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SUPPLEMENTARY CONCENTRATION PROBLEMS 1. Whole milk usually contains 5.0% milk fat by volume/volume. If you drink a 250.

0 mL glass of whole milk, how much milk fat have you consumed?

5.0 % V/V =

Vfat x 100 250.0 mL milk Vfat 5.0 ml fat = 100 ml milk 250.0 mL milk 5.0 ml fat Vfat = 250.0 mL milk x = 12.5 mL = 13 mL fat 100 ml milk

2. A solution contains 5.30 g of potassium chloride in 255.5 g of water. Calculate the weight/weight percent of solute in this solution. (Dont ignore the mass of the solute).

% W/W KCl =

5.3 g KCl x 100 = 2.0 % W/W KCl 255.5 g water + 5.3 g KCl

3. Vinegar is sold as a 5.0% (V/V) solution of acetic acid in water. Assuming that liquid volumes are additive, what volume of water must be added to 15 mL of acetic acid to produce synthetic vinegar?

5.0 % V/V =

15 mL acetic acid x 100 Vsolution

5.0 mL acetic acid 15 mL acetic acid = 100 mL vinegar Vsolution Vsolution = VH 2 O + acetic acid = 300 mL vinegar ! VH 2 O = 300 mL - 15 mL = 285 mL or 0.29 L
4. Electricians solder is 60.0% tin and 40.0% lead by mass. What is the mole ratio of the two elements?

1 mol Sn = 0.506 mol Sn 118.69 g Sn 1 mol Pb n Pb = 40.0 g Pb x = 0.193 mol Pb 207.19 g Pb 0.506 mol Sn 2.62 Sn ratio = = ! 2.62 Sn :1 Pb 0.193 mol Pb 1 Pb n Sn = 60.0 g Sn x

5. Evaporation of a 23.47 g sample of slush yields a 4.58 g CaCl2 salt residue. Calculate the weight/weight percentage of calcium chloride in the slush.

4.58 g salt x 100 23.47 g slush = 19.5 % W/W salt ! the % W/W is 19.5% CaCl 2 % W/W salt =
6. The recommended W/V percentage for a TSP solution used to clean walls before wallpapering is 1.7%. What mass of TSP is needed to make 2.0 L of this solution?

mTSP = 2000 mL solution x = 34 g TSP

1.7 g TSP 100 mL solution

7. The density of ethanol is 0.789 g/mL. How many grams of ethanol should be mixed with 225 mL of water to make a 4.5% (v/v) mixture? (8.4 g)

D = 0.789 g/mL = % V/V =

m ; m = DV V

Vsolute x 100 Vsolute + Vsolvent Vsolute x 100 Vsolute + 225 mL

4.5 % V/V =

Vsolute 4.5 mL = 100 mL Vsolute + 225 mL 0.045 (Vsolute + 225 mL) = Vsolute ; 0.045 Vsolute + 10.125 mL = Vsolute (1 " 0.045)Vsolute = 10.125 mL ; Vsolute = 10.60 mL then m = DV = 0.789 g ! mL-1 x 10.60 mL = 8.4 g

8. Ammonium nitrate, which is a major ingredient in fertilizers releases nitrate ion into the water. The World Health Organization has set an upper limit of 10.0 ppm for infants. If an infant has a mass of 4.0 kg, what is the maximum allowable mass of nitrate ions that would be permitted in the infants body tissues?

m nitrate = 4.0 kg infant x

10 mg nitrate = 40 mg nitrate 1 kg infant

Concentrations and Dilutions Worksheet


1. What is the molarity of a solution in which 0.45 grams of sodium nitrate are dissolved in 265 mL of solution. (0.020 M)

m NaNO 3 = 0.45 g ; M NaNO 3 = 85.00 g/mol ; V = 265 mL = 0.265 L C=? n m C= = V MV 0.45 g C= 85.00 g ! mol-1 x 0.265 L = 0.020 mol/L = 0.020 M
2. What will the volume of a 0.50 M solution be if it contains 25 grams of calcium hydroxide? (680 mL)

m Ca(OH) 2 = 0.50 g ; M Ca(OH) 2 = 74.10 g/mol ; C = 0.50 M = 0.50 mol/L V=? n m m C= = ; V= V MV MC 0.50 g V= 74.10 g ! mol-1 x 0.50 mol ! L-1 = 0.675 L = 680 mL
3. How many grams of ammonia are present in 5.0 L of a 0.050 M solution? (4.3 grams)

V = 5.0 L ; M NH 3 = 17.04 g/mol ; C = 0.050 M = 0.050 mol/L m=? n m C= = ; m = CMV V MV m = 0.050 mol ! L-1 x 17.04 g ! mol-1 x 5.0 L = 4.3 g

4.

How many grams of beryllium chloride are needed to make 125 mL of a 0.0500 M solution? (0.500 grams)

V = 125.0 mL = 0.125 L; M BeCl 2 = 79.91 g/mol ; C = 0.05000 M = 0.05000 mol/L m=? n m C= = ; m = CMV V MV m = 0.05000 mol ! L-1 x 79.91 g ! mol-1 x 0.125 L = 0.500 g
5. If 25.0 mL of water is added to 125 mL of a 0.15 M NaOH solution, what will the concentration of the diluted solution be? (0.125 M)

V1 = 125 mL = 0.125 L; C1 = 0.15 M ; = 0.15 mol/L

V2 = 25.0 mL + 125 mL = 150. mL = 0.150 L C2 = ? C1V1 V2

C1V1 = C 2 V2 ; C 2 =

0.15 mol ! L-1 x 0.125 L = 0.150 L = 0.125 mol/L = 0.125 M

6.

