyddno ." Then spake a tall and stately man, of noble and flowing speech, saying that it w as a marvel that so vast a host should be assembled in so narrow a space, and th at it was a still greater marvel that those should be there at that time who had promised to be by mid-day in the battle of Badon , fighting with Osla Gyllellva wr . "Whether thou mayest choose to [p. 305] proceed or not, I will proceed." "Thou sayest well," said Arthur, "and we will g o altogether." "Iddawc," said Rhonabwy, "who was the man who spoke so marvellous ly unto Arthur erewhile?" "A man who may speak as boldly as he listeth, Caradawc Vreichvras , the son of Llyr Marini, his chief counsellor and his cousin." Then Iddawc took Rhonabwy behind him on his horse, and that mighty host moved fo rward, each troop in its order, towards Cevndigoll . And when they came to the m

iddle of the ford of the Severn, Iddawc turned his horse's head, and Rhonabwy lo oked along the valley of the Severn. And he beheld two fair troops coming toward s the ford. One troop there came of brilliant white, whereof every one of the me n had a scarf of white satin with jet-black borders. And the knees and the tops of the shoulders of their horses were jet-black, though they were of a pure whit e in every other part. And their banners were pure white, with black points to t hem all. "Iddawc," said Rhonabwy, "who are yonder pure white troop?" "They are the men of Norway, and March the son of Meirchion is their prince. And he is cousin unto Arthur." And further on he saw a troop, whereof each man wore garments of jet-bl ack, with borders of pure white to every scarf; and the tops of the shoulders an d the knees of their horses were pure white. And their banners were jet-black wi th pure white at the point of each. "Iddawc," said Rhonabwy, "who are the jet-black troop yonder?" "They are the men of Denmark, and Edeyrn the son of Nudd is their prince." And when they had overtaken the host, Arthur and his army of mighty ones dismoun ted below Caer Badou, and he perceived that he and Iddawc journeyed the same roa d as Arthur. And after they had dismounted he heard a great tumult and confusion amongst the host, and such as were then at the flanks turned to the centre, and such as had been in the centre moved to the flanks. And then, behold, he saw a knight coming, clad, both he and his horse, in mail, of which the [p. 306] rings were whiter than the whitest lily, and the rivets redder than the ruddiest blood. And he rode amongst the host. "Iddawc," said Rhonabwy, "will yonder host flee?" "King Arthur never fled, and i f this discourse of thine were heard, thou wert a lost man. But as to the knight whom thou seest yonder, it is Kai. The fairest horseman is Kai in all Arthur's Court; and the men who are at the front of the army hasten to the rear to see Ka i ride, and the men who are in the centre flee to the side, from the shock of hi s horse. And this is the cause of the confusion of the host." Thereupon they heard a call made for Kadwr, Earl of Cornwall , and behold he aro se with the sword of Arthur in his hand. And the similitude of two serpents was upon the sword in gold. And when the sword was drawn from its scabbard, it seeme d as if two flames of fire burst forth from the jaws of the serpents, and then, so wonderful was the sword, that it was hard for any one to look upon it. And th e host became still, and the tumult ceased, and the Earl returned to the tent. "Iddawc," said Rhonabwy, "who is the man who bore the sword of Arthur?" "Kadwr, the Earl of Cornwall, whose duty it is to arm the King on the days of battle and warfare." And they heard a call made for Eirynwych Amheibyn, Arthur's servant, a red, roug h, ill-favoured man, having red whiskers with bristly hairs. And behold he came upon a tall red horse with the mane parted on each side, and he brought with him a large and beautiful sumpter pack. And the huge red youth dismounted before Ar thur, and he drew a golden chair out of the pack, and a carpet of diapered satin . And he spread the carpet before Arthur, and there was an apple of ruddy gold a t each corner thereof, and he placed the chair upon the carpet. And so large was the chair that three armed warriors might have sat therein. Gwenn was the name of the carpet, and it was one of its properties that [p. 307]

whoever was upon it no one could see him, and he could see every one. And it wou ld retain no colour but its own. And Arthur sat within the carpet, and Owain the son of Urien was standing before him. "Owain," said Arthur, "wilt thou play chess?" "I will, Lord," said Owain. And the red youth brought the chess for Arthur and Owain; golden pieces and a bo ard of silver. And they began to play. And while they were thus, and when they were best amused with their game, behold they saw a white tent with a red canopy, and the figure of a jet-black serpent on the top of the tent, and red glaring venomous eyes in the head of the serpent , and a red flaming tongue. And there came a young page with yellow curling hair , and blue eyes, and a newly-springing beard, wearing a coat and a surcoat of ye llow satin, and hose of thin greenish-yellow cloth upon his feet, and over his h ose shoes of parti-coloured leather, fastened at the insteps with golden clasps. And he bore a heavy three-edged sword with a golden hilt, in a scabbard of blac k leather tipped with fine gold. And he came to the place where the Emperor and Owain were playing at chess. And the youth saluted Owain. And Owain marvelled that the youth should salute hi m and should not have saluted the Emperor Arthur. And Arthur knew what was in Ow ain's thought. And he said to Owain, "Marvel not that the youth salutes thee now , for he saluted me erewhile; and it is unto thee that his errand is." Then said the youth unto Owain, "Lord, is it with thy leave that the young pages and atte ndants of the Emperor harass and torment and worry thy Ravens? And if it be not with thy leave, cause the Emperor to forbid them." "Lord," said Owain, "thou hea rest what the youth says; if it seem good to thee, forbid them from my Ravens." "Play thy game," said he. Then the youth returned to the tent. That game did they finish, and another they began, and when they were in the mid st of the game, behold, a ruddy young man with auburn curling hair and large eye s, well-grown, [p. 308] and having his beard new-shorn, came forth from a bright yellow tent, upon the s ummit of which was the figure of a bright red lion. And he was clad in a coat of yellow satin, falling as low as the small of his leg, and embroidered with thre ads of red silk. And on his feet were hose of fine white buckram, and buskins of black leather were over his hose, whereon were golden clasps. And in his hand a huge, heavy, three-edged sword, with a scabbard of red deer-hide, tipped with g old. And he came to the place where Arthur and Owain were playing at chess. And he saluted him. And Owain was troubled at his salutation, but Arthur minded it n o more than before. And the youth said unto Owain, "Is it not against thy will t hat the attendants of the Emperor harass thy Ravens, killing some and worrying o thers? If against thy will it be, beseech him to forbid them." "Lord," said Owai n, "forbid thy men, if it seem good to thee." "Play thy game," said the Emperor. And the youth returned to the tent. And that game was ended and another begun. And as they were beginning the first move of the game, they beheld at a small distance from them a tent speckled yell ow, the largest ever seen, and the figure of an eagle of gold upon it, and a pre cious stone on the eagle's head. And coming out of the tent, they saw a youth wi th thick yellow hair upon his head, fair and comely, and a scarf of blue satin u pon him, and a brooch of gold in the scarf upon his right shoulder as large as a warrior's middle finger. And upon his feet were hose of fine Totness, and shoes of parti-coloured leather, clasped with gold, and the youth was of noble bearin g, fair of face, with ruddy cheeks and large hawk's eyes. In the hand of the you th was a mighty lance, speckled yellow, with a newly-sharpened head; and upon th e lance a banner displayed.

Fiercely angry, and with rapid pace, came the youth to the place where Arthur wa s playing at chess with Owain. And they perceived that he was wroth. And thereup on he saluted Owain, and told him that his Ravens had been killed, the [p. 309] chief part of them, and that such of them as were not slain were so wounded and bruised that not one of them could raise its wings a single fathom above the ear th. "Lord," said Owain, "forbid thy men." "Play," said he, "if it please thee." Then said Owain to the youth, "Go back, and wherever thou findest the strife at the thickest, there lift up the banner, and let come what pleases Heaven." So the youth returned back to the place where the strife bore hardest upon the R avens, and he lifted up the banner; and as he did so they all rose up in the air , wrathful and fierce and high of spirit, clapping their wings in the wind, and shaking off the weariness that was upon them. And recovering their energy and co urage, furiously and with exultation did they, with one sweep, descend upon the heads of the men, who had erewhile caused them anger and pain and damage, and th ey seized some by the heads and others by the eyes, and some by the ears, and ot hers by the arms, and carried them up into the air; and in the air there was a m ighty tumult with the flapping of the wings of the triumphant Ravens, and with t heir croaking; and there was another mighty tumult with the groaning of the men, that were being torn and wounded, and some of whom were slain. And Arthur and Owain marvelled at the tumult as they played at chess; and, looki ng, they perceived a knight upon a dun-coloured horse coming towards them. And m arvellous was the hue of the dun horse. Bright red was his right shoulder, and f rom the top of his legs to the centre of his hoof was bright yellow. Both the kn ight and his horse were fully equipped with heavy foreign armour. The clothing o f the horse from the front opening upwards was of bright red sendal, and from th ence opening downwards was of bright yellow sendal. A large gold-hilted one-edge d sword had the youth upon his thigh, in a scabbard of light blue, and tipped wi th Spanish laton. The belt of the sword was of dark green leather with golden sl ides and a clasp of ivory upon it, and a buckle of jet-black upon the clasp. A h elmet of gold was on the head of the knight, set with precious stones of great v irtue, and at [p. 310] the top of the helmet was the image of a flame-coloured leopard with two ruby-re d stones in its head, so that it was astounding for a warrior, however stout his heart, to look at the face of the leopard, much more at the face of the knight. He had in his hand a blue-shafted lance, but from the haft to the point it was stained crimson-red with the blood of the Ravens and their plumage. The knight came to the place where Arthur and Owain were seated at chess. And th ey perceived that he was harassed and vexed and weary as he came towards them. A nd the youth saluted Arthur, and told him that the Ravens of Owain were slaying his young men and attendants. And Arthur looked at Owain and said, "Forbid thy R avens." "Lord," answered Owain, "play thy game." And they played. And the knight returned back towards the strife, and the Ravens were not forbidden any more th an before. And when they had played awhile, they heard a mighty tumult, and a wailing of me n, and a croaking of Ravens, as they carried the men in their strength into the air, and, tearing them betwixt them, let them fall piecemeal to the earth. And d uring the tumult they saw a knight coming towards them, on a light grey horse, a nd the left foreleg of the horse was jet-black to the centre of his hoof. And th e knight and the horse were fully accoutred with huge heavy blue armour. And a r

obe of honour of yellow diapered satin was upon the knight, and the borders of t he robe were blue. And the housings of the horse were jet-black, with borders of bright yellow. And on the thigh of the youth was a sword, long, and three-edged , and heavy. And the scabbard was of red cut leather, and the belt of new red de er-skin, having upon it many golden slides and a buckle of the bone of the sea-h orse, the tongue of which was jet-black. A golden helmet was upon the head of th e knight, wherein were set sapphire-stones of great virtue. And at the top of th e helmet was the figure of a flame-coloured lion, with a fiery-red tongue, issui ng above a foot from his mouth, and with venomous eyes, crimson-red, in his head . And the knight came, bearing in his hand a [p. 311] thick ashen lance, the head whereof, which had been newly steeped in blood, was overlaid with silver . And the youth saluted the Emperor: "Lord," said he, "carest thou not for the sla ying of thy pages, and thy young men, and the sons of the nobles of the Island o f Britain, whereby it will be difficult to defend this island from henceforward for ever?" "Owain," said Arthur, "forbid thy Ravens ." "Play this game, Lord," s aid Owain. So they finished the game and began another; and as they were finishing that gam e, lo, they heard a great tumult and a clamour of armed men, and a croaking of R avens, and a flapping of wings in the air, as they flung down the armour entire to the ground, and the men and the horses piecemeal. Then they saw coming a knig ht on a lofty-headed piebald horse. And the left shoulder of the horse was of br ight red, and its right leg from the chest to the hollow of the hoof was pure wh ite. And the knight and horse were equipped with arms of speckled yellow, varieg ated with Spanish laton. And there was a robe of honour upon him, and upon his h orse, divided in two parts, white and black, and the borders of the robe of hono ur were of golden purple. And above the robe he wore a sword three-edged and bri ght, with a golden hilt. And the belt of the sword was of yellow goldwork, havin g a clasp upon it of the eyelid of a black sea-horse, and a tongue of yellow gol d to the clasp. Upon the head of the knight was a bright helmet of yellow laton, with sparkling stones of crystal in it, and at the crest of the helmet was the figure of a griffin, with a stone of many virtues in its head. And he had an ash en spear in his hand, with a round shaft, coloured with azure blue. And the head of the spear was newly stained with blood, and was overlaid with fine silver. Wrathfully came the knight to the place where Arthur was, and he told him that t he Ravens had slain his household and the sons of the chief men of this island, and he besought him to cause Owain to forbid his Ravens. And Arthur besought Owa in to forbid them. Then Arthur took the golden chessmen that were upon the board , and crushed them until they [p. 312] became as dust. Then Owain ordered Gwres the son of Rheged to lower his banner. So it was lowered, and all was peace. Then Rhonabwy inquired of Iddawc who were the first three men that came to Owain , to tell him his Ravens were being slain. Said Iddawc, "They were men who griev ed that Owain should suffer loss, his fellow-chieftains and companions, Selyv th e son of Kynan Garwyn of Powys, and Gwgawn Gleddyvrudd , and Gwres the son of R heged, he who bears the banner in the day of battle and strife." "Who," said Rho nabwy, "were the last three men who came to Arthur, and told him that the Ravens were slaughtering his men?" "The best of men," said Iddawc, "and the bravest, a nd who would grieve exceedingly that Arthur should have damage in aught; Blathao n the son of Mawrheth, and Rhuvawn Pebyr the son of Prince Deorthach, and Hyveid

d Unllenn." And with that behold four-and-twenty knights came from Osla Gyllellvawr, to crav e a truce of Arthur for a fortnight and a month. And Arthur rose and went to tak e counsel. And he came to where a tall, auburn, curly-headed man was a little wa y off, and there he assembled his counsellors. Bedwini, the Bishop, and Gwartheg yd the son of Kaw, and March the son of Meirchawn, and Caradawc Vreichvras, and Gwalchmai the son of Gwyar, and Edeyrn the son of Nudd, and Rhuvawn Pebyr the so n of Prince Deorthach, and Rhiogan the son of the King of Ireland, and Gwenwynw yn the son of Nav, Howel the son of Emyr Llydaw, Gwilym the son of Rhwyf Freinc, and Daned the son of Ath, and Goreu Custennin, and Mabon the son of Modron, and Peredur Paladyr Hir, and Hyveidd Unllenn, and Twrch the son of Perif, and Nerth the son of Kadarn, and Gobrwy the son of Echel Vorddwyttwll, Gwair the son of G westyl, and Gadwy the son of Geraint, Trystan the son of Tallwch , Moryen Manaw c, Granwen the son of Llyr, and Llacheu the son of Arthur312g, and Llawvrodedd V arvawc, and Kadwr Earl of Cornwall, Morvran the son of Tegid, and Rhyawd the son of Morgant312h, and Dyvyr the son of Alun Dyved, Gwrhyr [p. 313] [paragraph continues] Gwalstawd Ieithoedd, Adaon the son of Taliesin, Llary the son of Kasnar Wledig, and Fflewddur Fflam, and Greidawl Galldovydd, Gilbert the son of Kadgyffro , Menw the son of Teirgwaedd, Gwrthmwl Wledig , Cawrdav the son of Caradawc Vreichvras, Gildas the son of Kaw, Kadyriaith the son of Saidi, and many of the men of Norway and Denmark, and many of the men of Greece, and a cro wd of the men of the host came to that council. "Iddawc," said Rhonabwy, "who was the auburn haired man to whom they came just n ow?" "Rhun the son of Maelgwn Gwynedd, a man whose prerogative it is, that he ma y join in counsel with all." "And wherefore did they admit into counsel with men of such dignity as are yonder a stripling so young as Kadyriaith the son of Sai di?" "Because there is not throughout Britain a man better skilled in counsel th an he." Thereupon, behold, bards came and recited verses before Arthur, and no man under stood those verses but Kadyriaith only, save that they were in Arthur's praise. And lo, there came four-and-twenty asses with their burdens of gold and of silve r, and a tired way-worn man with each of them, bringing tribute to Arthur from t he Islands of Greece. Then Kadyriaith the son of Saidi besought that a truce mig ht be granted to Osla Gyllellvawr for the space of a fortnight and a month, and that the asses and the burdens they carried might be given to the bards, to be t o them as the reward for their stay and that their verse might be recompensed du ring the time of the truce. And thus it was settled. "Rhonabwy," said Iddawc, "would it not be wrong to forbid a youth who can give c ounsel so liberal as this from coming to the councils of his Lord?" Then Kai arose, and he said, "Whosoever will follow Arthur, let him be with him to-night in Cornwall, and whosoever will not, let him be opposed to Arthur even during the truce." And through the greatness of the tumult that ensued, Rhonabwy awoke. And when he awoke he was upon the yellow calf-skin, having slept three n ights and three days. [p. 314] And this tale is called the Dream of Rhonabwy. And this is the reason that no on e knows the dream without a book, neither bard nor gifted seer; because of the v arious colours that were upon the horses, and the many wondrous colours of the a rms and of the panoply, and of the precious scarfs, and of the virtue-bearing st

ones. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 315]

NOTES TO THE DREAM OF RHONABWY. 299a MADAWC THE SON OF MAREDUDD.--Page <page 299>. MAREDUDD AP BLEDDYN, the father of Madawc, after much contest acquired possessio n of the sovereignty of the whole principality of Powys. He married Hunydd the d aughter of Eunydd, chief of one of the fifteen tribes of North Wales, and Lord o f Dyffryn Clwyd and Allington, and died in 1129; his son Madawc succeeded him in one-half of his possessions, which thence acquired the name of Powys Fadawc. Ma redudd had been one of the most strenuous and successful opponents of the Norman s, celebrated by the national records. It was he who checked the progress of Hen ry I., who, in one of his invasions of Wales, narrowly escaped being slain by a body of archers that Maredudd had dispatched to meet him; an arrow shot by one o f their number actually glanced from the breast-plate of the royal invader. But the son of Maredudd was not distinguished for equal ardour in his country's caus e; on the contrary, Madawc combined with Henry II. in the attacks he made [p. 316] upon Wales in 1158, and during that monarch's first and unsuccessful campaign, t ook the command of the English ships, and ravaged the shores of Anglesey. In thi s expedition, however, Madawc was defeated with much loss. Powell says of him, t hat he was "euer the king of Englands freend, and was one that feared God, and r eleeued the poore." [*1] He was a prince of more than common talent, and was highly extolled by contempor ary bards and historians. Amongst others, Gwalchmai composed several poems in hi s praise. [*2] Madawc's wonted prudence appears to have forsaken him in the decline of life. Th ere is an anecdote relating to him which, as it exists only in MS., is probably not generally known. [*3] It is to the effect that in his later years he took fo r his second wife an English lady, Matilda Verdun by name, upon whom, and upon a ny children he might have by her, he settled the Lordship of Oswestry. This lady inveigled the prince to Winchester, where her party was powerful. There, upon s ome excuse, he was put in durance, and while in that state was prevailed upon to execute another deed, whereby he settled the said Lordship of Oswestry upon Mat ilda, and any children she might have after his decease. The prince died soon af ter the execution of this deed, and his body was conveyed from Winchester to Mei vod, in Montgomeryshire, the burying-place of his family, where it was deposited in the church of St. Mary, which he himself had built some years before. His wi dow, Matilda, scarce took time to dry her tears before she married John Fitzalan , who thereby became Lord of "Oswaldstree." [*4] By his first wife, Susanna, daughter of Gruffydd ab Conan, Prince of North Wales , Madawc left several children. He built the Castle of Oswestry, and a castle at Caer Einion, near Welshpool. Se veral places in their neighbourhood, and in that of Meivod still bear his name. [p. 317]

