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UNIT 15 NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN BYPRODUCT UTILIZATION (MEMBRANE PROCESSING REVERSE OSMOSIS AND ULTRA FILTRATION)

Structure 15.0 15.1 15.2 Objectives Introduction Membrane filtration


Advantages of membrane processes Limitations

15.3

Reverse Osmosis (RO)


Principles of Reverse Osmosis Typical Reverse Osmosis applications

15.4

Ultrafiltration (UF)
Filtration modules Separation limits for membranes Factors affecting the separation capacity of the membrane Pressure conditions Principles of plant designs Typical Ultrafiltration applications Concentration of whey using ultrafiltration process

15.5 15.6

Nanofiltration (NF)
Typical Nanofiltration applications

Microfiltration
Typical Microfiltration applications

15.7 15.8 15.9

Lets sum up Key words Some useful books

15.10 Answers to check your progress

15.0 OBJECTIVES
After reading this unit we should be able to:
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learn about the different types of membrane processes used in dairy industry know about the principles of membrane separation processes state about the advantages and limitations of these processes know about the products manufactured using membrane technology

15.1 INTRODUCTION
Wheyis the greenish-yellow liquid resultingas a byproduct duringthe transformation of milk into cheese, paneer, chhana or casein, etc. It contains about half the original dry matter content of milk. Whey, being very rich in its organic matter content has a high BOD value (35,000 to 50,000 mg O2/litre) and poses a major threat to environment and human health. Most of the industrially developed countries have stringent legal laws for the disposal of whey.The simple disposal of wheybyspreading on land or feeding to animals is a waste of valuable nutrients and is done at a cost to the factory.Abetter alternative is subjecting the whey to processes through which the value added products can be manufactured. The major wheyproducts that have been produced world over includes wheypowder, demineralized whey powder, whey protein concentrates, and lactose, delactosed whey, condensed whey and whey solids in wet blends. In recent times, there is a growing emphasis on the isolation of individual wheyconstituents since each of these constituents has unique physiological and functional properties. For conserving whey solids, the greatest problem faced during processing of whey is its low dry matter content (about 6 to 7%), which means high costs for concentration. The evaporation of large quantity of water to convert the whey to dried form is found to be uneconomical with the conventional thermal evaporators due to high evaporation cost and is a major deterrent in commercial manufacture of wheypowder. Membrane technology provides a solution to this problem because it uses much less energy for removing the bulk of water from whey than an evaporational process, although evaporation is needed for final concentration up to 50 per cent solids. Membrane technology also helps in the fractionation of whey constituents in a cost effective way.

New Technologies in ByProduct Utilization (Membrane Processing Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration)

15.2 MEMBRANE FILTRATION


Membrane filtration enables to separate particles with a diameter smaller than the pore diameter in the membrane from the liquid feed, by applying a driving force (pressure) over the membrane.

Membrane separation processes are based on the principle of selective permeability of one or more components of a liquid mixture through a membrane barrier. One of the common features of all membrane separation processes is that they proceed without phasechange.ThemembranetechnologyconsistsprincipallyofMicrofiltration (MF), Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). MF is essentially employed as a clarifying operation to remove macro-materials and suspended solids, milk fat globules, bacteria and colloidal particles. The pore sizes

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range from 0.1 to 10 micron and the operating pressures are in the range of 1 to 25 psi g. UF membrane allows the particles from 10,000 to 75,000 Daltons. The operating pressure ranges between 10 to 200 psi g. RO membranes are characterized by a molecular weight cut off of nearly 100 Daltons. Only water passes through while everything else including ions, organic molecules remain in the concentrate. The pressures involved are 5-10 times higher than those used in UF. NF allows divalent ions to pass through while retaining the organic molecules. It separates particles with molecular weights in the range of 300-1000 Daltons. The operating pressures required are nearly 300-psi g. i. Advantages of Membrane Processes

The advantages of membrane processes are:


Process Energy Complexity * requirements KWh/ 1000 kg water 626 3 92 126-180 37-52 4 9-19 2 4 4 1 1 Maintenance *

Evaporation (open pan) Freezing Evaporators - 3 or 4 effect - 5 or 7 effect RO desalination RO milk