If 100.0 mL of water is added to a sample of 0.150 M NaOH solution until the final volume is 150.0 mL, what will the molarity of the diluted solution be? (0.0500 M)

V1 = 50.0 mL = 0.0500 L ; C1 = 0.150 M ; = 0.150 mol/L C1V1 = C 2 V2 ; C 2 =

V2 = 150.0 mL = 0.1500 L C2 = ? C1V1 V2

0.150 mol ! L-1 x 0.0500 L = 0.150 L = 0.0500 mol/L = 0.0500 M


7. How much 0.0500 M HCl solution can be made by diluting 250.0 mL of 10.0 M HCl? (50.0 L)

V1 = 250.0 mL = 0.2500 L ; C1 = 10.0 M ; = 10.0 mol/L C1V1 = C 2 V2 ; V2 = =


8.

V2 = ? C 2 = 0.0500 M = 0.0500 mol/L C1V1 C2

10.0 mol ! L-1 x 0.2500 L 0.0500 mol ! L-1

= 50.0 L

If a scientist has 345 mL of a 1.5 M NaCl solution and she boils the water until the volume of the solution is 250. mL, what will the final concentration of the solution be? (2.07 M)

V1 = 345 mL = 0.345 L ; C1 = 1.5 M ; = 1.5 mol/L C1V1 = C 2 V2 ; C 2 =

V2 = 250. mL = 0.250 L C2 = ? C1V1 V2

1.5 mol ! L-1 x 0.345 L = = 2.1 mol/L = 2.1 M 0.250 L

9.

How much water would I need to add to 500. mL of a 2.40 M KCl solution to make a 1.00 M solution? (700. mL)

V1 = 500. mL = 0.500 L ; C1 = 2.40 M ; = 2.40 mol/L

V2 = 0.500 L + VH 2 O C 2 = 1.00 M

= 1.00 mol/L CV C1V1 = C 2 V2 ; V2 = 1 1 C2 0.500 L + VH 2 O = 2.40 mol ! L-1 x 0.500 L 1.00 mol ! L-1 VH 2 O = 1.20 L - 0.500 L = 0.700 L = 700. mL

10. A clear solution is made from 1.5 L of 0.40 M MgCl2 and 0.50 L of water. Calculate the resultant concentration of chloride ion. (0.60 M)

V1 = 1.5 L ; C1 = 0.40 M ; = 0.40 mol/L

V2 = 2.0 L C2 = ? C1V1 V2

C1V1 = C 2 V2 ; C 2 =

0.40 mol " L-1 x 1.5 L = = 0.30 mol/L = 0.30 M 2.0 L then 0.30 mol MgCl 2 2 mol Cl-1 CCl -1 = x 1L 1 mol MgCl 2

! [ Cl-1 ] = 0.60 M

11. The concentration of acetic acid, CH3COOH , in a sample of vinegar is determined to be 0.878 mol/L. If the density of the acetic acid is 1.045 g/mL, calculate the volume/volume percent of acetic acid in the vinegar sample. (5.05 % V/V)

C vinegar = 0.878 mol/L ; m ; M CH 3 COOH = 60.06 g/mol V 0.878 mol CH 3COOH 60.06 g 1L D vinegar = x x 1 L vinegar 1 mol CH 3COOH 1000 mL D CH 3 COOH = 1.045 g/mL = = 0.05273 g/mL D vinegar D CH 3 COOH = 0.05273 g/ml x 100 = 5.05 % V/V acetic acid 1.045 g/ml

SOLUBILITY EXERCISE
160
Solubility (g/100 g water)

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Temperature (C) 70 80 90 100 Lead nitrate Potassium nitrate Ammonium chloride Sodium chloride Potassium chlorate

1. State the solubility of the following substances at 30C. (a) lead nitrate 65 g/100g (b) sodium chloride

37 g/100g

2. State the temperature at which 56 g of solute will dissolve in 100g of water for each of the following substances. (a) ammonium chloride 60C (b) potassium nitrate 38C 3. What mass of potassium chlorate can be dissolved in 200 g of water at (a) 20C 24 - 30 g (b) 80C 78 ! 80 g 4. (a) What mass of ammonium chloride can be dissolved in 100 g of water at 90C? 70 g (b) If you were to attempt to dissolve 100 g of ammonium chloride in 100 g of water at 90C, what mass of the ammonium chloride would remain undissolved? 100 g - 70 g = 30 g 5. (a) What mass of lead nitrate can be dissolved in 200 g of water at 60C? 93 g/100 g x 2 = 186 g (b) If you were to attempt to dissolve 150 g of lead nitrate in 200 g of water at 60C, what additional mass of the lead nitrate could still be dissolved? 186 g - 150 g = 36 g 6. How much more lead nitrate could be dissolved in 100 g of water at 50C than sodium chloride at the same temperature?85 g - 38 g = 47 g 7. (a) If 200 g of potassium nitrate is dissolved in 200 g of water at 90C and allowed to cool, at what temperature would this solution be considered saturated? Saturated at approx. 55 C. (b) If the temperature were raised from the temperature you gave to your answer in (a), would the solution now be considered, unsaturated or supersaturated? Unsaturated. (c) If the temperature were lowered from the temperature you gave to your answer in (a), would the solution now be considered, unsaturated or supersaturated? Supersaturated. (d) In general if a solution has a concentration of solute which is above the solubility curve on the solubility graph, will the solution will be unsaturated, saturated or supersaturated? Supersaturated. (e) In general if a solution has a concentration of solute which is on the solubility curve on the solubility graph, will the solution will be unsaturated, saturated or supersaturated? Saturated

(f) In general if a solution has a concentration of solute which is below the solubility curve on the solubility graph, will the solution will be unsaturated, saturated or supersaturated? Unsaturated. (g) If the solution from (a) were cooled and allowed to crystallize, what mass of solute would have crystallized when the temperature reached 20C?
Solubility at 20C is approx. 32 g/100 g or 64 g/200 g, therefore 200 g - 64 g = 136 g.