299bPOWYS WITHIN ITS BOUNDARIES, &c.--Page <page 299>. THAT part of the ancient principality of Powys, which belonged to Madawc ab Mare dudd, extended from the vicinity of Chester to the uplands of Arwystli, now know n as the Plinlimmon range of mountains. This is expressly stated by Gwalchmai, i n his Elegy upon that Prince, in which he boasts that the sovereignty of his pat ron reached from the summit of Plinlimmon to the gates of Caerlleon, or Chester. --Myv. Arch. I. 202. In more remote times Powys was of much greater extent. Powell tells us, in his H istory of Wales, that "Powys before king Offas time reached Eastward to the riue rs of Dee and Seauerne, with a right line from the end of Broxen hilles to Salop , with all the countrie betweene Wye and Seauerne, whereof Brochwel yscithroc wa s possessed: but after the making of Offas ditch the plaine countrie toward Salo p, being inhabited by Saxons and Normans, Powys was in length from Pulford bridg e Northeast, to the confines of Caerdigan shire, in the parish of Lhanguric in t he Southwest; and in bredth from the furthest part of Cyuelioc Westward, to Elsm ere on the Eastside. This countrie or principalitie of Powys was appointed by Ro derike the Great for the portion of his third sonne Anarawd, and so continued in tierlie vntill the death of Blethyn ap Convyn. After whom, although the dominion was diminished by limiting parts in seueraltie amongst his sonnes Meredyth and Cadogan, yet at length it came wholie to the possession of Meredyth ap Blethyn, who had issue two sonnes Madoc and Gruffyth, betweene whom the said dominion was diuided." [*1] Madawc's share was further divided amongst his three children, f rom whose immediate descendants it was gained, by fraud or violence, by their No rman neighbours. Gruffydd's descendants, the first of whom was the celebrated Ow ain Cyveiliog, succeeded for three generations, to an unbroken inheritance, but in the fourth it was distributed among six sons, and finally passed away to seve ral remote heirs. One, and apparently the most considerable of them, was represe nted by the Cheretons, afterwards Gray, Barons of Powys, from whom are the Verno ns of Hodnet and other illustrious Norman families. This passage would lead us to consider the Porfoed mentioned in the Tale, as ide ntical with Pulford, and the locality of this place, added to the similarity of names, favours the supposition. The , however, of Merford, a lordship in the par ish of Gresford, Midway between Wrexham and Chester, and of which the name [p. 318] bears at least an equal resemblance to that of Porfoed, renders it doubtful whic h of the two is alluded to in the text. Merford contains some interesting remain s of a British camp, called the Roft, commanding a most extensive view of the co unties of Chester and Salop. The Gwauan, in Arwystli, spoken of as being at the other extremity of Powys, may possibly be one of the several spots now bearing the name of Waun in the Plinli mmon range. The Cambrian Quarterly gives some ancient lines on the confines of Powys. "From Cevn yr Ais, and from Chester to Eisteddva Gurig, and from Garn Gynnull on the river Conwy to Rhyd Helyg on the river Wye." [*1]

299c IORWERTH THE SON OF MAREDUDD.--Page <page 299>. IORWERTH was the son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn, by his second wife Eva, daughter of Bledrws ab Ednowain Bendew, chief of one of the fifteen noble tribes. His fathe

r bestowed upon him the Lordship of Mochnant, near Oswestry, and be went by the name of Iorwerth Goch of Mochnant. Like most princes of his age, Iorwerth was a warrior, and in 1156 he sided with Henry II. against his neighbour Owain Gwynedd , Prince of North Wales, and during the contest that ensued between the English and the Welsh, he took and razed to the ground the castle of Ial or Yale, which Owain had built only ten years previously. The site of this fortress is still to be seen on a tumulus called Tomen Rhodwydd, by the roadside about halfway betwe en Llangollen and Rhuthin. The partiality evinced by Iorwerth to the English int erest, caused his nephews, Owain Cyveiliog and Owain Vychan, to unite their forc es against him, and they, succeeded in expelling him from his patrimony of Mochn ant, which they divided between them, the former taking possession of Uwch Rhaia dr, and the latter of Is Rhaiadr. Iorwerth married Maude, the daughter of Roger de Manley of Cheshire. It is supposed by some, that the tribe (Gwelygordd) of Iorwerth is celebrated by Cynddelw, in his poem called Gwelygorddeu Powys, under the title of Yorwerthyaw n.--Myv. Arch. I. 256. It is also thought that Iorwerth, after his expulsion from Mochnant, settled on the English side of Offa's dyke, for we find his grandson (some say his son), Si r Gruffydd Vychan, [*2] called by the [p. 319] [paragraph continues] Welsh "Y Marchog Gwyllt o Gaer Howel," the Wild Knight of Caerhowel, living at a mansion still known by that name at Edgerly, in the count y of Salop, near the ford on the Vyrnwy, which in this Mabinogi is designated Rh yd y Wilure. His descendants continued in the same county; and among their numbe r we find another "Wild Knight," Humphrey Kynaston the Wild, who during his outl awry, in the reign of Henry VII. was the inhabitant of the cave, in the bold san dstone rock at Ness Cliff, called after him Kynaston's Cave, and concerning whos e feats many an old wife's tale is still current in Shropshire.

300a FROM ABER CEIRAWC IN ALLICTWN VER, TO RHYD Y WILURE.--Page <page 300>. ABERCEIRAWC, as the name implies, is the point of the confluence of the river Ce iriog with the Dee, which is not far below the town of Chirk, and opposite to Wy nnstay Park. Allictwn is doubtless to be fixed at Allington in the immediate vic inity of Pulford, which, as we have already seen, was the extreme boundary of Ma dawc's possessions to the north-east; and Rhyd y Wilure is Rhyd y Vorle, in Engl ish Melverley, a ford upon the Vyrnwy, not far from the spot where that river fa lls into the Severn. We find accordingly that, taking Aberceirawc as the centre of operations, Madawc caused the search for his brother to be made a considerabl e way to the south, and as far to the north as his dominion extended. It is said also that some of the men that were on this quest, went as far as Nillystan Tre van, which may possibly be Halistan Trevan, now called Halston, near Whittington , the "Tre wen (or white town) ym mron y coed" of Llywarch Hen. Haliston was a s anctuary from time immemorial; if Iorwerth was a fugitive, be might have sought it as a place of refuge. The river Vyrnwy, "the forkt Vurnway" of Drayton, is too well known to need desc ription; but as its name occurs in the text, it May be permitted to remark, that whenever the bards have occasion to mention it, they do so in a spirit of affec tion which its beauty could not fail to inspire.


MAWDDWY was one of the unction with Talybont, udes the wild range of former times notorious o [p. 320]

western districts of ancient Powys; it now forms, in conj one of the hundreds of Merionethshire. This district incl mountains of which Aran Fawddwy is the chief, and was in for the wild and lawless character of its inhabitants, to

well known by the appellation of the Gwylliaid Cochion Mawddwy, the red-headed r obbers of Mawddwy. The desperate deeds of these men were the terror of all the s urrounding country, on which they levied a species of black-mail; and to such an extent did they carry their violence at last, that it was found necessary in 15 54 to issue a commission against them, under which about a hundred of their numb er were hanged. Some of their kinsmen soon after revenged them by the murder of Baron Owen, of Hengwrt, the chief of the commission, whom they waylaid at Llidia rt y Barwn, on his journey to the assizes at Welshpool. After this, vigorous mea ns were taken for their extirpation, and they gradually disappeared.--See Cambro . Briton, I. 184. Iorwerth Goch, the Iorwerth of the present Mabinogi, had a son named Madawc Goch of Mawddwy, of whom the following notice occurs in a MS. Book of Pedigrees, col lected by J. G., Esq., in 1697. "One Llywarch ab Cadfan, an opponent of Prince L lywelyn ab Iorwerth, was slain by this Madog Goch of Mawddwy; and in reward the Prince gave him the lands of Llywarch and his Arms, which were, Argent, a Chevro n party per pale Gules and Or, inter 3 Eagles sable, their heads and one leg gre y, trippant, standing on the sable leg: 3 trefoils argent over each head." A sin gular piece of heraldry. It is not impossible that Kynwrig's designation of Vrychgoch may have been given in allusion to the characteristic complexion of the men of Mawddwy.

300c MOELVRE IN KYNLLEITH.--Page <page 300>. KYNLLEITH is a division of the hundred of Chirk in Denbighshire, and takes its n ame from the river Kynlleith. One of the most remarkable natural features of thi s district is the isolated mountain Moelvre, the summit of which, called Cyrn y Moelvre, is more than seventeen hundred feet above the level of the sea, and ris es precipitously from Llyn Moelvre, a lake about a mile in circumference, situat e on the western side of the mountain. One of the descendants of Madawc ab Mared udd erected a residence at a place called Moeliwrch, at a considerable elevation on the southern side of Moelvre; it continued for many centuries in the possess ion of his family. Kynlleith is noticed in Cynddelw's Marwnad Fadawg fab Maredudd. --Myv. Arc. I. 2 13. [p. 321] 301a ARGYNGROEG.--Page <page 301>. IN following Rhonabwy on his visionary journey, it may be allowable to suppose h im crossing the Vyrnwy at Rhyd y Vorle (Melverley), and then pursuing his course through the Deuddwr between that river and the Severn, till we come to the plai ns of Argyngroeg. The district traversed is remarkably fertile. The Cambrian ped estrian, David Thomas, in his metrical description of the Thirteen Counties of W ales, sang its praise about the year 1720. After naming two places excelling in luxuriance, he exclaims "Dau le hyfryd," but above all, the "Dolydd Hafren." Upo

n the Dolydd Havren it was that Gwalchmai composed his "Gorhoffet," in the twelf th century, while he and his troop of North-Wallians were guarding the opposite fords of the Severn against the progress of the English invaders.--Myv. Arch. I. 193. That portion of the vale that bears the name of Argyngroeg, modernized into Cyng rog, and to which this narrative more particularly relates, consists of two town ships, distinguished as Cyngrog vawr, and Cyngrog vach, the former in the parish of Pool, the latter in that of Guilsfield, and both side by side stretching to the Severn. When the Irish and other freebooters were expelled in the fourth cen tury by the family of Cunedda Wledig, his son Rhuvon had a great part of Denbigh shire awarded him as his portion, which from him was called Rhuvoniog, a name it retains to the present day. In like manner, it is not improbable that Cyngar on e of Cunedda's descendants had a portion allotted to him at this place, which by adding the usual termination og to his name would be called Cyngarog, and abbre viated into Cyngrog. The names of Morganwg and Brycheiniog, from Morgan and Bryc han, are of similar origin. In Cyngrog vawr, lies the site of the Cistercian Abb ey of Ystrad Marchell (Strata Marcella), Alba Domus de Marcella, or Street Marsh all Abbey, as it is vulgarly called. Having probably been built of wood, no trac es of it now remain. The house and farm bearing the name of "The Abbey" belong t o the Earl of Powis. The Abbey was founded and well endowed by Owain Cyveiliog, Prince of Powys Upper, who, besides much of the upland and sheep pastures of Cyv eiliog, and even of Arwystli, granted to its inmates half the fish caught in the river Dyvi. The monks of Marcella were reduced by decimation under Edward I. an d finally expelled by Henry VIII. From Cyngrog, following the Vale of the Severn, we arrive at the tributary strea m of the Rhiw, whose Aber, or confluence with [p. 322] the main stream, gives name by an ordinary abbreviation to the church and villag e of Berriew; and a little lower down occur, "Rhyd-y-Groes ar Havren," "The Cros s, or Ford upon the Severn." The Ford still remains, but has been from time immemorial converted into a ferry . At this point was carried on the chief communication between western Montgomer yshire, and the adjacent district of Merioneth towards Shrewsbury. Here also are traces of a second way leading westward towards the Gaer, an evident Roman enca mpment. The intersection of these two roads appears to have occurred at no great distance from the ford, which doubtless derived its distinctive appellation of Y Groes, either from this circumstance, or from the Rood or Cross often set up b oth in crossways and upon the margins of fords. The name Rhyd y Groes, no longer borne by the ford or ferry, is now preserved in that of a farm about two miles and a half distant, in the parish of Fordun near Montgomery, the property of Mr. Price, of Gunley. Upon the farm itself no remains have been discovered, but several tumuli are fou nd in its neighbourhood, the principal of which, "Hen Domen" (formerly Tre' Bald wyn), is of considerable size. There are also British encampments in the adjacen t parishes of Churchstoke and Cherbury. [*1] Rhyd y Groes is mentioned in the Welsh Chronicles, as the scene of several confl icts between the Welsh and the Saxons; in allusion to which are those lines of D rayton. "Here could I else recount the slaughter'd Saxon's gore, Our swords at Crossford spilt on Severn's wand'ring shore."

Song ix . Lines in which Drayton may probably have had in mind the victor y won over the Saxons, in the early part of the eleventh century, by Gruffydd ab Llewelyn, called by way of eminence, "Y tywysog dewr." The Ford near Montgomery, was named as the place of meeting between Prince Llewe lyn ab Gruffydd, and the commissioners of Edward I. [p. 323] 302a IDDAWC CORDD PRYDAIN.--Page <page 302>. THE treachery of Iddawc or Eiddilig Cordd Prydain, [*1] is the subject of more t han one of the Triads, [*2] where he is said to have betrayed Arthur by divulgin g his plans. The meeting between him and Medrawd, with their men at Nanhwynain b efore the battle of Camlan, is spoken of as one of the three traitorous meetings of the Island, for there they plotted the betrayal of Arthur, which occasioned the strength of the Saxons. In another place their ascendancy is attributed to I ddawc's magical arts, which there were not warriors in the Island capable of wit hstanding, so that the Saxons prevailed. This magic, for which he is also greatl y celebrated, was taught him by Rhuddlwm Gawr. The Triad which ranks Iddawc Cordd Prydain amongst the enchanters is prettily ve rsified by Davydd ap Gwilym, [*3] who speaks of him as an Irishman. Iddawc was also, with Trystan and Gweirwerydd Vawr, one of the three stubborn on es, whom none could divert from their purpose; he is supposed to have afterwards embraced a religious life, probably when he did penance at Llechlas (possibly G lasgow), in North Britain, as mentioned in the Tale. His name is found in the Ca talogue of the Welsh Saints. Professor Rees, however, considers this an error fo r Iddew ab Cawrda ab Caradawc Vreichvras, arising from the similarity of their n ames. [*4]

302b CAMLAN.--Page <page 302>. THE battle of Camlan was the last of Arthur's battles, and that in which he lost his life. His opponents were headed by Medrawd, his nephew, the son of his sist er Anna and Llew ap Cynvarch. The Triads assign two different causes for this battle. The one, the blow given by Gwenhwyvar, Arthur's wife, to Gwenhwyvach; the other, the blow given to Medra wd by Arthur himself. The events immediately preceding it, together with the acc ount of the battle itself as related in the Triads, and by Gruffydd ab Arthur, a re briefly as follows, Lles, emperor of Rome, demanded from Arthur the tribute that [p. 324] his ancestors had paid, from the time of Caswallawn the son of Beli to that of C ystennin, Arthur's grandsire. The Roman Ambassador, proceeded to Caerlleon upon Usk, when Arthur not only denied their claim, but on the ground of the British o rigin of Bran and Constantine, both Roman emperors, determined by a counterclaim to retaliate, Medrawd was appointed Regent of the kingdom, whilst Arthur and hi s Britons crossed the sea, and fought a battle in the Cisalpine territory, in wh ich the Roman emperor was slain, and both parties sustained severe loss. The res

ult of this encounter encouraged Medrawd to attempt his uncle's throne. He seize d upon the royal residence of Gelliwig, dragged the queen Gwenhwyvar from her th rone (or, according to some versions, appropriated her as his wife), and strengt hening himself by making treaties with the Saxons, Scots, and Picts, collected a force of eighty thousand men to oppose his uncle's landing. Arthur, however, di sembarked at Porth Hamwnt, and put his rebellious nephew to flight after a hard fought engagement. Medrawd retreated to Winchester, whither Arthur, after remain ing three days on the field of battle to bury the dead, followed him, and gained a second victory; upon this Medrawd fled into Cornwall, but was overtaken on th e banks of the Camlan, supposed to be the river Camel, in that county. The celeb rated battle of Camlan ensued. Arthur there gained the victory, but received a m ortal wound at the hand of Medrawd, whom, however, he slew upon the field; he di d not himself die on the spot, but was conveyed to Avallach or Avalon, and the c rown descended to Cystennin the son of Kadwr, his kinsman. A mystery hangs over the final fate of Arthur. One of the Triads [*1] admits that Arthur died, and was buried at Avalon, now Gl astonbury, in Somersetshire, where we learn from other authorities that Henry th e II. many years afterwards discovered what were said to be his remains, with th e inscription, [*2] "Hic jacet Arthurus, rex quondam rexque futurus." [*3]

[p. 325] They were also visited, and a second time disinterred, by Edward I. and his quee n. Medrawd, notwithstanding the treachery with which his career ended, had always b een considered a valiant warrior, and in the Triads [*1] he is styled one of the three kingly knights of Arthur's Court, to whom no one could deny any thing by reason of their courtliness. The peculiar qualities to which his persuasive powe rs were due, were calmness, mildness, and purity.

304a ADAON THE SON OF TALIESIN.--Page <page 304>. ADAON or Avaon, son of the chief of the bards, and a bard himself, was also cele brated for his valour. He was one of those three dauntless chieftains who feared nothing in the day of the battle and strife, but rushed onwards regardless of d eath.--Tr. 73. This courage and daring supported him through all the dangers of war. He fell at length by the hand of an assassin Llawgad Trwm Bargawd or Llawgad Trwm Bargawd Eiddyn, whose name is preserved only as the perpetrator of this crime.--Tr. 47. The bold and determined character of Avaon appears to have continued even after death, for there is a Triad (quoted, <page 202>) in which Avaon is spoken of as one of the grave-slaughtering ones, so called from their having avenged their wr ongs from their graves. None of his poetry is known to be preserved, except the following which is given in the Englynion y Clyweid.--Myv. Arch. I. 173. "Hast thou heard what Avaon sang, The son of Taliesin, of the recording verse?

