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The Stephen

Chm

Library of Fine Arts

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Institute of Fine Arts,

New York

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TANIS.
PAET
II.

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LONDON: PRINTED BY GILBERT ANU UIVINGTON, LIMITKD.


ST.

JOHN'S HOUSE, CLKRKENWELL ROAD.

TANIS.
PART
11.

NEBE SHEH
AND

(AM)

DEFENNEH

(TAHPANHES).

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE.
WITH CHAPTERS BY

A.

S.

MURRAY AND

F.

LL. GRIFFITH.

FOURTH MEMOIR OF

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.

PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE COMMITTEE.

LONDON
TRUBNER &
CO., 57

&

59,

LUDGATE HILL,

E.G.

1888.

Mne

^rts

NEVyYORKUfilVEF'SiTY!

LIBRARY

/TANIS./
/

PABT

II.,

1886.

W. M. FLINDERS PETEIE
AND

E.

EL. GBIFFITH.

FOURTH MEMOIR, OF

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.

PUBLISHED BY OBDER OF TEE COMMITTEE.

LONDON
TKUBNER &
CO., 57

&

59,

LUDGATE

HILL, E.G.

750

CO
SECT.

NTE\T

S.

TANIS.
PART
II.

1.

As

these pages are a continuation

of the

side

by two of the large granite obelisks

while

description of the

monuments
there
is

of Tanis, which

was

beyond these again stood on one


stone colossi of

side the sand-

begun

in Part

I.

no need of any prefatory

Ramessu

II.,

and on the other the


shrine had three

remarks before resuming the chronological descriptions, -which


it

long line of early statues.


seated deities, carved

Each

may be remembered were


monuments
of
inscriptions here
is

laid aside

all in
;

the solid block, at

in the midst of the

Ramessu II. The


continuous

the back of

its

recess

and these seem to be the on his

immbering of the
from Part
I.

same

in both shrines, apparently


left,

The only work


first

that I have done at

on his

and

Tum

right.

Amen, with Ra The deities

Tanis, since writing the


is

part of this memoir,

represented in the scenes of offering (inscrip. 68),

the further

clearing

of the

two stone-lined
be given.

however, are Khepera,


the
sides,

Tum, and Haremkhuti on

wells, of

which an account

will here

and Seb and Shu on the back.


but with a sphinx carved in
Tell-el-Maskhuta, and
is

A
it,

At the south end of the

line of early statues lie


little

similar

shrine,
at

two altars or tables of offerings some


apart (Plan, 105 and 115)
;

way
&c.,

was found
Ismailiyeh

now

at

they have the usual

(pi. xvi. 5).

representations of cakes, vases, vegetables,

The great

series of granite stelae at


;

upon them, and the inscriptions Nos. 66 and 67


the interest of these
is

suffered severely

every one of

San have them having been


loss,

in the dedications,

which

used up for building material in later times, and


all
is

are almost the only references to other places found


at San,

but one being broken.

Their

however,

one naming Tahuti, lord of Hermopohs,

not so

much due
off

to this injury as to the severe

and the other Menthu, lord of Thebes.


a splintering fracture, and No. 115

Both

are

weathering, which had before they were thus used


up, scaled

cut in a very hard white limestone, breaking with


is

the

surface from

most of them.
I.,

considerably

broken.

For a statement of their dimensions see Part sect. 24, where the plan number of the largest
misprinted 161 for 164.

is

On

either

side

of the

temple

stood a large

The

inscriptions, so far

shrine of a deep form,

cut in yellow sandstone

as they are legible, are given here in Nos.

69 to 82.

(Plan, 80, and 81), see pi. xvi. 6; the southern shrine
is

No 78

his 1

had supposed might be the missing

broken into

many

pieces

and several

piece of No. 78, but on comparing

them together

parts are missing, but the northern shrine has lost

this is seen not to be the case for several reasons.

only a part of one side, and one block of this part


still lies

The upper
in
5, in

part of stele 196 (Plan)

may

be seen
pi.

near to

it.

These shrines seem to have

the foreground of the

photograph,

xiv.

been placed facing each other on either hand of


the axial roadway, and were each flanked on either

Part

I.

appear to

The fragments (inscrips. 83 to 86) belong to large monuments such as

'NEW

YC'^K UNIVERSITY
J

LIBRARY

obelisks

83 and 84 are probably parts of one

and specialh' the small cartouches, leaving the


titles.

block, by the style and the thickness of the pieces.

The

object of this again is not clear, as

an appropriator would have used the previous


2.

Of the

architraves of the temple


;

(inscrip.

figures without

any demur

and a mere defacer


as well.

87 to 93) not much remains

of the large ones

would have cut away the


that on the pillar 64 a.

titles

We

see

but four, and two smaller hntel blocks.

These

here the only mention of the

architraves are a double cubit square (-il to


in.); but
is

42

ram of Tattu, beside One of the capitals of


and pegging them on

No. 25, used up

in building the pylon,

these columns has been curiously patched up, by


inserting blocks of granite

48 in. wide, perhaps it belonged to the pylon of Ramessu, and not to the temple. The unfinished
figures in inscrip.

by metal pins

the hole for one of these has


drill,

89 show the incompletion of the


Great Hall at Kamak.
(described
in

been drilled out by a tube

made

of thin

work as

in parts of the

sheet bronze, and fed with loose cutting powder

Of the sanctuary walls


sect.

Part

I.,

the

drill

23)

but

few pieces bear any continuous

only

-^ inch

was ^ inch diameter, making a groove wide, and a part of the core still
is

inscriptions (Nos.

94

to

101); the general ap-

remains in the hole, which

1-7 inch deep.

pearance of them

may

be seen by the block at


pi. xiv. 5, in

One
court

of the few remains of doorways (Plan, 134)


side

the right hand of the photograph,

seems to have belonged to the entrance of a


;

Part

I.

The

block inscr.

94

is

curious,

as

it

has the characteristic slope of the

front,

having a piece of disused sculpture on the joint


surface
;

and bears figures of Ptah and Mut

(inscr. 109).

sculpture which from


to

its style

can hardly
II.

be placed
This
his
is

any period before


like the

Piamessu
II. cutting

3.

Among

the ruins of the granite pylon

of

another case of Ramessu

up 77
31.

Sheshonk III. are many pieces of the great colossus


of Piamessu II.
(sect.
,

own work,

change
in

in the obelisk

as have been described in Part

I.,

(Plan), which

was noticed

Part

I., sect.

28)

and beside these are several blocks,


yet from the size of their hieroglyphics

third

instance, perhaps,

will

be seen in the

which though not bearing any surface of the


status
itself,

inscription 144, noticed below.

The

great

columns of the avenue from the

seem
it,

to

have belonged to the inscribed pilaster of


it

pylon (inscrs. 102 to 108) have been in course of


appropriation apparently

or to the built base on which

stood.

The

by Sheshonk
of

III.,

in

inscriptions of these are

shown

in Nos.

110

to 118.

connection with
(Part
I., sect.

his

rebuilding

the

pylon

No.

110 bears evidently the beginning of the


II.
,

19).

But they have


of inscr.

suffered even

banner of Ramessu

the bull, -nath part of the


tail

more than
the
first

this apparently, for the cartouches in

sign nelht below, and the tip of the

of the

two
cut

lines

102

have

been
their

hawk above

it.

The

large size of this banner,


is,

entirely

out,

and

then
the

reinserted in

about 45 inches wide,

however, paralleled by a

present

form,

before

erasure

of the

half

part of a cartouche (No. 113, plan 29) which must

cartouche

by Sheshonk

III.

We

might think

have been about 38 inches wide.

Such

inscriptions

that this was another freak of Piamessu himself,

arc about proportionate to the size of the great


colossus, as

only he had no
insert,

other standard cartouches

to

compared with the inscriptions on


;

the

cartouche

form

and

arrangement

other colossi

and, moreover, the granite of


is

some

being scarcely ever varied.

No

later king would,

of these blocks

distinctively the

same

as that of

however, have the piety to insert a predecessor's


cartouches,

the pieces of the great colossus.

The

sculpturing

and

so

this

must be

credited

to

on block 110
temple of San
is

is
:

important to the history of the


the banner of Ramessu
11. ,

some vagary

of the sculptors.

The scenes around

110

b,

the lower part have been intentionally cut out,

plainly the earliest piece of sculpture on this.

since the legs on the adjoimng side,

110

a, are

on

4.

Merenptah placed two

fine statues of

himself

a curved surface which woukl not be exposed, and could notwell be built up, and that sidewould therefore

in the temple here (inscrs. 136, 137), one of grey,

the other of pink granite.


in two,

Both
;

are

now broken
fair

have been entirely dressed away

if

existing in

and have

lost the feet

but they are in

Ramesside times.

110 A to build it when he used this


therefore,

The dressing down of the face in must be due to Sheshonk III.,


block,
filling

condition,

and worth preserving. 13G and 137


;

The

inscriptions

are given in Nos.

and the many

up the
it.

bull
legs,

appropriations by Merenptah will be found before


in Part
I.,

hieroglyph with mortar in laying

The

Nos. 3, 4,

5, 8, 14, 15, 25, 26, 27, 28.

which

remain
a,

from a group of the


to

and 29.

Apiece of his work

in limestone.

No.

two Niles, on 110


between Eamessu

must belong

some work
III.

138 (Plan, 226), was used by Siamen

in founding
;

II.

and Sheshonk

Now

the colonnade in front of the sanctuary

while

Siamen did not execute large work, nor generally


good work,
here,
to

two other blocks, Nos. 139 and 140, show that

judge by the examples we have


;

he also worked here in granite.

Seti

II.

has

some

of which are wretched

and yet there

one block of his work remaining. No. 141.

Of

does not seem to be any other king to

whom

this

Ramessu III.
stone
this

are two kneeling statues, one bearing

can be ascribed.
surface
is

The sculpture being on


is,

a curved

a table of offerings (inscr. 142) carved in sand;

very peculiar, and there

perhaps, no

has unfortunately

lost the

upper part
143)
;

similar instance of a large group on a curve.

The

of the figure.
in

The other
is
still

statue

(inscr.

is

fragments of inscriptions on various granite blocks


(Nos. 119 to 135) are a selection from the

dark grey granite, and


it

much weathered

but

many

the shrine

holds

clearly contains figures of

remains of the temple buildings

the blocks which

Ptah and Sekhet hand in hand.


(No. 144) which
inscription

There remains

only bore isolated signs, or some of the innumerable

one conspicuous block of the Eamesside period


is

fragments of cartouches or

titles of

Ramessu, could
and such a

hard to attribute.
it

By
at

the

be of no importance, except in an attempt at


restoring the plans of the buildings
;

144 b alone

would
II.
;

be

once

supposed to belong to Ramessu


adjacent side
is

but on the

task seems

quite hopeless

when such a small


No. 122 has a
it,

a plainly Eamesside inscription

proportion of the material

is left.

144
it is

A,

and

this side is evidently the first cut, as

fragment of early inscription on


as No. 24.

already given

much

better work, and has


its

had dovetailed

No. 124 has an unusual arrangement


Nos. 123 and 127, with

cramp-holes made in
Either, then,

ends when used afterwards.


II.

of the sam and lotus.

Eamessu

broke up his own work,


in a very inferior

the pieces mentioned on the plate, show at least


four Eamesside lintels, as the heights preclude our

and had the pieces sculptured


style,

on a rough and irregularly curved surface,

supposing any to belong together, except perhaps


the
first

or else these
king,

must belong
strikingly

to a later

Eamesside

two pieces mentioned, Nos. 124 and 129


Inscription 129
is

perhaps the twelfth.


is

The
this,

inscription

88

on the plan.

an instance of
No. 130
No. 132

(Plan, 262)
scale
;

hke

but on a smaller

almost complete erasure in later times.

and the lower part of a somewhat similar

has part of a group of Ramessu fighting, accompanied by his hon, as at


is

Abu

Simbel.

arrangement remains at Abydos, only there the ra is placed immediately over the sotep as usual, and
not

a portion of Ramesside inscription on the under-

as here
is

to be read into place from the top.

side of the south of the pair of bases of

columns
;

This would seem to show that the re-use of this


block

placed by Siamen in front of the sanctuary

this

due to Eamessu

II. himself.

shows that Siamen did not merely inscribe existing


bases, but

had cut these out

of ruined blocks of

5.

PI. viii contains all that

can be attributed to

the buildings of Ramessu.

Siamen

at

San, beside the appropriations given

; ; ;

before

in

inscr.

15

b.

Of these Xo. 145


across what
is

is

7.

The
;

stela

of

Taharka

is

broken in two
in

inscribed in

one

line,

now

the

pieces

the

lower

was
to say

found

Mariette's

underside of a great roofing block, Plan 23G, but

clearance, and

was copied and published by De

which was formerly the upper

side.