8. An unsaturated solution was prepared by dissolving 30.0 g of lead nitrate in 100 g of water at 20C. (a) What mass of lead nitrate should be added to the solution in order to saturate it at 20C?
56.5 g - 30.0 g = 26.5 g

(b) If 50 g of water is added to the saturated solution at 20C, what is its new concentration in grams/100 g of water? 56.5g x = ; x = 37.7 g 150 g 100 g 9. If a maximum of 9.0 g of calcium hydroxide will dissolve in 100 g of water at 0C, how much calcium hydroxide could be dissolved in 84 g of water? 9.0 g x = ; x = 7.6 g 100 g 84 g 10. You are given a solution of potassium nitrate whose concentration is 60 g/100g (a) At what temperature will this solution be saturated? 38C (b) What would be the total mass of this saturated solution if it were made using 100 g of water? 160 g (c) If you were given a 100 g sample of this solution, i) how much of the 100 g total mass would be potassium nitrate 60 g sol' t x = ; x = 37.5 g sol' t 160 g sol' n 100 g sol' n ii) how much of the total mass would be water?
mass of solvent = 100 g 37.5 g = 62.5 g

iii) how much more solute can be dissolved if the temperature of the solution is 70C?

140 g x = ; x = 87.5 g ; 87.5 g - 37.5 g = 50.0 g 100 g 62.5 g


11. Each of the following ten test tubes contains 10 mL of water at 60C. The following masses of an unknown solid are placed in successive tubes; 2 g, 4 g, 6 g, 8 g, etc. up to 20 g in the last test tube. After the tubes are shaken, it is observed that the entire solid has dissolved in the first five test tubes, but that there is an increasing amount of undissolved solid in each of the remaining test tubes. (a) Which of the substances in the above solubility graph could be in the test tubes?
Solubility is between 10 g / 10 mL and 12 g /10 mL or 100 g/100g and 120 g/100 g at 35 which corresponds to potassium nitrate.

(b) If the unknown is indeed the substance you named in part "a" above, what will happen if the solution in each of the test tubes is cooled to 10C?
At 10 C the solubility falls to 20 g/ 100 g or 2 g/ 10 mL, therefore the first test tube would be the only one with complete dissolution.

USING THE SOLUBILITY RULES EXERCISE A:

1. Underline which of lead (II) chloride, lead (II) sulphate or lead (II) nitrate is soluble? 2. When this solid compound is added to water write the ionic equation for this dissociation:

Pb(NO3)2 (s)

H 2O !

Pb2+ (aq)

2 NO31- (aq)

3. Underline which of aqueous sodium ions, aqueous sulphate ions or aqueous acetate ions, will form a
precipitate with the aqueous lead (II) ions if added to the above solution.

4. Underline which of calcium ions, sodium ions or silver ions will form a soluble compound with the ion
underlined in the previous step.

5. Write the chemical equation for formation of the ions in #3 and #4 from the solid salt:

Na2SO4 (s)

H 2O !

2 Na1+ (aq)

SO42- (aq)

6. Name the precipitate you expect to obtain from Step 2 and Step 3:

Lead (II) sulfate, PbSO4


7. Write the balanced chemical question by adding the aqueous reactants form Step 2 to Step 5.

Pb(NO3)2 (aq) Pb2+ (aq)


EXERCISE B:

Na2SO4 (aq)

PbSO4 (s)

2 NaNO3 (aq)

8. Write the net ionic equation for the reaction above.

SO42- (aq)

PbSO4 (s)

9. Write a dissociation equation for the dissolving of silver nitrate.

AgNO3 (s)

H 2O ! H 2O !

Ag1+ (aq)

NO31- (aq)

10. Write a dissociation equation for the dissolving of sodium bromide.

NaBr (s)

Na1+ (aq)

Br1- (aq)

11. Name the precipitate which will form if solutions of sodium bromide and silver nitrate are mixed?

Silver bromide, AgBr


12. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction between the aqueous reactants in Step 9 & 10.

AgNO3 (aq) Ag1+ (aq)

NaBr (aq) Br1- (aq)

AgBr (s)

NaNO3 (aq)

13. Give the net ionic equation for the reaction in Step 12.

AgBr (aq)

EXERCISE C: The objective is to find reactions that will allow one of two metal ions to form a precipitate by adding an appropriate solution to the mixture. Once the first metal ion has been made to precipitate, you will then devise a method to precipitate the other metal ion.

14. Will a solution containing both barium and copper (II) ions contain anything other than water, barium ions and
copper (II) ion? If yes, explain why. They will contain anions from the original solid salts that produced them once they dissolved in water.

15. If it were added to a solution containing both barium and copper (II) ions, underline which of aqueous chloride
ions, aqueous carbonate ions or aqueous sulphate ions will form a precipitate with one of aqueous barium ions or aqueous copper (II) ions (but not both).