The cheek will not conceal the anguish of the heart."

304b ELPHIN.--Page <page 304>. ELPHIN was the son of Gwyddno Garanhir, the unfortunate king whose possessions w ere submerged through the intemperance of Seithenin, the person employed to atte nd to the sea-banks. Some further particulars concerning him will be mentioned i n a subsequent Mabinogi. [p. 326] 304c BATTLE OF BADON.--Page <page 304>. THE battle of Badon or Badon Mount, was one of the later,--Nennius says the twel fth,--and most successful of the battles fought by Arthur and the British elders , against the Saxons under Cerdic. The Britons not only gained the victory, but were by it enabled for some time to hold the Saxons in check. The date of the battle has been the subject of dispute. From the persons engaged in it, it must be placed in the sixth century. A passage in the Red Book of Her gest, fixes its chronology 128 years after the age of Vortigern. The later Gilda s, named Badonicus, from his birth having taken place in the year of the battle, has left a passage on the subject, which Bede appears to have misinterpreted, a nd from which Mr. Stevenson, the last editor of Gildas, places the birth of his author, and therefore the date of the battle, in the year 520. The site of this conflict is also doubtful. Usher, following Camden, fixes it at Bath, and Camden, led probably by the similarity of names, gives his opinion in favour of Banner Down, near that city, upon which, in common, however, with mos t of the neighbouring heights, are remains of entrenchments more or less perfect . Carte prefers what he calls Mount Badon, in Berkshire. It is remarkable that t he latter Gildas speaks of the battle as "obsessio," a siege. He also places "Mo ns Badonicus" near to the mouth of the Severn "prope Sabrinae ostium"; but this latter passage has been considered an interpolation. Mr. Freeman, whose historic al and antiquarian learning entitles his opinion to respect, suggests that Badon way be identical with Badbury Rings, near Wimborne in Dorsetshire. To quote more poetical authority, the feats performed by the hero Arthur, at the battle of Badon Mount, are thus prettily celebrated in Drayton's verse. They sung how he himself at Badon bore that day, When at the glorious gole his British scepter lay; Two daies together how the battel stronglie stood: Pendragon's worthie son, who waded there in blood, Three hundred Saxons slew with his owne valiant hand." Song iv. Cynddelw, and others of the Welsh Bards, speak of this fight wi th becoming admiration. [p. 327] 304d OSLA GYLLELLVAWR.--Page <page 304>. OSSA, or Osla, Gyllellvawr has already appeared in the Mabinogi of Kilhwch, pp. <page 226> and <page 256>, where his prowess in the hunt of the Twrch Trwyth, oc casioned the loss of his marvellous knife. From his name, and from the part assi

gned to him in this Tale, he was probably a Saxon; the Ossa, it may be, of Nenni us's genealogies. This conjecture is strengthened by the epithet "Cyllellvawr"; the great or long knife, being in some measure associated with the Saxon name, o wing to the massacre of Stonehenge, commonly called the "Treachery of the Long K nives," "Brad y Cyllyll hirion." [*1] Hengist on that occasion is said to have i nvited the British Chieftains to a banquet and conference at Ambresbury, when be side each was placed a Saxon, who, at a signal agreed upon, drew forth his long knife, and suddenly fell upon his neighbour. This scheme was so effectually exec uted that four hundred and sixty of the British nobles are supposed to have been slaughtered. They did not, indeed, fall wholly unavenged; some defended themsel ves valiantly, and killed many of the Saxons with the stones that lay around. Ei diol, [*2] earl of Gloucester, who was fortunate enough to escape the general ca rnage, slew seventy Saxons with his own hand; the Triads say six hundred and six ty. The circle of Stonehenge is said, though with small semblance of probability , to have been erected by the Britons as a monument of this massacre upon the sp ot on which it occurred. 305a CARADAWC VREICHVRAS.--Page <page 305>. CARADAWC, like Trystan, and many other heroes whose names occur in the Mabinogio n, was celebrated both in Welsh and Norman story. He was a son of Llyr Merini, a prince of Cornwall, and himself chief elder of Gelliwig; [*3] the royal residen ce in that part of the Island. His mother was Gwen, grand-daughter of Brychan, t hrough whose right he is supposed to have become ruler of the district of Bryche iniog. [*4] According to the Triads, he was one of the battle knights of Britain , [*5] and in an Englyn attributed to Arthur himself, he is styled "Caradawc pil lar of the Cymry." [p. 328] His prowess at the battle of Cattraeth, is also sting in the verse of his contem porary Aneurin, [*1] who calls several of his fellow-warriors in evidence of his assertion. "When Caradawc rushed into battle, It was like the tearing onset of the woodland boar, The bull of combat in the field of slaughter, He attracted the wild dogs by the action of his hand. My witnesses are Owain the son of Eulat, And Gwrien, and Gwynn, and Gwriat. From Cattraeth and its carnage, From the hostile encounter, After the clear bright mead was served, He saw no more the dwelling of his father." From the latter part of this passage, it appears that Caradawc fell in this battle, and the same is again repeated a few lines further on in th e passage already quoted in the notes to Peredur ab Evrawc. See <page 125>. Several Welsh families trace their pedigree to Caradawc. Caradawc's horse Lluagor is recorded as one of the three battle horses of the Is land. [*2] Tegau Eurvron, the beautiful wife of Caradawc, was no less renowned for her virt ue than for her charms. In the Triads she is spoken of as one of the three fair ladies, and one of the three chaste damsels of Arthur's Court. [*3] She possesse d three precious things of which she alone was worthy; her mantle, her goblet of gold, and her knife. She is frequently alluded to by the bards.

In Anglo-Norman Romance, Caradawc's cognomen of Vreichvras "with the brawny arm, " becomes "Brise Bras" and he himself takes his place as a principal hero of the Round Table. His wife preserves her British character and attributes under a No rman garb, and is well known as "faithful among the faithless" of Arthur's Court , the heroine of the mantle, "over her decent shoulders drawn." Sir Caradawc's w ell-founded confidence in his wife's virtue, enabled him to empty the marvellous Horn, and carve the tough Boar's head, adventures in which his compeers failed. In token of the latter of them, the Boar's head, in some form or other, appears as the armorial bearing of all of his name. [p. 329] The Trouveres have a pretty story [*1] in reference to the appellation of Brise Bras which they rendered the "wasted arm." They tell of an enchanter who fixed a serpent upon Caradawc's arm, from whose wasting tooth he could never be relieve d, until she whom he loved best should consent to undergo the torture in his ste ad. His betrothed on learning this, was not to be deterred from giving him this proof of her devotion. As, however, the serpent was in the act of springing from the wasted arm of the knight to the fair neck of the lady, her brother, Kadwr, earl of Cornwall, struck off its head with his sword, and thus dispelled the enc hantment. Caradawc's arm, however, never recovered its pristine strength and siz e, and hence, according to some authorities, the name of Brise Bras. In the life of St. Collen, two persons of the name are mentioned, one of whom wa s the ancestor of St, Collen himself, and was called Vreichvras, because he brok e his arm in the battle of Hiraddig, from which injury that arm became larger th an the other. He is expressly distinguished from the other Caradawc Vreichvras t he son of Llyr Merini.--See Greal, 337.

305b CEVN DIGOLL.---Page <page 305>. ON the eastern boundary of Montgomeryshire, we find situated Cevn Digoll, called also "Hir Vynydd," or the Long Mountain. From its natural position, it seems to have been considered as a military post of some importance, and is celebrated a s the scene of several remarkable events. There is a Triad relating to the confl icts that took place between Cadwallawn, and Edwin, king of Northumbria, on Cevn Digoll, in the early part of the seventh century, and which is said to have occ asioned one of the three discolourings of the Severn, when that river was discol oured from its source to its estuary. [*2] These engagements are thus alluded to in an Elegy upon Cadwallawn ab Cadvan.--My v. Arch. I. 121. "It was on Cevn Digoll that the Welsh maintained their last struggle against Edw ard I. when Madawc, the son of Llywellyn ab Gruffydd was defeated and taken pris oner by the Lords Marchers. It was also said that Henry VII. encamped on this mo untain, on his March from Wales to Bosworth field. On the summit of Cevn Digoll is a circular encampment, called the Beacon Ring. It is several acres in extent, but there is no water within its limits." [p. 330] 305c MARCH THE SON OF MEIRCHION.--Page <page 305>. THIS prince, whose territory is said to have been in Cornwall, was particularly unfortunate in having such a nephew as Trystan, and such a wife as Essyllt, the Yseult La Belle of the Trouveres.

As a possessor of ships he has been already noticed, the Triad which represents him as such having been cited at <page 193>. His grave is mentioned by the Engly nion y Beddau, Myv. Arch. II. p. 81.

306a KADWR, EARL OF CORNWALL.--Page <page 306>. IN the wars of Arthur, as recounted by Gruffydd ab Arthur, Kadwr bore a conspicu ous part. He shared the dangers of the expedition against the Romans, and was pr esent at the battle in which the emperor of Rome was slain. He assisted at the c oronation of his sovereign at Caerlleon upon Usk. Kadwr is mentioned in the Tria ds as one of the three battle knights, who fled neither for spear, nor arrow, no r sword, and who never shamed their leader in the day of conflict. [*1] His son Cystennin succeeded Arthur in his kingdom. Tegau Eurvron, the virtuous w ife of Caradawc Vreichvras, and the heroine of the Mantel mal taille, appears to have been the sister of Kadwr. Taliesin alludes to him in his poem entitled the Glaswawd-He will spare no kindred, Neither cousin nor brother; At the sound of Kadwr's horn Nine hundred are stunned." Myv. Arch. I. p. 64.

311a OVERLAID WITH FINE SILVER.--Page <page 311>. THE words in the original are "Gwedy latteinu ac aryant coeth," being lattened o ver with refined silver. Latten, or laton, was a mixed metal of the colour of br ass, and was much employed in the fourteenth century for monumental effigies. Fo r this and many other purposes it was prepared in the form of plate, and hence i ts name seems occasionally to have been used to express a plate or coating of me tal generally, as in this particular instance of silver. [p. 331] It may be remarked, that the term "latten" is still technically applied to the t hinnest manufactured iron plate.

311b RAVENS.--Page <page 311>. THE Ravens of Owain have already appeared in the Mabinogi of Iarlles y Ffynawn, where they are said to have been three hundred in number, and to have descended to their master from Cynvarch, his paternal grandsire. It seems from passages in the writings of various bards, that the tradition of this singular army was fam iliarly current in the middle ages. It is alluded to by Bleddynt Vardd, in an El egy on Davydd, the son of Gruffydd (and brother to Llewelyn, the last of the Wel sh Princes), who was imprisoned and put to death by Edward I. about 1283. A man he was with a battered shield and a daring lance, in the f ield of battle;

A man proud to seek the furious trampling; A man whose warriors were proud of their stately array; A man of the cleaving stroke and broken spear, loving the fight ; A man who caused the birds to fly upon the hosts [of slain] Like the ravens of Owain eager for prey." Myv. Arch. I. p. 365. Lewis Glyn Cothi even mentions the particular staff or shaft, b y the uplifting of which the Ravens were inspirited to destroy Arthur's pages an d attendants, as related in the text. "Owain son of Urien overthrew The three towers of Cattraeth of old, Arthur dreaded, as the flames, Owain, his ravens, and his parti-coloured staff."--Works, I. 14 0. Another poem of his has also an allusion to the "Vran a'r vaner Vraith."--I. 72.

312a SELYV THE SON OF KYNAN GARWYN.--Page <page 312>. HE has been already noticed as one of the "grave-slaughtering" warriors of the I sland of Britain, who avenged their wrongs from their Sepulchres. A satire upon his father, Kynan Garwyn, is printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology, I. p. 168, amo ng the Poems of Taliesin, to whom it is assigned. [p. 332] 312b GWGAWN GLEDDYVRUDD.--Page <page 312>. WE find the name of this chieftain twice occurring in the Triads. He is first no ticed as one of the three stayers of slaughter [*1] (ysgymmydd aereu), and after wards, as one of the sentinels in the battle of Bangor Orchard.--Tr. lxvi. His grave is alluded to in the Englynion y Beddau. The passage has been already quoted (<page 33>). The name of his horse, which was Buchestom, is preserved in the Trioedd y Meirch .

312c RHIOGAN.--Page <page 312>. THIS prince is mentioned in the graves of the warriors. "Whose is the grave on the banks of the Rhydnant? Rhun was his name, of the steady progress, He was a king; Rhiogan slew him."--Myv. Arch. I. p. 82.

312d GWAIR THE SON OF GWESTYL.--Page <page 312>.

IT would seem that this personage was distinguished as being of a peculiarly dis mal disposition, for we find him referred to as such by Llywarch ap Llewelyn, [* 2] in an Elegy on Hywel ap Gruffydd, (who died in 1216,) where he tells us, that through grief for his loss, his friends are become like Gwair ah Gwestyl.--Myv. Arch. I. p. 294. And Einion Wan, in his Elegy on Madawc ab Gruffydd Maelor, a few years later, ha s the same expression in allusion to Madawc. "The man who has become like Gwair ab Gwestyl." Myv. Arch. I. p. 333. It is not impossible that he is the same person as the Gwevyl m ab Gwestad, of Kilhwch and Olwen, whose melancholy was such that "on the day tha t he was sad, he would let one of his lips drop below his waist, while he turned up the other like a cap upon his head" (<page 227>). The variation in the names is perhaps not greater than may be accounted for by t he errors into which the transcribers of the olden time are well known to have b ut too frequently fallen. In one version of the Triads, he is mentioned m one of the [p. 333] three diademed chiefs of the Island, together with Kai, and Trystan mab Tallwch. [*1] But others substitute for his name that of Huail, the son of Kaw of Cwm Ca wlwyd.

312e TRYSTAN THE SON OF TALLWCH.--Page <page 312>. THIS personage is better known as the Tristan of Chivalric, and the Sir Tristrem of Metrical Romance, than in his proper character as a chieftain of the sixth c entury. In the Triads, [*2] he is mentioned as one of the three compeers of Arth ur's Court, as one of the diademed Princes, as one of the three Heralds, and as one of the three stubborn ones, whom no one could deter from their purpose. His chief celebrity, however, is derived from his attachment to Essyllt, the wife o f his uncle, March ab Meirchion, which gained him the appellation of one of the three ardent lovers of Britain. It was owing to the circumstance of his having t ended his uncle's swine, whilst he despatched their usual keeper with a message to this lady, that he became classed as one of the three swineherds of the Islan d. There is a further Triad concerning Trystan, in which he is represented as ab le to transform himself into any shape he pleased.--Myv. Arch. II. p. 80.

312f MORYEN.--Page <page 312>. A WARRIOR whose name repeatedly occurs in the Gododin.

312g LLACHEU THE SON OF ARTHUR.--Page <page 312>. LLACHEU has already been mentioned (<page 60>) with Gwalchmai, and Rhiwallon of the broom blossom hair, as one of the learned ones of the Island of Britain, to whom the elements and material essence of every thing were known. He was no less

renowned for warlike prowess than for his deep knowledge, and is said to have f allen fighting bravely for his country, in the battle of Llongborth, so celebrat ed in the verse of Llywarch Hen. The death of Llacheu is thus alluded to, in a c urious Dialogue between Gwyn ab Nudd and Gwyddno Garanhir. [*3] "I know where Llacheu the son of Arthur Renowned in song was slain, When the ravens rushed upon blood."

[p. 334] RHYAWD THE SON OF MORGANT.--Page <page 312>. THE Triads celebrate him as one of the three irregular Bards of the Island of Br itain, the other two being Arthur himself, and Cadwallawn the son of Cadvan. He also ranked with Trystan, and Dalldav mab Kynin Cov, as one of the three compeer s of Arthur's court. Rhuddfrych was the name of his horse. [*1]

313a GILBERT THE SON OF KADGYFFRO.--Page <page 313>. GILBERT the son of Kadgyffro, has already been cited (<page 332>) with Gwgan Gle ddyvrudd and Morvran Eil Tegid, as one of the three stayers of slaughter. His na me occurs again in the Trioedd y Meirch 3, where his horse is said to have been one of the chief steeds of the Island of Britain, and to have been known by the designation of Rhuddfreon Tuthfleidd.

313b GWRTHMWL WLEDIG.--Page <page 313>. GWRTHMWL, a prince of North Britain, was the chief elder of Penrhyn Rhionydd, on e of the three tribe-thrones or royal cities of the Island. The celebrated St. K entigern was chief Bishop of Penrhyn Rhionydd, during Gwrthmwl's eldership.--Tr. vii. Gwrthmwl's history is brief. It may be inferred that be was slain by Maelwr of R hiw or Allt Faelwr, in Cardiganshire, since there are notices in the triads of h is sons, Gwair and Clais, and Arthaual, [*2] riding against Maelwr, upon Erch th eir horse, to avenge their father's fate. It was one of Maelwr's customs never t o close his gates against a single horse-load, and thus they gained entrance, an d slew him. This was one of the three great horse-loads of the Island of Britain . The first of the three was a burthen of seven persons and a half, borne by Du y Moroedd, the horse of Elidyr Mwynvawr, from Llech Elidyr in the North, to Llec h Elidyr in Anglesey. The seven were Elidyr himself, and Eurgain the daughter of Maelgwn Gwynedd, his wife, and Gwynda Gyned, and Gwynda Rheimad, and Mynach Naw mon the counsellor, and Petryleu Venestyr the butler, and Arianvagyl his servant , and Gellfeinesin his jester, who held on with his two [p. 335] hands at the horse's crupper and so was the half person. It does not appear what was the reason of their travelling in so singular a manner. Gwrthmwl Wledig, was also the possessor of one of the spectre bulls of the Islan d of Britain, or as another version has it, one of the spectre stags; Carw and T

arw, having been evidently confounded by the copyists. [*1] What these sprites w ere is not explained. According to Beddau y Milwyr, his grave was in the wood of Briavael. [*2]

Footnotes ^316:1 Page 210. ^316:2 Myvyrian Archaiology, I. p. 200. ^316:3 For this anecdote, as well as for much of the topographical information c ontained in the notes to the Tale of Rhonabwy, I am indebted to the kindness of the Rev. Walter Davies (Gwallter Mechain). ^316:4 John's grandson, Richard Fitzalan, was the first Earl of Arundel of that name. In the time of Edward III. another Richard Fitzalan, fourth in descent fro m the above-mentioned Matilda Verdun, was at the same time Earl of Arundel, and in right of his mother, Earl Warren and Surrey. He was also Lord of Clun and Osw aldstree, in Shropshire, and Lord of Bromfield, Yale, Chirkland, and Dinus Bran, in North Wales. ^317:1 Page 211. ^318:1 Cambr. Quarterly, III. 403. ^318:2 Sir Gruffydd Vychan was one of the earliest knights of the military order of St. John of Jerusalem. ^322:1 Acknowledgment should again be made in this place to the Rev. Walter Davi es, for the curious local information contained in this note. ^323:1 Possibly Gordd Prydain, the hammer of Britain. ^323:2 Triads 22, 20, 50, 90, 78. ^323:3 Davydd ab Gwilym's Poems, 207. Cyffelybiad rhwng Morfudd a'r Delyn. ^323:4 Welsh Saints, p. 280. ^324:1 Myv. Arch. II. p. 4. ^324:2 Giraldus Cambrensis, who says he saw the inscription, gives it thug: "Hic jacet sepultus inclytus Rex Arthurus in insula Avallonia." ^324:3 It may be here permitted to quote old Lydgate's verges upon Arthur's disa ppearance and expected return:-"He is a King crouned in Fairie, With scepter and sword and with his regally Shall resort as Lord and Soveraigne Out of Fairie and reigne in Britaine; And repaire again the Round Table.[p. 325] By prophesy Merlin set the date, Among Princes King incomparable, His seate againe to Caerlion to translate, The Parchas sustren sponne so his fate, His Epitaph recordeth so certaine

Here lieth K. Arthur that shall raigne againe."