From

the

Rouge, but

strange
arrived

no search
business

seems to
from the

inscription being thus on a horizontal surface,

and

have been made for the upper part, which lay


exposed.
I at

from the crab-hole cut into the top of it, it has evidently been re-used, perhaps by Pisebkhanu,
since he built in the sanctuaiy. tions around the

the

opposite end;

seeing the upper part of an in-

Of the

inscrip-

scription lying face

up on a block of

granite, I

two bases of columns(186-7,Plan)


(inscr.

examined the quality of the stone,

and then
;

enough remains

146) to see the character,

searched around for any pieces of the same kind


turning one such over,
I

plamly borrowed from the Piamesside inscriptions.

found the lower part of

The Untel The

(inscr.

158)

is

very rudely cut,

bemg

the inscription, which had been placed face

down

merely marked in by a bruising away of the surface.


inscriptions

by Mariette.

The

text here given is taken from

150 and 151 are two of the best

a squeeze aided by a

hand copy, but

is

of course

examples of the work of Siamen, and should be the latter I found on clearing beneath preserved
;

rendered somewhat doubtful by the bad state of


the stone.

the

immense
is

block. No.

236

in

plan,

and

it

had
8.
X., all

not been seen before.

The block with

inscription

Coming now

to Ptolemaic

monuments on

pi.

No, 152
is

attributed to Siamen, because the style

of these were found during


tliis

my

excavations

too shallow and rough to be of Piamessu II.

only one inscription of


before, the

age was known here

and yet having crab-holes cut ia it at a later time, it is probably before Sheshonk III., who built the
pylon where this
lies.

great stele of San,

now

at Bulak.

No. 153

is

a very rude

The value of these tablets mainly lies in their naming Am the capital of the nineteenth nome

and shght

inscription, on the side of a base of


is

an

Am

Pehu, and each of the deities represented

is

obeUsk, the front of which

occupied with the


as on inscr.

said to be of

Am.

This pointed to

Am

being at

usual decoration of Siamen,

150.

or near San, instead of at

Buto or Pelusium, and


This will be
with
those

The other fragments, 154-5-6,


Siamen from
their style.

are attributed to

the later discoveries at Tell Nebesheh seem to


point to that as the actual capital.

6.

The

great granite pylon built by Sheshonk


is

more fully considered in monuments. Photographs


tablets,

dealing

of the two important


III.,

III.

out of earlier materials

more than
shown

half

No. 164 of Ptolemy IV. and Arsinoc


II.

fallen.
I., pi.

The most complete


XV. 1,

side is

in Part

and No. 165 of Ptolemy


be seen in Part
are
fully
I.,

and Arsinoe

II., will

on which Sheshonk has been offering

pi. xv. 2, 3,

and these
sees.
;

finds

to

some god, with Mut standing behind him.


of the blocks of this pylon bear fragments

described

in

Part

I.,

38,

30.

Many
but

(Misprint p. 32, line 6, read except

line 8, read

of the figures Avith


all

which

it

has been covered

The.)
British

The whole
Museum,

of these tablets are

now

in the

the inscriptions remaining are given in

exhibited in one of the bays of

pi. ix.

No. 157

is

on a piece of the back of the

the Egyptian Gallery. the

No. 167

is

a fragment of
in

pilaster of the great colossus,

and
is

is

a good piece
it

back of a basalt statue, found

digging

of work of

its

age.

No. 161

remarkable, as
;

between the avenue of columns and the sphinxes.


No. 169
is

shows one stage of cutting an inscription


painting
cut out
it

after

a fragment of a statue in grey granite,


site of

on the granite, particular signs were


apparently the easiest, such as neb

which was found on the

a Ptolemaic temple,

first,

on

tlie

southern slope of the mounds of San.

and

in this case the engraver got

no

furthfr.

largo sfjuare area

had there been dug out througii

a great depth of artificial

soil,

aud then

filled

of the inscription of which front inscription.

may

be seen in the

with clean sand, to serve for the foundation of a

The head has been reworked,


chest, the
girdle cut
inserted,

Ptolemaic temple.

pylon of sandstone stood


it,

a pectoral

carved on the

some way

to

the west of

connected by an

away and a cartouche


changed.
Still
it

and the inscriptions

avenue, of which two rows of large blocks of red


granite remain loose on the surface of the ground.

is

a fine work, and the two

hawks, cut in half round, standing face to face


behind the head are unusual.
of any

Probably this part has been


weathering,

much denuded by
inscription
I

There

is

no trace
an

and has thus

exposed what were

Hyksos appropriation on the shoulders.


statue (inscrip. 174)
is

foundations originally.

The

170

is

The other
original

as plainly

on a block of limestone, which

found in what

work of Eamessu.

It is

much

poorer

appears to have been the great Ptolemaic temple


of San, just outside the wall of Pisebkhanu on

work

more

clumsy, thick, and skew

than

any

statue before that age that I know, and most like

the south.

a worse copy of the sandstone statues of

Eamessu;

the stripes of the kalantika are far wider than in


9.

At the Bulak Museum are four statues


beside

\\'ith

early statues, and are unpolished in the hollows


it

long inscriptions, found in Mariette's clearance


of

wears the pschent

the

name on

the girdle

is

San

the

sphinxes, &c., with

short

not over any erasure, but on a place


the carving, nor
is

left for it in

titular inscriptions

like

those already published


of these
statues
is

there any sign of erasures;


It

here.

The most important


in black granite.

and

it

has a collar on.

was recognized by
II.,

that of Nefert, the queen of Usertesen

II., finely

Mariette as an original of Eamessu


since then to have

but seems

wrought

The wig
quite

is

very

full,

somehow gained

the rank of

in a broad

lumpy mass, which descends on the


unlike the
inlaid
plaits.
is

an early statue undeservedly.

These two statues

shoulders in two spiral coils,


later

are placed one on either side of the entrance to the Bulak

wig of many

The eyes were

Museum.
inscriptions of

originally.

There

also a similar bust

which
10.

may
still

perhaps belong to some of the fragments


at

Having now noticed the


I

San.

This

inscription
fi-ont

shows

how

San, we will turn lastly to the large stone well

manifestly those on the

of No. 11, and on

which
pi.

found there,

and which
in

is

shown

in

No. 12 (Part

I.),
all

belong to the twelfth dynasty;


these similar statues (for that
II. for his

xii.,

and marked 40

the general plan,

most probably

Part
or
in
is

I.

This seems to be of the later Ptolemaic


period, as the pottery found low

usurped by Eamessu

mother was

like

Eoman
it

down
It

the others originally) were a set of the family of

is distinctly

of the second century a.d.


is

Usertesen
II. at

II.

The standing
(inscrip.

statue of Piamessu
like

a fine piece of work, and

of value to us as

Bulak

172)

is

that I found

bearing on the question of the change of waterlevel in the country,

some distance
It

in front of the pylon at

San

it is

which

is

probably equivalent

one of the best pieces of work of his in red granite.

to the rise in level of the inundated parts and


river beds.

was probably made rather

late

in

life,

as

Merenptah appears on the


tion belong to

side,

and not Kha-

the lowest, being in

The present water-level May) is marked

(and nearly
in
it,

and

em-uas; indeed, four of the eight lines of inscrip-

covers half of the spiral staircase.

Merenptah

and the arrangement,


is

When we had
clear

by active work baled and dug

it

holding a baton or

standard in each hand,

down

to the lowest step in the middle of the

more usual
Eamessu.

in the reign of

Merenptah than under

well, the flow of

water was so strong, streaming


in at the joints of the to

The

seated statue (inscrip. 173) has

up from below, and pouring


stones, that
it

clearly been altered

from an

earlier statue, traces

was impossible

go to the base of

the wall; indeed,

it

rose an inch in five minutes.

years (4|

in.

per century).

The

Nile levels are

From
level

this

it

is at

first

manifest that the water-

of course lower than the country water-level, as


all

must have heen much lower, when they

the rain which soaks into the ground cannot

could excavate a
well in, for

much

wider hole to huild the

percolate but very slowly through the tenacious


fine

the

stones certainly extend 3 feet


water-level.
in

mud

soil

and the high Nile during some


own.

below our

lowest

Further, there

months tends

to raise the water-level to its

would be no object

having steps descending

But probably a change


is

in the country water-level

7 feet below the water, or in having the well


so deep.
It

attendant on a similar change in the Nile water-

seems most

likely that the well

was

levels.

The

result

here agrees very nearly with

planned anticipating that the end of the spiral


staircase

evidences of deposit elsewhere.


rise

At Naulu-atis the

would reach the water, and then (perit

has been about 9

feet in

2500 years
different,

(4-^ in.

haps in a drought), finding that

was not low

per century), and the well-known data of Hcliopolis

enough, two additional steps were placed in the


middle.

and Memphis are not very

though
time of
further

Thus the lowest

step

would probably
Moreover, there

more accurate information as


deposit
is

to

the

represent the lowest water-level.

needed in those cases.

Some

are holes cut in the ends of three steps, evidently


to hold the

notes on the changes in the country will be found


in the account of
sees. 2, 3, &c.

peg-bottomed amphorae upright

and

Nebesheh and Defenneh,

in

these would be

somewhat above

water-level, as

the use of

them would be
l^ack.

to enable a

drawer of

Another large stone well was discovered about


a furlong south of the pylon.

water to

sit

on the step and lay hold of the amTJiat these amphoraj


is

This well had a


;

phora to carry on the

square shaft to light the stairs

and, therefore,
flight,

must have been carried on the back


from their shape
slipped round
;

evident

probably the stairs were a long


well

and the

probably a loop of rope was


peg-l)ottom,

was roofed over


is

tf)

keep out blown dust.


feet

the

and kept from


;

This well

now about 20
at
it.

beneath accu-

rising by the rim

which suiTounds the peg

then

mulated dust, and we needed to dig out a very


large

holding

up the rope over one

shoulder,

and

hole to work

Unfortunately, the

steadying the top with the other hand, the swell


of the body of the

water rose too rapidly for the


clear even to the base of the
side
;

men

to be able to
in the wellit

amphora would

rest

on the

doorway

shoulders and in the neck of the carrier.

Look-

and

it

was hopeless

to

examine

fully,

ing then at these holes we should suppose that


the water ranged from about the lowest step to

without

water

pump and hose to throw the and mud up about 40 or 50 feet. The
force

about the level of the lowest hole.

This would

levels observed
p. 51.

here will hv found in Tart

T.,

imply a

rise of water-level of

about 7 feet in 2000

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS IN


By
F.

"

TANIS," PARTS

I.

AND

II.

Ll. Griffith.^

The

Inscriptious from

to 65 are published in

temple of On, probably at a later date.


Tentyra,
in

He
and

"Tanisl."
11. No. 1. Block of red granite from a doorway showing part of prenomen Pepi L,

seems, therefore, to have built temples successively

at

Tanis,

Heliopolis,

Bubastis,

chronological order

during his

sixth dynasty.
2.

important reign.
12.
cf.

Block of red granite from a doorway,-

No.

3.

published also by

De Rouge,

Insc. pi. Ixxv.'

23.

Front of throne

Statue red granite, Amenemhat I., " Beright side, 3d.


;
.

The two copies agree. " King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Ba men (beloved of Ra), wearing
the two diadems, loving the body
(?), triple

loved of Ptah Seker, lord of the crypt


living for ever."

Left side, 3c, "the

beloved

of

Ptah Res

golden Horus, 8a Hather neht ant Pepi (son


of Hathor, mistress of Tentyra Pepi), giver of
all life, all stability
. .

Anbuf (Ptah south


two
for ever."

of his wall (?)), lord of the

lands, son of the Sun,

Amenemha[t], living

."
I.

(Denderah)

The connection of Pepi is shown by the

with

Tentyra
a

Back support,
followed

3a,

"beloved of Ptah Res


of

tradition recorded

Anbuf, lord of the

life

the two lands,"

in the Ptolemaic temple of

the

finding

of

by the

standard

plan of the temple in the palace during his


reign.

" renewing births,"


ra,

name nem mesii, and throne name shetep ah

The alabaster lid, pi. xii. 5, bears the same cartouche, and was bought at Qeneh, opposite Denderah, by Professor Sayce.
of

"pacifying the heart of Ra."


of base,
all life, all stability

Back
all

ptah, " giver of

rows of cartouches of Merenand purity,

The cartouche of Pepi, beloved of [Hathor], Ant and [Turn] of Anu, found in the temple
shows that he was a builder in the
lias

health, all joy (or fatness?)."

Side of throne, 3 b, cartouches of Merenptah.


Side of base, 3b, "the

of Bubastis,
1

M.