16. Name the precipitate that will form if you were to carry out this addition.

Barium sulfate, BaSO4


17. In order to make a solution of the ion you selected in Step 15, what compound would you dissolve in water?
Remember that the compound you select will introduce another positive metal ion into the chemical soup containing the barium and copper (II) ions. In order that this introduced ion not cause extraneous precipitation reactions later in the experiment, the compound you select now should contain a metal ion which will never precipitate regardless of the negative aqueous ions which may be currently present or be introduced later.

Sodium sulfate, Na2SO4


18. Write a dissociation equation for the dissolving of the compound selected in the previous step.

Na2SO4 (s)

H 2O !

2 Na1+ (aq)

SO41- (aq)

19. Write a balanced chemical equation for the precipitation reaction that will occur if you add a solution of the
compound selected in the previous step to a solution containing a mixture of barium and copper (II) ions.

Ba2+ (aq)

Na2SO4 (aq)

BaSO4 (s)

2 Na1+ (aq)

20. Underline which of Ba2+ or Cu2+ still remains in the solution. 21. Devise a method of precipitating this remaining positive ion from the solution, which wont cause precipitation
with any of the other original positive ion that might still be present in solution?

Add NaOH
22. Write the balanced chemical equation for this final reaction.

Cu2+ (aq)

2 NaOH (aq)

Cu(OH)2 (s)

2 Na1+ (aq)

Reactions Involving Solutions


1. Silver nitrate solution may be used to precipitate the chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution. (a) Give the balanced, total ionic, net ionic equations and reaction type(s). AgNO3(aq) + NaCl (aq) " AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) Ag+(aq) + NO31-(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl1-(aq) " AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO31-(aq) Ag+(aq) + Cl1-(aq) " AgCl(s) double displacement precipitation (b) Calculate the volume of 2.50 M silver nitrate solution needed to precipitate 30.0 mL of 1.50 M sodium chloride solution. (0.0180 L = 180. mL)

VAgNO3 = 0.0300 L x

1.50 mol NaCl 1 mol AgNO3 1L x x 1L 1 mol NaCl 2.50 mol AgNO3 (0.045 mol) (0.045 mol)

= 0.0180 L
2. (a) Zinc will displace copper from a copper (II) nitrate solution. Give the balanced, total ionic, net ionic equations and reaction type(s).

Zn(s) + Cu(NO3)2 (aq) " Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + Cu(s) Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) " Cu(s) + Zn2+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) " Cu(s) + Zn2+(aq) single displacement (b) Calculate the volume of 4.00 M copper(II) nitrate needed to dissolve and oxidize 5.00 g of zinc. (0.0191 L = 191 mL)

VCu(NO 3 ) 2 = 5.00 g x

1 mol Zn 1 mol Cu(NO3 ) 2 1L x x 65.39 g 1 mol Zn 4.00 mol Cu(NO3 ) 2 (0.0765 mol)

(0.0765 mol) = 0.0191 L

3. Dinitrogen monoxide will react with oxygen gas and water vapor in the atmosphere to produce nitric acid. (a) Give the balanced, total ionic, net ionic equations and reaction type(s). N2O(g) + 2 O2 (g) + H2O(g) " 2 HNO3 (aq) N2O(g) + O2 (g) + H2O(g) " 2 H+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) synthesis

(b) Calculate the molarity of a nitric acid solution produced by the oxidation of 3.00 g of dinitrogen monoxide and subsequent dissolving of the product in 300. mL of water. (0.454 M)

C HNO 3 = 3.00 g x

1 mol N 2O 2 mol HNO3 1 x x 44.02 g 1 mol N 2O 0.300 L (0.068 mol) (0.136 mol) = 0.0454 M

4. What mass of silver will be produced when an excess of tin is added to 250.0 mL of 0.03000 M silver nitrate? (0.8090 g) Sn(s) + 2 AgNO3(aq) " 2 Ag(s) + Sn(NO3)2(aq)

Mass(Ag) = 0.2500 L x

0.03000 mol AgNO3 2 mol Ag 107.87 g x x 1L 2 mol AgNO3 1 mol Ag

= 0.8090 g Ag
5. (a) Assuming that the scale formed on the bottom of a tea kettle forms only as a result of water hardness (Ca(HCO3)2) in the water supply, give the balanced, total ionic, net ionic equations and reaction type(s). Ca(HCO3)2(aq) " CO2 (g) + H2O(l) + CaCO3(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 HCO3-1(aq) " CO2 (g) + H2O(l) + CaCO3(s) decomposition (b) Kettle scale (CaCO3) may be removed by the addition of an acid such as phosphoric acid. Give the balanced, total ionic, and net ionic equations as well as the reaction type(s). 3 CaCO3(s) + 2 H3PO4 (aq) " 3 CO2 (g) + 3 H2O(l) + Ca3(PO4)2 (aq) 3 CaCO3(s) + 6 H+(aq) + 2 PO4 -3(aq) " 3 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l) + Ca3(PO4)2(s) double displacement, decomposition (c) Calculate the concentration of a phosphoric acid solution given that 250. mL of the solution is needed to remove 35.5 g of scale from the bottom of a tea kettle. (0.946 M) 1 mol CaCO3 2 mol H 3PO 4 1 C H 3 PO 4 = 35.5 g x x x 100.09 g 3 mol CaCO3 0.250 L

(0.355 mol) = 0.946 M

(0.237 mol)

ACID-BASE THEORY
1. (a)Give a balanced equation for the proton transfer reaction of a typical Brnsted-Lowry base such as NH3 with water.

