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# Tingkatan 4

## YEARLY LESSON PLAN 2014 PHYSICS FORM 4 ALAMANDA & 4 BLOSSOM

WEEK/ DATE THEME Ch !"#\$ 1 I%"\$&'()"* &% "& Ph+,*), LEARNING OBJECTIVE LEARNING OUTCOMES Explain what physics is. Recognize the physics in everyday ob ects and nat!ral pheno"ena. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES #bserve everyday ob ects s!ch as a table\$ a pencil\$ a "irror etc and disc!ss how they are related to physics concepts. %iew a video on nat!ral pheno"ena and disc!ss how they are related to physics concepts. &isc!ss 'ields o' st!dy in physics s!ch as 'orces\$ "otion\$ heat\$ light and etc. NOTES

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## 1..2 Understanding base *!antities and derived *!antities 2 (/1 )/1

Explain what base *!antities and derived *!antities are. +ist base *!antities and their !nits. +ist so"e derived *!antities and their !nits. Express *!antities !sing pre'ixes. Express *!antities !sing scienti'ic notation. Express derived *!antities as well as their !nits in ,er"s base *!antities and base !nits. -olve proble" involving conversion o' !nits. &e'ine scalar and vector *!antities /ive exa"ples o' scalar and vector *!antities.

o'

&isc!ss base *!antities and derived *!antities. .ro" a text passage\$ identi'y physical *!antities then classi'y the" into base *!antities and derived *!antities. +ist the val!e o' pre'ixes and their abbreviations 'ro" nano to /iga\$ e.g. nano 0112)3\$ n" 0nano"eter3. &isc!ss the !se o' scienti'ic notation to express large and s"all n!"bers. &eter"ine the base *!antities 0and !nits3 in a given derived *!antity 0and !nit3 'ro" the related 'or"!la. -olve proble"s that involve the conversion o' !nits. 4arry o!t activities to show that so"e *!antities can be de'ined by "agnit!de only where as other *!antities need to be de'ined by "agnit!de as well as direction. 4o"pile a list o' scalar and vector *!antities. 4hoose the appropriate instr!"ent 'or a given "eas!re"ent. &isc!ss consistency and acc!racy !sing the distrib!tion o' g!nshots on a target as an exa"ple. &isc!ss the sensitivity o' vario!s instr!"ents. &e"onstrate thro!gh exa"ples syste"atic errors and rando" errors. &isc!ss what syste"atic and rando" errors are. Use an appropriate techni*!es to red!ce error in "eas!re"ents to 'ind the average and co"pensating 'or zero error. #bserve a sit!ation and s!ggest *!estions s!itable 'or a scienti'ic investigation. &isc!ss to; identi'y a *!estion s!itable 'or scienti'ic investigation b3 identi'y all the variables c3 'or" a hypothesis d3 plan the "ethod o' investigation incl!ding selection o' apparat!s and wor< proced!res 4arry o!t an experi"ent and; collect and tab!late data present data in a s!itable 'or" interpret the data and draw concl!sions write a co"plete report PE=9 1

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## 1.6 Understanding "eas!re"ents

7eas!re physical *!antities Using appropriate instr!"ents. Explain acc!racy and consistency. Explain sensitivity. Explain types o' experi"ental error. Use an appropriate techni*!e to red!ce errors.

## 1..8 9nalyzing scienti'ic investigations 6 21/1 226/1

:denti'y variables in a given sit!ation. :denti'y a *!estion s!itable 'or scienti'ic investigation. .or" a hypothesis. &esign and carry o!t a si"ple experi"ent to test the hypothesis. record and present data in a s!itable 'or". interpret data to draw a concl!sion. write a report o' the investigation.