1 2 4 4 3 3

* Complexity and Maintenance: 1 = least; 4 = most c. Operation at ambient temperature, thus, thermal and oxidative degradation problems, common to evaporation processes can be avoided or minimized in RO/UF process. Thus, the nutritional and functional properties of milk constituents like vitamins; proteins, etc are least affected. There may however, be occasions when operating at considerably low temperature (for example, to prevent microbial growth problems or denaturation of heat sensitive compounds) or at higher temperature (for example tominimize microbial growth problems or to lower the viscosity of retentate, thus lowering the pumping costs and improve mass transfer) is necessary. No need of any complicated heat transfer or heat generating equipment, for the membrane operation, which required only electrical energy to drive the pump motor, can be situated far from the prime power generating plant. Also no additional steam capacityneeds to be installed to handle the RO/UF unit. Since no condensers are needed, problems like thermal pollution and overloading of sewage treatment systems are avoided. Minimal changes in microenvironment (pH, ionic strength). Improved product yield. Improved product consistency. Greater efficiency due to reduced processing time. Membrane technology, especially UF and RO can be used to alleviate the pollution and disposal problem and recover the nutritious whey solids. RO is particularly helpful in reducing the pollution problem as well as increasing the byproduct recovery. Concentration of whey by RO up to 30% TS reduced

d.

e. f. g. h. i.

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the BOD of whey to 500 mg O2 /l under certain operational conditions. By the combined process of UF and RO, BOD of cheese whey (sweet whey) can be reduced by 99% and of cottage cheese whey (acid whey) by 97%. All the above advantages have proven membrane technology a better choice for whey processing. ii. limitations

New Technologies in ByProduct Utilization (Membrane Processing Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration)

The RO process is quite limited in its upper solids limits. As an example, current technology permits milk to be concentrated by multi-effect evaporation to about 50 per cent total solids, while the upper limit using RO is about 25 per cent total solids for skim milk and 28 per cent for whole milk. The osmotic pressure of the feed and the concentration polarization limits the concentration level in the RO/UF process. Other problems that plagued early membrane applications were the fouling of membranes, poor cleanability of some early modules, and restricted operating conditions, although some of these problems have been overcome through the development of superior membrane materials and improved module design.

15.3 REVERSE OSMOSIS (RO)


Reverse osmosis is a high-pressure, energy-efficient technique for dewatering process streams, concentrating low-molecular-weight substances in solution, or purifying wastewater. It has the ability to concentrate all dissolved and suspended solids. RO is widely used in the desalination of seawater. i. Principles of Reverse Osmosis

In principle RO works by passing a dilute product stream across a membrane of porosity sufficiently low to allow the permeation of water and equivalent or smaller sized molecules. Because of the porosityof the membrane, a high pressure is required to facilitate an economic rate of water permeation.