NH3 (g) + H2O(l) " NH4+ (aq) + OH-1(aq)


(b) Identify the conjugate acid/base pairs in this system.

base 1

acid 2

acid 1

base 2

(c) What is present in this system which accounts for the basicity of the solution?

OH-1 ions
(d) Could the Arrhenius theory account for this basicity?. Explain.

No, since the NH3 molecule does not contain hydroxide ions which can be released upon dissolving.
(e) Name the two Brnsted-Lowry acids present in this equilibrium system.

H2O & NH4+


(f) Name the two Brnsted-Lowry bases present in this equilibrium system.

NH3 & OH-1


2. Give the equation for the dissolving of pure H2SO4 in pure HC2H3O2.

H2SO4

+ HC2H3O2 ! HSO41-

+ H2C2H3O21+

(a) Identify the conjugate acid/base pairs.

acid 1

base 2

base 1

acid 2

(b) Would this reaction be considered an acid/base reaction under Arrhenius Theory? Explain.

No, because hydrogen ions are not reacting with hydroxide ions and furthermore no Arrhenius base is present.
3. Consider the following acid-base reactions. Write an equation for each of the following reactions. Identify the acids and bases. Indicate one conjugate pair by single underlining their formulas and double underlining the other pair.

(a) H3PO4 acting as a Brnsted acid in an aqueous solution.

H3PO4 (aq) + H2O (l) ! H2PO41- (aq) + H3O+ (aq)


(b) C2H3O21- acting as a Brnsted base in an aqueous solution.

C2H3O2 1-(aq) + H2O (l) ! HC2H3O2 (aq) + OH- (aq)


(c) the proton transfer reaction involving the acid HCO31- and the base SO32-

HCO3 1-(aq) + SO32- (l) ! CO3 2- (aq) + HSO31- (aq)


(d) the nonaqueous reaction in which hydrogen nitrate acts as a base and sulphuric acid acts as an acid.

HNO3 (aq) + H2SO4 (l) ! H2NO3 1+ (aq) + HSO41- (aq)


4. Some acids are have more than one proton (H+) available for donation, eg. H2SO4. These acids are called polyprotic. The loss of these protons may occur in successive steps. (a) Write the ionization equation for the Brnsted-Lowry acid H2SO4 donating one proton (H+).

H2SO4 (aq) + H2O(l) " HSO41- (aq) + H3O+(aq)


(b) Identify the conjugate acid/base pairs.

acid 1

base 2

base 1

acid 2

(c) Identify the product of the above reaction that could function as either a Brnsted-Lowry acid or base.

HSO4-1
(d) Write the ionization equation for the above product donating its remaining proton as a BrnstedLowry acid.

HSO41- (aq) + H2O(l) " SO4 (aq)2- + H3O+(aq)

pH Practice Worksheet
1. What is the pH of a solution that contains 25 grams of hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissolved in 1.5 liters of water? [0.34]

HCl + H 2O " H 3O + + Cln m 25 g C HCl = C H O + = = = = 0.46 mol/L 3 V MV 36.46 g ! mol-1 x 1.5L pH = - log [H 3O + ] = - log (0.46) = 0.34
2. What is the pH of a solution that contains 1.32 grams of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) dissolved in 750 mL of water? [1.445]

+ H 2O " 2 H 3O + + SO 4 2n m 1.32 g C H 2SO 4 = = = = 0.0179 mol/L V MV 98.09 g ! mol-1 x 0.750 mL C H O + = 2 x C H 2SO 4 = 2(0.0179 M) = 0.0359 M H 2SO 4
3

pH = - log [H 3O + ] = - log (0.0359) = 1.445


3. What is the pH of a solution that contains 1.2 moles of nitric acid (HNO3) and 1.7 moles of hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissolved in 1000 liters of water? [2.54]

HNO3 HCl

+ H 2O ! H 3O + + NO3n = 1.2 mol

+ H 2O ! H 3O + + Cln = 1.7 mol n H O + total = 1.2 + 1.7 = 2.9 mol


3

n 2.9 mol CH O + = = = 0.0029 mol/L 3 V 1000 L pH = - log [H 3O + ] = - log (0.0029) = 2.54


4. If a solution has a [H3O+] concentration of 4.5 x 10-7 M, is this an acidic or basic solution? Explain. [6.35]

pH = ! log [H 3O + ] = - log (4.5 x 10-7 ) = 6.35 Since the pH = 6.35 which is less than 7, that means that it will be slightly acidic.

5.

An acidic solution has a pH of 4. If I dilute 10 mL of this solution to a final volume of 1000 mL, what is the pH of the resulting solution? [6.0]

[H 3O + ] = 10-pH = 10-4 = 1 x 10-4 M C1V1 1 x 10- 4 mol ! L-1 x 0.010 L C1V1 = C 2 V2 ; C 2 = = = 1 x 10-6 M mol/L V2 1L pH = - log [H 3O + ] = - log (1 x 10-6 ) = 6.0
6. Determine the pH of a 0.0034 M HNO3 solution. [2.47]

HNO3

+ H 2O ! H 3O + + 0.0034 M

NO3-

pH = - log [H 3O + ] = - log (0.0034) = 2.47


7. Determine the pOH of a 0.0034 M HNO3 solution. [11.53]

+ H 2O ! H 3O + + NO30.0034 M pH = 2.47 ; pH + pOH = 14 ; pOH = 14.00 - 2.47 = 11.53 HNO3