ISTaville

corrected

the plates

of

inscriptions,

Lower Egypt,

lord of the

King of Upper and two lands, mer amen

before publication, throughout the two volumes of

" Tanis,"

ha n ra, son of the Sun, Merenjjteh hetep her


mail, beloved of UatI ap taui.

together with those of ]Srebesheh, Qantarah, and Defeneh,


reference in part to the originals, in part to photographs

by and He has also looked through proofs of the whole squeezes. His notes to this chapter are distinof my translations. guished by the letter N. He kindly drew my attention to the publication of some of the inscriptions in Burton's "Excerpta Hieroglyphica," and especially to the name of Usertesen I., that appears there on the statue numbered 5 as well as to an interesting discussion of the in this work monuments which appeared in the " Melanges d'Archeologie," from notes taken at De Eouge's lectures in 1869, p. 280, &c., by M. F. Kobiou. 2 Cf. De Eouge, " Melanges," I.e. ' Discovered by Burton, cf. Rouge, " Etudes sur les Six Premieres Dynasties," pp. 115 and 116. N.
;

All the gods


of Tanis,

named

in the
2,

early inscriptions
13,

except those on

Memphite forms

of Ptah, Osiris,

and 19, are and of the

M. Naville reminds me
temple
its

that -

is

the

name

of

the

of

Memphis.

But

did
at

not

the

phrase
period,

obtain

geographical

significance

a later

when even
^^

1
was

"^"^

i^

found, like

T'^^>^
title

geo?

graphical expression formed from the local

of

Ptah

'

5-

""^

also a title of the

Memphite

Bast.

TRA>CSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.

tomb gods.
Merenptah,

Uati ap taui, in the inscription of


is

thee

all Ufe, stability,

and purity,

all

health, all

the form of Uat worshipped at Pe Dep, and may be considered as the representative goddess of the northern marshes.
4.

joy (N.), like Ra, for ever."

Front (original), 5c (see the copy


I.e.),

iu

Burton,

"

The

life

of

(?)

Horus
life

[life]

of births,

Statue black granite, Usertesen


8.

I., cf.

lord of the

two diadems,

of

births, the

and

golden Horus, Hfe of births, the king of Upper

Front, 4c, and 4b, similar, " good god, lord


of gladness.

and Lower Egypt


of the

hi (Usertesen
(?)

I.)

son

King
^">

Ra
like

x^pf^''

Upper and Lower Egypt. son of the Sun [Usertesen],


of
hill,

Sun (Merenptah), beloved


and
i)urity, like
5c.

of

Anubis
life,

in his localities, lord of


stability,

heaven, giver of
Ra, for ever."
Full titles of

beloved of Auubis, chief of his

giver of

life,

Ra, eternally."

Back (usurped),
bull, rejoicing in

Meren-

Back support, 4a, " King of Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of the two lands, Ba n ra
mer
neteru, son of the Sun, lord

ptah twice repeated.

" Life of Horus, strong


:

truth

of diadems,

Lower Egypt,

lord of the

King two

of

lands,

Upper and Ba n ra
:

Merenptah

hetep her niaa, beloved of the

most

raer neteru (soul of Ra, loving the gods)

son of

vahant Set for ever."


to the usurper.

This

line

belongs entirely

the sun, lord of diadems, Mernptali

hetej)

hr
life

man (Merenptah
1.

resting on truth), giver of

Back

of base, 4a,

1 " [prince

on the two

for ever: Merenptah, beloved of Set."

thrones of] Seb,

may he

inherit the
.
.

monarchy

Line round base (usurpation); on left, "Merenptah, beloved of Set, lord of


giver
of life,
stability,

of

the two lands, prince of


.
. .

Hat

uart (Avaris),like

(2)

administrator of the two countries,


scribe, general
justified {^ir)."

and purity,

Ra,

the royal

in

chief,

royal son

for ever;" right, similar,

but" beloved
statue,

of Set,

Merenptah
(3)

the very valiant, aa i^chtl"


to " Set, the very
6.
(?),

The
. .

offering
."

is

made

Fragments sandstone

Usertesen IL

valiant

by "

his loving adorer, the here-

{Ru x

x"P'^^')i
;

cf.

171.

6a, part of the


. . .

ditary chief of the


scribe, keeper of the

two countries, the royal


seal,

Nile formula
7.

the

commander

of

6b, part of cartouche. Ra ^a Fragment pink granite architrave, User-

the troops, the king's son Merenptah justified." Beneath "an offering of incense and Hquid."
:

tesen III.

"

Ra

x''

/'^^"^

(brightness of

the

This inscription and scene were added on


behalf of Merenptah

Rougd, images of Ra), beloved of Osiris." Mul., I.e., mentions also a large limestone block
with the name of this king.

when

heir-apparent.

He

appears
father

also

on the statue No.


is

172 of his

Burton publishes an inscription from Tanis of " Usertesen III.,


of Osiris,
'chief of the West')."

Rameses IL, and

there also called

beloved of Khent amenti (a form

"justified."
5.

Black granite statue, supposed


5c, in
full

by Mr.
the

8.

Base of grey granite colossus.


;

Upper

Petrie to represent

Amenemhat IL, but


shows the

line original

cartouche only altered, " Life of


(life

copy of the front inscription,


" Exc. Hierog.,"
xl. 5,

Burton's
titles of

Horus, anx mcdn


lord
of
activity.

of births), of

good god,

King
'

Upper and Lower

Usertesen

I.

partly erased and partly usurped

Egypt (Merenptah
lord of iinkh taui."
'

inserted), beloved of Osiris,

by Merenptah.
Original scene of Niles, Oa, on left, partly repeated from other side, 5b. " He says I give to

'

The

For the hieroglyphic name of Tanis, see pp. 34, 35. "c:^ was carved by mistake in the middle of the
group
rl

line, as if for a

^^

but

JDL

not fitting the gap, a

His heir before."

N.

second 'c::7 was ailded.

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


Second
line (usurpation).

17

" Life of Horus,

1.

3, " the

hereditary
favourite,
."
.

princess,

the

strong bull, rejoicing in equity, King of Upper

great
cious
12.

the very gra-

and Lower Egypt, lord of the two lands, Ba n ra mer neteru (Merenptat)." Mr. Petrie must
have
overlooked
the the
to

Black

granite

statue;

inscription

in

standard
statue

name
to

anJch

front, titles of a

queen of the middle kingdom,

mestu which fixes


I.

Usertesen

" the hereditary princess."


18. Part of red granite obehsk of middle kingdom, altered by Rameses II.; see also No. 60. The part shown is aU original except the

This king seems


in black

have had a pair of


of another ?

statues

granite and a third in red

gi'anite in the temple.

The leg

is

at Berlin.
9.

cartouches.

Block grey granite, apparently twelfth


life, stability,

dynasty, " giver of

and purity,
dynasty.

like

by Rameses

Apex, early cartouche erased and replaced It was "supported" in a II.

Ra."
10.

unique manner by two hawks wearing the lower

Fragment

foot,

twelfth

10a
."

Ra, eternally." pation), beginning of cartouche "


(original), "like

10b

(usur.

crown, possibly a symbol of the Horus which appears in the name of the nineteenth nome.
Beneath, scene of a king
(?)

Ra

offering to a
sliu

11.

Black granite statue of a twelfth

dynasty

hawk-headed god crowned with


of heaven."

feathers;

queen, altered for the mother of Rameses II.

at the top is the vulture called " Nekhebt, lady

Front
princess,

(original),

left

side,

"the hereditary
(N.), the very

the great favourite


.

gracious, the consort


title,

."; right side,

same

Then follows an erasure name (replaced by Rameses


Horus, lord of
foreigners),^

of the king's
II.),

(?)

"beloved
(or
of

of

followed by others
(inscribed

difficult to

understand.^

the

desert
of

hills

the

Back
setep

by Rameses

II.),

" the royal


user
II.).

giver

hfe

eternally."

The

mother who bare the strong

bull,

Ba

maa

attitude of the king offering is explained as

ra,

son of the Sun^ (Rameses

" taking or offering (a vessel of peculiar shape)


as a drink-offering."
14.

Side and back of throne (altered by Rameses


IL), and inscribed with
titles

of his mother,

Red granite sphinx, now


Tan.
;

in the Louvre.

imitating those of the earlier princesses.

chest, 14d, erased standard possibly of

On Amenemname
titles

Left side
princess,

1.

In right

1.

1,

"the hereditary
the

hat

II. (cf

I., p. 7)

over

it

is

the

the

great favourite,

very gra-

of Merenptah

on base, right
(?).

side, 14f, part of

cious
1.

..."
." " the royal mother, the mistress " the divine wife, the chief royal 1. 3,
. .

royal titles of Apepi

N.B.

The usual

2,

-|

beginning with Set and ending with mer'z, i.e. " Apepi, beloved of Set,'' seem to have been on
the right shoulder. On left shoulder, 14c, titles ;" on right, of " Merenptah, giver of life for ever
14e, "

Back
rt.

1.

1,

wife

."
.
.

1.

3,
1,

" the chief wife of the king, loving


I
!

side

1.

him."
" the
divine
wife,

1.

2,

the

royal

Xeper

ra.

King of Upper and Lower Egypt, het' setep n rd (the upper crown, offspring

mother ..."
' M. Naville's copy reads, "The duat of the favourites of the palace " the ' favourites' are women
:

of the Sun, chosen of the Sun), son of the Sun,

a
'

"

of the royal household, so also, very likelv,

is

the

^ In the chapter on the Nebesheh inscriptions I have endeavoured to show that Horus wh xo^xet, or neb setu, is the god who was gradually developed in the course of Egyptian

history into

The wife named Tud.


-

of Set!

I.

and mother of Eameses

II.

was

Khem as the god either of the desert portion of in the the nineteenth nome, or of the foreign people settled
north-east portion of

Lower Egypt.
C

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.

Amen mer Sa'mnq (Shashanq, beloved


giver of
life like

of

Amen),

the Sun."
inscription of

1 Jr., 17. Black granite statue of Mermeshau. " The good god, lord of the two lands, lord of

Round base, standard


1.
;

Shashanq

activity,

King
rii

of

Upper and Lower Egypt;

begins apparently at right end of 14c and

Smenx

1^'a

(perfecting the soul of Ra), son of


;

continues round corner of 14a, where a shorter


inscription meets
it

the sun, of his body, loving him

Mer
life

mcsdiiy
of the

from the
het'

left

".

lord of

beloved of

I'teh res

dnhuf, lord of the

the two lands,

Rd

^eper setep n rd, son of

two worlds."
infantry."

the Sun, lord of diadems.

Amen mer
Isis,

Sasa7iq,

wearer of the two diadems, crowned with the


pschent like Horus son of
gods] with
(?) justice,

pacifying [the

King of Upper and Lower Egypt, the very mighty? {ur next (?)), lord of action, Rd het )(eper setep n rd, son of the Sun, lord of diadems. Amen mer Sasanq, beloved of Amen ra, lord of the thrones of the two spheres (14a) Apt (East Thebes), lord [dwelling in ?] " the very mighty in [all ?] lands of heaven
.
.

The name mer mesda means " chief of the It is the commonest military title, and was also the name of the high priests of Mendes. The cartouche occurs only on these
statues at Tanis, and doubtfully in the Turin
in the thirteenth dynasty.

Papyrus

The

style

of inscription
this date.

and the dedication agree with


17(',

On

shoulder, inscription of Apepi II.

" Good god

En ua

qenen(?) (very victorious Ra),


life,

(or " in the land of

.").

sou of the Sun, Apepii, giver of


[Set]."

beloved of

The

early part of the twenty-second dynasty

seems to have had much more connection with Thebes than with Bubastis. Thebes was the
unquestioned capital of the country and

The god's name beginning the


of Apepi

inscription
is

(but

read at the end)

erased.

Amen

The reading
clear on
this.

of the throne

name

is

not very

supreme
15.

in the dedications.

any monument and most indistinct on

Red

granite sphinx.

15a, part of early


life, stability,

erased

titles

near base, " giver of


. .

and purity

for ever

."

Side of throne (usurpation of Rameses II.). At the top the serpent goddess Vat of the north

On

side, 1 5b, titles of

Merenptah; see 14c above.


of the

with the symbol of


vulture Nexetj
eternal
life.

eternal

purity faces the

Inscription
lands,
lyier

of Saamen, " lord sa

two

(?)

of the south with the symbol of

Amen

Amen

(beloved of
ra,

Amen

Beneath these are the Niles of

Saamen), beloved of
gods."

Amen

king of the

Inscription round base, 15c, standard inscription of "


of

Upper and Lower Egypt and the hierogly]ihs, " She (i.e. Nekheb and Uat respectively) gives The Niles are binding life and purity like Ra."
the hieroglyph sam, unity, with water-plants,

Shashanq

I.,

[golden] Horus, wielder

might, smiting
all

the nine [bows], very vic-

symbolizing the union of Upper and


Egypt.