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CHAPTER 2 FORCES AND MOTION de'ine distance and displace"ent. de'ine speed and velocity and state that ; velocity\$ v > t de'ine acceleration and deceleration and state that ; a>%U t 4alc!late speed and velocity. 4alc!late acceleration/ deceleration. -olve proble"s on linear "otion with !ni'or" acceleration !sing ; v > ! ? at. s > !t ? @ at2. iii. v2 > !2? 2as. Plot and interpret displace"ent2ti"e and velocity2ti"e graphs. &ed!ce 'ro" the shape o' a displace"ent2ti"e graph when a body is; 2at rest. 27oving with !ni'or" velocity. 27oving with non2!ni'or" velocity. &eter"ine distance\$ displace"ent and velocity 'ro" a displace"ent2ti"e graph. &ed!ce 'ro" the shape o' a velocity2ti"e graph when a body is; 2at rest. 2"oving with !ni'or" velocity. 2"oving with !ni'or" acceleration. &eter"ine distance\$ displace"ent\$ velocity and acceleration 'ro" a velocity2 ti"e graph. -olve proble"s on linear "otion with !ni'or" acceleration. Explain what inertia is. Relate "ass to inertia. /ive exa"ples o' sit!ations involving inertia. -!ggest ways to red!ce the negative e''ects o' inertia. 4arry o!t activities to gain an idea o' ; distance and displace"ent. speed and velocity acceleration and deceleration 4arry o!t activities !sing a data logger/graphing calc!lator/ tic<er ti"er to; identi'y when a body is at rest\$ "oving with !ni'or" velocity or non2 !ni'or" velocity deter"ine displace"ent\$ velocity and acceleration. -olve proble"s !sing the 'ollowing e*!ations o' "otion; v > ! ? at s > !t ? @ at2 v2 > !2? 2as 4arry o!t activities !sing a data logger/graphing calc!lator/tic<er ti"er to plot displace"ent2ti"e graphs velocity2ti"e graphs &escribe and interpret; displace"ent2ti"e and velocity2ti"e graphs &eter"ine distance\$ displace"ent\$ velocity and acceleration 'ro" displace"ent2 ti"e and velocity2 ti"e graphs. -olve proble"s on linear "otion with !ni'or" acceleration involving graphs. PE=9 2

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## 2. 2 9nalyzing 7otion /raph

2. 3 Understanding :nertia

2.6 9nalyzing 7o"ent!" &e'ine the "o"ent!" o' an ob ect. &e'ine "o"ent!" 0p3 as the prod!ct o' "ass 0"3 and velocity 0v3 i.e. p > "v. -tate the principle o' conservation o' "o"ent!". &escribe applications o' conservation o' "o"ent!". -olve proble"s involving "o"ent!".

4arry o!t activities/view co"p!ter si"!lations /sit!ations to gain an idea on inertia. 4arry o!t activities to 'ind o!t the relationship between inertia and "ass. Research and report on the positive e''ects o' inertia ways to red!ce the negative e''ects o' inertia 4arry o!t activities/view co"p!ter si"!lations to gain an idea o' "o"ent!" by co"paring the e''ect o' stopping two ob ects; o' the sa"e "ass "oving at di''erent speeds o' di''erent "asses "oving at the sa"e speed. &isc!ss "o"ent!" as the prod!ct o' "ass and velocity. 4arry o!t activities that de"onstrate the conservation o' "o"ent!" e.g. water roc<ets. Research and report on the applications o' conservation o' "o"ent!" s!ch as in roc<ets or et engines. -olve proble"s involving linear "o"ent!".

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&escribe the e''ects o' balanced 'orces acting on an ob ect. &escribe the e''ects o' !nbalanced 'orces acting on an ob ect. &eter"ine the relationship between 'orce\$ "ass and acceleration. i.e. . > "a. -olve proble"s !sing . > "a. Bith the aid o' diagra"s\$ describe the 'orces acting on an ob ect; at rest "oving at constant velocity at accelerating. 4ond!ct experi"ents to 'ind the relationship between; acceleration and "ass o' an ob ect !nder constant 'orce acceleration and 'orce 'or a constant "ass. -olve proble"s !sing . > "a. &isc!ss ; i"p!lse as change in "o"ent!" an i"p!lsive 'orce as the rate o' change o' "o"ent!" in a collision or explosion\$ how increasing or decreasing ti"e o' i"pact a''ects the "agnit!de o' the i"p!lsive 'orce. Research and report sit!ations where; an i"p!lsive 'orce needs to be red!ced and how it can be done an i"p!lsive 'orce is bene'icial -olve proble"s involving i"p!lsive 'orces.

## 2.( 9nalyzing i"p!lse and i"p!lsive 'orce

Explain what an i"p!lsive 'orce is. /ive exa"ples o' sit!ations involving i"p!lsive 'orces. &e'ine i"p!lse as a change in "o"ent!"\$ i.e. .t > "v "! . &e'ine i"p!lsive 'orce as the rate o' change o' "o"ent!" in a collision or explosion\$ i.e. "v 2 "! . > 22222222222222222222 t Explain the e''ect o' increasing or decreasing ti"e o' i"pact on the "agnit!de o' the i"p!lsive 'orce. &escribe sit!ations where an i"p!lsive 'orce needs to be red!ced and s!ggest ways to red!ce it. &escribe sit!ations where an i"p!lsive 'orce is bene'icial. -olve proble"s involving i"p!lsive 'orces. &escribe the i"portance o' sa'ety 'eat!res in vehicles.