^325:1 Triad 118. ^327:1 Triad 20.--Gruffydd ab Arthur. Myv. Arch. II. 254. ^327:2 Eidiol is associated for his strength with Gwrnerth Ergydlym, who slow th e largest bear that ever was seen, with an arrow of straw; and Gwgan Lawgadarn, who rolled the stone of Maenarch from the valley to the top of the hill, which n ot less than thirty oxen could have drawn.--Tr. 60. ^327:3 Triad 64. ^327:4 Jones's History of Brecknockshire, I. p. 53. ^327:5 Triad 29. ^328:1 Myv. Arch. 1. p. 5. ^328:2 Trioedd y Meirch, Myv. Arch. II. p. 20. ^328:3 Triads 103, 108. ^329:1 See Metrical and Prose versions of Perceval le Gallois. ^329:2 Triad lxxv. ^330:1 Myv. Arch. II. p. 80 ^332:1 The others were Morvran eil Tegid, and Gilbert mab Cadgyffro.--Tr. xxix. ^332:2 Commonly called Prydydd y Moch. ^333:1 Tr. xxiii. Myv. Arch. II., p. 12. ^333:2 Triads 113, 32, 69, 18, 102. See also the dialogue between him and Gwalch mai (<page 57>). ^333:3 Myv. Arch. I. p. 166. ^334:1 Triads lxxxix. 113, and Trioedd y Meirch, 5. ^334:2 Myv. Arch. II. 8, 10, 20, 80. In some accounts only two of his sons are s aid to have been on this expedition, and one of them is called Achlen. ^335:1 Myv. Arch. II. p. 16, 17, 71 ^335:2 Ib. I. p. 81. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 339]


Pwyll Prince of Dyved was lord of the seven Cantrevs of Dyved; and once upon a time he was at Narberth his chief palace, and he was minded to go and hunt, and the part of his dominions in which it pleased him to hunt was Glyn Cuch . So he set forth from Narbeth that night, and went as far as Llwyn Diarwyd. And that n ight he tarried there, and early on the morrow he rose and came to Glyn Cuch, wh en he let loose the dogs in the wood, and sounded the horn, and began the chase. And as he followed the dogs, he lost his companions; and whilst he listened to the hounds, he heard the cry of other hounds, a cry different from his own, and coming in the opposite direction. And he beheld a glade in the wood forming a level plain, and as his dogs came to the edge of the glade, he saw a stag before the other dogs. And lo, as it reach ed the middle of the glade, the dogs that followed the stag overtook it and brou ght it down. Then looked he at the colour of the dogs, staying not to look at th e stag, and of all the hounds that he had seen in [p. 340] the f a eir the ogs world, he had never seen any that were like unto these. For their hair was o brilliant shining white, and their ears were red; and as the whiteness of th bodies shone, so did the redness of their ears glisten. And he came towards dogs, and drove away those that had brought down the stag, and set his own d upon it.

And as he was setting on his dogs he saw a horseman coming towards him upon a la rge light-grey steed, with a hunting horn round his neck, and clad in garments o f grey woollen in the fashion of a hunting garb. And the horseman drew near and spoke unto him thus. "Chieftain," said he, "I know who thou art, and I greet the e not." "Peradventure," said Pwyll, "thou art of such dignity that thou shouldes t not do so." "Verily," answered he, "it is not my dignity that prevents me." "W hat is it then, O Chieftain?" asked he. "By Heaven, it is by reason of thine own ignorance and want of courtesy." "What discourtesy, Chieftain, hast thou seen i n me?" "Greater discourtesy saw I never in man," said he, "than to drive away th e dogs that were killing the stag and to set upon it thine own. This was discour teous, and though I may not be revenged upon thee, yet I declare to Heaven that I will do thee more dishonour than the value of an hundred stags." "O Chieftain, " he replied, "if I have done ill I will redeem thy friendship." "How wilt thou redeem it?" "According as thy dignity may be, but I know not who thou art?" "A c rowned king am I in the land whence I come." "Lord," said he, "may the day prosp er with thee, and from what land comest thou?" "From Annwvyn," answered he; "Ara wn, a King of Annwvyn , am I." "Lord," said he, "how may I gain thy friendship ?" "After this manner mayest thou," he said. "There is a man whose dominions are opposite to mine, who is ever warring against me, and he is Havgan, a King of A nnwvyn, and by ridding me of this oppression, which thou canst easily do, shalt thou gain my friendship." "Gladly will I do this," said he. "Show me how I may." "I will show thee. Behold thus it is thou mayest. I will make firm friendship w ith thee; and this will I [p. 341] do. I will send thee to Annwvyn in my stead, and I will give thee the fairest la dy thou didst ever behold to be thy companion, and I will put my form and sembla nce upon thee, so that not a page of the chamber, nor an officer, nor any other man that has always followed me shall know that it is not I. And this shall be f or the space of a year from to-morrow, and then we will meet in this place." "Ye s," said he; "but when I shall have been there for the space of a year, by what means shall I discover him of whom thou speakest?" "One year from this night," h e answered, "is the time fixed between him and me that we should meet at the For d; be thou there in my likeness, and with one stroke that thou givest him, he sh all no longer live. And if he ask thee to give him another, give it not, how muc

h soever he may entreat thee, for when I did so, he fought with me next day as w ell as ever before." "Verily," said Pwyll, "what shall I do concerning my kingdo m?" Said Arawn, "I will cause that no one in all thy dominions, neither man nor woman, shall know that I am not thou, and I will go there in thy stead." "Gladly then," said Pwyll, "will I set forward." "Clear shall be thy path, and nothing shall detain thee, until thou come into my dominions, and I myself will be thy g uide!" So he conducted him until he came in sight of the palace and its dwellings. "Beh old," said he, "the Court and the kingdom in thy power. Enter the Court, there i s no one there who will know thee, and when thou seest what service is done ther e, thou wilt know the customs of the Court." So he went forward to the Court, and when he came there, he beheld sleeping-room s, and halls, and chambers, and the most beautiful buildings ever seen. And he w ent into the hall to disarray, and there came youths and pages and disarrayed hi m, and all as they entered saluted him. And two knights came and drew his huntin g-dress from about him, and clothed him in a vesture of silk and gold. And the h all was prepared, and behold he saw the household and the host enter in, and the host was the most comely and the best equipped that he had ever seen. And with them came in likewise the [p. 342] Queen, who was the fairest woman that he had ever yet beheld. And she had on a y ellow robe of shining satin; and they washed and went to the table, and sat, the Queen upon one side of him, and one who seemed to be an Earl on the other side. And he began to speak with the Queen, and he thought, from her speech, that she was the seemliest and most noble lady of converse and of cheer that ever was. An d they partook of meat, and drink, with songs and with feasting; and of all the Courts upon the earth, behold this was the best supplied with food and drink, an d vessels of gold and royal jewels. And the year he spent in hunting, and minstrelsy, and feasting, and diversions, and discourse with his companions until the night that was fixed for the conflic t. And when that night came, it was remembered even by those who lived in the fu rthest part of his dominions, and he went to the meeting, and the nobles of the kingdom with him. And when he came to the Ford, a knight arose and spake thus. " Lords," said he, "listen well. It is between two kings that this meeting is, and between them only. Each claimeth of the other his land and territory, and do al l of you stand aside and leave the fight to be between them." Thereupon the two kings approached each other in the middle of the Ford, and enc ountered, and at the first thrust, the man who was in the stead of Arawn struck Havgan on the centre of the boss of his shield, so that it was cloven in twain, and his armour was broken, and Havgan himself was borne to the ground an arm's a nd a spear's length over the crupper of his horse, and he received a deadly blow . "O Chieftain," said Havgan, "what right hast thou to cause my death? I was not injuring thee in anything, and I know not wherefore thou wouldest slay me. But, for the love of Heaven, since thou hast begun to slay me, complete thy work." " Ah, Chieftain," he replied, "I may yet repent doing that unto thee, slay thee wh o may, I will not do so." "My trusty Lords," said Havgan, "bear me hence. My dea th has come. [p. 343] [paragraph continues] I shall be no more able to uphold you." "My Nobles," also said he who was in the semblance of Arawn, "take counsel and know who ought to b e my subjects." "Lord," said the Nobles, "all should be, for there is no king ov

er the whole of Annwvyn but thee." "Yes," he replied, "it is right that he who c omes humbly should be received graciously, but he that doth not come with obedie nce, shall be compelled by the force of swords." And thereupon he received the h omage of the men, and he began to conquer the country; and the next day by noon the two kingdoms were in his power. And thereupon he went to keep his tryst, and came to Glyn Cuch. And when he came there, the King of Annwvyn was there to meet him, and each of t hem was rejoiced to see the other. "Verily," said Arawn, "may Heaven reward thee for thy friendship towards me. I have heard of it. When thou comest thyself to thy dominions," said he, "thou wilt see that which I have done for thee." "Whate ver thou hast done for me, may Heaven repay it thee." Then Arawn gave to Pwyll Prince of Dyved his proper form and semblance, and he h imself took his own; and Arawn set forth towards the Court of Annwvyn; and he wa s rejoiced when he beheld his hosts, and his household, whom he had not seen so long; but they had not known of his absence, and wondered no more at his coming than usual. And that day was spent in joy and merriment; and he sat and converse d with his wife and his nobles. And when it was time for them rather to sleep th an to carouse, they went to rest.

Pwyll Prince of Dyved came likewise to his country and dominions, and began to i nquire of the nobles of the land, how his rule had been during the past year, co mpared with what it had been before. "Lord," said they, "thy wisdom was never so great, and thou wast never so kind or so free in bestowing thy gifts, and thy j ustice was never more worthily seen than in this year." "By Heaven," said he, [p. 344] [paragraph continues] "for all the good you have enjoyed, you should thank him w ho hath been with you; for behold, thus hath this matter been." And thereupon Pw yll related the whole unto them. "Verily, Lord," said they, "render thanks unto Heaven that thou hast such a fellowship, and withhold not from us the rule which we have enjoyed for this year past." "I take Heaven to witness that I will not withhold it," answered Pwyll. And thenceforth they made strong the friendship that was between them, and each sent unto the other horses, and greyhounds, and hawks, and all such jewels as th ey thought would be pleasing to each other. And by reason of his having dwelt th at year in Annwvyn, and having ruled there so prosperously, and united the two k ingdoms in one day by his valour and prowess, he lost the name of Pwyll Prince o f Dyved, and was called Pwyll Chief of Annwvyn from that time forward.

Once upon a time, Pwyll was at Narberth his chief palace, where a feast had been prepared for him, and with him was a great host of men. And after the first mea l, Pwyll arose to walk, and he went to the top of a mound that was above the pa lace, and was called Gorsedd Arberth. "Lord," said one of the Court, "it is pecu liar to the mound that whosoever sits upon it cannot go thence, without either r eceiving wounds or blows, or else seeing a wonder." "I fear not to receive wound s and blows in the midst of such a host as this, but as to the wonder, gladly wo uld I see it. I will go therefore and sit upon the mound." And upon the mound he sat. And while he sat there, they saw a lady, on a pure wh ite horse of large size, with a garment of shining gold around her, coming along the highway that led from the mound; and the horse seemed to move at a slow and even pace, and to be coming up towards the mound. "My men," said Pwyll, "is the

re any among you who knows yonder lady?" "There is not, Lord," said they. "Go on e of you and meet her, that we may know who she is." And one of them arose, and as he came upon the road to meet her, [p. 345] she passed by, and he followed as fast as he could, being on foot; and the great er was his speed, the further was she from him. And when he saw that it profited him nothing to follow her, he returned to Pwyll, and said unto him, "Lord, it i s idle for any one in the world to follow her on foot." "Verily," said Pwyll, "g o unto the palace, and take the fleetest horse that thou seest, and go after her ." And he took a horse and went forward. And he came to an open level plain, and pu t spurs to his horse; and the more he urged his horse, the further was she from him. Yet she held the same pace as at first. And his horse began to fail; and wh en his horse's feet failed him, he returned to the place where Pwyll was. "Lord, " said he, "it will avail nothing for any one to follow yonder lady. I know of n o horse in these realms swifter than this, and it availed me not to pursue her." "Of a truth," said Pwyll, "there must be some illusion here. Let us go towards the palace." So to the palace they went, and they spent that day. And the next d ay they arose, and that also they spent until it was time to go to meat. And aft er the first meal, "Verily," said Pwyll, "we will go the same party as yesterday to the top of the mound. And do thou," said he to one of his young men, "take t he swiftest horse that thou knowest in the field." And thus did the young man. A nd they went towards the mound, taking the horse with them. And as they were sit ting down they beheld the lady on the same horse, and in the same apparel, comin g along the same road. "Behold," said Pwyll, "here is the lady of yesterday. Mak e ready, youth, to learn who she is." "My lord," said he, "that will I gladly do ." And thereupon the lady came opposite to them. So the youth mounted his horse; and before he had settled himself in his saddle, she passed by, and there was a clear space between them. But her speed was no greater than it had been the day before. Then he put his horse into an amble, and thought that notwithstanding t he gentle pace at which his horse went, he should soon overtake her. But this av ailed him not; so he gave his horse the reins. And still he came no nearer to he r [p. 346] than when he went at a foot's pace. And the more he urged his horse, the further was she from him. Yet she rode not faster than before. When he saw that it avai led not to follow her, he returned to the place where Pwyll was. "Lord," said he , "the horse can no more than thou hast seen." "I see indeed that it avails not that any one should follow her. And by Heaven," said he, "she must needs have an errand to some one in this plain, if her haste would allow her to declare it. L et us go back to the palace." And to the palace they went, and they spent that n ight in songs and feasting, as it pleased them. And the next day they amused themselves until it was time to go to meat. And whe n meat was ended, Pwyll said, "Where are the hosts that went yesterday and the d ay before to the top of the mound?" "Behold, Lord, we are here," said they. "Let us go," said he, "to the mound, to sit there. And do thou," said he to the page who tended his horse, "saddle my horse well, and hasten with him to the road, a nd bring also my spurs with thee." And the youth did thus. And they went and sat upon the mound; and ere they had been there but a short time, they beheld the l ady coming by the same road, and in the same manner, and at the same pace. "Youn g man," said Pwyll, "I see the lady coming; give me my horse." And no sooner had he mounted his horse than she passed him. And he turned after her and followed her. And he let his horse go bounding playfully, and thought that at the second step or the third he should come up with her. But he came no nearer to her than

at first. Then he urged his horse to his utmost speed, yet he found that it avai led nothing to follow her. Then said Pwyll, "O maiden, for the sake of him whom thou best lovest, stay for me." "I will stay gladly," said she, "and it were bet ter for thy horse hadst thou asked it long since." So the maiden stopped, and sh e threw back that part of her headdress which covered her face. And she fixed he r eyes upon him, and began to talk with him. "Lady," asked he, "whence comest th ou, and whereunto dost thou journey?" "I journey on mine own errand," said she, [p. 347] "and right glad am I to see thee." "My greeting be unto thee," said he. Then he thought that the beauty of all the maidens, and all the ladies that he had ever seen, was as nothing compared to her beauty. "Lady," he said, "wilt thou tell me aught concerning thy purpose?" "I will tell thee," said she. "My chief quest wa s to seek thee." "Behold," said Pwyll, "this is to me the most pleasing quest on which thou couldst have come; and wilt thou tell me who thou art?" "I will tell thee, Lord," said she. "I am Rhiannon , the daughter of Heveydd Hen , and they sought to give me to a husband against my will. But no husband would I have, and that because of my love for thee, neither will I yet have one unless thou rejec t me. And hither have I come to hear thy answer." "By Heaven," said Pwyll, "beho ld this is my answer. If I might choose among all the ladies and damsels in the world, thee would I choose." "Verily," said she, "if thou art thus minded, make a pledge to meet me ere I am given to another." "The sooner I may do so, the mor e pleasing will it be unto me," said Pwyll, "and wheresoever thou wilt, there wi ll I meet with thee." "I will that thou meet me this day twelvemonth at the pala ce of Heveydd. And I will cause a feast to be prepared, so that it be ready agai nst thou come." "Gladly," said he, "will I keep this tryst." "Lord," said she, " remain in health, and be mindful that thou keep thy promise; and now I will go h ence." So they parted, and he went back to his hosts and to them of his househol d. And whatsoever questions they asked him respecting the damsel, he always turn ed the discourse upon other matters. And when a year from that time was gone, he caused a hundred knights to equip themselves and to go with him to the palace o f Heveydd Hen. And he came to the palace, and there was great joy concerning him , with much concourse of people and great rejoicing, and vast preparations for h is coming. And the whole Court was placed under his orders. And the hall was garnished and they went to meat, and thus did they sit; Heveydd Hen was on one side of Pwyll, [p. 348] and Rhiannon on the other. And all the rest according to their rank. And they at e and feasted and talked one with another, and at the beginning of the carousal after the meat, there entered a tall auburn-haired youth, of royal bearing, clot hed in a garment of satin. And when he came into the hall, he saluted Pwyll and his companions. "The greeting of Heaven be unto thee, my soul," said Pwyll, "com e thou and sit down." "Nay," said he, "a suitor am I, and I will do mine errand. " "Do so willingly," said Pwyll. "Lord," said he, "my errand is unto thee, and i t is to crave a boon of thee that I come." "What boon soever thou mayest ask of me, as far as I am able, thou shalt have." "Ah," said Rhiannon, "wherefore didst thou give that answer?" "Has he not given it before the presence of these noble s?" asked the youth. "My soul," said Pwyll, "what is the boon thou askest?" "The lady whom best I love is to be thy bride this night; I come to ask her of thee, with the feast and the banquet that are in this place." And Pwyll was silent be cause of the answer which he had given. "Be silent as long as thou wilt," said R hiannon. "Never did man make worse use of his wits than thou hast done." "Lady," said he, "I knew not who he was." "Behold this is the man to whom they would ha ve given me against my will," said she. "And he is Gwawl the son of Clud, a man of great power and wealth, and because of the word thou hast spoken, bestow me u pon him lest shame befall thee." "Lady," said he, "I understand not thine answer