In order to describe Reverse Osmosis, it is first necessaryto explain the phenomenon of osmosis. Osmosis maybe described as the physical movement of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane based on a difference in chemical potential between two solutions separated by that semi-permeable membrane The following example serves to demonstrate and clarify this point. A beaker of water as shown in figure 1 is divided through the center by a semi-permeable membrane. The black dotted line represents the semi-permeable membrane. We will define this semi-permeable membrane as lacking the capacityto diffuse anything other than the solvent, in these case water molecules. Now we will add a little common table salt (NaCl) to the solution on one side of the membrane (Figure2). The salt-water solution has a greater chemical potential than
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the water solution on the other side of the membrane. In an effort to equilibrate the difference in chemical potential, water begins to diffuse through the membrane from the waterside to the salt-water side. This movement is osmosis. The pressure exerted by this mass transfer is known as osmotic pressure. The diffusion of water will continue until one of two constraints is met. One constraint would be that the solutions essentially equilibrate, at least to the extent that the remaining difference in chemical potential is offset by the resistance or pressure loss of diffusion through the membrane. The other constraint is that the rising column of salt waterexerts sufficient hydrostaticpressuretolimit furtherdiffusion.Byobservation then, we can measure the osmotic pressure of a solution by noting the point at which the head pressure impedes further diffusion By exerting a hydraulic pressure greater than the sum of the osmotic pressure difference and the pressure loss of diffusion through the membrane, we can cause water to diffuse in the opposite direction (Figure 3), into the more concentrated solution. This is reverse osmosis. The greater the pressure applied, the more rapid the diffusion. Using reverse osmosis we are able to concentrate various solutes, either dissolved or dispersed, in a solution. Earlier RO membranes utilized cellulose acetate; however, this material restricted the use of processing temperature to about 30 C and was also limited byits sensitivity to chemical cleaning and sanitizing agents. A number of other polymers such as polyamide, polyvinyl chloride, polyacrylonitrile, polyamide hydrazide, polyvenylene carbonate, polyvinyl glycol have also been tried and some good results have been obtained. However, good results are usuallyobtained at the expense of reduced flux rate or filtration rates. Recent development of thin film composite membranes now permits operating temperatures of up to 80 C, together with stability to cleaners over the pH range of 1-12 and hypochlorite sanitizers up to about 0.5 ppm. The membranes should be stable over a wide range of pH values, unaffected by temperature and easy to clean. The Reverse Osmosis membrane filtration process uses the tightest membranes (pore size of about 4 ) and operates at 10 -100 bar pressure, allowing roughly spoken only water to pass through the pores of the membrane. ii Typical Ro Applications in Dairy Industry Whey o o Pre-concentration (alternative or supplement to evaporation) Transport cost savings (WPC, animal feed)

Milk Transport cost savings UF Permeate o o Pre-concentration for lactose or alcohol production Transport cost savings, animal feed

White Water Concentration of white water from tanks, pipes, etc. for recovery of milk solids. Evaporator condensate/RO permeate Polishing for process/CIPwater. The extent of concentration of wheybyRO is limited bythe viscosityof the retentate to a solids content of 20-22%. Thus, RO cannot be used as a total replacement for evaporation but may be used to advantage for pre-concentrating whey prior to evaporation.

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RO possesses the advantages that it concentrates without heat, therebyretaining the native properties of the original raw material. This process appears to be a promising method for concentrating wheywith significant savings in the total energyand overall cost. It has been suggested that RO can be used as a pre-concentration step for UF permeate to 20 percent, which would reduce the cost of transportation. The UF permeate containing approximately 4 per cent lactose and 1 per cent minerals can be concentrated to 18 per cent total solids by RO plant. From economic point of view, 2 fold concentration (i.e. 50 per cent volume reduction) of paneer whey and 2.5 fold concentration (i.e. 60 per cent volume reduction) of cow and buffalo cheese whey Check your progress I 1. Give the advantages of using membrane processes over other available concentration processes? ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... 2. What are the main applications of membrane processes in dairy industry? ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... 3. List the differences between RO and UF processes. ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... 4. What are the main limitations of membrane processes? ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................

New Technologies in ByProduct Utilization (Membrane Processing Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration)

15.4 ULTRAFILTRATION (UF)


Ultra filtration is a selective fractionation process utilizing pressures up to 145 psi (10 bar). It concentrates suspended solids and solutes of molecular weight greater than 1,000. Permeate contains low-molecular-weight organic solutes and salts. UF is widely used in the fractionation of milk and whey, and also finds application in protein fractionation. Ultrafiltration is a membrane filtration process operating at 2-10 bar pressure and allowing molecules of the size of salts and sugars to pass through the membrane pores, while molecules the size of proteins are rejected.
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i.

Filtration Modules

The filtration modules maybe used of different configurations, viz. Design Spiral wound Plate and frame Tubular, based on polymers Tubular, based on ceramics Hollow fiber 1. Typical application RO, UF, and NF UF, RO UF, RO MF, UF UF