8. Determine the [H3O+] concentration of an HCl solution with a pH of 1.25. [5.6 x 10-2]

+ H 2O ! H 3O + + Cl[H 3O + ] = 10- pH = 10-1.25 = 5.6 x 10- 2 M HCl


9. Determine the [H3O+] concentration of an H2SO4 solution with a pH of 1.25. [2.8 x 10-2]

+ H 2O ! 2 H 3O + + SO 4 2[H 3O + ] = 10- pH = 10-1.25 = 5.6 x 10- 2 M H 2SO 4 1 1 C H 2SO 4 = C H O + = (5.6 x 10- 2 M) = 2.8 x 10- 2 3 2 2
10. Determine the pH of a 4.3 x 10-4 M NaOH solution. [10.63]

NaOH

2 !! ! " Na +

HO

+ OH -

pOH = - log [OH # ] = - log (4.3 x 10- 4 M) = 3.37 pH = 14.00 - 3.37 = 10.63

11. Determine the [H3O+] if a NaOH solution has a pH of 13.65. [2.2 x 10-14M]

NaOH

2 !! ! " Na +

HO

+ OH -

[H 3O + ] = 10- pH = 10 -13.65 = 2.2 x 10-14 M


12. If a solution is created by adding water to 2.3 x 10-4 moles of NaOH and 4.5 x 10-6 moles of HBr until the final volume is 1 L, what is the pH of this solution? [10.35]

NaOH

HBr

NaBr

H 2O

n = 2.3 x 10- 4 mol n = 4.5 x 10-6 mol Since n NaOH > n HBr and the mole raio is 1 : 1, then HBr is the limiting reagent n NaOH remaining = 2.3 x 10- 4 mol - 4.5 x 10-6 mol = 2.26 x 10- 4 mol n 2.26 x 10- 4 mol COH " = = = 2.26 x 10- 4 mol/L V 1L pOH = - log [OH " ] = - log (2.26 x 10- 4 ) = 3.65 pH = 14.00 - 3.65 = 10.35

Titration Practice Worksheet


13. Calculate the theoretical yield of CH3OCOCH3 produced by reacting 5.0 g of CH3OH with 8.1 g of CH3CO2H.
CH3OH + CH3CO2H ! CH3OCOCH3 + H2 O

mCH 3OCOCH 3 (CH 3OH) = 5.0 g x = 12 g

1 mol CH 3OH 1 mol CH 3OCOCH 3 74.09 g x x 32.05 g 1 mol CH 3OH 1 mol CH 3OCOCH 3 (0.16 mol) 1 mol CH 3CO 2 H 1 mol CH 3OCOCH 3 74.09 g x x 60.06 g 1 mol CH 3CO 2 H 1 mol CH 3OCOCH 3 (0.13 mol)

mCH 3OCOCH 3 (CH 3CO 2 H) = 8.1 g x = 9.9 g

" CH 3CO 2 H is the LIMITING REAGANT and 9.9 g of CH 3OCOCH 3 is produced.


14. Fully label the titration curve given below with the equivalence point and label both axes if the graph below
represents a titration where 25.00 mL of 0.250 M HCl (aq) is being titrated with NaOH (aq).

15. Calculate the concentration of the NaOH (aq) using data from the graph given above.

From the graph, the equivalence volume of NaOH = 35.0 mL HCl + NaOH ! H 2O + NaCl C = 0.250 M = 0.250 mol/L V = 25.00 mL = 0.02500 L C=? V = 35.0 mL

= 0.0350 L 0.250 mol HCl 1 mol NaOH 1 C NaOH = 0.02500 L x x x 1L 1 mol HCl 0.0350 L (0.00625 mol) (0.00625 mol) = 0.179 M

16. If the titration curve below is for the titration of 15.0 mL of sulphuric acid using sodium hydroxide, calculate the
concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution.
14 12 10 8 pH 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Volume of Base Added (mL)

The sharp vertical rise in the graph at 20 mL of base added represents the end point of the titration. To calculate the initial concentration of the acid, first read the pH of the acid from the graph at the beginning of the titration

[H 3O + ] = 10-pH = 10-1.0 "[ H 3O + ] = 0.10 M 1 + = 0.050 M C 2 H 3O H 2SO 4(aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) ! 2 H 2O (l) + Na 2SO 4 (aq) 0.050 mol H 2SO 4 2 mol NaOH 1 C NaOH = 0.015 L x x x 1L 1 mol H 2SO 4 0.020 L NaOH C H 2SO 4 = (0.00075 mol) = 0.075 M (0.0015 mol)

SCH3U
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Some Solution Review Questions

-B-Sugar is dissolved in water. The sugar and water are respectively the (a) solvent & solution (b) solute & solvent (c) solution & solute (d) solute & solution -C-All solutions are (a) heterogeneous (b) cloudy (c) single phased (d) colorless (d) ionic bond

-D-Polar solvents will best dissolve solutes with the greater (a) London forces (b) hydrogen bonds (c) dipole-dipole force

-A-Which of the following substances will have the greater solubility in water at room temperature and pressure? (a) CH3COOH (b) CH3OH (c) O2 (d) CO2 -D-Evaporation of a 23.47 g sample of slush yields a 4.58 g CaCl2 salt residue. Calculate the W/W percentage of calcium chloride in the slush. (a) 5.12% (b) 51.2% (c) 0.195% (d) 19.5% -C-Vinegar is sold as a 5.0% (v/v) solution of acetic acid in water. Assuming that liquid volumes are additive, what volume of water must be added to 15 mL of acetic acid to produce synthetic vinegar? (a) 300 mL (b) 290 mL (c) 285 mL (d) 1.00 L -A-The water in a swimming pool is found to have a concentration of 3.0 mg/L of chlorine. This is the equivalent of (a) 3.0 ppm (b) 0.3 ppm (c) 0.03 ppm (d) 0.003 ppm -D-Determine the molar concentration when 11.7 g of NaCl are dissolved in water to make 40 mL of solution. (a) 0.50 (b) 1.0 (c) 2.0 (d) 5.0 -D-A 0.2 M solution of HCl is prepared. The volume of a 300 mL sample is reduced to 60 mL through evaporation. The final concentration is (a) 0.2 (b) 0.4 (c) 0.8 (d) 1.0

6.