2.5 Ceing aware o' the need 'or sa'ety 'eat!res in vehicles 11 3/325/3 2.A Understanding gravity

Research and report on the physics o' vehicle collisions and sa'ety 'eat!res in vehicles in ter"s o' physics concepts. &isc!ss the i"portance o' sa'ety 'eat!res in vehicles. 4arry o!t an activity or view co"p!ter si"!lations to gain an idea o' acceleration d!e to gravity. &isc!ss acceleration d!e to gravity. a gravitational 'ield as a region in which an ob ect experiences a 'orce d!e to gravitational attraction. gravitational 'ield strength 0g3 as gravitational 'orce per !nit "ass. 4arry o!t an activity to deter"ine the val!e o' acceleration d!e to gravity. &isc!ss weight as the EarthDs gravitational 'orce on an ob ect. -olve proble"s involving acceleration d!e to gravity.

Explain acceleration d!e to gravity. -tate what a gravitational 'ield is. &e'ine gravitational 'ield strength. &eter"ine the val!e o' acceleration d!e to gravity. &e'ine weight 0B3 as the prod!ct o' "ass 0"3 and acceleration d!e to gravity 0g3 i.e. B > "g. -olve proble"s involving acceleration d!e to gravity.

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,E-, 1 &escribe sit!ations where 'orces are in e*!ilibri!". -tate what a res!ltant 'orce is. 9dd two 'orces to deter"ine the res!ltant 'orce. Resolve a 'orce into the e''ective co"ponent 'orces. -olve proble"s involving 'orces in e*!ilibri!". Bith the aid o' diagra"s\$ describe sit!ations where 'orces are in e*!ilibri!"\$ e.g. a boo< at rest on a table\$ an ob ect at rest on an inclined plane. Bith the aid o' diagra"s\$ disc!ss the resol!tion and addition o' 'orces to deter"ine the res!ltant 'orce. -olve proble"s involving 'orces in e*!ilibri!" 0li"ited to 3 'orces3. #bserve and disc!ss sit!ations where wor< is done. &isc!ss that no wor< is done when;

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## 2.11 Understanding wor<\$

de'ine wor< 0B3 as the prod!ct o' an applied 'orce 0.3 and displace"ent 0s3 o' an ob ect in the direction o' the

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2.11 9ppreciating the i"portance o' "axi"izing the e''iciency o' devices Recognize the i"portance o' "axi"izing e''iciency o' devices in conserving reso!rces. a 'orce is applied b!t no displace"ent occ!rs an ob ect !ndergoes a displace"ent with no applied 'orce acting on it. /ive exa"ples to ill!strate how energy is trans'erred 'ro" one ob ect to another when wor< is done. &isc!ss the relationship between wor< done to accelerate a body and the change in <inetic energy. &isc!ss the relationship between wor< done against gravity and gravitational potential energy. 4arry o!t an activity to show the principle o' conservation o' energy. -tate that power is the rate at which wor< is done\$ P > B/t. 4arry o!t activities to "eas!re power. &isc!ss e''iciency as; !se'!l energy o!tp!t x 111F energy inp!t Eval!ate and report the e''iciencies o' vario!s devices s!ch as a diesel engine\$ a petrol engine and an electric engine. -olve proble"s involving wor<\$ energy\$ power and e''iciency. &isc!ss that when an energy trans'or"ation ta<es place\$ not all o' the energy is !sed to do !se'!l wor<. -o"e is converted into heat or other types o' energy. 7axi"izing e''iciency d!ring energy trans'or"ations "a<es the best !se o' the available energy. ,his helps to conserve reso!rces. 4arry o!t activities to gain an idea on elasticity. Plan and cond!ct an experi"ent to 'ind the relationship between 'orce and extension o' a spring. Relate wor< done to elastic potential energy to obtain Ep>@<x2. &escribe and interpret 'orce2extension graphs. :nvestigate the 'actors that a''ectelasticity. Research and report on applications o' elasticity. -olve proble"s involving elasticity. PE=9 3 9GU/ER9H 4E7ER+9G/ 2)/6 4U,: PER:-,:B9 31 2/8 PER=E79H9G PER&9G9

applied 'orce i.e. B > .s. state that when wor< is done energy is trans'erred 'ro" one ob ect to another. de'ine <inetic energy and state that E<> @"v2 de'ine gravitational potential energy and state that Ep > "gh -tate the principle o' conservation o' energy. &e'ine power and state that P > B/t explain what e''iciency o' a device is. solve proble"s involving wor<\$ energy\$ power and e''iciency.