Spiral wound design: A spiral wound element contains one or more membranes envelopes, each of which contains two layers of membrane separated by a porous permeate conductive material. The material, called the permeate channel spacer, allows the permeate to pass through the membrane to flow freely. The two layers of membrane with the permeate channel spacer between them are sealed with adhesive at two edges at one end to form the membrane envelope. The open end of the envelope is connected and sealed to a permeate collecting tube. Plate and frame design: This system consists of membranes sandwiched between membrane support plates, which are arranged in stacks, similar to ordinaryplate heat exchangers. The feed material is forced through very narrow channels that maybe configured for parallel flow or as a combination of parallel and serial channels. Modules are available in various sizes. The membrane material is typically a polymer. Tubular design polymers: This model usually has perforated stainless steel tubes assembled in a shell and tube like construction.All the tubes (about 18-20) are connected in series. A replaceable membrane insert tube is fitted inside each of the perforated stainless steel pressure support tubes. Permeate is collected on the outside of the tube bundle in the stainless steel shroud. The module can be readily converted from UF to RO. Tubular design ceramic: A tubular concept with ceramic membranes is steadily gaining ground in dairy industry especially in systems for reduction of bacteria in milk, whey, WPC and brine. The thin walls of the channels are made of fine-grainedceramic and constitute the membrane.The support material is a coarse-grained ceramic. Hollow fiber design: Hollow fiber modules are cartridges, which contain bundles of 45 to over 3000 hollow fiber elements per cartridge. The fibers are oriented in parallel; all are potted in a resin at their ends and enclosed in the permeate collecting tube of the epoxy. The membrane has an inner diameter ranging from 0.5 to 2.7 mm and the active membrane surface is on the inside of the hollow fiber. The outside of the hollow fiber wall, unlike the inner wall has a rough structure and acts as a supporting structure for the membrane. The feed stream flows through the inside of these fibers, and the permeate is collected outside and removed at the top of the tube.Aspecial feature of this design is its back-flushing capability, which is utilized in cleaning and with permeate recirculated through the outer permeate connection to remove product deposits on the membrane surface.

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ii.

Separation Limits for Membranes

The separation limit for a membrane is determined by the lowest molecular weight that can be separated. The membrane can have a definite or a diffuse separation limit. The membranes with a definite separation limit separate everything with a definitely lower molecular weight, while membranes with a diffuse limit let some material with ahigher molecular weight throughand stop some witha lower molecular weight. The separation accuracy of a membrane is determined by pore size and pore size distribution. Because it is not possible to carry out an exact fractionation according to molecular mass or molecular diameter, the cut-off is more or less diffuse. The definition that molecular weight determines the separation limit should be taken with some reservations, as the shape of the separated particles also has an influence. A spherical particle is easier to separate than a chain shaped particle. iii. FactorAffecting the Separation Capacity of the Membrane Separation capacity depends on a number of factors: Material resistance, which is characteristic for each membrane and is determined by the thickness of the membrane, the surface area and the pore diameter. Transport resistance,i.e. the polarizationorfoulingeffect. Polarization is a fouling (or blinding) effect,which occurs at the surface of the membranes as the filtration proceeds.

New Technologies in ByProduct Utilization (Membrane Processing Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration)

The formation of a layer of deposit can be explained as follows: Large molecules (i.e. protein and fat) are transported by convection to the membrane at right angles to the direction of flow. A concentration gradient produces back diffusion in the opposite direction. Parallel to the membrane, the proteins present in the layer close to the membrane move at velocities, which vary according to the increase in axial, flow rate. Thepolarizationeffectis not uniformlydistributedalongthemembrane,especially when the pressure drop gives different transmembrane pressures (TMP) along the membrane surface. The upstream end of the membrane is therefore, clogged first. The polarizationgraduallyspreads over the wholesurface, reducingcapacity and eventually making it necessary to stop and clean the plant. The main effect of polarization is the removal of permeate decreases as filtration proceeds The polarization effect can be reduced in certain concepts by using back flush or reverse flow.

iv. Pressure Conditions Pressure is the driving force of filtration, and an important distinction must be made between: 1. The hydraulic pressure drop along the module P = P1 P2, where P1 = inlet pressure feed and P2 = outlet pressure concentrate. The higher the value of P, the higher thevelocitythrough the module,thehigher the shearon the membranes and the lower the polarization effect. However, there are constraints such as the resistance to pressure of the membranes and the price of the pumps capable of delivering both high flows and high pressures.

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2.