Lower

torious in
16.
Til.

lands."
statue,

Above the sam


II.

are the cartouches of

Brown-pink granite
Front right

side, IOa, " the

SEBEKnETEP good god, lord

Rameses

On
II.;

back, standard and cartouches of Rameses


43b.
base, "

of the

two lands, lord of activity, Rd ^d vefer (the

cf.

beautiful brightness of the sun), son of the Sun,

At
18.

Rameses IL, beloved


front
of

of Sutekli."

of his body, loving him, Srhel-hetep, beloved of

From

similar

statue

" as

Ptah of the
'

fair face

on his great throne (or


" boloved of

ruler of the
19.

two lands

for ever."

sanctuary,' N.)."

Left side, IGn, same as

last,

ijr.t

10a,

1.

Fragments of one or more obelisks. on right, "... royal son Nehesi;" 1. 2,

Ptah res

iinbuf, lord of

Ankh

taui."

"...

[made

it

as] his meniorial

to Set, lord

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


of

Re

ahtu,

who

directs his countenance


1.

(i.e.

counsels him (?));"

3,

The

eldest [royal] son

name name
in

of

Rameses

II. in

front over erasure


;

25d,

Nehesi, beloved of Set,


I cannot

lord, of Re make any connected

ahtu.

Merenptah on shoulder inscription of Rameses II. round base, 25a and 25b, running
of

sense out of

two ways.
left

Each

starts

the other fragments, but 19d should probably be

near the

end of 25b
28f,

from the crux ansata that running from


;

placed over 19b.

19e, the pyramidion of

right to left

may be

completed by reference to
" Life of

broken obelisk,

is

important.

read, " beloved of Hershef " (no

The hieroglyphs t). The squeeze

the fragment
bull,

Horus, strong

beloved of Maa, lord of

Sed

festivals

brought home by Mr. Petrie shows the head,


high feathers, and ram's horns of the figure of

(panegyrics of thirty years) like his father Ptah

Tathnen

(?),

the

King

of

Upper and Lower


;

Hershef apparently with both hands


behind the back, one holding the whip.
rest is lost.

raised

Egypt, lord of the two lands

Ea user maa
;

setep

The

For the date, &e., and

of the obelisk,

n Ma, son of the Sun, lord of diadems Amen mer Bdmessu, giver of life, beloved of Set."
Inscription

see p. 32, note.


20. Pillar (2
3),

from
bull,

left

to

right,

" Life of

" good god, lord of the


R.-v

Horus, mighty

giving birth to the gods,

two lands, lord ;" the Sun


. . .

of activity,
(1

aa arq, son of
it

possessing the two lands [King of

monument to his The style seems


dynasty.
find

and 4) " he made mother Per ..."


late,
it

as his

Upper and Lower Egypt]; Ba user maa. setep n ra, son of the
Sun, of his body, loving him, lord of diadems
;

and Wiedemann may


to the twenty-first

Amen mer
Set."

Eainessu, giver of

life,

beloved of

be right in attributing

Mr. Petrie unfortunately did not

the original, which had been hidden by

The inscriptions on the base are completed by two shorter ones, " Rameses IL, giver of
life,

Mariette.
21a. Part
of

stability,

and

purity, (seated)

early

obelisk

altered

by
is

of

Ra

for ever,"

on the throne and " Rameses IL, giver of


of all living (?)

Rameses
shown.

II.,

a poi'tion of whose

standard

life, stability,

and purity, image

(or health of all living)."

21b. Part of early obelisk altered


II.,

part

of

by Rameses whose standard appears. The

13.

No. 26. Hyksos sphinx, unfinished

in-

scription of

Rameses

II.

on base, completed by

remains of original inscription do not admit of


translation. 22. False

Merenptah, who erased his father's cartouche.


"

Mer Amen Bamessu


'!

(erased), giver of
life

life,

like

door,

red

granite,

thirteenth

Ra, for ever, [giver of]

upon the throne

of

dynasty

Turn

and

"...

son of the Sun, Merenptah

23. False door, red granite, with remains of

hetep her mau.'^

a cartouche.
the the

On the squeeze I could recognize name of Ba sehetep ah, i.e. Amenemhat I., first king of the twelfth dynasty. It may
was
placed.
It
is

On
27.

the chest, 2b, part of cartouche of Paseb-

khanen.

Fragments

of

one

or

more

Hyksos

have formed part of a chapel in which his


statue 3

sphinxes.
c, on one fragment; 27b, "giver of upon the throne of Ra," " giver of life, 27c, part of stability, and purity like Ra." name of Rameses II. 27d, e, f on another fragment to which 27q Right shoulder, 27d and 27g, also belongs.

not unlikely that

27b,

the king had a special chapel in which ofi"erings

life

were made to

his statue.

24. Block of granite with early inscription

on

large
II.

scale,

reversed and re-used by

Rameses
25.

Sphinx

in the

Louvre from Tanis.

25c,

shows

erased

inscription

of

Apepi

(?)

and

TRAXSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


portion of cartouches of Merenptah.
left

27 e, on

diadem,

protecting

Egypt,

binding
. .

foreign
;"
.

shoulder, portion of inscription of Meren-

lands (part of standard inscription)

1.

ptah.
27f.

" golden (victorious) Horus, strong in years

4, ;"

On

chest, cartouche.

Amen mer Pa
Ptah,

seb

1.

5 ".

."
.

xSnen Pisebkhanl' of the twenty-first dynasty.


27a, on
base,
II."

Side inscriptions

".

prince, lord of might,

" like

his father

King

subduing the Sati

(Asiatics),

King Rameses

II.
;

Rameses
"

overthrowing the strength of the foreign lands

28. Fore part

Hyksos sphinx

on chest, 28c,
for

none can stand before him."


34. South granite colossus at Pylon; back,
1.

Son

of the Sun, beloved, Pisebkhanu, beloved


ra,

of

Amen
On

king of the gods,' giving

life

ever."

1 "... [emblem] Rameses IL, giver of

of

the
1.

universal
2 "
.

lord,
;"
. .

life ;"

right shoulder,

28d, erased

Hyksos

in-

1. ;5,
I.

"what

is

pleasing to Harmachis
1.

:"

scription -with cartouches of Merenptah.

4, "

doing pious acts ;"

5,

" of the universal

On
ptah.

left

shoulder, 28e, inscription of Meren-

lord, given

by
like

(?)

the lord of the two lands,


life,

the lord of diadems, giver of


front of base, 28b, inscription of

stability,

On
n.

Rameses

and purity,
of
II.

Ra, for ever and ever."


35a.

35. Sandstone colossus.

Side of base 28f, " Horus, mighty bull, be-

Rameses
iir

II.

35b. Personal

Throne name name Rameses


II.

loved of

Maa lord of Sod


II.)."

festivals like his father

35c. Personal

name Rameses
in

with ad-

Ptah, King of Upper and Lower Egypt,

Ra

dition

mennu, " great


of

(Rameses
29.

"
;

The daughter
tlie

monuments." 35d. the king, loving him {mererf

Fore part of Hyksos sphinx


as 28c, but begins "

on chest,
in-

f, N.), tlie royal wife

Amen

(?)

merit living."

29b,

same

good god "

35e. ".
35t'.

royal [wife] Ban-ta ant living."

stead of " son of the Sun."

Names

of

Rameses IL
of

Amen

merit and

Right shoulder, 29a, same as 28d, but " good

Banta ant were daughters


(1882) reads

god"

visible in the

Hyksos

inscription.

to the position of queens.


II.

Rameses II. raised M. Naville's copy


and
. .

On

base, 29c,

inscription

of

Rameses

Ra

It

in 35d,

md

same as 28 F. 30. Base of forequarters

hmt Ban-tau
of

Hyksos sphinx

(c5)

^"^^ ^^ ^'^'^

front same as 28n, chest same as 28c,

left side,

36. Sandstone colossus.

36a. Throne

name

of

30b, " possessing the two lands. King of Upper

Rameses
36c.

II.

and Lower Egypt, Rameses II." 31. Hindquarters of Hyksos sphinx


tion of
14.

Names

with the addition " beloved of Maa." of Rameses II. 80n. " The great

inscrip-

royal wife, mistress of the two lands liu mat


nt'fera (seeing the beauties of Ra),

Rameses IL on
II.

base, 31a.

daughter of

No. 32. Portion of great colossus of

the great chief of the land of Kheta."


Petrie informs

Mr.
is

Rameses
33.

me

that the bird in this


Inscr.

name

North colossus of Rameses II. at the Pylon. Inscription on back I. 1, "Lord of Sed festivals Hko his father Ptah very mighty
:
.

an eagle as

in

Do Rouge's copy,
copy also
is

pi.

cxxiv.,

which agrees throughout with

Mr.

Petric's.

M.

Naville's

has

the

eagle.

The

like

Menthu
tlic

(?) in

;"

1.

".

Rii

giving

reading in the plate

also confirmed
el

birth to

gods, possessing the two lands,


1.

interesting plaque found at Tell

by an Yahudiyeh,in
nefeni by

king
'

.;"

3 ".

crowned with the double


I'isebkliriim. like Siiimcn,

which, however, the bird appears to be a hawk.

The name was misread Ba maa


This makes it probable that was a Tlioban king.

icr

Lcpsius at Abusimliol

He

mistook the eye of

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


mat
iir,

for the cubit, the eagle a for the wagtail

strong
lord

bull

crowned

in

Thebes

and the semicircle

for the

mouth
title

r.

He

of the two lands [Osorkon II.]."

41a.

also read ta instead of

aa in the

of her

" Wearer of the two diadems, uniting the two


portions
(i.e.

father.

The name is entirely Egyptian. Ra ueferu is the name of an Egyptian queen,


daughter of the prince of Bekhten, in the
mythical story of the possessed princess, which

Upper and Lower Egypt, the


Isis,
."

portions of Set and Horus), like the son of

pacifying the gods.


this

41c.

squeeze of

shows that the fragment begins with Y|


S..
".
.
.

seems to refer to the times of Rameses


37. Sandstone colossus.
of

II.

and ends with

the two lands [golden]

37b.

Throne name

Horus, wielder of
."

might, smiting his

enemy

Rameses
the

II.

37a.

Ra

user maa, taken from

(singular), strong, spreading


.
.

wide

[his] terror

the throne name.


king,

37c.

" The daughter of the wife

These

titles

of

Osorkon

II., I believe,

great

royal

Ba[n-tau

an]t

do not occur elsewhere.


42.

living."

Fragment

of red granite statue, portion


title

Grey granite statue Rameses Throne name Rameses II.


38.

II.

38b.

of

cartouche,

and

" Lord

of

the

two

lands."
43.

Rameses II. 39a, b. Rameses II. and portion of standard inscription, "mighty bull, beloved of Maa(?), lord crushing every foreign of the two lands strong in years." mighty king people o9c. Personal name of Rameses II. Ovals of Rameses II. 40. Standing statue. three times repeated, twice horizontally and once vertically, with " giving life for ever and
39. Black granite statue of

Granite
II.,

triad.

43a.

Side

inscription,

Names

Rameses
spelt.

"beloved of Ptah Tathnen."


line

In

the horizontal

Tathnen
it

is

phonetically

In the vertical line

appears to be

implied

by the determinative, as elsewhere. Inscription on back, 43b. The four centre lines are taken up with the titles of Rameses II.
" beloved " of

Tum,

of the

moon god Aah,

of

Khepra, and of
" Harkhuti

Tum

again.

On

the right side,

giving

life like

Ra ";
(or

also twice repeated, " be-

gives

all

happiness to the king

loved of Anubis

Reshpu

?),

lord

of the

papyrus marshes.^

Grey granite statue, attributed by Mr. Rameses II. (Mr. Petrie agrees that this is probably of Osoekon II.) 41b. Cartouche on shoulder, "Amen mer sa Bast Uasadrken
41.

Petrie to

Rameses II., beloved of Harkhuti," and on the left " Ptah gives all life and purity to the king Rameses II., beloved of Ptah Tathnen (?)," Ptah and Harmachis therefore, with Rameses, formed the triad represented on the monument.

They were the two


Ptah of the
civil

chief gods of

Osorkon
41a,
c,

(II.)

beloved of
of

Amen, son

of Bast."

metropolis of

Lower Egypt, Lower Egypt,


latter half of

d.

Portions

standard inscription
I.