7.

8. 9.

10. -A-A clear solution is made from 1.5 L of 0.40 M MgCl2 and 0.50 L of water. The resultant concentration of
chloride ion is (a) 0.60 M (b) 0.57 M (c) 0.45 M (d) 0.37 M

11. -C-A crystal of sodium chloride is dropped into a beaker containing a saturated solution of sodium chloride and
some undissolved sodium chloride on the bottom of the beaker. What will be observed? (a) the undissolved excess will dissolve (b) the added crystal will grow (c) no observeable change will occur (d) the added crystal will dissolve

12. -A-A saturated solution of KNO3 may be made unsaturated by


(a) raising the temperature (c) adding a crystal of potassium nitrate hydroxide? (a) cobalt nitrate and aluminum nitrate (c) magnesium nitrate and nickel nitrate (b) raising the pressure (d) evaporating some of the water

13. -D-For which of the following, can the metal ions be separated from one another by adding a solution of sodium
(b) barium nitrate and potassium chlorate (d) potassium nitrate and iron(II) nitrate

14. -A-Which of the following best represents the net ionic equation for the reaction between FeCl3 and NaOH?

+3 (a) Fe(aq) +3 (b) Fe(aq) +3 (c) Fe(aq) +3 (d) Fe(aq)

Fe(OH)3(s) -1 + -1 + 3 Cl(aq) + 3 Na(aq) + 3 OH(aq) " Fe(OH)3(aq) + 3 NaCl(s) -1 + -1 + 3 Cl(aq) + 3 Na(aq) + 3 OH(aq) " Fe(OH)3(s) + 3 NaCl(aq) -1 + 3 Cl(aq) + 3 NaOH(aq) " Fe(OH)3(s) + 3 NaCl(aq) " (b) fatty acid (b) CaCO3 (c) sodium salt of fatty acid (c) CaSO4 (d) a mixture of glycerine and fat (d) Ca(HCO3)2

-1 + 3 OH(aq)

15. -C-Chemically, soap is a


(a) a fat or oil (a) MgCl2

16. -D-"Temporarily" hard water may contain 17. -B-Bubbles rise in a newly opened bottle of a carbonated beverage. This action is explained by the fact that
carbon dioxide is less soluble in water when (a) pressure is increased. (c) temperature is increased. (b) pressure is reduced. (d) temperature is reduced. (a) A saturated solution of NaCl at 100 C (b) A saturated solution of KCl at 50 C (c) A saturated solution of NaNO3 at 25 C (d) A saturated solution of KNO3 at 25 C (e) A saturated solution of K2CrO4 at 50 C

18. -C-Which solution contains the greatest mass of solute in 100 g of water?

19. -C-Which of the following compounds would be most highly dissociated or ionized in water at room temperature
and pressure (a) ammonia (a) an acidic solution (a) the hydroxide ion (b) acetic acid (c) hydrochloric acid (d) methyl alcohol

20. -C-A solution which contains an equal number of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is
(b) a basic solution (b) the hydrogen ion (c) a neutral solution (d) a solid solution (c) the negative ion (d) the oxide ion

21. -B-The species responsible for the acidic properties of any aqueous acid is 22. -D-Which of the following could be used to determine whether or not an acid is strong or weak?
(a) effect on litmus paper (c) determination of concentration (b) measurement of solubility (d) measurement of electrical conductivity

23. -D-Which of the following statements concerning acids and bases is true?
(a) All acids are strong electrolytes. (b) All bases are strong electrolytes. (c) All acid solutions with a concentration of greater than 1mol/L are strong acids. (d) The strongest acids are those which ionize to the greatest extent when dissolved in water. 24. -C-An acidic solution, such as vinegar, (a) turns litmus paper blue (b) has a salty taste (c) has a sour taste (d) feels slippery

25. -B-If the concentration of acid in a solution is decreased, the


(a) [H+] increases and pH decreases (c) [H+] and pH both increase (b) [H+] decreases and pH increases (d) [H+] and pH both decrease

26. -B-What is the concentration of H3O+ in a solution whose pH is 4?


(a) 104 M (a) 1 (b) 10-4 M (b) 2 (c) 10-10 M (c) 3 (d) 4 M (d) 4

27. -C-The pH of a 0.001 M solution of HCl is 28. -C-What is the hydrogen ion concentration, [H+], of a 0.001 M solution of sodium hydroxide, NaOH?
(a) 1 # 103 M (a) a salt (b) 1 # 109 M (b) an oxide (c) 1 # 1011 M (c) a hydride (d) 1 # 1014 M (d) an anhydride

29. -A-According to the Arrhenius definition, one product formed when an acid reacts with a base is 30. -A-What role does the water play in this reaction?
HCl(g) + H2O(l) " H3O+(aq) + Cl(aq) (a) proton acceptor (b) electron acceptor (c) proton donor (d) elector donor

31. -C-What is the conjugate base of the acid H3PO4?