The transmembrane pressure (TMP) is the pressure drop between the retentate and the permeate sides of the membrane at a particular point along the membrane. The main criterion of the efficiencyof a membrane system flux in l/m2/h is a function ofTMP. TheTMPi.e. the force which pushes the permeate through the membrane, is greatest at the inlet and lowest at the discharge end of the module. Since the decrease in TMP is linear, an average TMP is given by: TMP = (P1+P2)/2 - P3, where P3 = outlet pressure permeate. Principles of Plant Designs

v.

The operation of membranes filtration plants depends basically on the pressure generated by the pumps used. The following guides should be taken into consideration: 1. The capacity of the pump(s) should match the required flow rate and the characteristics of the module(s), which varywidelyaccording to module design and size. The pump(s) should be insensitive to changes in the viscosity of the processed stream of the viscositylimit of the module. It/theyshould also operate efficiently at temperatures used for processing and cleaning. The pump(s) must satisfy the sanitary standards for dairy equipments.

2.

3.

Pumps of several types are used, including centrifugal pumps and positive displacement pumps. Sanitary centrifugal pumps are normally used as feed and circulation pumps, but sanitary positive displacement pumps are occasionally used as high pressure feed and circulation pumps for high viscosity fluids e.g. in the final stages of UF of acidified milk. Membrane separation plants can be used for both batch and continuous production. The feed solution must not contain coarse particles, which can damage the very thin filtration skin.Afine meshed strainer is therefore often integrated into the feed system. vi. Typical UFApplications Milk o o o o Protein standardization Cheese milk Powder Market milk Feta and Domiati Queso Fresco types Cheese base Yellow cast cheese

UF Cheeses o o o o

Yoghurt,Ymer Fermented Milk and Cream o o Fresh cultured cheeses (Quarg) Cream cheese Other fresh, soft cheeses, Mascarpone

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Whey (sweet or acid) o o o WPC Recovery of WPC for cheese milk Special products i.e. yoghurt, desserts

New Technologies in ByProduct Utilization (Membrane Processing Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration)

Sweet Buttermilk o o Retentate for various foods Powder

Acid Buttermilk o o Quarg Other fresh cheeses

vii. Concentration of Whey Using Ultrafiltration Process UF is a sieving process that employs a membrane with definite pores that are large enough to permit passage of water, non protein nitrogen, soluble components like lactose, salts and some vitamins through the membrane, whereas milk fat, protein and insoluble salts are retained bythemembrane. UF is nowbeingused with increasing frequency as a means of improving the financial return from processing of whey. UF can be used for recovering high quality proteins, which are difficult, by any other commercially available process. Fractionation of whey into protein rich and lactose containing streams is one of the most successful industrial applications of UF. Protein content of raw whey can be increased from an initial value of 0.6 per cent to over 20 per cent in the UF step. When whey is concentrated about 20 times by UF, a dry matter content of 18-20 per cent is attainable. It is suggested when UF of whey be carried out for deproteinization for lactose manufacture. Native whey proteins have a very good amino acid profile with high proportions of available lysine and cysteine. Whey protein concentrates (WPC) are powders made by drying of retentate from ultrafiltration of whey. Theyare described in terms of protein content, percent protein in dry matter, ranging form 35 to 85 per cent. To make 35% protein product the liquid whey is concentrated to about 6-fold to an approximate total drysolids content of 9%. Example: 100 kg of whey yields approximately 17 kg of retentate and 83 kg of permeate at close to 6-fold (5.88) concentration. The table below shows the compositions of the feed (whey) and the resulting retentate and permeates. Table: Composition of whey and resulting retentate and permeate.
Component Weight in 100 kg whey Kg % 0.55 0.55 4.80 4.80 0.80 0.80 0.18 0.18 0.03 6.36 0.03 6.36 Weight in 17 kg retentate Kg % 0.55 3.24 0.82 4.82 0.14 0.82 0.03 0.18 0.03 1.57 0.18 9.24 Weight in 83 kg permeate Kg % 0 0 3.98 4.80 0.66 0.80 0.15 0.18 0 4.79 0 5.78
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True protein Lactose Ash Non-proteinNitrogen Fat Total solids

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% Protein in dry matter according to values in the above table = 100 x 0.55/ 1.57 = 35% In concentration most of the true protein, typically > 99% is retained together with almost 100% of the fat. The concentrations of lactose, NPN and ash are generally the same in the retentate and permeate as in the original whey, but a slight retention of these components is reported. The overall retention figures, however, depend verymuch on: the type of membrane theflux the character of the feed (pre-diluted with water, pre-concentrated and demineralization, etc.)