. Never can I do as thou sayest." "Bestow me upon him," said she, "and I will ca use that I shall never be his." "By what means will that be?" asked Pwyll. "In t hy hand will I give thee a small bag," said she. "See that thou keep it well, an d he will ask of thee the banquet, and the feast, and the preparations which are not in thy power. Unto the hosts and the household will I give the feast. And s uch will be thy answer respecting this. And as concerns myself, I will engage to become his bride this night twelvemonth. And at the end of the year be thou her e," said she, "and bring this bag with thee, and let thy hundred [p. 349] knights be in the orchard up yonder. And when he is in the midst of joy and feas ting, come thou in by thyself, clad in ragged garments, and holding thy bag in t hy hand, and ask nothing but a bagful of food, and I will cause that if all the meat and liquor that are in these seven Cantrevs were put into it, it would be n o fuller than before. And after a great deal has been put therein, he will ask t hee whether thy bag will ever be full. Say thou then that it never will, until a man of noble birth and of great wealth arise and press the food in the bag with both his feet, saying, 'Enough has been put therein;' and I will cause him to g o and tread down the food in the bag, and when he does so, turn thou the bag, so that he shall be up over his head in it, and then slip a knot upon the thongs o f the bag. Let there be also a good bugle horn about thy neck, and as soon as th ou hast bound him in the bag, wind thy horn, and let it be a signal between thee and thy knights. And when they hear the sound of the horn, let them come down u pon the palace." "Lord," said Gwawl, "it is meet that I have an answer to my req uest." "As much of that thou hast asked as it is in my power to give, thou shalt have," replied Pwyll. "My soul," said Rhiannon unto him, "as for the feast and the banquet that are here, I have bestowed them upon the men of Dyved, and the h ousehold, and the warriors that are with us. These can I not suffer to be given to any. In a year from to-night a banquet shall be prepared for thee in this pal ace, that I may become thy bride." So Gwawl went forth to his possessions, and Pwyll went also back to Dyved. And t hey both spent that year until it was the time for the feast at the palace of He veydd Hen. Then Gwawl the son of Clud set out to the feast that was prepared for him, and he came to the palace, and was received there with rejoicing. Pwyll, a lso, the Chief of Annwvyn, came to the orchard with his hundred knights, as Rhia nnon had commanded him, having the bag with him. And Pwyll was clad in coarse an d ragged garments, and wore large clumsy old shoes upon his feet. And when he kn ew that the carousal after the meat had begun, he went towards the hall, and whe n [p. 350] he came into the hall, he saluted Gwawl the son of Clud, and his company, both m en and women. "Heaven prosper thee," said Gwawl, "and the greeting of Heaven be unto thee." "Lord," said he, "may Heaven reward thee, I have an errand unto thee ." "Welcome be thine errand, and if thou ask of me that which is just, thou shal t have it gladly." "It is fitting," answered he. "I crave but from want, and the boon that I ask is to have this small bag that thou seest filled with meat." "A request within reason is this," said he, "and gladly shalt thou have it. Bring him food." A great number of attendants arose and began to fill the bag, but for all that they put into it, it was no fuller than at first. "My soul," said Gwaw l, "will thy bag be ever full?" "It will not, I declare to Heaven," said he, "fo r all that may be put into it, unless one possessed of lands, and domains, and t reasure, shall arise and tread down with both his feet the food that is within t he bag, and shall say, 'Enough has been put therein.'" Then said Rhiannon unto G wawl the son of Clud, "Rise up quickly." "I will willingly arise," said he. So h e rose up, and put his two feet into the bag. And Pwyll turned up the sides of t he bag, so that Gwawl was over his head in it. And he shut it up quickly and sli

pped a knot upon the thongs, and blew his horn. And thereupon behold his househo ld came down upon the palace. And they seized all the host that had come with Gw awl, and cast them into his own prison. And Pwyll threw off his rags, and his ol d shoes, and his tattered array; and as they came in, every one of Pwyll's knigh ts struck a blow upon the bag, and asked, "What is here?" "A Badger," said they. And in this manner they played, each of them striking the bag, either with his foot or with a staff. And thus played they with the bag. Every one as he came in asked, "What game are you playing at thus?" "The game of Badger in the Bag," sa id they. And then was the game of Badger in the Bag first played. "Lord," said the man in the bag, "if thou wouldest but hear me, I merit not to b e slain in a bag." Said Heveydd Hen, "Lord, he speaks truth. It were fitting tha t thou [p. 351] listen to him, for he deserves not this." "Verily," said Pwyll, "I will do thy c ounsel concerning him." "Behold this is my counsel then," said Rhiannon; "thou a rt now in a position in which it behoves thee to satisfy suitors and minstrels; let him give unto them in thy stead, and take a pledge from him that he will nev er seek to revenge that which has been done to him. And this will be punishment enough." "I will do this gladly," said the man in the bag. "And gladly will I ac cept it," said Pwyll, "since it is the counsel of Heveydd and Rhiannon." "Such t hen is our counsel," answered they. "I accept it," said Pwyll. "Seek thyself sur eties." "We will be for him," said Heveydd, "until his men be free to answer for him." And upon this he was let out of the bag, and his liegemen were liberated. "Demand now of Gwawl his sureties," said Heveydd, "we know which should be take n for him." And Heveydd numbered the sureties. Said Gwawl, "Do thou thyself draw up the covenant." "It will suffice me that it be as Rhiannon said," answered Pw yll. So unto that covenant were the sureties pledged. "Verily, Lord," said Gwawl , "I am greatly hurt, and I have many bruises. I have need to be anointed; with thy leave I will go forth. I will leave nobles in my stead, to answer for me in all that thou shalt require." "Willingly," said Pwyll, "mayest thou do thus." So Gwawl went towards his own possessions. And the hall was set in order for Pwyll and the men of his host, and for them al so of the palace, and they went to the tables and sat down. And as they had sat that time twelvemonth, so sat they that night. And they ate, and feasted, and sp ent the night in mirth and tranquillity. And the time came that they should slee p, and Pwyll and Rhiannon went to their chamber. And next morning at the break of day, "My Lord," said Rhiannon, "arise and begin to give thy gifts unto the minstrels. Refuse no one to-day that may claim thy b ounty." "Thus shall it be gladly," said Pwyll, "both to-day and every day while the feast shall last." So Pwyll arose, and he caused [p. 352] silence to be proclaimed, and desired all the suitors and the minstrels to show and to point out what gifts were to their wish and desire. And this being done, the feast went on, and he denied no one while it lasted. And when the feast was ended, Pwyll said unto Heveydd, "My Lord, with thy permission I will set out for Dyved to-morrow." "Certainly," said Heveydd, "may Heaven prosper thee. Fix also a time when Rhiannon may follow thee." "By Heaven," said Pwyll, "we will go hen ce together." "Willest thou this, Lord?" said Heveydd. "Yes, by Heaven," answere d Pwyll. And the next day, they set forward towards Dyved, and journeyed to the palace of Narberth, where a feast was made ready for them. And there came to them great n umbers of the chief men and the most noble ladies of the land, and of these ther

e was none to whom Rhiannon did not give some rich gift, either a bracelet, or a ring, or a precious stone. And they ruled the land prosperously both that year and the next. And in the third year the nobles of the land began to be sorrowful at seeing a m an whom they loved so much, and who was moreover their lord and their foster-bro ther, without an heir. And they came to him. And the place where they met was Pr eseleu, in Dyved. "Lord," said they, "we know that thou art not so young as some of the men of this country, and we fear that thou mayest not have an heir of th e wife whom thou hast taken. Take therefore another wife of whom thou mayest hav e heirs. Thou canst not always continue with us, and though thou desire to remai n as thou art, we will not suffer thee." "Truly," said Pwyll, "we have not long been joined together, and many things may yet befall. Grant me a year from this time, and for the space of a year we will abide together, and after that I will do according to your wishes. So they granted it. And before the end of a year a son was born unto him. And in Narberth was he born; and on the night that he was born, women were brought to watch the mother and the boy. And the women slept, as did also Rhiannon, the mother of the boy. And [p. 353] the number of the women that were brought into the chamber was six. And they wat ched for a good portion of the night, and before midnight every one of them fell asleep, and towards break of day they awoke; and when they awoke, they looked w here they had put the boy, and behold he was not there. "Oh," said one of the wo men, "the boy is lost?" "Yes," said another, "and it will be small vengeance if we are burnt or put to death because of the child." Said one of the women, "Is t here any counsel for us in the world in this matter?" "There is," answered anoth er, "I offer you good counsel." "What is that?" asked they. "There is here a sta g-hound bitch, and she has a litter of whelps. Let us kill some of the cubs, and rub the blood on the face and hands of Rhiannon, and lay the bones before her, and assert that she herself hath devoured her son, and she alone will not be abl e to gainsay us six." And according to this counsel it was settled. And towards morning Rhiannon awoke, and she said, "Women, where is my son?" "Lady," said the y, "ask us not concerning thy son, we have nought but the blows and the bruises we got by struggling with thee, and of a truth we never saw any woman so violent as thou, for it was of no avail to contend with thee. Hast thou not thyself dev oured thy son? Claim him not therefore of us." "For pity's sake," said Rhiannon; "the Lord God knows all things. Charge me not falsely. If you tell me this from fear, I assert before Heaven that I will defend you." "Truly," said they, "we w ould not bring evil on ourselves for any one in the world." "For pity's sake," s aid Rhiannon, "you will receive no evil by telling the truth." But for all her w ords, whether fair or harsh, she received but the same answer from the women. And Pwyll the chief of Annwvyn arose, and his household, and his hosts. And this occurrence could not be concealed, but the story went forth throughout the land , and all the nobles heard it. Then the nobles came to Pwyll, and besought him t o put away his wife, because of the great crime which she had done. But Pwyll an swered them, that they had no cause wherefore they might ask him to put away his wife, save [p. 354] for her having no children. "But children has she now had, therefore will I not put her away; if she has done wrong, let her do penance for it." So Rhiannon sent for the teachers and the wise men, and as she preferred doing p enance to contending with the women, she took upon her a penance. And the penanc e that was imposed upon her was, that she should remain in that palace of Narber th until the end of seven years, and that she should sit every day near unto a h

orseblock that was without the gate. And that she should relate the story to all who should come there, whom she might suppose not to know it already; and that she should offer the guests and strangers, if they would permit her, to carry th em upon her back into the palace. But it rarely happened that any would permit. And thus did she spend part of the year. Now at that time Teirnyon Twryv Vliant was Lord of Gwent Is Coed , and he was th e best man in the world. And unto his house there belonged a mare, than which ne ither mare nor horse in the kingdom was more beautiful. And on the night of ever y first of May she foaled, and no one ever knew what became of the colt. And one night Teirnyon talked with his wife: "Wife," said he, "it is very simple of us that our mare should foal every year, and that we should have none of her colts. " "What can be done in the matter?" said she. "This is the night of the first of May," said he. "The vengeance of Heaven be upon me, if I learn not what it is t hat takes away the colts." So he caused the mare to be brought into a house, and he armed himself, and began to watch that night. And in the beginning of the ni ght, the mare foaled a large and beautiful colt. And it was standing up in the p lace. And Teirnyon rose up and looked at the size of the colt, and as he did so he heard a great tumult, and after the tumult behold a claw came through the win dow into the house, and it seized the colt by the mane. Then Teirnyon drew his s word, and struck off the arm at the elbow, so that portion of the arm together w ith the colt was in the house with [p. 355] him. And then did he hear a tumult and wailing, both at once. And he opened the door, and rushed out in the direction of the noise, and he could not see the cau se of the tumult because of the darkness of the night, but he rushed after it an d followed it. Then he remembered that he had left the door open, and he returne d. And at the door behold there was an infant boy in swaddling-clothes, wrapped around in a mantle of satin. And he took up the boy, and behold he was very stro ng for the age that he was of. Then he shut the door, and went into the chamber where his wife was. "Lady," sai d he, "art thou sleeping?" "No, lord," said she, "I was asleep, but as thou came st in I did awake." "Behold, here is a boy for thee if thou wilt," said he, "sin ce thou hast never had one." "My lord," said she, "what adventure is this?" "It was thus," said Teirnyon; and he told her how it all befell. "Verily, lord," sai d she, "what sort of garments are there upon the boy?" "A mantle of satin," said he. "He is then a boy of gentle lineage," she replied. "My lord," she said, "if thou wilt, I shall have great diversion and mirth. I will call my women unto me , and tell them that I have been pregnant." "I will readily grant thee to do thi s," he answered. And thus did they, and they caused the boy to be baptized, and the ceremony was performed there; and the name which they gave unto him was Gwri Wallt Euryn , because what hair was upon his head was as yellow as gold. And th ey had the boy nursed in the Court until he was a year old. And before the year was over he could walk stoutly. And he was larger than a boy of three years old, even one of great growth and size. And the boy was nursed the second year, and then he was as large as a child six years old. And before the end of the fourth year, he would bribe the grooms to allow him to take the horses to water. "My lo rd," said his wife unto Teirnyon, "where is the colt which thou didst save on th e night that thou didst find the boy?" "I have commanded the grooms of the horse s," said he, "that they take care of him." "Would it not be well, lord," said sh e, "if thou wert [p. 356] to cause him to be broken in, and given to the boy, seeing that on the same nigh t that thou didst find the boy, the colt was foaled and thou didst save him?" "I will not oppose thee in this matter," said Teirnyon. "I will allow thee to give

him the colt." "Lord," said she, "may Heaven reward thee; I will give it him." So the horse was given to the boy. Then she went to the grooms and those who ten ded the horses, and commanded them to be careful of the horse, so that he might be broken in by the time that the boy could ride him. And while these things were going forward, they heard tidings of Rhiannon and he r punishment. And Teirnyon Twryv Vliant, by reason of the pity that he felt on h earing this story of Rhiannon and her punishment, inquired closely concerning it , until he had heard from many of those who came to his court. Then did Teirnyon , often lamenting the sad history, ponder within himself, and he looked steadfas tly on the boy, and as he looked upon him, it seemed to him that he had never be held so great a likeness between father and son, as between the boy and Pwyll th e Chief of Annwvyn. Now the semblance of Pwyll was well known to him, for he had of yore been one of his followers. And thereupon he became grieved for the wron g that he did, in keeping with him a boy whom he knew to be the son of another m an. And the first time that he was alone with his wife, he told her that it was not right that they should keep the boy with them, and suffer so excellent a lad y as Rhiannon to be punished so greatly on his account, whereas the boy was the son of Pwyll the Chief of Annwvyn. And Teirnyon's wife agreed with him, that the y should send the boy to Pwyll. "And three things, lord," said she, "shall we ga in thereby. Thanks and gifts for releasing Rhiannon from her punishment; and tha nks from Pwyll for nursing his son and restoring him unto him; and thirdly, if t he boy is of gentle nature, he will be our foster-son, and he will do for us all the good in his power." So it was settled according to this counsel. And no later than the next day was Teirnyon equipped, and [p. 357] two other knights with him. And the boy, as a fourth in their company, went with them upon the horse which Teirnyon had given him. And they journeyed towards Na rberth, and it was not long before they reached that place. And as they drew nea r to the palace, they beheld Rhiannon sitting beside the horseblock. And when th ey were opposite to her, "Chieftain," said she, "go not further thus, I will bea r every one of you into the palace, and this is my penance for slaying my own so n and devouring him." "Oh, fair lady," said Teirnyon, "think not that I will be one to be carried upon thy back." "Neither will I," said the boy. "Truly, my sou l," said Teirnyon, "we will not go." So they went forward to the palace, and the re was great joy at their coming. And at the palace a feast was prepared, becaus e Pwyll was come back from the confines of Dyved. And they went into the hall an d washed, and Pwyll rejoiced to see Teirnyon. And in this order they sat. Teirny on between Pwyll and Rhiannon, and Teirnyon's two companions on the other side o f Pwyll, with the boy between them. And after meat they began to carouse and to discourse. And Teirnyon's discourse was concerning the adventure of the mare and the boy, and how he and his wife had nursed and reared the child as their own. "And behold here is thy son, lady," said Teirnyon. "And whosoever told that lie concerning thee, has done wrong. And when I heard of thy sorrow, I was troubled and grieved. And I believe that there is none of this host who will not perceive that the boy is the son of Pwyll," said Teirnyon. "There is none," said they al l, "who is not certain thereof." "I declare to Heaven," said Rhiannon, "that if this be true, there is indeed an end to my trouble." "Lady," said Pendaran Dyved , "well hast thou named thy son Pryderi, [*1] and well becomes him the name of Pryderi son of Pwyll Chief of Annwvyn." "Look you," said Rhiannon, "will not his own name become him better?" "What name has he?" asked Pendaran Dyved. "Gwri Wa llt Euryn is the name that we gave him." "Pryderi," said Pendaran, "shall [p. 358] his name be." "It were more proper," said Pwyll, "that the boy should take his n ame from the word his mother spoke when she received the joyful tidings of him."

And thus was it arranged. "Teirnyon," said Pwyll, "Heaven reward thee that thou hast reared the boy up to this time, and, being of gentle lineage, it were fitting that he repay thee for it." "My lord," said Teirnyon, "it was my wife who nursed him, and there is no o ne in the world so afflicted as she at parting with him. It were well that he sh ould bear in mind what I and my wife have done for him." "I call Heaven to witne ss," said Pwyll, "that while I live I will support thee and thy possessions, as long as I am able to preserve my own. And when he shall have power, he will more fitly maintain them than I. And if this counsel be pleasing unto thee, and to m y nobles, it shall be that, as thou hast reared him up to the present time, I wi ll give him to be brought up by Pendaran Dyved, from henceforth. And you shall b e companions, and shall both be foster-fathers unto him." "This is good counsel, " said they all. So the boy was given to Pendaran Dyved, and the nobles of the l and were sent with him. And Teirnyon Twryv Vliant, and his companions, set out f or his country, and his possessions, with love and gladness. And he went not wit hout being offered the fairest jewels and the fairest horses, and the choicest d ogs; but he would take none of them. Thereupon they all remained in their own dominions. And Pryderi, the son of Pwyl l the Chief of Annwvyn, was brought up carefully as was fit, so that he became t he fairest youth, and the most comely, and the best skilled in all good games, o f any in the kingdom. And thus passed years and years, until the end of Pwyll th e Chief of Annwvyn's life came, and he died. And Pryderi ruled the seven Cantrevs of Dyved prosperously, and he was beloved b y his people, and by all around him. And at length he added unto them the three Cantrevs of Ystrad Tywi, and the four Cantrevs of Cardigan; and [p. 359] these were called the Seven Cantrevs of Seissyllwch. And when he made this addit ion, Pryderi the son of Pwyll the Chief of Annwvyn desired to take a wife. And t he wife he chose was Kicva, the daughter of Gwynn Gohoyw, the son of Gloyw Wallt Lydan, the son of Prince Casnar, one of the nobles of this Island. And thus ends this portion of the Mabinogion.