H3PO4(aq) + H2O(l) " H3O+(aq) + H2PO4(aq) (a) H3O+(aq) (b) H2O(l) (c) H2PO4(aq) (d) OH(aq)

32. -B-In the reaction:


NH3(aq) + H2O(l) " NH4+(aq) + OH(aq) which is a conjugate acidbase pair? (a) NH4+, H2O (b) NH4+, NH3 (c) H2O, NH3 (d) OH, NH3

33. -A-How does the pH of the mixture change as hydrochloric acid, HCl, is slowly added to a solution of sodium
hydroxide, NaOH? (a) The pH decreases and may go below 7 (c) The pH decreases to 7 and stops (b) The pH increases and may go above 7 (d) The pH increases to 7 and stops

34. How many grams of beryllium chloride are needed to make 125 mL of a 0.050 M solution? (0.50 g)

C=

n m = ; m = CMV ; V MV 0.050 mol BeCl2 79.91 g m= x x 0.125 L = 0.50 g L mol BeCl2

34. The density of ethanol is 0.789 g/mL. How many grams of ethanol should be mixed with 225 mL of water to make a 4.50% (v/v) mixture? (8.36 g)

m Vethanol ; m = DV ; % V/V = x 100 V Vethanol + Vwater Vethanol 4.50 % V/V = x 100 Vethanol + Vwater 4.50 mL Vethanol = ; 0.0450 (Vethanol + 225) = Vethanol 100 mL Vethanol + 225 mL 0.0450 Vethanol + 10.125 = Vethanol ; 0.955 Vethanol = 10.125 Vethanol = 10.60 mL 0.789 g then m = DV ; m = x 10.60 mL = 8.36 mL D=
35. What volume will be needed to dilute 30.0 mL of a 12 M HCl solution to a 0.35 M HCl solution? (1.0 L)

CV C1V1 = C 2 V2 ; V2 = 1 1 ; C2 V2 = 12 mol BeCl2 ! L"1 x 0.030 L 0.35 mol ! L-1 = 1.0 L

36. Indicate the solvent that will be best at dissolving the given solute in each of the following problems: Solute: LiC2H3O2 Solvents: CS2 or CH2Cl2

CH2Cl2 (polar solute, polar solvent)


Solute: CO2 Solvents: NH3 or CCl4

CCl4 (non-polar solute, non-polar solvent)


37. An acidic solution has a pH of 4.00. If I dilute 10.00 mL of this solution to a final volume of 1000.00 mL, what is the pH of the resulting solution? (6.0)

[H 3O + ] = 10-pH = 10-4 = 1 x 10-4 M C1V1 1 x 10- 4 mol ! L-1 x 0.010 L C1V1 = C 2 V2 ; C 2 = = = 1 x 10-6 M mol/L V2 1L pH = - log [H 3O + ] = - log (1 x 10-6 ) = 6.0
38. What is the pH of a solution that contains 1.20 moles of nitric acid (HNO3) and 1.70 moles of hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissolved in 1000.0 liters of water? (2.538)

HNO3 HCl

+ H 2O ! H 3O + + NO3n = 1.20 mol

+ H 2O ! H 3O + + Cln = 1.70 mol n H O + total = 1.20 + 1.70 = 2.90 mol


3

n 2.90 mol CH O + = = = 0.00290 mol/L 3 V 1000 L pH = - log [H 3O + ] = - log (0.00290) = 2.538


39. If it takes 50.0 mL of 0.50 M KOH solution to completely neutralize 125 mL of sulfuric acid solution (H2SO4), what is the concentration of the H2SO4 solution? ( 0.100 M)

2 KOH

H 2SO 4

K 2SO 4

2 H 2O

C H 2SO 4 = 0.0500 L x

0.50 mol KOH 1 mol H 2SO 4 1 x x 1L 2 mol KOH 0.125 L (0.025 mol) (0.0125 mol) = 0.100 mol/L

40. If it takes 25 mL of 0.050 M HCl to neutralize 345 mL of NaOH solution, what is the concentration of the NaOH solution? (0.0036 M)

HCl

NaOH

NaCl

H 2O

C NaOH = 0.025 L x

0.050 mol HCl 1 mol HCl 1 x x 1L 1 mol NaOH 0.345 L (0.00125 mol) (0.00125 mol) = 0.0036 mol/L

41. Using your knowledge of the Brnsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases, write equations for the following acidbase reactions and indicate each conjugate acid-base pair: a) b) c)
HNO3 + OH- ! H2O + NO3 ; HNO3 and NO3 + CH3NH2 + H2O ! CH3NH3 + OH- ; CH3NH2 and OH- + HPO4-2 ! H2O + PO4-3 HPO4-2 and PO4-3

CH3NH3+

43. If the titration curve below is for the titration of 5.0 mL of hydrochloric acid using aluminum hydroxide, calculate
the concentration of the aluminum hydroxide solution.

14 12 10 8 pH 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Volume of Base Added (mL) 35 40

The sharp vertical rise in the graph at 20 mL of base added represents the end point of the titration. To calculate the initial concentration of the acid, first read the pH of the acid from the graph at the beginning of the titration (0.11M)

[H 3O + ] = 10-pH = 10-0.9 "[ H 3O + ] = 0.126 M 3 HCl(aq) + Al(OH)3 (aq) ! 3 H 2O (l) + AlCl3 (aq) 0.126 mol HCl 1 mol Al(OH)3 1 C Al(OH)3 = 0.0050 L x x x 1L 3 mol HCl 0.020 L NaOH (0.00063 mol) (0.00021 mol) = 0.011 M