To obtain an 85% protein concentrate the liquid whey is first concentrated 20-30 fold by direct UF to a solids content of approximately 25%; this is regarded as the maximum for economic operation. It is then necessary to diafilter the concentrate to remove more of the lactose and ash and raise the concentration of protein relative to the total dry matter.

15.5 NANOFILTRATION (NF)


The Nanofiltration process is a Reverse Osmosis process using a relatively open RO membrane, allowing water and small univalent ions (Na+, K+, Cl-) to pass. Nanofiltration is a special process selected when RO and UF are not the ideal choice for separation. NF can perform separation applications that are not otherwise economicallyfeasible, such as demineralization, color removal, and desalination. In concentration of organic solutes, suspended solids, and polyvalent ions, the permeate contains monovalent ions and low-molecular-weight organic solutions like alcohol. Typical NFApplications Whey o o o Partly demineralized WPC (baby food, special WPC products) Pre-treatment for ion exchange or electro dialysis Desalination of salt whey (Cheddar)

Milk. Partly demineralized milk (liquid milk, special milk powder products) UF Permeate. Partlydemineralized permeate for fermentation, lactose powder CIP Solutions. Purification and re-use of caustic, acid and water

15.6 MICROFILTRATION (MF)


Microfiltration is alow-pressure cross-flow membrane process for separating colloidal and suspended particles in the range of 0.05-10 microns. MF is used for fermentation broth clarification and biomass clarification and recovery. MF is a membrane filtration process operating at 0.2 - 4 bar pressure allowing molecules of the size of salts, sugars, and proteins to pass through the membrane pores, while molecules of the size of bacteria and fat globules are rejected.
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Typical MFApplications Milk o Removal of bacteria and spores from cheese milk, milk for powder production and market milk o Fractionation of milk proteins

New Technologies in ByProduct Utilization (Membrane Processing Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration)

Whey o o Removal of bacteria and spores from whey for high quality WPC Defatting of whey for high protein WPC

Cheese Brine o Removal of bacteria, spores, yeast, and mould for sanitation of cheese brine.

MF can be used to remove large particles: casein fines, micro-organisms or microbial spores, fat globules, somatic cells, phospholipoproteins, particles, etc. from whey. MF separation process uses porous membranes with a cut off pore sizes in the region of micron (10-6 m)allowingpassage ofwheyproteins but retainingfat globules, microorganisms and somatic cells. Whey usuallycontains small quantities of fat (in the form of small globules of 0.2 to 1 micron) and casein (as fine particulates of 5 to 100 micron). Centrifugal separation of whey does not completely remove the fat and casein fines. Thus, when the whey is ultrafiltered, these components can prevent the attainment of high purity, as well as having detrimental effects on the functional properties of WPC. MF can effectively remove substantial quantities of these undesirable components. Fat: protein ratios of 0.07 to 0.25 in whey can be reduced to 0.001 to 0.003 by MF. In addition some of the precipitated salts may be removed, and there is a considerable reduction in the microbial load. It is reported that 30 to 80 per cent residual lipids can be removed from cheddar cheese whey using MF. There is a 1.8 fold increase in the rate of UF of whey proteins when the lipids are removed by MF. The key factor of MF of whey is the pretreatment. The most effective appears to be thermocalcic aggregation of phospholipids and precipitation of calcium phosphate. This involves the addition of calcium chloride to a final concentration of 1-2 g/l, after which NaOH is added to bring the whey to pH 7.5. The whey is heated at 55oC for 8-15 min., while maintaining the pH at 7.5. This treatment helps to form large (50100 micron) aggregates of phospholipoproteins, which do not penetrate the pores of the MF membrane, thus resulting in higher flux during MF treatment. The pretreatment of whey by MF has emerged as a necessary step in producing high purity whey protein concentrates (WPC). Studies have shown that when MF is performed on sweet whey as an intermediate step within the UF process, a fat content below 0.4 per cent in 85 per cent WPC powder can be achieved. Check your progress I 1. What is Microfiltration? Give its uses in the dairy industry. ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................
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2.