Footnotes ^357:1 The word "Pryder" or Pryderi" means anxiety. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 360]

NOTES TO PWYLL PRINCE OF DYVED. 339a PWYLL.--Page <page 339>. NEARLY the whole of the Mabinogi of Pwyll Pendevig Dyved, has already been print ed with a translation in the Cambrian Register, and the story has also appeared in Jones's Welsh Bards. Who Pwyll (whose name literally signifies Prudence) really was, appears to be a

matter of uncertainty, but in some of the pedigrees of Gwynvardd Dyved, Prince o f Dyved, he is said to be the son of Argoel, or Aircol Law Hir, [*1] son of Pyr y Dwyrain. Mr. Davies, in the "Rites and Mythology of the Druids," states that h e was the son of Meirig, son of Aircol, son of Pyr, which is rather confirmed by some other MS. pedigrees. In Taliesin's Preiddeu Annwn, he is mentioned, with big son Pryderi, in such a m anner as to lead to the inference that he flourished not later than the age of A rthur. The opening lines of that remarkable composition are given in the Myvyria n Archaiology, I. p. 45. It must be allowed that their exact interpretation is b y [p. 361] no means easy to discover, but the following version is from the pen of a distin guished Welsh scholar. The allusions, it should be observed, are very old and ve ry obscure. "Adorable potentate, sovereign ruler! Who hast extended thy dominion over the boundaries of the world ! Arranged was the prison of Gwair in Caer Sidi By the ministration of Pwyll and Pryderi. None before him ever entered it. The heavy blue chain the faithful one keeps.-And on account of the herds of Annwn I am afflicted; And till doom shall my bardic prayer continue. Three times the loading of Prydwen we went there, Besides seven none returned from Caer Sidi." In subsequent parts of the poem Arthur is spoken of as having h imself taken a share in the various expeditions which it records. The ship Prydw en is well known as one of his treasures. See <page 261>. Gwair's captivity, whi ch one of the Triads places in the Castle of Oeth and Annoeth, has been already adverted to, <page 192>.

339b DYVED.--Page <page 339>. IT often happens, and is a cause of great confusion in comparing ancient story w ith modern topography, that the old names are retained while the boundaries of t he territory which they indicated are changed. Not unfrequently the names of pet ty Celtic kingdoms were applied to modem counties. This is the case with the nam e now before us. Dyved, the country inhabited by the Dimetae of the Romans, is n ow generally considered to apply only to the county of Pembroke. It once include d also the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan, forming, in fact, the western, w hile Gwent formed the eastern division of South Wales. There appears, however, to have been an exception to this general division, a po rtion of Cardigan having been once exclusively termed Ceredigiawn, and one-third part of Carmarthenshire having been included in the District of Rheged, called subsequently "Cantrev Bychan and Kidwelly." Lewis Dwnn, [*1] in the reign of Eli zabeth, thus describes the ancient boundaries of Dyved, as he understood them to have been:-[p. 362] "The kingdom of Dyved formerly extended between the rivers Teivy and Towy, from

Llyn Teivy and the source of the Towy to St. David's, and the centre of this kin gdom was the Dark-Gate, in Carmarthen, and there is at this day a record of thes e boundaries in an old parchment book of the Bishop of St. David's." According to this Dyved would appear to have comprehended about a sixth part of Cardiganshire, two-thirds of the county of Carmarthen, and the whole county of P embroke. It is evident, however, that at the time the Mabinogi of Pwyll was committed to writing, Dyved was restricted to the Cantrevs (or Hundreds) of Arberth (or Narbe rth), Dan Gleddyv, y Coed, Penvro, Rhos, Pebidiog, and Cenmaes, to which we are told that Pryderi added the three Cantrevs of Ystrad Tywi, or Carmarthenshire, C antrev Bychan, Cantrev Mawr, and Cantrev Eginawg, together with the four Cantrev s of Ceredigiawn, Cantrev Emlyn, Cantrev Caer Wedws, Cantrev Mabwyniawn, and Can trev Gwarthav, which seven Cantrevs were classed together under the appellation of Seissyllwch. [*1] The addition made by Pryderi probably restored Dyved to its original extent at the time of the Romans.

339c GLYN CUCH.--Page <page 339>. CUCH, or, as it is generally written, Cych, is the boundary stream between the c ounties of Pembroke and Carmarthen, and falls into the Teivy between Cenarth and Llechryd. In the upper part of Glyn Cuch (the valley of the Cuch) was the resid ence of Cadivor Vawr, a regulus or petty king of Dyved, who died in 1088, and wa s called lord of Blaen Cuch and Cilsant. From him many of the principal families of Pembrokeshire trace their descent. [p. 363] 340a ARAWN, KING OF ANNWVYN.--Page <page 340>. THIS personage is the King of Annwn, already noticed (see <page 280>) as having fought against Amaethon mab Don, in the battle of Cad Goddeu. But it is doubtful whether he can be identified either with the Arawn ab Cynvarch, whom the Triads celebrate as one of the three Knights of Counsel, [*1] or with the Aron mab Dew invin, whose grave is alluded to in the Englynion y Beddau.--Myv. Arch. I. p. 82 .

340b ANNWVYN.--Page <page 340>. ANNWVYN, or Annwn, is frequently rendered "Hell," though, perhaps, "The Lower Re gions" would more aptly express the meaning which the name conveys. The Dogs of Annwn are the subject of an ancient Welsh superstition, which was on ce universally believed in throughout the Principality, and which it would seem is not yet quite extinct. It is said that they are sometimes heard at night pass ing through the air overhead, as if in full cry in pursuit of some object.

344a MOUND.--Page <page 344>. THE word in the original is Gorsedd, which signifies a tumulus or mound, used as a seat of judicature, to which in its derivative sense it is commonly applied. The mound called the Tyn-wald, still remaining in the Isle of Man, was long the

place upon which the Deemsters of that Island held their judicial assemblies.

347a RHIANNON.--Page <page 347>. AFTER the death of Pwyll, Rhiannon was, by her son Pryderi, bestowed in marriage upon Manawyddan, the son of Llyr, and her subsequent history is detailed in the Mabinogi that bears his name. Her marvellous birds, whose notes were so sweet t hat warriors remained spell-bound for eighty years together listening to them, a re a frequent theme with the poets. "Three things that are not often heard; the song of the birds of Rhiannon, a son g of wisdom from the mouth of a Saxon, and an invitation to a feast from a miser ." [*2] [p. 364] 347b HEVEYDD HEN.--Page <page 347>. ACCORDING to the Triads, Heveydd Hen (probably the same as Hyvaidd Hir) was the son of Bleiddan Sant [*1] of Glamorgan, and was one of the three stranger kings upon whom dominion was conferred for their mighty deeds, and for their praisewor thy and gracious qualities. But in some of the pedigrees he is called the son of Caradawc Vreichvras.--See Professor Rees's Welsh Saints, p. 103.

354a GWENT IS COED.--Page <page 354>. ONE of the divisions of Gwent; the other two being Gwent Uch Coed, and Gwent Coc h yn y Dena, or the Forest of Dean. Gwent was the name formerly applied to the e astern division of South Wales. In its present restricted sense it is applied on ly to the county of Monmouth.

355a GWRI GWALLT EURYN.--Page <page 355>. GWRI GWALLT EURYN, styled at the close of the present tale Pryderi (care or anxi ety), is frequently alluded to by the Bards, who speak of him under either name indiscriminately. In the Mabinogi of Kilhwch and Olwen he appears under his earl ier appellation, perhaps, however, Pryderi is that by which he is best known. He was one of the chief swineherds of the island, and was so called because he kep t the swine of Pendaran Dyved, in the Vale of Cuch in Emlyn. One of the Triads s ays that the swine he tended were those of Pwyll himself, and that he had the ca re of them during his father's absence in Annwn. This version, however, does not correspond with the circumstances as given in the text, which imply that Pryder i's birth must have taken place long after Pwyll's mysterious expedition. We find the adventures of Pryderi's maturer years detailed in the Mabinogi of Ma nawyddan, with whom his name is coupled in a passage of the Kerdd am Veib Llyr, attributed to Taliesin. In the tale of Math ab Mathonwy it is related that Pryderi was deprived of life by Gwydion ab Don, who was enabled by magical arts to overcome him in single com bat, after having by similar means defrauded him of some swine which had been se nt him from Annwn, and which he and his people highly prized. The encounter took place near Melenryd, a ford on the Cynvael, a

[p. 365] river of Merionethshire. The same authority places his grave at Maen Tyriawg, ne ar Ffestiniog, but a different locality is assigned to it in the Enelynion Bedda u. "In Abergenoli is the grave of Pryderi, Where the waves beat against the shore." Dyved was called by Lewis Glyn Cothi "Gwlad Pryderi," and by Da vydd ab Gwilym "Pryderi dir," and sometimes "Gwlad yr Hud," or the Land of Encha ntment.

357a PENDARAN DYVED.--Page <page 357>. WE learn from the Triads, that the foster-father of Pryderi was the chief of one of the principal Welsh tribes; that which extended over Dyved, Gower (in Glamor gan), and Cardigan. [*1] Beyond this, and the fact of his possessing an immense herd of swine, which his foster-son Pryderi kept for him in the Vale of Ouch, but few particulars of Pend aran Dyved are extant.

Footnotes ^360:1 Aircol Law Hir is recorded, in the Liber Landavensis, to have been the so n of Tryfun and contemporary with St. Teiliaw, who flourished in the Sixth centu ry. We find the grave of Aircol spoken of as being in Dyved.--Myv. Arch. I. p. 8 2. ^361:1 "Heraldic Visitation of Wales," published by the Welsh MSS. Society, unde r the care of Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick. ^362:1 Seissyllwch was one of the ancient kingdoms of South Wales, and must not be confounded with Essyllwg (the Welsh word for the country of the Silures), as it has sometimes been. In the life of St. Paternus (preserved among the Cotton M SS.) it is said that the whole of South Wales was divided into three kingdoms, t he same forming three bishoprics. Of these, the kingdom of Seissyl received its consecration from St. Paternus, Bishop of Llanbadarn Vawr, as the other two, tho se of Rein and Morgant, did from St. David and St. Eliu [Teiliaw]. The latter ki ngdom, Glamorgan, having derived its appellation from Morgan, a sovereign of the tenth century, it is probable that the name of Seissyllwch is of the same date, and also that it may be derived from Seissyll, or Sitsyllt, the father of Llewe lyn ab Sitsyllt, Prince of North Wales. The name of Seissyllwch occurs in the Tr iads, where we are told that Cynan Meriadawc led the warriors of that district t o the assistance of Maxen Wledig.--Triad 14. ^363:1 Triad lxxxvi. ^363:2 Trioedd y Cybydd, The Miser's Triads. Myv. Arch. III. p. 245. ^364:1 Written in other versions of the Triads, Bleiddig in Deheubarth. ^365:1 Triad 16.

The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 369]


HERE IS THE SECOND PORTION OF THE MABINOGI BENDIGEID VRAN , the son of Llyr, was the crowned king of this island, and he wa s exalted from the crown of London. And one afternoon he was at Harlech in Ardu dwy, at his Court, and he sat upon the rock of Harlech, looking over the sea. An d with him were his brother Manawyddan the son of Llyr, and his brothers by the mother's side, Nissyen and Evnissyen, and many nobles likewise, as was fitting t o see around a king. His two brothers by the mother's side were the sons of Euro sswydd , by his mother, Penardun, the daughter of Beli son of Manogan . And one of these youths was a good youth and of gentle nature, and would make peace betw een his kindred, and cause his family to be friends when their wrath was at the highest; and this one was Nissyen; but the other would cause strife between his two brothers when they were most at peace. And as they sat thus, they beheld thi rteen ships coming from the south of [p. 370] Ireland, and making towards them, and they came with a swift motion, the wind be ing behind them, and they neared them rapidly. "I see ships afar," said the king , "coming swiftly towards the land. Command the men of the Court that they equip themselves, and go and learn their intent." So the men equipped themselves and went down towards them. And when they saw the ships near, certain were they that they had never seen ships better furnished. Beautiful flags of satin were upon them. And behold one of the ships outstripped the others, and they saw a shield lifted up above the side of the ship, and the point of the shield was upwards, i n token of peace. And the men drew near that they might hold converse. Then they put out boats and came towards the land. And they saluted the king. Now the kin g could hear them from the place where he was, upon the rock above their heads. "Heaven prosper you," said he, "and be ye welcome. To whom do these ships belong , and who is the chief amongst you?" "Lord," said they, "Matholwch, king of Irel and, is here, and these ships belong to him." "Wherefore comes he?' asked the ki ng, "and will he come to the land?" "He is a suitor unto thee, lord," said they, "and he will not land unless he have his boon." "And what may that be?" inquire d the king. "He desires to ally himself with thee, lord," said they, "and he com es to ask Branwen the daughter of Llyr, that, if it seem well to thee, the Isla nd of the Mighty may be leagued with Ireland, and both become more powerful." " Verily," said he, "let him come to land, and we will take counsel thereupon." An d this answer was brought to Matholwch. "I will go willingly," said he. So he la nded, and they received him joyfully; and great was the throng in the palace tha t night, between his hosts and those of the Court; and next day they took counse l, and they resolved to bestow Branwen upon Matholwch. Now she was one of the th ree chief ladies of this island, and she was the fairest damsel in the world. And they fixed upon Aberffraw as the place where she should become his bride. An d they went thence, and towards [p. 371]

[paragraph continues] Aberffraw the hosts proceeded; Matholwch and his host in t heir ships; Bendigeid Vran and his host by land, until they came to Aberffraw. A nd at Aberffraw they began the feast and sat down. And thus sat they. The King o f the Island of the Mighty and Manawyddan the son of Llyr on one side, and Matho lwch on the other side, and Branwen the daughter of Llyr beside him. And they we re not within a house, but under tents. No house could ever contain Bendigeid Vr an. And they began the banquet and caroused and discoursed. And when it was more pleasing to them to sleep than to carouse, they went to rest, and that night Br anwen became Matholwch's bride. And next day they arose, and all they of the Court, and the officers began to eq uip and to range the horses and the attendants, and they ranged them in order as far as the sea. And behold one day, Evnissyen, the quarrelsome man of whom it is spoken above, c ame by chance into the place, where the horses of Matholwch were, and asked whos e horses they might be. "They are the horses of Matholwch king of Ireland, who i s married to Branwen, thy sister; his horses are they." "And is it thus they hav e done with a maiden such as she, and moreover my sister, bestowing her without my consent? They could have offered no greater insult to me than this," said he. And thereupon he rushed under the horses and cut off their lips at the teeth, a nd their ears close to their heads, and their tails close to their backs, and wh erever he could clutch their eyelids, he cut them to the very bone, and he disfi gured the horses and rendered them useless. And they came with these tidings unto Matholwch, saying that the horses were dis figured, and injured so that not one of them could ever be of any use again. "Ve rily, lord," said one, "it was an insult unto thee, and as such was it meant." " Of a truth, it is a marvel to me, that if they desire to insult me, they should have given me a maiden of such high rank and so much beloved of her kindred, as they have done." [p. 372] [paragraph continues] "Lord," said another, "thou seest that thus it is, and the re is nothing for thee to do but to go to thy ships." And thereupon towards his ships he set out. And tidings came to Bendigeid Vran that Matholwch was quitting the Court without asking leave, and messengers were sent to inquire of him wherefore he did so. A nd the messengers that went were Iddic the son of Anarawd, and Heveydd Hir. And these overtook him and asked of him what he designed to do, and wherefore he wen t forth. "Of a truth," said he, "if I had known I had not come hither. I have be en altogether insulted, no one had ever worse treatment than I have had here. Bu t one thing surprises me above all." "What is that?" asked they. "That Branwen t he daughter of Llyr, one of the three chief ladies of this island, and the daugh ter of the King of the Island of the Mighty, should have been given me as my bri de, and that after that I should have been insulted; and I marvel that the insul t was not done me before they had bestowed upon me a maiden so exalted as she." "Truly, lord, it was not the will of any that are of the Court," said they, "nor of any that are of the council, that thou shouldest have received this insult; and as thou hast been insulted, the dishonour is greater unto Bendigeid Vran tha n unto thee." "Verily," said he, "I think so. Nevertheless he cannot recall the insult." These men returned with that answer to the place where Bendigeid Vran w as, and they told him what reply Matholwch had given them. "Truly," said he, "th ere are no means by which we may prevent his going away at enmity with us, that we will not take." "Well, lord," said they, "send after him another embassy." "I will do so," said he. "Arise, Manawyddan son of Llyr, and Heveydd Hir, and Unic Glew Ysgwyd, and go after him, and tell him that he shall have a sound horse fo r every one that has been injured. And beside that, as an atonement for the insu