Memphis, and Harmachis the royal deity of the


religious capital, Heliopolis.

round base resembling that of Shashanq

on the sphinx 15c, and therefore probably Bubastite, and of Osorkon II. 41 D. " [Live the Horus,
M. Naville read the combination of signs following | word as a fish caught by a snare, and taking i=i: as part of the geographical name, translated "Anubis, lord of the lake of the net, of the fishing lake." This was from the original, but the squeeze, which so often proves clearer,
'
l\

The

the standard name in these hues besides the usual " beloved of Maa " varies to " son of Amen (god
of Thebes)," " son of Ptah (god of Memphis),"

in the last

variations

"beloved of Ra (god of Heliopolis)." Such occur not uncommonly, but seldom

cause any trouble in identifying a king.

seemed

to

me

to

show

plainly a

monogram of c^fs

(2

and ^[F
I fear,

on Pyramidion, 44. North obelisk of the Hall Rameses, Harkhuti (Harmachis), lord of heaven,
;

and Mr. Petrie agreed with


therefore, that

mo

about the reading.

M.

Naville's interpretation

in spite of its interest,

and appropriateness

to

must be given up, Lake Menzaleh.

and Tum, lord


lines,

of the

two lands

[of

On]

vertical

" Rameses

II. (in

standard 3faa mer, 8a

TR.AJN'SLATIOXS
Turn,

OF THE IXSCRIPTIOXS.
II.,

and

.),

smiting the lands of the Sati,

Harmachis, " Shu son of the Sun," and


hues, "

crushing the nine bows, reducing every foreign


land to non-existence
;

"

Amen ..."
Vertical

strong of heart in war,


"
.

RamQses

II.

(in

standard
".
. .

a very Menthu in conflicts, a indher of Antha,


bull of
. .

.of Ra," "beloved of

Maa"

and

of

.,

lord of diadems,
.

youth

the two lands"), strong bull, wearing the two

vahant in arm
the
nical

sun."

Ameii mer Raviessu, like Maher would seem to be a techSemitic term for some grade in the
.
.

diadems, protector of Egj^pt, binding foreign


countries,

golden

Horns,

master

of

times

(mighty in years, N.), great in victories (so far


standard inscription), carrying away the chiefs
of the

college of devotees to Anaitis (AnOa).

There

were

male

Anaitis,

and female slaves devoted to with which one may compare Maker

Rethenu (Syrians) as
of

living prisoners,

crushing the land of the Hittites."


48, 49. Middle. pair

AnOa and Banta Ant.


into the

Maher was adopted Kamesside vocabulary as a proverbial

obchsks in temple.

48.

North

obelisk.
;

expression for a

man

trained

to hardship, a

Vertical lines

centre line, usual


II.

title

and
on 47
king

courageous warrior or pioneer, a " brave."


45. South obelisk

standard inscription of Rameses with the addition "beloved of


of the gods."

as
ra,

(Rouge,

Inscr.

ccxcvi.,

Amen

gives the fourth side, but omits the middle line).

On
and

pyramidion, Rameses

II.,

Ptah nefer[her]
?),

Ptah

res

iinbuf

(or

Tathnen

"the
II. (in

Rameses II. (in " standard " strong bull, mighty and valiant and " strong (?) bull, beloved of Menthu ?)," he
Other
lines,
. . .

"

very valiant."

Vertical lines "

Rameses

the foreign lands, he penetrates them, he


their

standard name " strong bull with horns ready,"

makes them bring the produce of


to
his

work
?

"beloved of Ptah" and "beloved of Maa"),


valiant like

palace

very terrible?;

extending
waters

Menthu,

bull,

son of a

bull, sub-

his

boundaries to the ends of the


?)
. .

duing every foreign land, slaying their chiefs,


directing his face (boldly) in battle, he
in
is first

(mouths of the rivers

none can turn his


foreign land, opening

arm from
its

his desire

the combat

he conquers the land of Kens

roads, he subdues
it)

it

with his might (and


II.,

(Nubia) with his valour, he spoils the Thehennu


(Libyans)
;

brings

to

Ta mera (Egypt), Rameses


Ra, for ever."
lines.

very valiant like


;

bull in the

giver of

life, like

land of the Retnu (Syria)

he conquers every he brings them to

Scenes of offering beneath these


49. South obelisk.

land with his strength

(?),

On

pyramidion, Rameses
. .
.

Egypt, (he) the lord of the two lands, Rameses


II."

offering to Turn, lord of Ileliopolis

and

Amen
47. 40.

ra suten neteru.
First line, standard inscrip-

40 and
temple.

West

pair of obohsks

in

the

Vertical lines.
tion of

(Northern) on pyramidion, Rameses II. offering to " Turn, lord of the two lands, and? [of On]," " to Har[khuti ?]," "he
gives

Rameses II., beloved of Harmachis. Other lines, " Rameses II. (in standard " beloved of Ra" and .) opening the land
. . . .
.

wine Tathjnen ?"

to

his

father" and

to

"[Ptah

the land

of

Kheta, conquering
a
great

it

with
in

his
his

might,

making
.

overthrow
liki^

Rameses II. (in standard son of Ptah, beloved of Maa, and ...)... mighty, strong of heart hke ^lenthu in the conflicts, (protecting) his soldiers, making a mighty
Vertical lines,

victories:

the

well-beloved,

Tuin,

making bright the two lands, shining like the two horizons, image (N.) of the universal lord,
reigning in Ileliopolis, lord of duration
the sun,
like

overthrow of

Ra

in

heaven, Rameses

II.,

living for

South obelisk 47.

On pyramidion Rameses

ever."

TRANSLATIONS OP THE INSCRIPTIONS.

At tlie base, " The life of Horus, the good god Rameses II.," " gives white bread to his
father, performing the service of giving life

Rameses

offers to "

Harkhuti, great god, lord

"

lord of On," to "Ptah Tathnen," and to " Ptah neb maa (lord of truth),
of heaven," to

"Tum,

before "
all

Amen
life,

ra,

king of the gods, who gives


in

father of the gods."


Vertical lines, "

pure
60.

like

Ra, every dav."


temple.

Western obelisk
god."

On

pyra-

name
his

called " son of

Rameses II. (in one standard Ptah "), king, son of Tum,

midion, Rameses
the great
(?)

II. offers to

" Shu, son of Ra,

mighty and

valiant, smiting every land with

scimitar, bringing

them
valiant,
. .

to

Egypt

King
Sati,

" Rameses II. (iu standard, " beloved of Ra," " strong and valiant," and " bull, son of Khepra ?" or " bull Khepra? "),
Vertical lines.

with victorious
strong in
soldiers
.

scimitar,

striking

the

arm and
.

saviour of his
.

victorious

upon

(their?)

strong of arm, lord of the scimitar ing

(?),

protect-

horses

."
. .

Ms

soldiers

all

lands are bowing before his

53. 54. Eastern obelisks.


ccxcvii., gives all four sides).
titles of

53 North (Rouge,

terrors,

king placing his boundaries at his will;


;

On

pyramidion,

none can stand before him


victorious.

liis

scimitar

(?) is

Rameses

II.

Tum
;

magnifies him as king of the

Vertical hues, "

Rameses

II.,

royal child of

two lands

he

causes

(Arabia) to submit to

Egypt and Deshert him (N.); he gives him

Tum, the much

beloved, Avarrior mighty with


:
. . .

the scimitar, rescuing his soldiers


his limbs, beloved like the

uniting

valour like his creator (N.)."

sun's

disk,

going

At the
or cake
?

base,
to

Rameses II. "offers a tray" " Tum, lord of Heliopohs, great

forth in heaven

Kash

(Ethiopia), subduing
?),

the land of the Shasu, valiant like (Set


bull in the land of Rethenu."
54.

god, lord of heaven."

In a second scene the king " gives, wine " to " Shu, son of Ra, great god, lord of heaven, lord of earth, giving all life and stability.''

South obelisk similar to 53.

Vertical lines, " Rameses II. (in one standard

" beloved of

Ra ")
:

strong in his arms, bull,

In a third the king "gives a tray" or cake


to " Seb, father [of the gods]."
51, 52.

son of a bull

sacred (or mighty)


?
;

...

of

Ra
all

coming forth from the horizon


lands beneath thy? feet
. .
.

he puts

Bast pair of obelisks in middle of

battlefields (N.),

temple.
51.

none can stand before him

in

any land."
21).

North obehsk.
II.

On pyramidion names

of

55.

Refaced obehsk in temple (see


offers to "

On

Rameses

without cartouches in the boat of

pyramidion Rameses
"

Har

khuti " and

Ra

over scenes of the king offering to

Tum,
Ptah

Har neb

setu " or " khaskhet."

lord of the

two lands (and

of

?)

On

to "

Vertical lines, "

Rameses

II. (in

standard be-

ur dmaxf," to "

Har

khuti," and to " Ptah neh

loved of Seb, Ra, and Maa), king, very mighty,


valiant

maat."
Vertical lines, "

and mighty with the


;

scimitar, beloved
?

dard "beloved of
kings,
repelling

Rameses II. (in one stanMenthu") Menthu among the


millions, valiant
like

of

Menthu, overthrower
the offspring of

he hits his mark

always in a moment, he
is

is

courageous ... he

(Set

?)

Tum ?

issuing from his limbs

when he

enters

the

conflict

mighty king,

smiting every land, spoiling the land of the

The occurrence
foreigners " again
56.

of the
is

god " Horus of the


in

Nahsi (Negroes), harrying (seizing)

all

lands

interesting.

with the strength of victory, possessing the land

Sandstone obelisk
II. (in

wall

of

Pylon.

anew

as at the first."

" Rameses

one standard called " son of


.
.

52. South obelisk.

Pyramidion similar to 51,

Tum"),

great ruler of

."

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS


57. Fragment of obelisk. Rameses II. and Shu. 58. Fragment of obelisk.

On
On

pyramidion,
(lb

Xo. 25. Blue pottery disk with name

Ra

nefer

pjraraidion,

Psammetichus II. No. 32. Seal from South


of

Tell
.

of
.

Zuwelen

Rameses
59.

II.

" gives wine " to " Turn, ruler of

"...
The

singing priestess of

Mut

perfected."

On," and " Shu, son of Ra."

rest of the inscriptions are in the plates

Fragment of

obelisk.

On

pj-ramidion,

of the present volume.


66. White limestone altar, Rameses II. "Live? the (the living, N.) King of Upper and Lower Egypt, loi'd of the two lands Ra user maa setep n ra, son of the Sun, lord of diadems Amen mer Ramessu, giver of life like
; ;

" Rameses II. gives wine" to " [Harmachis], great god, lord of heaven," and " a figure of

Mail to
60.

[Tum of] Heliopolis." On pyramidion, Rameses


.

11.

offers

to

" Set

."

"
.

Har
."
.

khuti," "

Tum,

lord of On,"

and " Horus.

the sun every day, beloved of Thoth, lord of

Vertical lines, standards of Rameses TI., " very valiant," " son of Tum," " beloved of

Sesennu (Hermopolis
ning both ways.

in

Upper Egypt), great

god, lord of heaven," repeated inscription run-

Maa," "beloved
61.

of

Ra."
cf.

Refaced obelisk;

also

No. 13.

On

Thoth of Hermopolis was a very important


god, and
it is

pyramidion, names of Rameses II.; in vertical lines, " Rameses II." in standard called " beloved of Maa," " beloved of Ra," " son of

not surprising to find an altar

dedicated to him at Tanis.

Amen."
62. Part of obelisk, with
II. in

White limestone altar, Rameses II. " Live the King of Upper and Lower Egypt,
67.

names

of

Rameses
?

Rd

user

standard, also " beloved of Menthu) " and " Ra."


63a,
b.

Amen

(or

diadems

maa setep n ra, son of the Sun, lord Amen mer Ramessu, giver of life
;
.

of
. .

beloved of Menthu, lord of Uast (West Thebes),

Fragments

of

inscription

on base

great god, lord of heaven."


68.

of obelisk, usual titles of


64. Pillar, with

Rameses

II.

Two

sandstone shrines, almost identical.

sixteen scenes of

Ramessu

On
of

outside of roof vultures alternate with

names
the

offering (1) to "

Ptah nefer her,"

(2) "

Ba

neb

Rameses
diadems,

II.

Down

the middle

"...

Dadiit (Mendes)," (3)

beautiful

"Sepdu nrfer ha n ra, the mummied hawk Sepdu, the soul of

dignity of (N.)

Tum

as lord of eternity, lord

of

Ra"

(god of the city of Goshen), (4) "Set,


.

throne of Horus, like Ra."

Amen mer Ramessu upon On edge of


King Rameses
II.
.

the
roof

the most valiant, son of Nut," (4) ., (5) " Shu, son of Ra," (6) " Seb, father of the gods," (7) " Set, great god, lord of heaven, the
.

"as

exists the sky, so (N.) are thy

memorials
. .

established,

Ra

in

his? rising; thou art like (N.) the circuit of


the disk, lord of diadems
;

most

valiant."

(The rest are


Inscriptions of

illegible.)

Amen mer Ramessu


. . .

65. Pillar.

usual style,
the

Rameses II. of the mentioning the Thchenu (Libyans)


line

da ankh."