What are the applications of UF in dairy industry? ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................

3.

Describe the hollow fiber design of filtration modules? ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................

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Give the applications of Nanofiltration in dairy industry. ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................

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Give the average composition of permeates and retentate obtained from 6-fold concentration of whey by UF. ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................

15.7 LETS SUM UP


Pressure driven membrane processes of Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis are finding increased use in the processing of whey, making its use cost effective and efficient.Arange of value added products from whey are now being manufactured and many novel applications are being considered using these processes. UF employs a membrane with definite pores that are large enough to permit passage of water, non protein nitrogen, soluble components like lactose, salts and some vitamins through the membrane, whereas milk fat, protein and insoluble salts are retained by the membrane. UF is now being used with increasing frequency as a means of improving the financial return from processing of whey. UF can be used for recovering high qualityproteins, which are difficult, by any other commercially available process. Fractionation of whey into protein rich and lactose containing streams is one of the most successful industrial applications of UF. Protein content of raw whey can be increased from an initial value of 0.6 per cent to over 20 per cent in the UF step. When whey is concentrated about 20 times by UF, a dry matter content of 18-20 per cent is attainable. It is suggested when UF of whey be carried out for deproteinization for lactose manufacture. Membrane technology offers the processor a low energy system to handle both prime milk stream and milk products streams, and in addition byproduct stream, which would normally be disposed off into the low value, feed chain. Being an excellent tool for the fractionation of milk proteins, a new range of products having uniquenutritionalandfunctional characteristics (gelling,foaming,emulsification, water holding capacity) have been developed by employing membrane processing. The

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UF process can be used for fractionation of milk protein, milk protein standardization, preparation of biological peptides, protein rich milk, low lactose milk, skim milk retentate powder etc. Reduction of bacteria by MF permits a unique approach for the improvement of the quality parameters of dairy products such as flavour, and extended shelf life.

New Technologies in ByProduct Utilization (Membrane Processing Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration)

15.8 KEY WORDS


Acid whey : It has a pH of around 4.5. It is created during the manufacture of cottage or ricotta cheese and is useful where a piquant or savoryflavour profile is required in a food. : That portionof thefeedsolutionthat is retained (on the pressure side) of the membrane. It is usually more concentrated than the original feed solution. The words concentrate and retentate are used interchangeably. : The volume reduction achieved by concentration. i.e.the ratioof theinitial volume of the feed to the final volume of the concentrate. : Amodification ofultrafiltration in whichwater is added to the feed as filtration proceeds in order to wash out feed components, which will pass through the membrane, basically lactose and minerals. : The solution to be concentrated or fractionated. : The volumetric rate of flow of fluid parallel to the membrane surface. It is expressed in terms of volume per time i.e litres per min. : The rate of extraction of permeate measured in litres per square meter of membrane surface per hour (l/m2/h) : Deposition of solids on the membrane, irreversible duringprocessing. Fouling effects can usually be offset by shutting down the system and cleaning the membrane by chemical means. : The membrane and its housing. : It is the filtrate, the liquid passing through the membrane. : The build-up of solutes close to or on the membrane surface. Solute is brought to the membrane surface by convective transport; solutes larger than the nominal MWCO of the membrane are retained by the membrane,

Concentrate

Concentration factor

Diafiltration

Feed Flow rate

Flux

Membrane fouling

Module Permeate Polarization

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while those smaller than the pores will freely or partially permeate through the membrane. Solutes not passingthroughthe membranewill accumulate on themembrane surface, causing either an increased resistance to solvent transport or an increase in local osmotic pressure (either of which may decrease flux) and possibly a change in the sieving characteristics of the membrane. Retentate Sweet whey : That portion of feed solution that is retained on the high pressure side of the membrane. : Sweet whey, with a pH of about 6.1 is produced during the manufacture of rennetcoagulated cheeses (Cheddar and Swiss).