lt , he shall have a staff of silver, as large and as tall as himself, and a pla te of gold of the breadth of his face. And show unto him who it was that did thi s, and that it was done against my will; but that he [p. 373] who did it is my brother, by the mother's side, and therefore it would be hard f or me to put him to death. And let him come and meet me," said he, "and we will make peace in any way he may desire." The embassy went after Matholwch, and told him all these sayings in a friendly m anner, and he listened thereunto. "Men," said he, "I will take counsel." So to t he council he went. And in the council they considered that if they should refus e this, they were likely to have more shame rather than to obtain so great an at onement. They resolved therefore to accept it, and they returned to the Court in peace. Then the pavilions and the tents were set in order after the fashion of a hall; and they went to meat, and as they had sat at the beginning of the feast, so sat they there. And Matholwch and Bendigeid Vran began to discourse; and behold it seemed to Bendigeid Vran, while they talked, that Matholwch was not so cheerful as he had been before. And he thought that the chieftain might be sad, because o f the smallness of the atonement which he had, for the wrong that had been done him. "Oh, man," said Bendigeid Vran, "thou dost not discourse to-night so cheerf ully as thou wast wont. And if it be because of the smallness of the atonement, thou shalt add thereunto whatsoever thou mayest choose, and to-morrow I will pay thee the horses." "Lord," said he, "Heaven reward thee." "And I will enhance th e atonement," said Bendigeid Vran, "for I will give unto thee a cauldron, the pr operty of which is, that if one of thy men be slain to-day, and be cast therein, to-morrow he will be as well as ever he was at the best, except that he will no t regain his speech." And thereupon he gave him great thanks, and very joyful wa s he for that cause. And the next morning they paid Matholwch the horses as long as the trained horse s lasted. And then they journeyed into another commot, where they paid him with colts until the whole had been paid, and from thenceforth that commot was called Talebolion. [p. 374] And a second night sat they together. "My lord," said Matholwch, "whence hadst t hou the cauldron which thou hast given me?" "I had it of a man who had been in thy land," said he, "and I would not give it except to one from there." "Who was it?" asked he. "Llassar Llaesgyvnewid; he came here from Ireland with Kymideu K ymeinvoll, his wife, who escaped from the Iron House in Ireland, when it was mad e red hot around them, and fled hither. And it is a marvel to me that thou shoul dst know nothing concerning the matter." "Something I do know," said he, "and as much as I know I will tell thee. One day I was hunting in Ireland, and I came t o the mound at the head of the lake, which is called the Lake of the Cauldron. A nd I beheld a huge yellow-haired man coming from the lake with a cauldron upon h is back. And he was a man of vast size, and of horrid aspect, and a woman follow ed after him. And if the man was tall, twice as large as he was the woman, and t hey came towards me and greeted me. 'Verily,' asked I, 'wherefore are you journe ying?' 'Behold, this,' said he to me, 'is the cause that we journey. At the end of a month and a fortnight this woman will have a son; and the child that will b e born at the end of the month and the fortnight will be a warrior fully armed.' So I took them with me and maintained them. And they were with me for a year. A nd that year I had them with me not grudgingly. But thenceforth was there murmur ing, because that they were with me. For, from the beginning of the fourth month they had begun to make themselves hated and to be disorderly in the land; commi

tting outrages, and molesting and harassing the nobles and ladies; and thencefor ward my people rose up and besought me to part with them, and they bade me to ch oose between them and my dominions. And I applied to the council of my country t o know what should be done concerning them; for of their own free will they woul d not go, neither could they be compelled against their will, through fighting. And [the people of the country] being in this strait, they caused a chamber to b e made all of iron. Now when the chamber was ready, [p. 375] there came there every smith that was in Ireland, and every one who owned tongs and hammer. And they caused coals to be piled up as high as the top of the chamb er. And they had the man, and the woman, and the children, served with plenty of meat and drink; but when it was known that they were drunk, they began to put f ire to the coals about the chamber, and they blew it with bellows until the hous e was red hot all around them. Then was there a council held in the centre of th e floor of the chamber. And the man tarried until the plates of iron were all of a white heat; and then, by reason of the great heat, the man dashed against the plates with his shoulder and struck them out, and his wife followed him; but ex cept him and his wife none escaped thence. And then I suppose, lord," said Matho lwch unto Bendigeid Vran, "that he came over unto thee." "Doubtless he came here ," said he, "and gave unto me the cauldron." "In what manner didst thou receive them?" "I dispersed them through every part of my dominions, and they have becom e numerous and are prospering everywhere, and they fortify the places where they are with men and arms, of the best that were ever seen." That night they continued to discourse as much as they would, and had minstrelsy and carousing, and when it was more pleasant to them to sleep than to sit longe r, they went to rest. And thus was the banquet carried on with joyousness; and w hen it was finished, Matholwch journeyed towards Ireland, and Branwen with him, and they went from Aber Menei with thirteen ships, and came to Ireland. And in I reland was there great joy because of their coming. And not one great man or nob le lady visited Branwen unto whom she gave not either a clasp, or a ring, or a r oyal jewel to keep, such as it was honourable to be seen departing with. And in these things she spent that year in much renown, and she passed her time pleasan tly, enjoying honour and friendship. And in the meanwhile it chanced that she be came pregnant, and in due time a son was born unto her, and the name that they g ave him was Gwern the son of Matholwch and, they [p. 376] put the boy out to be foster-nursed, in a place where were the best men of Irela nd. And behold in the second year a tumult arose in Ireland, on account of the insul t which Matholwch had received in Cambria, and the payment made him for his hors es. And his foster-brothers, and such as were nearest unto him, blamed him openl y for that matter. And he might have no peace by reason of the tumult until they should revenge upon him this disgrace. And the vengeance which they took was to drive away Branwen from the same chamber with him, and to make her cook for the Court; and they caused the butcher after he had cut up the meat to come to her and give her every day a blow on the ear, and such they made her punishment. "Verily, lord," said his men to Matholwch, "forbid now the ships and the ferry b oats and the coracles, that they go not into Cambria, and such as come over from Cambria hither, imprison them that they go not back for this thing to be known there." And he did so; and it was thus for not less than three years. And Branwen reared a starling in the cover of the kneading trough, and she taugh t it to speak, and she taught the bird what manner of man her brother was. And s

he wrote a letter of her woes, and the despite with which she was treated, and s he bound the letter to the root of the bird's wing, and sent it towards Britain. And the bird came to this island, and one day it found Bendigeid Vran at Caer S eiont in Arvon, conferring there, and it alighted upon his shoulder and ruffled its feathers, so that the letter was seen, and they knew that the bird had been reared in a domestic manner. Then Bendigeid Vran took the letter and looked upon it. And when he had read the letter he grieved exceedingly at the tidings of Branwen's woes. And immediately he began sending messengers to summon the island together. And he caused sevens core and four countries to come unto him, and he complained to them himself of t he grief that his sister endured. So they took counsel. And in the council they resolved to go to Ireland, and to leave seven men as princes [p. 377] here, and Caradawc, the son of Bran , as the chief of them, and their seven knig hts. In Edeyrnion were these men left. And for this reason were the seven knight s placed in the town. Now the names of these seven men were, Caradawc the son of Bran, and Heveydd Hir, and Unic Glew Ysgwyd, and Iddic the son of Anarawc Gwall tgrwn, and Fodor the son of Ervyll, and Gwlch Minascwrn, and Llassar the son of Llaesar Llaesgygwyd, and Pendaran Dyved as a young page with them. And these abo de as seven ministers to take charge of this island; and Caradawc the son of Bra n was the chief amongst them. Bendigeid Vran, with the host of which we spoke, sailed towards Ireland, and it was not far across the sea, and he came to shoal water. It was caused by two riv ers; the Lli and the Archan were they called; and the nations covered the sea. T hen he proceeded with what provisions he had on his own back, and approached the shore of Ireland. Now the swineherds of Matholwch were upon the seashore, and they came to Matholw ch. "Lord," said they, "greeting be unto thee." "Heaven protect you," said he, " have you any news?" "Lord," said they, "we have marvellous news, a wood have we seen upon the sea, in a place where we never yet saw a single tree." "This is in deed a marvel," said he; "saw you aught else?" "We saw, lord," said they, "a vas t mountain beside the wood, which moved, and there was a lofty ridge on the top of the mountain, and a lake on each side of the ridge. And the wood, and the mou ntain, and all these things moved." "Verily," said he, "there is none who can kn ow aught concerning this, unless it be Branwen." Messengers then went unto Branwen. "Lady," said they, "what thinkest thou that t his is?" "The men of the Island of the Mighty, who have come hither on hearing o f my ill-treatment and my woes." "What is the forest that is seen upon the sea?" asked they. "The yards and the masts of ships," she answered. "Alas," said they , "what is the mountain that is seen by the side of the ships?" "Bendigeid Vran, my brother," she replied, "coming to shoal water; [p. 378] there is no ship that can contain him in it." "What is the lofty ridge with the lake on each side thereof?" "On looking towards this island he is wroth, and his two eyes, one on each side of his nose, are the two lakes beside the ridge." The warriors and the chief men of Ireland were brought together in haste, and th ey took counsel. "Lord," said the nobles unto Matholwch, "there is no other coun sel than to retreat over the Linon (a river which is in Ireland), and to keep th e river between thee and him, and to break down the bridge that is across the ri ver, for there is a loadstone at the bottom of the river that neither ship nor v essel can pass over." So they retreated across the river, and broke down the bri

dge. Bendigeid Vran came to land, and the fleet with him by the bank of the river. "L ord," said his chieftains, "knowest thou the nature of this river, that nothing can go across it, and there is no bridge over it?" "What," said they, "is thy co unsel concerning a bridge?" "There is none," said he, "except that he who will b e chief, let him be a bridge. I will be so," said he. And then was that saying f irst uttered, and it is still used as a proverb. And when he had lain down acros s the river, hurdles were placed upon him, and the host passed over thereby. And as he rose up, behold the messengers of Matholwch came to him, and saluted h im, and gave him greeting in the name of Matholwch, his kinsman, and showed how that of his goodwill he had merited of him nothing but good. "For Matholwch has given the kingdom of Ireland to Gwern the son of Matholwch, thy nephew and thy s ister's son. And this he places before thee, as a compensation for the wrong and despite that has been done unto Branwen. And Matholwch shall be maintained wher esoever thou wilt, either here or in the Island of the Mighty." Said Bendigeid V ran, "Shall not I myself have the kingdom? Then peradventure I may take counsel concerning your message. From this time until then no other answer will you get from me." [p. 379] "Verily," said they, "the best message that we receive for thee, we will convey it unto thee, and do thou await our message unto him." "I will wait," answered h e, "and do you return quickly." The messengers set forth and came to Matholwch. "Lord," said they, "prepare a be tter message for Bendigeid Vran. He would not listen at all to the message that we bore him." "My friends," said Matholwch, "what may be your counsel?" "Lord," said they, "there is no other counsel than this alone. He was never known to be within a house, make therefore a house that will contain him and the men of the Island of the Mighty on the one side, and thyself and thy host on the other; and give over thy kingdom to his will, and do him homage. So by reason of the honou r thou doest him in making him a house, whereas he never before had a house to c ontain him, he will make peace with thee." So the messengers went back to Bendig eid Vran, bearing him this message. And he took counsel, and in the council it was resolved that he should accept th is, and this was all done by the advice of Branwen, and lest the country should be destroyed. And this peace was made, and the house was built both vast and str ong. But the Irish planned a crafty device, and the craft was that they should p ut brackets on each side of the hundred pillars that were in the house, and shou ld place a leathern bag on each bracket, and an armed man in every one of them. Then Evnissyen came in before the host of the Island of the Mighty, and scanned the house with fierce and savage looks, and descried the leathern bags which wer e around the pillars. "What is in this bag?" asked he of one of the Irish. "Meal , good soul," said he. And Evnissyen felt about it until he came to the man's he ad, and he squeezed the head until he felt his fingers meet together in the brai n through the bone. And he left that one and put his hand upon another, and aske d what was therein. "Meal," said the Irishman. So he did the like unto every one of them, until he had not left alive, of all the two hundred men, save one [p. 380] only; and when he came to him, he asked what was there. "Meal, good soul," said the Irishman. And he felt about until he felt the head, and he squeezed that hea d as he had done the others. And, albeit he found that the head of this one was armed, he left him not until he had killed him. And then he sang an Englyn:--

"There is in this bag a different sort of meal, The ready combatant, when the assault is made By his fellow-warriors, prepared for battle." Thereupon came the hosts unto the house. The men of the Island of Ireland entered the house on the one side, and the men of the Island of the M ighty on the other. And as soon as they had sat down there was concord between t hem; and the sovereignty was conferred upon the boy. When the peace was conclude d, Bendigeid Vran called the boy unto him, and from Bendigeid Vran the boy went unto Manawyddan, and he was beloved by all that beheld him. And from Manawyddan the boy was called by Nissyen the son of Eurosswydd, and the boy went unto him l ovingly. "Wherefore," said Evnissyen, "comes not my nephew the son of my sister unto me? Though he were not king of Ireland, yet willingly would I fondle the bo y." "Cheerfully let him go to thee," said Bendigeid Vran, and the boy went unto him cheerfully. "By my confession to Heaven," said Evnissyen in his heart, "unth ought of by the household is the slaughter that I will this instant commit." Then he arose and took up the boy by the feet, and before any one in the house c ould seize hold of him, he thrust the boy headlong into the blazing fire. And wh en Branwen saw her son burning in the fire, she strove to leap into the fire als o, from the place where she sat between her two brothers. But Bendigeid Vran gra sped her with one hand, and his shield with the other. Then they all hurried abo ut the house, and never was there made so great a tumult by any host in one hous e as was made by them, as each man armed himself. [p. 381] [paragraph continues] Then said Morddwydtyllyon, "The gadflies of Morddwydtyllyo n's Cow!" And while they all sought their arms, Bendigeid Vran supported Branwen between his shield and his shoulder. Then the Irish kindled a fire under the cauldron of renovation, and they cast th e dead bodies into the cauldron until it was full, and the next day they came fo rth fighting-men as good as before, except that they were not able to speak. The n when Evnissyen saw the dead bodies of the men of the Island of the Mighty nowh ere resuscitated, he said in his heart, "Alas! woe is me, that I should have bee n the cause of bringing the men of the Island of the Mighty into so great a stra it. Evil betide me if I find not a deliverance therefrom." And he cast himself a mong the dead bodies of the Irish, and two unshod Irishmen came to him, and, tak ing him to be one of the Irish, flung him into the cauldron. And he stretched hi mself out in the cauldron, so that he rent the cauldron into four pieces, and bu rst his own heart also. In consequence of that the men of the Island of the Mighty obtained such success as they had; but they were not victorious, for only seven men of them all escap ed, and Bendigeid Vran himself was wounded in the foot with a poisoned dart. Now the seven men that escaped were Pryderi, Manawyddan, Gluneu Eil Taran, Taliesin , Ynawc, Grudyen the son of Muryel, and Heilyn the son of Gwynn Hen. And Bendigeid Vran commanded them that they should cut off his head. "And take y ou my head," said he, "and bear it even unto the White Mount , in London, and bu ry it there, with the face towards France. And a long time will you be upon the road. In Harlech you will be feasting seven years, the birds of Rhiannon singing unto you the while. And all that time the head will be to you as pleasant compa ny as it ever was when on my body. And at Gwales in Penvro you will be fourscore years, and you may remain there, and the head with you uncorrupted, until you o pen the door that looks towards Aber Henvelen, and towards Cornwall. And [p. 382]

after you have opened that door, there you may no longer tarry, set forth then t o London to bury the head, and go straight forward." So they cut off his head, and these seven went forward therewith. And Branwen wa s the eighth with them, and they came to land at Aber Alaw, in Talebolyon, and t hey sat down to rest. And Branwen looked towards Ireland and towards the Island of the Mighty, to see if she could descry them. "Alas," said she, "woe is me tha t I was ever born; two islands have been destroyed because of me!" Then she utte red a loud groan, and there broke her heart. And they made her a four-sided grav e, and buried her upon the banks of the Alaw. Then the seven men journeyed forward towards Harlech, bearing the head with them ; and as they went, behold there met them a multitude of men and of women. "Have you any tidings?" asked Manawyddan. "We have none," said they, "save that Caswa llawn382a the son of Beli has conquered the Island of the Mighty, and is crowned king in London." "What has become," said they, "of Caradawc the son of Bran, an d the seven men who were left with him in this island?" "Caswallawn came upon th em, and slew six of the men, and Caradawc's heart broke for grief thereof; for h e could see the sword that slew the men, but knew not who it was that wielded it . Caswallawn had flung upon him the Veil of Illusion, so that no one could see h im slay the men, but the sword only could they see. And it liked him not to slay Caradawc, because he was his nephew, the son of his cousin. And now he was the third whose heart had broke through grief. Pendaran Dyved, who had remained as a young page with these men, escaped into the wood," said they. Then they went on to Harlech, and there stopped to rest, and they provided meat and liquor, and sat down to eat and to drink. And there came three birds, and be gan singing unto them a certain song, and all the songs they had ever heard were unpleasant compared thereto; and the birds [p. 383] seemed to them to be at a great distance from them over the sea, yet they appear ed as distinct as if they were close by, and at this repast they continued seven years. And at the close of the seventh year they went forth to Gwales in Penvro. And th ere they found a fair and regal spot overlooking the ocean; and a spacious hall was therein. And they went into the hall, and two of its doors were open, but th e third door was closed, that which looked towards Cornwall. "See, yonder," said Manawyddan, "is the door that we may not open." And that night they regaled the mselves and were joyful. And of all they had seen of food laid before them, and of all they had heard of, they remembered nothing; neither of that, nor of any s orrow whatsoever. And there they remained fourscore years, unconscious of having ever spent a time more joyous and mirthful. And they were not more weary than w hen first they came, neither did they, any of them, know the time they had been there. And it was not more irksome to them having the head with them, than if Be ndigeid Vran had been with them himself. And because of these fourscore years, i t was called "the Entertaining of the noble Head." The entertaining of Branwen a nd Matholwch was in the time that they went to Ireland. One day said Heilyn the son of Gwynn, "Evil betide me, if I do not open the door to know if that is true which is said concerning it." So he opened the door and looked towards Cornwall and Aber Henvelen. And when they had looked, they were as conscious of all the evils they had ever sustained, and of all the friends an d companions they had lost, and of all the misery that had befallen them, as if all had happened in that very spot; and especially of the fate of their lord. An d because of their perturbation they could not rest, but journeyed forth with th e head towards London. And they buried the head in the White Mount, and when it

was buried, this was the third goodly concealment; and it was the third ill-fate d disclosure when it was disinterred, inasmuch as no invasion from across the se a came to this island while the head was in that concealment. [p. 384] And thus is the story related of those who journeyed over from Ireland. In Ireland none were left alive, except five pregnant women in a cave in the Iri sh wilderness; and to these five women in the same night were born five sons, wh om they nursed until they became grown-up youths. And they thought about wives, and they at the same time desired to possess them, and each took a wife of the m others of their companions, and they governed the country and peopled it. And these five divided it amongst them, and because of this partition are the fi ve divisions of Ireland still so termed. And they examined the land where the b attles had taken place, and they found gold and silver until they became wealthy . And thus ends this portion of the Mabinogi, concerning the blow given to Branwen , which was the third unhappy blow of this island; and concerning the entertainm ent of Bran, when the hosts of sevenscore countries and ten went over to Ireland to revenge the blow given to Branwen; and concerning the seven years' banquet i n Harlech, and the singing of the birds of Rhiannon, and the sojourning of the h ead for the space of fourscore years.