On

right side, "

Turn resting

second

from the
:

left

contained

the

standard inscription in the la.st line it is said that " he reduced the land of Kheta to
non-existence."

upon thy handiwork, King Rameses II. Thou dost flourish as king for ever and ever." Back of shrine. Upper scene. Beneath the winged disk Tum and Harmachis give the sign
of
life

to the

hawk upon the standard name


"

Note
No.

also in "Tanis,"

I., pi. xii.

of the king.

He

gives

all

life,

all

stability,

5.

Alabaster

lid

from Qeneh with name

and purity,

all

health,

all

liiippiiiess

to

King

of Pepi, son of Hathor, mistress of

Ant (Den-

derah) (see

p. 15).

Rameses Lower

II."

scone.

Rameses

II.,

" beloved of Sub

TRANSLATIONS OP THE INSCRIPTIONS.


and Shu,"
the sides
offers to " Seb, father of the gods,
1.
1.

2,

(Of. 44,
.

middle

line,

N.)
.
.

and Shu, son

of Ra."
II.
is

Rameses

In a general way at styled " beloved of

3, "

bearinor their labours.


stela.
1.

."

75.
1. 1.

Turn, lord of Heliopolis," and " of Hai'machis."

Fragment granite 2, Rameses II.


.

1,

" slaying."

On

sides of shrines in centre

Rameses

II.,

3,

" beloved of Turn, lord of

On "

(var. " of the

two
" to

76. Obverse.

1.

1,

"

mighty, strong in

lands of On, great god"), "offers white bread

valour
1.

...
. .

his

arm."
fighting,

and performs the service of giving

life

2, ".

Menthu, done by his arm,


?

" Tum, lord of Heliopolis." On right, the king, " beloved of Harraachis," " gives wine, performing the service of giving
life

preserving his might, bull of Baal


1.
1.

"

3, ".

4, ".

King Rameses II." The great chiefs of

all

lands at

"

to Harmachis, great god, lord of heaven

(var.

" lord of the great temple of Heliopolis


left,

").

On

the king, " beloved of Khepra (var.


his

home and abroad felt reverence for him. (When) his spirits came they bowed their heads ? " Reverse. 1. 2, King Rameses 11.
1.

Khepra

in

boat) "

gives

incense

to

3, ".

than millions of soldiers united in

" Kheprii in his barge."


Inside shrine. On right side, " the king, of pious acts,RamesesII." " gives wine " to " Tum,
lord of the

destruction (N.)."
1.

4,
.

King Rameses

II.

*11

Portion of granite

stela.

1.

1, ".

with

two lands of On,"

also called "

Tum

his strength ?

upon the foreign

land, sallying

lord of the two lands of On, great god, lord of

forth
1.

..."
"son
of the sun,

the great temple of Heliopolis,"


all life

who "gives

2,

mer Amen Bamessu, king,

and
left

all

health."

wielding power, subduing


1.

..."
with him.

On
Tum.

much

broken, apparently the same

3,

"all lands
II."

fighting,

King

scene with " Khepra, great

god,"

instead of

Rameses
1.

4,

" The very valorous upon horses.


.
.

He

Fragment of scene from top of stela. Rameses II. " offers incense to his father Har69.

seized his bow, he shoots


1.

."

5, ".

tens of thousands by his

own might,
its

machis," or Ptah
70.
ofi'ers

(?).

he was stronger than thousands, he was at


to last.

Fragment
to "

similar

Rameses

II.

head (N.), he knew ..."


1. 6, " King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Rameses II., great ruler, rampart of Egypt, ." remembered by
. .

Harmachis, lord of heaven."


of

71.

Fragment
on granite

commencement
II.)

of inscrip-

tion

stela.

" Horus, mighty bull,


.
.

beloved of

Maa (Rameses
.

many, sub-

78. Granite stela;

cf.

De R.

(Inscr. pi. Ixviii.),

duing
72.

Rameses

11."
stela.

from whose copy


" All [lands]
"

this translation is

made.
his feet,

Fragment granite
Fragment granite
II.
.
.

" Live

the Horus, mighty bull, beloved of

beneath his sandals."


73.
stela.
."
1.

Maa, trampling [every land beneath


1,
.

Ra-

bringing away] their chiefs?

King
II.,

of

Upper
life

meses
1.

giving
.

life
. .

and Lower Egypt; Rameses


for ever.
(2)

giver of

2,

ye
.

making you guardians upon

the road " 1. 3, " every day " 1. 4, " give to me


. .

mighty king, strong

in battles, valiant

in fight against 10,000, overthrowing


right, slaying
."
.

on

his

upon

his left like Set in his time

1.

5,

"

my

spirits

of fury (N.).
1.

74. Frag^ment granite stela.

1,

Rameses

II.

(3)

mighty

bull,

repelling

every

foreign

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


people, opposing

them with the might of


Egypt, smiting
the
;

his

(16) before

them
bull,

."
.

arms

defending

nine

Other
Ilorus,

side,

not in Rouge.

(1.

1)

"Live the

bows
as a
(4)

every land trembles before him

he

is

mighty

beloved of Maa, carrying


of his might.

no land hon who hath tasted battle can stand before him; King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Rameses II. pntering the com;
;

away all lauds with the force Rameses II.


(2) king, strong in

King

arm, mighty in valour,

prince, victorious, watchful, smiting every land,

bats.
(5) he doth not turn

great in spirits, mighty in valour, smiting the

back

he marches at
his

nine bows, reducing the foreign lands to nonexistence.


(3) ruler
witTi his
.
.

the

head of

his

warriors,

strong upon

horses;

he seizes his bow, he shoots on his


;

bold warrior, protecting Egypt


;

right, he does not miss

he stands firm on the

scimitar

the land

is

possessed with
(?

ground, mighty, vaUant.


(6)

fear of him, the

mighty ones yield


fail.

rare word)

and victorious
;

his

arm holds

the

mace

before him, their limbs


(4)
bellies

and the shield

he dashes the chiefs beneath his

fear
.

is

within their hearts (N.), their


II.,

sandals, (they)

know not how

to receive the

King Rameses

every land trem-

onset ; every foreign land flees before him, his


terrors are like fire pursuing them.
(7)

bles

(5)
ever.
;

making
calling
?

their hearts firm, their spirits

King Rameses

II. living for

He
he

upon the gods when he conies and


. .
.

spoiled the lands of the Sati with his might

rescues them
(6)

brings their chiefs as living prisoners.


(8)
.

which no light shines


;

upon

their

With the strength


. .

of his might,

horses

he smites the forcigu lauds, he overruns

a youth, mighty

victorious like
(this

Menthu,
is

them,
(7)

strength of

the

plains (?)

half-line

making a great overthrow


.
.
.

in the

land of

omitted in Rouge, and the end of the


misplaced).
(9)

next

the Hittites

fighting in the plains (N.),


II.

namely, the king, Rameses


(8)
. . .

husband of Egypt, protecting her from


.
.

smiting the foreign lands, marching


soldiers.
.

every foreign laud, his spirits are courageous.


the negroes with his might; he slays the
of the vile

at the
(9)
.

head of his
.

Ann
arms
to

bull

Menthu on his
of
life,

right hand

Kush.

(10) by the

might

of his

(10)

Rameses II., giver


"1.1
provide you
II.
.

smiting every

victorious, he

makes Egypt

rejoice,

Ta Merk

foreign land beneath his feet."

be glad of heart, king [Rameses

II.].
)Sati in their
?

78
1.

his.

(11) spoiling the chiefs of the

2, I will
3,

lands, he destroys their inheritance

... he

1.

Rameses
."

he said to his messengers

makes them
sc)((iin

1.

4,
.

camping-station provided
.

with every-

(12) slain beneath his sandals he


in R, after P.) his

makes (read
it

thing

onslaughts upon them,


.
. .

79. Granite stela, scene

Rameses

II.

and Ptah
ofler-

he harries the western desert, making


(13)
.

neb maa, " who says


ings
(?), all

I give to thee all

Menthu upon his right fighting, King Rameses II. he travels (14) to him with their products, he opens
.
.

happiness."

On the other half, Rameses II. and


"

Set aa pehti,

the Sharutani failing in (N.) heart.


(10)

says I give thee all pure life and victory." Behind the king, " preserving life behind him

who

them he

seizes
. .

the ships fighting


.

like

Ra."

in the midst of [the sea]

80. Portion of granite stela.

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


81.
Ixvii.,

Granite stela

(cf.

De Rouge,

Insc. pi.

apparently the

temple

is

compared

to

"the

from which

this translation is

made), scene

horizon in heaven" in which Turn rested.


91, 92, 93. Portions of gi'anite architrave with

a. Eameses II. and Set aa pehti, lord of heaven, making him live. b. the king, beloved of Seb.

name
of

of

Rameses
II.

II.

Inscription,

"(1) the Horns, strong


all

bull,

94. Portion of granite sanctuary with

name

beloved of Ra, trampling

[foreign countries
II.

Rameses

beneath] his

[feet].

King Rameses

master?
valiant,

95. Portion of the


father,

of victory, setting a watch, mighty

and

same " giving wine to his performing the service of giving life."
;

harrjnng

all

lands with victory.

Strong, mighty

96. Portion of the same, the


".
. .

god

is

named

in valour like Set, strong of arm.


II.,

King Rameses
his

Ra

of the Bast,

Tum."
"

giving

life,

smiting

every land with


to Egypt.

97. Portion of the same.

scimitar, carrying

them

He

smites

98. Portion of the same.


as a gift of

" Offering of wine

the inhabitants of the South land, he slays their


chiefs,

Rameses

II. ;"

the god says " I give

reducing the rebellious countries to non-

to thee the festivals of thirty years of Ra."


99.

existence.

Similar.

Great of
Sati,

spirit,

wielding courage, smiting the

100. Portion of the same.

Rameses

II.,

be-

King Rameses II. Prince whose fame reaches


II.,

loved of Harkhuti and other gods.


to heaven,

making

a great overthrow in the land of the Shasu. King

101. Portion of the same. Rameses II., " beloved of Tum, lord of the two lands of On."

Rameses
works to
tion.

giver of

life.

The chiefs bring their

The

inscription at the side begins with Un7i, a

[his palace]."

strong form of

82. Stela of Rameses II. with defaced inscrip-

Rameses

II.

" Thus it is the king, &c." is. " offers a figure of Maat."
:

In one of the scenes Rameses " Tum, lord of the two lands of? On.
83, 84. Portions of one obelisk of
II.

offers to

102. Granite

column.

Upper

inscription,

" (1) good god, mighty in rule, like his father

Rameses 84 should be placed immediately above 83.


84a,
II.
. .

Ra

in heaven, brightening the

two lands
SeJ

like

his horizon.

83a,

line

1,

standard

inscription

of

(2)

Rameses
1.

like his father

Rameses II. lord Ptah Tathnen ?


. . .

of

festivals

2, ".

he came, he celebrated a festival


the

(3) Standard inscription.

Middle inscription, Rameses


83b,
1.

II.,

"

may

he be
II.,

2, ".

camp

of his soldiers

."

joyful (N.) together with his

liii."

Rameses
the lord

85. Portion of obelisk, "like

Tum?

lofty in

" beloved of

Amen ra, lord

of the thrones of the

station (duration, N.) like the sun's disk."


86. Portion of obelisk of

world, lord of heaven, and of

Tum

(?).

Rameses

II.

87. Portion of granite architrave with

name

Harkhuti, great god, lord of heaven." Lower inscription, " son of the sun, of his
body, loving him; Rameses
lord of heaven, king of the
of the sun, of his
II.,

of

Rameses
Rameses

II.

beloved of Ptah,

88. Portion of granite architrave, cartouches

of

II.

alternating with a kind of

mono-

two lands," and " son body, loving him lord of the
;

grammatic,

Ra

user

maa

setep

(?) ra.

scimitar

Rameses

II.,

beloved of

Ba neb Dada

89. Portion of granite architrave with

name

of

Rameses On."
with name

II.,

'

beloved of Tum, lord of

90. Portion of unfinished granite architrave


of " Rameses, beloved of

Tum ;"

(Ram Ba, lord of Mcndesj." At the side of the erased scene " his admirer, who loves him, his son coming forth from ..." The latter half of the personal name of Rameses II. is erased, probably to make way for Sa Bast

;:

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


Uasaiirken (Osorkon II.) or for Shashanq III,
126. "

He

places

Maa upon

his hands."

both of

whom would

also alter the

Ka

to Bast

127. Portion of 128.


forth

lintel.

by changing the hawk's head to that of the lion. 10:3. Granite column, with fragments of similar
inscriptions,

" The Behud, great god, ray coming

from the horizon."