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## 2.12 Understanding elasticity

de'ine elasticity de'ine Hoo<eDs law. de'ine elastic potential energy and state that Ep> @ <x2. &eter"ine the 'actors that a''ect elasticity. describe applications o' elasticity. -olve proble"s involving elasticity.

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-port 7eet de'ine press!re and state that P>. 9 &escribe applications o' press!re. -olve proble"s involving press!re.

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EI97 1 3. 2 Understanding press!re in li*!ids relate depth to press!re in a li*!id. relate density to press!re in a li*!id. explain press!re in a li*!id and state that P> Jhg. #bserve sit!ations to 'or" ideas that press!re in li*!ids; acts in all directions increases with depth #bserve sit!ations to 'or" the idea that press!re in li*!ids increases with

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describe applications o' press!re in li*!ids. solve proble"s involving press!re in li*!ids. density. Relate depth 0h3\$ density and gravitational 'ield strength 0g3 to press!re in li*!ids to obtain P> Jhg. Research and report on the applications o' press!re in li*!ids ways to red!ce the negative e''ects o' press!re in li*!ids. -olve proble"s involving press!re in li*!ids. 4arry o!t activities to gain an idea o' gas press!re and at"ospheric press!re. &isc!ss gas press!re in ter"s o' the behavior o' gas "olec!les based on the <inetic theory. &isc!ss at"ospheric press!re in ter"s o' the weight o' the at"osphere acting on the EarthDs s!r'ace. &isc!ss the e''ect o' altit!de on the "agnit!de o' at"ospheric press!re. Research and report on the applications o' at"ospheric press!re. -olve proble"s involving at"ospheric and gas press!re incl!ding baro"eter and "ano"eter readings. #bserve sit!ations to 'or" the idea that press!re exerted on an enclosed li*!id is trans"itted e*!ally to every part o' the li*!id.

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## 3.3 Understanding gas press!re and at"ospheric press!re

explain gas press!re. explain at"ospheric press!re. describe applications o' at"ospheric press!re. solve proble"s involving at"ospheric press!re and gas press!re.

## 3.6 9pplying PascalDs Principle 22 1(221/(

state PascalDs principle. explain hydra!lic syste"s. describe applications o' PascalDs principle. solve proble"s involving PascalDs principle.

3. 8 9pplying 9rchi"edesD principle explain b!oyant 'orce. relate b!oyant 'orce to the weight o' the li*!id displaced. state 9rchi"edesD principle. describe applications o' 9rchi"edes principle. solve proble" involving 9rchi"edesD principle.

&isc!ss hydra!lic syste"s as a 'orce "!ltiplier to obtain; o!tp!t 'orce > o!tp!t piston area inp!t 'orce inp!t piston area Research and report on the applications o' PascalDs principle 0hydra!lic syste"s3. -olve proble"s involving PascalDs Principle. 4arry o!t an activity to "eas!re the weight o' an ob ect in air and the weight o' the sa"e ob ect in water to gain an idea on b!oyant 'orce. 4ond!ct an experi"ent to investigate the relationship between the weight o' water displaced and the b!oyant 'orce. &isc!ss b!oyancy in ter"s o'; an ob ect that is totally or partially s!b"erged in a 'l!id experiences a b!oyant 'orce e*!al to the weight o' 'l!id displaced the weight o' a 'reely 'loating ob ect being e*!al to the weight o' 'l!id displaced a 'loating ob ect has a density less than or e*!al to the density o' the 'l!id in which it is 'loating. Research and report on the applications o' 9rchi"edesD Principle\$ e.g. s!b"arines\$ hydro"eters\$ hot2air balloons. -olve proble"s involving 9rchi"edesD principle. C!ild a 4artesian diver. &isc!ss why the diver can be "ade to "ove !p and down. 4arry o!t activities to gain the idea that when the speed o' a 'lowing 'l!id increases its press!re decreases. e.g. blowing above a strip o' paper\$ blowing thro!gh straw between two ping2pong balls s!spended on strings. &isc!ss Cerno!lliDs Principle. 4arry o!t activities to show that a res!ltant 'orce exists d!e to a di''erence in 'l!id press!re. %iew a co"p!ter si"!lation to observe air 'low over an aero'oil to gain an idea on li'ting 'orce.