The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 385]

NOTES TO BRANWEN THE DAUGHTER OF LLYR. 369a BENDIGEID VRAN.--Page <page 369>. BRAN the son of Llyr Llediaith, and sovereign of Britain, derives, according to the Welsh authorities, his title of Bendigeid, or the Blessed, from the circumst ance of his having introduced Christianity into this Island. They tell us that h e was the father of the celebrated Caradawc (Caractacus), whose captivity he is said to have shared; and proceed to state that having embraced the Christian fai th, during his seven years' detention in Rome, he returned to his native country , and caused the Gospel to be preached there. [*1] The following Triad recites t hese events. "The three blissful Rulers of the Island of Britain, Bran the Blessed, the son o f Llyr Llediaith, who first brought the faith of Christ to the nation of the Cym ry from Rome, where he was seven years a hostage for his son Caradawc, whom the Romans made prisoner through the craft, and deceit, and treachery of Aregwedd Fo eddawg [usually supposed to be Cartismandua]. The second was Lleurig ab Coel ab Cyllyn Sant, who was called Lleufer Mawr, [the great Light], and built the ancie nt church at Llandaff, which [p. 386] was the first in Britain, and who gave the privileges of land, and of kindred, a nd of social rights, and of society to such as were of the faith of Christ. The

third was Cadwaladyr the Blessed, who gave refuge, with his lands, and with all his goods, to the believers who fled from the Saxons without faith, and from the aliens who would have slain them."--Tr. 35. The benefit which Bran thus conferred upon his country procured for his family t he distinction of being accounted one of the three Holy Tribes; the families of Cunedda Wledig and Brychan Brycheiniog were the other two. All this, however, it may be observed, is much at variance with the particulars of Caradawc's captivity, and of his family, recorded by classical writers. Bran is ranked with Prydain ab Aedd Mawr, and Dyvnwal Moelmud as one of the thre e Kings who gave stability to sovereignty by the excellence of their system of g overnment.--Tr. 36. Various ancient Welsh documents allude to the incidents recorded of Bran in the Mabinogi of Branwen. Thus in the curious poem entitled Kerdd am Veib Llyr ab Bry chwel Powys, attributed to Taliesin, are the following lines,-I was with Bran in Ireland, I saw when Morddwyd Tyllon was slain. [*1] And there is a Triad upon the story of his head being buried un der the White Tower of London, with the face towards France, intended as a charm against foreign invasion. Arthur, it appears, proudly disinterred the head, pre ferring to hold the Island by his own strength alone, and this is recorded as on e of the fatal disclosures of Britain. "The three Closures and Disclosures of the Island; First the head of Bendigeid V ran ab Llyr, which Owain the son of Maxen Wledig buried under the White Tower in London, and while it was go placed no invasion could be made upon this Island; the second was the bones of Gwrthevyr the Blessed [Vortimer], which were buried in the chief harbour of the Island, and while they remained there hidden all inv asions were ineffectual. The third was the dragons buried by Lludd ab Beli, in t he city of Pharaon, in the rocks Of Snowdon. And the three closures were made un der the blessing of God and his attributes, and evil befel from the time of thei r disclosure. Gwrtheyrn Gwrtheneu [Vortigern], disclosed the dragons [p. 387] to revenge the displeasure of the Cymry against him, and he invited the Saxons i n the guise of men of defence to fight against the Gwyddyl Ffychti; and after th is he disclosed the bones of Gwrthevyr the Blessed, through love of Ronwen [Rowe na], the daughter of the Saxon Hengist. And Arthur disclosed the head of Bendige id Vran ab Llyr, because he chose not to hold the Island except by his own stren gth. And after the three disclosures came the chief invasions upon the race of t he Cymry."--Tr. 53. The name of Bran is of frequent occurrence in the poems of Cynddelw, and other b ards of the middle ages.

369b HARLECH.--Page <page 369>. MOST of the localities which occur in the Tale of Branwen are too well known to need any description; one or two, however, require a slight notice. Of Harlech, it may be remarked that it is also called Twr Bronwen, or Branwen's Tower. The n ame of Caer Collwyn was also bestowed upon it after Collwyn ab Tangno, chief of

one of the fifteen Noble Tribes of North Wales. It possesses the ruins of a fine castle. Harlech stands on the sea coast, on the confines of Ardudwy, one of the six districts of Merionethshire, of which the portion called Dyffryn Ardudwy is a remnant of the Cantrev y Gwaelod, inundated in the time of Gwyddno Garanhir. Edeyrnion, mentioned a little further on in the story, is also situated in Merio nethshire. Talebolion is a Commot in Anglesey. Aberffraw, likewise in Anglesey, was the residence of the princes of Gwynedd fro m the time of Roderick the Great, in 843, to that of the last Llywelyn, in 1282.

369c EUROSSWYDD.--Page <page 369>. EUROSSWYDD is beyond doubt the Roman general Ostorius, the captor of Llyr Lledia ith, and his family, including Bran and Caradawc (Caractacus). He is mentioned as such in Triad L, already quoted.--See <page 192>.

369d BELI THE SON. OF MANOGAN.--Page <page 369>. BELI, surnamed the Great, was king over Britain forty years, and was succeeded i n the sovereignty by his sons, Lludd and Caswallawn, better known as Cassivelaun us. In the Armes attributed to Taliesin, Beli is thus addressed,-[p. 388] "Greatly do I honour thee Victorious Beli, Son of Manogan the king. Do thou preserve the glory Of the Honey Island [*1] of Beli." Myv. Arch. I. p. 73.

370a BRANWEN.--Page <page 370>. THE beautiful Branwen (or Bronwen, the "white-bosomed," as she is more frequentl y called), is one of the most popular heroines of Welsh romance. No less celebra ted for her woes than for her charms, we find that her eventful story was a favo urite theme with the bards and poets of her nation. Numerous instances might be adduced of the allusions to her, which their compositions contain; suffice it to refer to the words of Davydd ab Gwilym, who, in one of his odes addressed to Mo rvudd, compares her hue to that of Bronwen, the daughter of Llyr. The indignities to which Branwen was subjected in Ireland are referred to in one of the Triads (49). In 1813, a grave containing a funeral urn was discovered on the banks of the riv er Alaw, in Anglesey, in a spot called Ynys Bronwen. The appearance of the grave , and its remarkable locality, led to the inference that it might indeed be the "Bedd Petrual," the four-sided place of burial, in which, according to the text, her sorrowing companions deposited the remains of the unfortunate heroine of th

e Mabinogion. The following account of its discovery was communicated, in 1821, to the Cambro-Briton (and printed in that publication, II. p. 71), by Sir R. C. Hoare, on the authority of Richard Fenton, Esq., of Fishguard. "An Account of the Discovery, in 1813, of an Urn, in which, there is every reaso n to suppose, the ashes of Bronwen (White Bosom), the daughter of Llyr, and aunt to the great Caractacus, were deposited. A farmer, living on the banks of the Alaw, a river in the Isle of Anglesea, havi ng occasion for stones, to make some addition to his farm-buildings, and having observed a stone or two peeping through the turf of a circular elevation on a fl at not far from the river, was induced to examine it, where, after paring off th e turf, he came to a considerable heap of stones, or carnedd, covered with earth , which he [p. 389] removed with some degree of caution, and got to a cist formed of coarse flags ca nted and covered over. On removing the lid, he found it contained an urn placed with its mouth downwards, full of ashes and half-calcined fragments of bone. The report of this discovery soon went abroad, and came to the ears of the parson o f the parish, and another neighbouring clergyman, both fond of, and conversant i n, Welsh antiquities, who were immediately reminded of a passage in one of the e arly Welsh romances, called the Mabinogion (or juvenile tales), the same that is quoted in Dr. Davies's Latin and Welsh Dictionary, as well as in Richards's, un der the word Petrual (square). 'Bedd petrual a wnaed i Fronwen ferch Lyr ar lan Alaw, ac yno y claddwyd hi.' A square grave was made for Bronwen, the daughter of Llyr, on the banks of the Alaw, and there she was buried. Happening to be in Anglesea soon after this discovery, I could not resist the te mptation of paying a visit to so memorable a spot, though separated from it by a distance of eighteen miles. I found it, in all local respects, exactly as descr ibed to me by the clergyman above mentioned, and as characterised by the cited p assage from the romance. The tumulus, raised over the venerable deposit, was of considerable circuit, elegantly rounded, but low, about a dozen paces from the r iver Alaw. [*1] The Urn was preserved entire, with an exception of a small bit o ut of its lip, was ill-baked, very rude and simple, having no other ornament tha n little pricked dots, in height from about a foot to fourteen inches, and nearl y of the following shape.

[p. 390] [paragraph continues] When I saw the urn, the ashes and half-calcined bones were in it." Branwen appears to be the Brungwaine or Brangian of romance, though the characte r of the Welsh heroine, and the part she sustains, differ widely from those attr ibuted to the confidante of Tristan and Yseult la Belle. In like manner Matholwc h the Irishman also seems identical with Morholt the stern king of Ireland of th e Trouveres.--See the Romances of Meliadus of Leonnoys, Tristan, &c.

370b THE ISLAND OF THE MIGHTY.--Page <page 370>.

YNYS Y KEDYRN, the Island of the Mighty, is one of the many names bestowed upon Britain by the Welsh. A Triad, in which several more of these ancient appellatio ns are preserved, asserts that while yet uninhabited the Island was called Clas Merddin, but that after its colonization it bore the name of Vel Ynys, which was again changed in compliment to its conquest by Brut, into Ynys Prydain, or the Island of Brut. The same Triad states that some authorities attribute the more m odern designation to its conquest by Prydain son of Aedd the Great.--Myv. Arch. II. p. 1.

372a AN ATONEMENT FOR THE INSULT.--Page <page 372>. THE compensation here offered to Matholwch, is strictly in accordance, except as regards the size of the silver rod, with what was required by the Laws of Hywel Dda, where the fine for insult to a king is fixed at a "hundred cows on account of every cantrev in the kingdom, and a silver rod with three knobs at the top, that shall reach from the ground to the king's face, when he sits in his chair a nd as thick as his ring-finger; and a golden bason, which shall hold fully as mu ch as the king drinks, of the thickness of a husbandman's nail, who shall have f ollowed husbandry for seven years, and a golden cover, as broad as the king's fa ce, equally thick as the bason." In another MS. the payment, instead of being on ly partly in gold, is said to have been entirely in that metal; thus "a golden r od as long as himself, of the thickness of his little finger, and a golden table t, as broad as his face, and as thick as a husbandman's nail."

374a THE CAULDRON.--Page <page 374>. THE powers exercised by this family through the influence of the cauldron, bear a strong resemblance to those possessed by the Tuatha [p. 391] de Danann, a race of necromancers, who once invaded Ireland. This tribe, whilst sojourning in Asia, were at war with the Syrians, and were enabled to triumph th rough the aid of magic, as they had the art of resuscitating such of their numbe r as fell in fight by sending demons to animate their corpses, so that the Syria ns found to their dismay that those whom they had slain met them in battle the n ext day as vigorous as ever. In this difficulty, they had recourse to the advice of their priests, who told them to drive a stake of mountain ash through the bo dies of such as they slew, and that, if they had been animated by demons, they w ould instantly turn into worms. This counsel was followed, and the Tuatha de Dan ann were compelled to quit that country. An ancient Irish poem contains a series of Triads respecting this race which rem ind us of some passages in the Mabinogi of Kilhwch and Olwen.--See <page 228>. "Blackness, obscurity, and darkness were their three cup-bearers; strength, robu stness, and vigour, their three horses; indignation, pursuit and swiftness, thei r three bounds, &c."--See Bunting.

377a CARADAWC THE SON OF BRAN.--Page <page 377>. THIS Prince, so well known under his Latinized name of Caractacus, is chiefly re markable for his captivity in Rome, which, according to Welsh authorities, was s hared by his father Bran, his grandfather Llyr Llediaith, and all his near kinsf

olk. There are several Triads relating to this principal event of his life. [*1] From one of these it seems that he was chosen by his countrymen as their genera l, or War-king, to repel the incursions of the Romans, and another corroborates this by styling him "One of the three Rulers of choice," having been elected by the voice of the country and the people, although he was not an elder. There is no doubt of his having stood high in the esteem of his nation; and we are told t hat "the men of Britain, from the prince to the slave, became his followers in t heir country's need against the progress of the foe and of destruction. And wher esoever he went in war, all the men of the Island went in his train, and none de sired to remain at home." [*2] Caradawc is also extolled as one of those brave princes, who, by reason of their valour, could never be overcome save by treachery; [p. 392] and the treason by which he was cast into the hands of his enemies is very frequ ently alluded to. Avarwy ab Lludd ab Beli, and his daughter Aregwedd Foeddawg, w ere the traitors, and are mentioned in terms of disgust and execration. "One of the praiseworthy opposers," is another of the titles bestowed upon Caradawc, bec ause he resisted the invasion of the Caesarians.

381a WHITE MOUNT IN LONDON.--Page <page 381>. UNDER the name of the Gwynvryn, or White Mount of the text, allusion is most pro bably intended to the Tower of London, in which the Welsh, who always regarded t he capital as a city of their own foundation, appear to have felt a peculiar int erest. Llywarch ab Llewelyn (Prydydd y Moch), a poet of the twelfth and early part of t he thirteenth century, speaks of it as "The White eminence of London, a place of splendid fame."--Myv. Arch. I. p. 280. The keep of the metropolitan fortress of England has in turn been attributed to Celts, Romans, Saxons, and Normans; now, however, the "Towers of Julius" are ass igned, upon irrefragable evidence, to the early Norman period.

CASWALLAWN.--Page <page 382>. CASWALLAWN the son of Beli, known more generally by the name of Cassivelaunus, b estowed on him by the Romans, is a celebrated character in Welsh history. He is recorded as one of the chiefs chosen to oppose the invasion of Caesar, and was s tyled one of the War-kings of Britain.--Tr. 24. It is related that Caswallawn led an army of sixty-one thousand men against Juli us Caesar. The charms of Flur, the daughter of Myguach Gorr, are said to have be en the cause of this incursion, She had been carried off by Mwrchan, a Gaulish p rince, in alliance with Caesar, to whom he intended to present his prize. The ex pedition which Caswallawn headed was successful; six thousand of the partisans o f Caesar were slain, and Flur was recovered. Some of the circumstances of this e xploit acquired for Caswallawn the designation of "One of the Three Gold-Shoemak ers" (the other two being Manawyddan mab Llyr, and Llew Llaw Gyffes, as will be detailed hereafter), and the whole achievement occasioned him to be ranked among the three faithful lovers of Britain. [p. 393]

The army of Caswallawn did not return with their leader, whence it is called one of the three Emigrant hosts of Britain. [*1] Meinlas was the name of Caswallawn's horse.--Trioedd y Meirch ii.

384a FIVE DIVISIONS OF IRELAND.--Page <page 384>. BEFORE the invasion of the Anglo-Normans, in Henry II.'s time, Ireland was divid ed into a pentarchy composed of the kingdoms of Munster, Leinster, Connaught, Ul ster, and Meath.

Footnotes ^385:1 For an account of Bendigeid Vran, see Professor Rees's Welsh Saints p. 77 . ^386:1 Myv. Arch. I. p. 66. ^388:1 An ancient name for Britain. ^389:1 "This spot is still called Ynys Bronwen, or the Islet of Bronwen, which i s a remarkable confirmation of the genuineness of this discovery." ^391:1 Tr. 17, 23, 24, 34, 41, 55. ^391:2 In this Triad (41) he is called one of the exalted servants, and is disti nguished as the son of a Bard. ^393:1 The above particulars with regard to Caswallawn are related in the Triads 14,102,124, and xl. The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, [1877], at [p. 397]

MANAWYDDAN THE SON OF LLYR HERE IS THE THIRD PORTION OF THE MABINOGI WHEN the seven men of whom we spoke above had buried the head of Bendigeid Vran, in the White Mount an London, with its face towards France; Manawyddan gazed up on the town of London, and upon his companions, and heaved a great sigh; and muc h grief and heaviness came upon him. "Alas, Almighty Heaven, woe is me," he excl aimed, "there is none save myself without a resting-place this night." "Lord," s aid Pryderi, "be not so sorrowful. Thy cousin is king of the Island of the Might y, and though he should do thee wrong, thou hast never been a claimant of land o r possessions. Thou art the third disinherited prince." "Yea," answered he, "but although this man is my cousin, it grieveth me to see any one in the place of m y brother Bendigeid Vran, neither can I be happy in the same dwelling with him." "Wilt thou follow the counsel of another?" said Pryderi. "I stand in need of co unsel," he answered,

[p. 398] [paragraph continues] "and what may that counsel be?" "Seven Cantrevs remain unt o me," said Pryderi, "wherein Rhiannon my mother dwells. I will bestow her upon thee and the seven Cantrevs with her, and though thou hadst no possessions but t hose Cantrevs only, thou couldst not have seven Cantrevs fairer than they. Kicva , the daughter of Gwynn Gloyw, is my wife, and since the inheritance of the Cant revs belongs to me, do thou and Rhiannon enjoy them, and if thou ever desire any possessions thou wilt take these." "I do not, Chieftain," said he; "Heaven rewa rd thee for thy friendship." "I would show thee the best friendship in the world if thou wouldst let me." "I will, my friend," said he, "and Heaven reward thee. I will go with thee to seek Rhiannon and to look at thy possessions." "Thou wil t do well," he answered. "And I believe that thou didst never hear a lady discou rse better than she, and when she was in her prime none was ever fairer. Even no w her aspect is not uncomely." They set forth, and, however long the journey, they came at length to Dyved, and a feast was prepared for them against their coming to Narberth, which Rhiannon and Kicva had provided. Then began Manawyddan and Rhiannon to sit and to talk to gether, and from their discourse his mind and his thoughts became warmed towards her, and he thought in his heart he had never beheld any lady more fulfilled of grace and beauty than she. "Pryderi," said he, "I will that it be as thou didst say." "What saying was that?" asked Rhiannon. "Lady," said Pryderi, "I did offe r thee as a wife to Manawyddan the son of Llyr." "By that will I gladly abide," said Rhiannon. "Right glad am I also," said Manawyddan; "may Heaven reward him w ho hath shown unto me friendship so perfect as this." And before the feast was over she became his bride. Said Pryderi, "Tarry ye here the rest of the feast, and I will go into Lloegyr to tender my homage unto Casw allawn the son of Beli." "Lord," said Rhiannon, "Caswallawn is in Kent, thou may est therefore tarry at the feast, and wait until he [p. 399] shall be nearer." "We will wait," he answered. So they finished the feast. And t hey began to make the circuit of Dyved, and to hunt, and to take their pleasure. And as they went through the country, they had never seen lands more pleasant t o live in, nor better hunting grounds, nor greater plenty of honey and fish. And such was the friendship between those four, that they would not be parted from each other by night nor by day. And in the midst of all this he went to Caswallawn at Oxford, and tendered his h omage; and honourable was his reception there, and highly was he praised for off ering his homage. And after his return, Pryderi and Manawyddan feasted and took their ease and ple asure. And they began a feast at Narberth, for it was the chief palace; and ther e originated all honour. And when they had ended the first meal that night, whil e those who served them ate, they arose and went forth, and proceeded all four t o the Gorsedd of Narberth, and their retinue with them. And as they sat thus, be hold, a peal of thunder, and with the violence of the thunderstorm, lo there cam e a fall of mist, so thick that not one of them could see the other. And after t he mist it became light all around. And wh