"he made
Rameses

it

as his memorial toliis

129. Erased inscription of

Rameses

II.

beloved of Harkhuti." 104. Portion of granite column. " Good god, likeness of Ra, avenging (fabricated " by " N.)
father
.
.

II.,

130. 131. ".


of
. .

as ruler, happiness,

upon the throne


II.

Horus."
132. Inscription
of

Harkhuti, making the lower crown of Turn."

Rameses

on block
to every

This perhaps refers to the myth of Horbehud


crushing the rebellion against his father Harkhuti.

re-used by Siamen.
133. " I

am

lord of the scimitar

On

the other side

is

part of the standard

land."
134. 135.

inscription,

a curious

way more

"golden Horus" being written in frequent on papyri than on

Rameses
gods."

II.,

Granite blocks with names of " beloved of Seb, father of the

stone monuments.
105, 106, 107, 108.
inscriptions.

Fragments of column

For other
15.

inscriptions of

Rameses

II.,

see

Nos. 172, 173, and 174.

109. Part of doorway,


II.,"

names

of "

Rameses

No. 136. Standing statue, Merenptah.


side,
1.

"Ptah, lord of heaven," and "Mut, lady

Beginning from right

1,

"Live the

of heaven."

Horus, strong buU, son of Amen, King of Upper

110

118.

Fragments probably of the great


the

and Lower Egypt, lord of the two lands

Mer

colossus.

Amen
Nile

ha n ra (beloved of

Amen,
;

soul of Ra), son

112. "(says)
inscription,

god

Hapi."

This

of the Sun, lord of

diadems

mer Vtah hetep her

no doubt, belongs to the scene of

the Niles, a portion of which appears in 110a.

See

p. 10, col. 1, for

Mr.

Petrie's note

on 110
probable

but the columns of small inscription on 112


being parallel to the large ones
that they are contemporary

maa (Merenptah resting on Maa), beloved of Amen, lord of the diadems ? of the world." 1. 2, Same as last, but " son of Ptah Tathnen" in standard, and "beloved of Ptah
Tathnen."
1.

make

it

and Ramesside, the


placed at

3,

" Sou of

Amen "
in rule,

in standard, " prince

scene to which they belong being


114. "
in
. .

strong in years."
1.

right angles on the curved surface of the statue ?

4,
6, 7,
;

" (great)
"

Ra

as king."

."

[Amen] ra, king of the gods dwelling The name of the city is unforlost.

1.
1.

Ra

as king of the

two lands." and crowns, giver ever and ever

Merenptah, son of the Sun, beloved of


lord of the diadems
like the

tunately

Amen
Miscellaneous granite blocks, inof

IIU

122.

life,

Sun, the

first for

scriptions of

Rameses
*'

II.
title

twice over."

123. Portion of the lintel with

of the

Round
loved of

capital

of sceptre Merenptah, " be-

winged disk.
lord of

124.

The Hchud, great god, the ray, heaven, coming forth." Granite block with name of Rameses II.

Amen,

lord of the diadems (?), of the

two lands."

The
is

usual

125. Granite block with traces of historical


inscription relating to the building of the temple

haa

title of the standard of Merenptah maul, " rejoicing in truth," as on the

other statue.
137. Standing statue Merenptah.

by Rameses
north
."
.
.

II. ? ".

with good stone of

An

Side of sceptre. Translation doubtful, " giving

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


truth

29

King Merenptah, beloved of Ptah Tathnen (the god) whose feathers are
?

to

Ra

daily

151.

Siamen and the god

Khem

amen, who
as thy

says, " I

give to thee the nine

bows

high,

who

is

furnished with horns."


of

property (N.)."
]

138.

Name

Merenptah on limestone block

52.

Name

of vulture Nekhebt.
of

re-used by Siamen.
139. Granite block,

153.

Fragment with cartouches

Siamen

Merenptah and

" the hawk."

(The name of

Tum nefer Nefer Tum is

and

illegible inscription.

154, 155, 156. Fragments.


157.

determined by the feather crown that he wears

Fragment
III.

of scene of

Ea

user

maa

setep

and by the seated figure of a god.) 140. Granite block, Merenptah and
141. Block of Seti
lands,
of
all
II.,

n ra
. .
.

Amen mer

sa Bast shashanq neter haq An.

Shashanq
159.

" lord of the two

158. Similar to

last.

Ba

user )(eperu mer amen, Ra, strength

Fragment

of

same date with cow-headed


. .

creatures,

beloved

of

Amen,

lord
.

of

goddess Hathor, of
160.

h.

diadems, 8eti Merenptah " and "


142. Sandstone
III.

Tum
of

."

Fragment

kneehng statue
of
offerings. in

Rameses

Thoth, lord of
161.

same date with Moon god Hermopolis Magna.


of

holding table
bull,

" Live the

Fragment

of

same date

(?)

with

Khem-

Horus, strong

great

Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of E^ user mad mer Amen (the veritable strength of Ra, beloved of Amen), son of the Sun, lord of diadems, Ramessu haq An (ruler of Heliopolis)
giver of life;" on table of offerings, "live the

King of the two lands


rule.

like god.

162.

Fragment with Sekhet


.

mer? Pteh

aa

of

These inscriptions, from 157, are on blocks The the pylon built by Shashanq III.
it

scenes with which

was covered represented

good god

Rameses III." 143. Grey granite statue, " Rameses


.

Egypt
ra

the king worshipping a


III.,

number

of divinities.

17.

No. 163. Stela of Tahaeqa.


Ixxiii.-iv. (trans-

beloved of

Amen
.
.

."

Latter half in Rouge, Insc.


lated

144. A. ".
festivals
(i.e.

hundreds of thousands of Sed

periods of thirty years each), tens

of milhons of years."
16.

by Rouge, "Melanges d'Archeologie," L p. 21, and Birch, Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1880, p. 193). His copy is diflFerent in some
places.

No. 145. Block


"

later king.

King

of

of SiAJiEN, re-used by a Upper and Lower Egypt,

The

stela is

much
was

weathered.
revised

Mr.

Petrie's

excellent

copy

by M.

piety?

to

his

father,

Bel

netr

x^j?er

setep

Naville from the squeezes.


1.

iimen, godlike, offspring of

Ra, chosen of Ra,


;

[says the king Taharqa,^ I

was the younger

son of the Sun, lord of diadems

mer amen sa
lord of the

son of
field
1.
.

my father?
. . .

.],

he [gave}

me

a goodly

amen (Siamen), beloved


thrones of the earth."
146.

of

Amen

rii,

2.

around
.

it ?
.

he prevented the locusts

Block with

titles of

Siamen, re-used by

a later king.

" Live

the Horus, mighty bull,


of

. from devouring 1. 3. ... he took

(as his

share) of

it

the

beloved of Maa, son

Amen,

issuing

animals.
1.

took as

my

share the harvest.


?

from his limbs."


title

This fragment of the standard

4
5. [I
.

all

the flax
?]

and corn

of Siamen,

from the base of a column,

1.

was brought up
.

amongst the king's

appears to be unique.
147.

children
1.

6.

[lo

was] loved by
of)

my

father

more

148,

149,

150.

Fragments with name of

than the (rest


1.

the royal children.

Siamen

7.

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


1.8.
1.

18.

No. 164, 165, and 166.

Tablets

now

in

9.

[Now when]
all
.
,

placed]
1.

lands
.

my father Amen beneath my feet.

[had

the

British

Museum.

have compared the

plates with the originals

and can guarantee the

10.

[Eastward] to the sunrise (N.),


. .

readings in the following, as far as they go.

westward
1.

to
. .

The
of

inscriptions are carelessly cut.

11.

as sister

the

king,

palm

of

164. Limestone tablet from shrine in Ptole-

love, royal mother.


1.

maic chapel.
I

Above "Behud, the great god,

12.

Behold

had parted from? her


is

lord of heaven."

as a youth of twenty years.


1.

On
?)

the right the " lord of the two lands,

Aw
of

13.

[For] he (that

king Taharqa

went

netnii

menxui

setep

n amen ra I'tah

(inx,

to the north land.


river to
1.

Now

she descended the

offspring of

the
of

gods Euergetes, chosen


diadems, Ptvalm'is anx

Amen, Lord
[and reaching this city]
after

Teta

It.

many

Ast nier, Ptolemy, living for


Isis

ever, beloved of

years she found


.
.

me crowned

(Ptolemy IV.

?),"

1. 15. I had received the diadems of Ra, had united the two urjei upon ? was 1. 16. [my forehead? the god .]
. .

and the *' lady of the two mer Arsinoe Philadelphos,"


stand before (1) "
dwelling in Set
(2) " to
liafi."

lands, Arxln sen

Khem,

lord of

Amt, Horus,
(appears

protecting
1.

my limbs.

She rejoiced exceedingly,


the
beauties

17.

[looking upon]

of

his

Hor Sa Ast Sam

taui, the prince

majesty, even as Isis views

her

son

Horns

have the crown of Lower Egypt), great god,


Rfi, lord of

crowned upon the throne 1. 18. [of Seb (Masp.)],


papyrus beds).
1.

after he

had been as

dwelling in Amt." " Uat of Amt, eye of (3)


mistress of
all

heaven,

a youth in the marshes {Ses) of [Natho (or the

the gods."
(.s/r) all

She
all

says, " I give to thee


all

pure

life,

19.

Then]

foreign lands bowed their

all

victory,

prosperity."

heads to the earth, to this royal mother, [they]

165. Limestone tablet from a site soutli of

were
1.

the temple.
20.

...

to the earth (?), their great ones


little

Two scenes,

(1) the

King

of

Upper and Lower

together with their


1.

ones
obeisance
?]

Egypt, lord of the two lands,


to
this

Ra

user ha meri

21.

[were

doing

Amen, strength and ka of the


of

Siin,

beloved

[royal ?] mother, saying, " as Isis received


1.

Amen, son

of

the
II.

Sun, lord of diadems,


Philadelphos).
of

22.

King
1.

of

[Horus so the queen finds] her son the Upper and Lower Egypt, Taharqa

Ptualmls (Ptolemy
Offers to (a) "
{h)

{Tahblq) living for ever.


23.
.
.

Thou

art

living

for

ever

in

prosperity.
1.

Amt." two lands, princess, lady of thrones (traces of same carAb'ia mer senn ? (very touches as in 166)

Khem, Lord
of

"The

Net, regent

the

24.

he (the god
will,

Amen?)
that

loves

him
(thy

indistinct),

Arsinoo Philadelplios (loving her

who knows his


1.

he causes to join
things

brother

?).

25.
?)
.

beautiful

he

(2)

The same king

offers to

"Hor

mm tani
of

father
1.

did to thee, thou mighty king.

pa

xred, dwelling in

Amt, and Uat, lady

Amt,

2<).

Thou

art

Horus .] to his mother Isis. crowned upon [the throne of Seb?]."


.

[as

eye of Ra, lady of heaven, mistress of the gods."


166. Limestone tablet from chapel. King Ptolemy Philadelphos, " son of the sun nch ta" (so

fnr

tlif.

correct riradiii'

on original), and " Arsd

{aic)

aon

mer"

(Arsinoe

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


Philadelphos), whose second cartouche
siiten ?
;)(?ie7rt

ah

Upper

lines

" the water to

...

in order to

neteru

mer
is

is legible

and may be trans-

enrich the earth with products (N.).

lated " uniting the heart of the king, beloved of

Horus dwelling
ready (to attack).

in

Bennut, bull with horns

the gods." She

again entitled (on the original)

Net neb taui and Erpet.

As

to the title Net,

Climbing he ascends the two Niles.

her second cartouche has been found only in

He

performs his wish, he searches out

Lower

Ecjijpt,

at

San and

Tell

el

Maskhuta.

that he made."

Thus Net must mean queen of Lower Egypt, and not simply " queen " or "queen bee" as
might otherwise be supposed.
khuta the
first

in Lepsius.

The standard name nem mesu does not occur The cartouche belongs perhaps to
19.

At Tell

el

Mas-

Ptolemy IX.
No. 171.
Statue from Tanis at Bulaq.

oval of Arsinoe begins " uniting

the heart of

Shu.''^

There
the

is

a squeeze of another tablet from


without
inscriptions,

chapel
in

showing a
(?)

On breast Ra kha kheper (Usertesen II.). "The hereditary princess, the great favourite, the very gracious, the consort of Ra kha kheper,
beloved
mistress
. .

Ptolemy
(4) a

Egyptian dress, Philadelphos

of

the

two

lands,

royal

offering to (1)

Khem,

(2)

Horus,

(3) Uat,

and

queen Arsinoe

(?).

167.
or

Back

of basalt statue of the Ptolemaic

." daughter " The hereditary princess, the great favourite, the very gracious, the consort of the wearer of

Roman
168.

period,

from great temple.

Inscrip-

the two diadems, beloved, mistress of women,


the lady, the king's daughter, of his body, Nefert

tion doubtful.