15.9 SOME USEFUL BOOKS


Cheryan, M. 1986. Ultrafiltration Handbook. Technomic Publishing Co., Inc. Lancaster, USA. Kessler, H.G. (1st ed). 1981. Food Engineering and Dairy Technology. Publishing House VerlogA. Kessler, Germany. Renner, E,andAbu-El-Salam. 1991.Application of ultrafiltration in the dairyindustry. ElsevierApplied Sci., London. Webb, B.H. and Whittier, E.O. 1970. By-products from milks. TheAVI Publ. Co. Inc., Westport, Connecticut, USA. Zadow, J.G. (Ed.) 1992. Whey and lactose processing. ElsevierApplied Sci. London and New York.

15.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Your answer should include the following points: Check Your Progress 1 1. Continuous molecular separation process no phase change low energy requirements operation at ambient temperatures - Minimal changes in microenvironment (pH, ionic strength) - Improved product yield - Improved product consistency - Greater efficiency due to reduced processing time - can alleviate the pollution and disposal problem and recover the nutritious whey solids Whey: Pre-concentration (alternative or supplement to evaporation), Transport cost savings (WPC, animal feed) - Milk: Transport cost savings - UF Permeate: Pre-concentration for lactose or alcohol production, Transport cost savings, animal feed - White water: Concentration of white water from tanks, pipes, etc. for recovery of milk solids. UF membrane allows the smaller 10,000 to 75,000 Daltons. The operating pressure ranges between 10 to 200 psi g. RO membranes are characterized by a molecular weight cut off of nearly100 Daltons. Onlywater passes through while everythingelseincludingions, organicmolecules remainin the concentrate. The pressures involved are 5-10 times higher than those used in UF.

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4.

i.

Limited inits upper solids limits.As an example, current technologypermits milk to be concentrated by multi effect evaporation to about 50 per cent total solids, while the upper limit using RO is about 25 per cent total solids for skim milk and 28 per cent for whole milk. The osmotic pressure of the feed and the concentration polarization limits the concentration level in the RO/UF process. Fouling of membranes, poor cleanability of some early modules, and restricted operating conditions

New Technologies in ByProduct Utilization (Membrane Processing Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration)

ii.

Check Your Progress 2 1. i. ii. Low-pressure cross-flow membrane process for separating colloidal and suspended particles in the range of 0.05-10 microns. Removal of bacteria and spores from cheese milk, milk for powder production and market milk; fractionation of milk proteins; defatting of whey for high protein WPC Milk: Protein standardization, Cheese milk, Powder, Market milk UF Cheeses: Feta and Domiati, Queso Fresco types, Cheese base Yoghurt, Ymer; Fermented Milk and Cream -Fresh cultured cheeses (Quarg), Cream cheese, Other fresh, soft cheeses Whey (sweet or acid): WPC, Recovery of WPC for cheese milk, Special products i.e. yoghurt, desserts

2.

i. ii. iii. iv.

3.

Hollow fiber modules are cartridges which contain bundles of 45 to over 3000 hollow fiber elements per cartridge - The fibers are oriented in parallel; all are potted in a resin at their ends and enclosed in the permeate collecting tube of the epoxy - The membrane has an inner diameter ranging from 0.5 to 2.7 mm and the active membrane surface is on the inside of the hollow fiber - The outside of the hollow fiber wall, unlike the inner wall has a rough structure and acts as a supporting structure for the membrane - The feed stream flows through the inside of these fibers, and the permeate is collected outside and removed at the top of the tube. i. Whey - Partly demineralized WPC (baby food, special WPC products), Pre-treatment for ion exchange or electro dialysis, Desalination of salt whey (Cheddar) Milk -Partlydemineralized milk(liquidmilk,special milkpowderproducts) UF Permeate. Partly demineralized permeate for fermentation, lactose powder CIP Solutions. Purification and re-use of caustic, acid and water

4.

ii. iii. iv. 5.

Component True protein Lactose Ash Non-protein-Nitrogen

Whey % 0.55 4.80 0.80 0.18

Retentate % 3.24 4.82 0.82 0.18

Permeate % 0 4.80 0.80 0.18


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