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## 3. ( Understanding Cerno!lliDs principle

state Cerno!lliDs principle. explain that a res!ltant 'orce exists d!e to a di''erence in 'l!id press!re. describe applications o' Cerno!lliDs principle. solve proble" involving Cerno!lliDs principle.

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Research and report on the applications o' Cerno!lliDs principle

CHAPTER 4 HEAT

## explain ther"al e*!ilibri!". explain how a li*!id2in2glass ther"o"eter wor<s.

4arry o!t activities to show that ther"al e*!ilibri!" is a condition in which there is no nett heat 'low between two ob ects in ther"al contact. Use the li*!id2in2glass ther"o"eter to explain how the vol!"e o' a 'ixed "ass o' li*!id "ay be !sed to de'ine a te"perat!re scale. #bserve the change in te"perat!re when; the sa"e a"o!nt o' heat is !sed to heat di''erent "asses o' water. the sa"e a"o!nt o' heat is !sed to heat the sa"e "ass o' di''erent li*!ids. &isc!ss speci'ic heat capacity. Plan and carry o!t an activity to deter"ine the speci'ic heat capacity o' a li*!id a solid Research and report on applications o' speci'ic heat capacity. -olve proble"s involving speci'ic heat capacity. 4arry o!t an activity to show that there is no change in te"perat!re when heat is s!pplied to; 2 a li*!id at its boiling point. 2 a solid at its "elting point.

## 6.2 Understanding speci'ic heat capacity

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de'ine speci'ic heat capacity 0c3. state that c > K "L deter"ine the speci'ic heat capacity o' a li*!id. deter"ine the speci'ic heat capacity o' a solid. describe applications o' speci'ic heat capacity. solve proble"s involving speci'ic heat capacity.

state that trans'er o' heat d!ring a change o' phase does not ca!se a change in te"perat!re. &e'ine speci'ic latent heat 0l3 state that M l > K " . deter"ine the speci'ic latent heat o' '!sion. deter"ine the speci'ic latent heat o' vaporisation.

## 6. 3 Understanding speci'ic latent heat

Bith the aid o' a cooling and heating c!rve\$ disc!ss "elting\$ solidi'ication\$ boiling and condensation as processes involving energy trans'er witho!t a change in te"perat!re. &isc!ss 2 latent heat in ter"s o' "olec!lar behavio!r. 2 speci'ic latent heat. Plan and carry o!t an activity to deter"ine the speci'ic latent heat o'; 2 '!sion 2 vaporisation -olve proble"s involving speci'ic latent heat.

## 6.6 Understanding the gas laws

explain gas press!re\$ te"perat!re and vol!"e in ter"s o' the behavio!r o' gas "olec!les. deter"ine the relationship between press!re and vol!"e at constant te"perat!re 'or a 'ixed "ass o' gasi.e. p% > constant deter"ine the relationship between vol!"e and te"perat!re at constant press!re 'or a 'ixed "ass o' gas i.e %/, > constant deter"ine the relationship between press!re and te"perat!re at constant vol!"e 'or a 'ixed "ass o' gas i.e. p/, > constant. explain absol!te zero. explain the absol!te/=elvin scale o' te"perat!re.

Use a "odel or view co"p!ter si"!lations on the behavio!r o' "olec!les o' a 'ixed "ass o' gas to gain an idea abo!t gas press!re\$ te"perat!re and vol!"e. &isc!ss gas press!re\$ vol!"e and te"perat!re in ter"s o' the behavio!r o' "olec!les based on the <inetic theory. Plan and carry o!t an experi"ent on a 'ixed "ass o' gas to deter"ine the relationship between; press!re and vol!"e at constant te"perat!re vol!"e and te"perat!re at constant press!re press!re and te"perat!re at constant vol!"e

