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Individual Report Project Three Student Name:Joshua Bayley Assessment Item No.: 3 Assessment Title: Report on the project tasks in the required areas for 120CT.
Note: your report should be supported with appropriate references using Coventry University Harvard Reference Style.

SID:5052369

Main differences between the Windows and Linux operating system: Task 1

Report including supporting examples: Linux is an open source operating system, meaning that it is developed for anyone to use for no cost. It is a Unix-like system, so it runs similarly to the Unix system and is POSIX compliant, so after recompilation, it can generally be run on any Unix type operating system. Linux was initially released in 1991 as a free operating system for Intel x86 based computers. Windows is an operating system developed by Microsoft made for purchase. It is a graphical OS made to work with MS-DOS. Developed in 1985, it was released with the growing popularity of graphical user interfaces (GUI) and overtook Mac OS in the PC market share, with over 90% market share (http://www.netmarketshare.com/ Janurary 2014). As Linux was developed as open source, more versions were created by various people. There are many families of Linux (Debian based systems and Knoppix based systems for example). This led to a wide variety of Linux systems that people can choose from. As they are mostly free, this appealed to those who did not want to pay for Windows. This also meant that they could find a Linux system more suited for them, rather than a much more finite Windows choice. As Windows was developed for a much wider audience and was not open source, they made systems useful for the general public and made them as easy to use as possible. Due to the fact that only the development team at Microsoft could work on Windows, there were fewer standalone versions that came out with time (XP, Vista, 7 etc) with minor updates to fix any issues. This made it easier to make it more appealing for a wider audience. They both use a command line system. Linux has its own commands (UNIX) while Windows uses MS DOS using a command prompt system. The commands vary from loading the GUI on a Linux machine to ping an ip address to test for internet connections. They both have many functions, Linux does run very well with its commands and many Linux users know how to use many of these commands, whereas on windows it is less commonly used or known by its user base. I personally found that the Linux command system was much easier to learn than the ones on Windows, as the commands are simpler and easier to execute correctly and efficiently

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Here I will show some examples of both. I will be showing commands on both for copying a file, renaming a file, and deleting a file. I will say what the command is, then show windows first and then Linux. Copy file:

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Renaming a file:

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Deleting a file:

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Memory hierarchy found in computer systems : Task 2

Report:

Registry memory is found in processors, due to its high speed. As it is very fast, it is used by the CPU and compilers to process code. This is however very expensive and most processers only have small amounts due to its cost. Cache RAM is specialised memory and very fast. It is also on the processor, so the latency is very low as it is quick to communicate. The cache is used to store local copies of data for the program being used the most. Fully Associative Cache is where data from any address can be stored in any cache location. It has a larger latency but is still quite fast. The whole address must be used as the tag and all tags must be compared simultaneously. There is no restriction to where the data can be, so we dont know the exact location of the data used. All of these make up the core memory within the processor. Direct Mapped Cache is where a cache coming from the memory can be stored in a single location. It will map the address to one slot. This means that it will not be found anywhere else in the memory except for the one bit it has been mapped to. It has 3 levels, levels 1, 2 and 3. Level 1 is made up of the instruction cache and the data cache. The instruction cache holds instructions that are being used or will be used by the processor. The data cache holds local copies of the data being used by the processor. The memory is small (around 2 64 kb). Each instruction is 8 bytes on a 64bit system, so on 64kb there can be over 4000 instructions stored at a time for the core memory to use. Level 2 is larger and slower than level one. While still faster than RAM, it is also closer in the heirachy, so it can be accessed quickly. The memory it stores is usually around 256kb. Level 3 is larger and slower again, still being faster than RAM due to its smaller latency. They can be up to 8Mb. Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) is much faster than Hard Drives, but is more expensive, hence why it isnt used as main memory storage. It stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor in an integrated circuit. As the capacitor leaks charge, more charge needs to be added, so when there is no power, the memory is erased very quickly. As it is very simple, it can store many of these in a small space. Persistent Memory is typical storage like Hard Disk Drives (HDD) Its the slowest but has the most storage capacity. It has to be overlaid with a file storage system that the OS can access. It sets partitions to solve this. It sets a start and end point on the disk where the memory can be stored. Data can be copied to different partitions, but a file cannot be written onto one partition and be finished on another.

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First-in-first-out (FIFO) approach to memory management : Task 3

Results with supporting examples: First in first out is a way of sorting memory which bases around a first come, first served basis. This will queue processes in order of time and priority, and will only swap out the processes when the current task is finished. The first added to the queue will be the first done, the second will be finished second and so on. The scheduling overheads are minimised, however if a process takes a long time this will stall the rest of the tasks, possibly making it slower. It can be used in C++. This is so it gives an order and organises the code and data within the program. It will organise data and tasks so it will do them in the order that the programmer sees as the best way to organise it. Another example would be Beladys Anomaly. This is when a number of page faults occur when the amount of page frames increases, when a first in first out approach to memory management is being used. The first in first out approach used is to remove the page that has been in the frames the longest, due to the space limitations on the processor, it needs to remove one to add another.

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