Tingkatan 4
Extrapolate P2, and %2, graphs or view co"p!ter si"!lations to show that when press!re and vol!"e are zero the te"perat!re on a P2, and %2, graph is 2253o4. &isc!ss absol!te zero and the =elvin scale o' te"perat!re. -olve proble"s involving the press!re\$ te"perat!re and vol!"e o' a 'ixed "ass o' gas. #bserve the i"age 'or"ed in a plane "irror. &isc!ss that the i"age is; as 'ar behind the "irror as the ob ect is in 'ront and the line oining the ob ect and i"age is perpendic!lar to the "irror\$ the sa"e size as the ob ect\$ virt!al\$ laterally inverted. &isc!ss the laws o' re'lection. &raw ray diagra"s to deter"ine the position and characteristics o' the i"age 'or"ed by a plane "irror\$ convex "irror\$ concave "irror. Research and report on applications o' re'lection o' light. -olve proble"s involving re'lection o' light. #bserve sit!ations to gain an idea on re'raction. 4ond!ct an experi"ent to 'ind the relationship between the angle o' incidence and angle o' re'raction to obtain -nellDs law. 4arry o!t an activity to deter"ine the re'ractive index o' a glass or Perspex bloc<. &isc!ss the re'ractive index\$ n\$ as speed o' light in a vac!!". speed o' light in a "edi!" Research and report on pheno"ena d!e to re'raction\$ e.g. apparent depth\$ the twin<ling o' stars. 4arry o!t activities to gain an idea o' apparent depth. Bith the aid o' diagra"s\$ disc!ss real depth and apparent depth. -olve proble"s involving the re'raction o' light. 4arry o!t activities to show the e''ect o' increasing the angle o' incidence on the angle o' re'raction when light travels 'ro" a denser "edi!" to a less dense "edi!" to gain an idea abo!t total internal re'lection and to obtain the critical angle. &isc!ss with the aid o' diagra"s; total internal re'lection and critical angle. the relationship between critical angle and re'ractive index. Research and report on nat!ral pheno"enon involving total internal re'lection \$ the applications o' total internal re'lection\$ e.g. in teleco""!nication !sing 'iber optics. -olve proble"s involving total internal re'lection.

solve proble"s involving press!re\$ te"perat!re and vol!"e o' a 'ixed "ass o' gas.

CHAPTER . LIGHT

## 8.1 Understanding re'lection o' light

describe the characteristics o' the i"age 'or"ed by re'lection o' light. state the laws o' re'lection o' light. draw ray diagra"s to show the position and characteristics o' the i"age 'or"ed by a plane "irror\$ convex "irror\$ concave "irror. &escribe applications o' re'lection o' light. solve proble"s involving re'lection o' light.

## 2( 21/5 228/5 8.2 Understanding re'raction o' light

explain re'raction o' light. de'ine re'ractive index as n > sin i sin r &eter"ine the re'ractive index o' a glass or Perspex bloc<. -tate the re'ractive index\$ n\$ as speed o' light in a vac!!". speed o' light in a "edi!" &escribe pheno"ena d!e to re'raction. solve proble"s involving the re'raction o' light.

## 8.3 Understanding total internal re'lection o' light

explain total internal re'lection o' light. de'ine critical angle 0c3. relate the critical angle to the re'ractive index i.e. n > 1 sin c describe nat!ral pheno"enon involving total internal re'lection. describe applications o' total internal re'lection. -olve proble"s involving total internal re'lection.

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## Hari Raya Holiday

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Use an optical <it to observe and "eas!re light rays traveling thro!gh convex and concave lenses to gain an idea o' 'ocal point and 'ocal length. &eter"ine the 'ocal point and 'ocal length o' convex and concave lenses. Bith the help o' ray diagra"s\$ disc!ss 'ocal point and 'ocal length. &raw ray diagra"s to show the positions and characteristics o' the i"ages 'or"ed by a convex lens concave lens. 4arry o!t activities to gain an idea o' "agni'ication. Bith the help o' ray diagra"s\$ disc!ss "agni'ication. 4arry o!t an activity to 'ind the relationship between !\$ v and '. 4arry o!t activities to gain an idea on the !se o' lenses in optical devices. Bith the help o' ray diagra"s disc!ss the !se o' lenses inoptical devices s!ch as a telescope and a "icroscope. 4onstr!ct an optical device that !ses lenses. -olve proble"s involving lenses. PE=9 8

## 2A\$ 2) 6/A 218/A 8.6 Understanding lenses

explain 'ocal point and 'ocal length. deter"ine the 'ocal point and 'ocal length o' a convex lens. deter"ine the 'ocal point and 'ocal length o' a concave lens. draw ray diagra"s to show the positions and characteristics o' the i"ages 'or"ed by a convex lens. draw ray diagra"s to show the positions and characteristics o' the i"ages 'or"ed by a concave lens. de'ine "agni'ication as " > v ! relate 'ocal length 0'3 to the ob ect distance 0!3 and i"age and i"age distance 0v3\$ i.e 1 > 1 1 ? ' ! v describe\$ with the aid o' ray diagra"s\$ the !se o' lenses in optical devices. constr!ct an optical device that !ses lenses. solve proble"s involving lenses.

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