"Hor

neb mesen [dwelling in T'a]l."


" Khensu

perfected."
II. at Bulaq, " beloved of Hathor, lady of Mat'" and " Apuat sekhem taui." " All

For

T'al, the capital of the fourteenth Sethroite

172. Statue of

Rameses
II.,

nome, see the memoir on Qantarah.

On

back, Rameses

[pa] khred (the child), the very great, son of

Amen."
1872,
p.

Both
16

statues of Teos,
ff.

of these gods appear on the from Tanis, Brugsch, Z.F.A.S.,

life, stability,

and

piu'ity, all

health to the here-

ditary (heir-apparent)."

Front of right standard, Rameses


restoring the
places
best
of Seel festivals like his father of the southern (?)

II.,
. .

"lord

169.

"King Ptolemy
.

Ptah

beloved

(temples).
in

."

The cartouche corresponds

Apuat regent

of the

two

Kgsb. with cartouche

of

Ptolemy XI.

lands."

170. Limestone block. "Ptolemy (in the standard nem mesu " renewing birth") performs the ceremonies of house of (?) writing " before the goddess " Mer ? or Mehlt ? Ast
.

Front of

left

standard, Rameses
;

II.

"

subduing the foreign peoples


gods, joining the two lands
;

Ra, father of the

beloved of Hathor,

mistress of Mt'a, regent of the gods."


,

(Isis) raising

gold."

high the offerings of the house of (The king holds a large paddle.)

Other parts are prayers in behalf of the

heir-apparent Merenptah.

(She says) " I

am

going at the head of the


are warding off

house of

my arms
.

Shu
. .
.

They are: "all life, sam {stahility), and health" (on left standard); "aU power and victory" (on right standard);
" aU Hfe, stability, plenty and health for the
hereditary chief of the two lands, the royal
scribe, the

and Tefnut
to

(?),
.
.

while there goes and brings

me

(?)

They place them

in the

hidden

house."

chief general, the

royal son, the


(right

Beneath
in

is

a bull galloping, called " Horus

Sam
side).

Merenptah

justified"

Bennut in his form of a black bull." " They bring ? him to ? the house of gold."

The Apuat mentioned was god

of Lycopolis

TRAXSLATIOXS OF THE IXSCRIPTIOXS.


(Siyut),

and the Hathor of Mat' was worshipped

name

of the city

and

its

local worsliip

can then
is

in the Lycopolite or the Hypselite norae.

be identified at once.
different,

At Tanis the case


it.

very

Rameses II. On back, Rameses, " beloved by Set," " TumKheper," and "Nut"; and "conciliating the two hawk gods," i.e. Set and Horkhuti (?).
173. Seated statue altered by

and nothing can yet be considered


of the middle

certain with regard to

The dedications

kingdom

all,

with only two exceptions,^ relate to the deities of

On

the sides he

is

" beloved of Turn lord of

Memphis and those


res

of the underworld.
taui,

Ptah

On, Horkhuti, Ptah lord of truth.


of heaven."

Amen
II.

ru lord

imbuf neb finkh

Ptah nefer her, Uasar


which being

neb

shetalt are titles of the deities,

174. Seated statue of

Rameses

the chief gods

of the capital,

were no doubt

" The good

god, son of Ptah,


II.

beloved of
art even

at that time representative of

Lower Egypt.
the statues and

Sekhet-Bast, Rameses

Thou

as

AVe only learn from

this, that if

Ptah."

architraves were originally

dedicated in

the

temple of Tanis,^ the mythological position of


20.

The

series of inscriptions translated

above

the city was not at that time prominent enough


to force the

forms almost a corpm of the inscriptions of the


great temple of Tanis.
are indeed omitted.

Pharaohs of the period to venerate

few important ones

the local god by placing his

name upon

these

The stela of 400 years, for instance, was re-buried by Marietta and could not be found. Some have been previously copied by the learned De Rouge, and his publications of the stelae are scarcely to be surpassed.

monuments.
'

One exception

is

the obelisk of Nehesi, which I was

inclined to attribute to the twenty-second dj-nasty, but Mr.

Petrie has kindly communicated to


earlier attribution.

me

his reasons for the

They
though

are (1) tliat the style of cutting


rougli, is like that of the thirteenth

But there was


accessible

still

Petrie, and, except

much to be gleaned by Mr. where an inscription was inset

in the hieroglyphs,

dynasty, and unlike the work of later times, the edges of the
signs being

by any ordinary contrivance, we now


of

sunk deeper than the central parts. (2) That it has been re-used at a later date, and bears no sign of usurping
work, as the
later inscriptions usually do. (3)
it

have

a complete

those remaining on

earlier

He

quotes

the ground.

Moreover,

some

entirely

new
i

instances from which

seems certain that

^ was used for n in


to the

discoveries were made in the Ptolemaic chapels and temples that are of great importance for

the thirteenth dynasty. (4) He has seen a scarab which bears the name, " royal son Nehesi," in the style of that time.

These arguments seem conclusive, and lead


result that Set

important

the geography of the district.

was

in

some manner recognized

at

San before

Now that the inscriptions are known


it is

en masse,
|

the Hyksos invasion.

Harshef, the deity of Heracleopolis

worth while to see what conclusions may be


(1) as to the local

Magna, appears on the apex. This monument is distinctly dedicated to Set, lord of re ahtu, " the entrance of the fields,"
which if not actually the name of the district round Tanis, was possibly a designation of the entrance of one of the
roads from
tlie

drawn from them


political

worship
the

of Tanis, (2) as to the position of Tanis in the

eastern desert.

The

objection

tliat

Ilorus,

geography of Egypt,

(3)

as

to

the conqueror of Set, was more likely to be the guardian

history of the kings.

I therefore

append a few

and
liave

lord

of

all

these

roads,

does

not

perhai)s

apply

notes on each of tlicse questions.

The

local

mythology of a
its

city is to be learnt

from the dedications of

temples and of the

The same niytli may and each side may have a time of popularity or of preference by the autocrat. However, re ahlu nia}- have been in Upper Egypt of. Br. Rec. I. vi.
to all

periods of Egyptian history.

different sides,

monuments adorning the temjjles. Often it is found that nearly every monument bears a dedication or an expression of homag(! to a purti\

The other exception


kingdom,
'

is

the re-used obelisk of the middle

in whicli Ilor

neb kliaskhet appears.

The

large block of linicstonc inscribed with the

name

of

Usertesen III., as

De Kongo, who

records

it,

points out,

cular

god or goddess brought

into connection

Mel.

I.e., is

strong evidence that the

monuments

of the early

dynasties were originally at Tanis, and not brought there at


a later period.

with a particular geographical name, and

the

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


After the
fall

of the

native dynasties the


in the temple.

appears also in a dedication by Merenptah at


Tel Muqdam, Mar. Men. Div. 63 ; while if Tanis were Avaris, and Set the especial deity, we should
expect to find that the dedications of the nineteenth dynasty in
the

Hyksos have left memorials

The
us
Set

name

of the king Apepi, beloved of Set, is the

only one

now

legible.

This dedication

tells

nothing of value for the local mythology.

temple,

unless

very

was the

especial deity of the Hyksos,

and apas

strongly influenced by other causes, were monopolized entirely

pears on an altar of the period found in Cairo

by that god.

(and therefore, perhaps, from

Heliopolis)

In the twenty-first dynasty we find no special


dedication
of the

"Lord
in

of Avaris."

beyond that to Amen ra as god


capital.

The nineteenth and twentieth dynasties bring a flood of divinities. The god of Thebes,
Ptah Tathnen,^ com-

Theban

In the twenty-second
in or
ra,

Amen
which
it

ra continues.
is

The only exception


on the
seen
pillar of

the capital of Egypt, holds perhaps the third


place, the first being given to

about this period


is

Aa arq

of

doubtful period.

Unfortunately
except
belongs

with

whom Rameses

II.

continually

has

not
;

been
it

by any one
it

pares himself.

This god was again, perhaps, a

Mariette

but

seems probable that

form of the Memphite god, and held a very


high place in the worship of the king.

to the time

between the Ramessides and the


this to

On

an

Saites rather than to the middle kingdom.

almost equal footing appear the gods of Heliopolis,

dedication

upon

a goddess Per

The ... is

the emblems of living and conquering

hard to restore,
I have

royalty.

Tum

and Harmachis witb Shu are


TJati

examined a number of the objects

the gods to be attributed to the pre-eminent


religious influence of that city.

found in the tombs at Zuwelen by Mr. Petrie.

ap taui

is

The

eyes, &c., are distinctly of the twenty-second

brought in owing to ber connection with the

dynasty in most cases, while some are twentysixth.

marsh lands

of the Delta,

and Horus of tbe

A scarab from the town ? bears the throne


of Osorkon II., which

foreigners, or of tbe desert hills, similarly occurs

name

once in this dynasty.^

often

Amongst the other gods, while Menthu is made use of in warlike boasts of Rameses,
is

the only one of any prominence in the dedication


Set,

once, on a

who is called " the very valiant," and monument of Merenptah, " lord of
Set was the

was adopted also by other kings of the same family; and the bones from the jars have been identified as those of cats by Mr. 0. Thomas, assistant in the Zoological Department of the British Museum. This throws some light on the
condition and religion of Tanis at the period.

Avaris."

Hyksos

divinity

and an

The

ushabti of the priestess of

Amen Ankhsnast
also

Asiatic god, and the kings of the nineteenth

(see Nebesheh, p. 46)

must

be

of

the

dynasty not only bore names compounded with


that of Set, but also frequently dedicated

twenty-first or twenty-second dynasty.

monuin the

There

is

great blank after the twenty-

ments to him.
dedication,
especial
to

It is

not reasonable, therefore,

second dynasty, and with the exception of a


statue at Bulaq, the only materials for filling
it

from these occasional mentions of Set


conclude
that

Set

was

the

god

of the city.

Set, lord of Avaris,

Compare the decree of Ptah Tatunen or Tathnen at Abusimbel (E. Xaville, Trans. S.B.A., vol. vii. p. 119, etc.), and below, p. 34, note. ^ De Eouge, Mel. I.e., also mentions Sekhet nelt Ant, mistress of the valley, and Hor aa pehti, as occun-ing at San.
'

up are the Ptolemaic remains found by Mr. Petrie. These point t\\'o ways. The monuments in the chapel are dedicated to the deities of Amt, the capital of the nineteenth nome; the block
from the temple
is

concerned with a black

bull,

Horus

in the city of

Bennu.

And Bennu was the


E

name

of the territory of the fourteenth nome.

34

I'RAKSLATIOXS OF THE IKSCRIPTIONS.


of the chapel

give

The monuments way to the


especially as

must probably

was not a

capital city in the earliest times

the

single block

from the temple,

religion of a district or of a family

must have
cult

Amt

seems to have been situated

fixed itself in their chief settlement in times of

at Nebesheh.

extreme antiquity, and the centre of a


for a local

The search
local
we

mythology and really

seems to have continued by a natural process


as the centre of a district

worship has not been successful.

When

and the

capital of a

have sifted out the national gods

who change

nome: although
traditions at

after the overthrow

of

old

with the dynasties (the Ptah, Osiris, and Sokar


of the middle
Set,

and before the Hyksos period, and

kingdom; Set of the Hyksos;

the neglect of the temples of

Lower Egypt by

Harmachis, Turn, Tathnen and


;

Ameu

of

the succeeding native dynasty, the nineteenth

the Ramessides
tites) there is

Amen

also

of
left

the Bubassufficient

dynasty seems to have made a new distribution


to

no residuum

to

certify a local worship.

Set, Uati tip taui,

and

list

Horus

of the foreigners,

wear a semblance of

some extent, traces of which appear in the of Rameses II. in the temple of Memphis, while other lists of the same period follow the
lines.

locaUzation.

The preference perhaps should be


first

earher
It

given to the
of

on the strength of the obelisk

seems very probable that Brugsch was


Tanis with the royal city

Nehesi and the strange monument called the

riglit in identifying

stela of

400 years.'

Horus
II., is

of the foreigners,

of

on the pair of obelisks of the middle kingdom


adopted by Rameses
in a general sense,
of the Delta

probably local only

Pa Ramessu mer amen. Its temple was filled with the name and monuments of Rameses II., who erected in it to represent himself the

and proves that the north-east


full of

largest monolith statue in the world.

No

city

was at an early period

non-

but, perhaps, Thebes,

Memphis, and Heliopolis

Egyptians.
21.

can have shown such a monument of his reign


position
of
is

The

Tanis in the political


not

as this temple itself formed.


If this

geography of Egypt
determine.

much

easier

to

be granted, Rameses seems to have


in

The

fact that there

was no hard
it

planted one of his capitals not in a religious


centre, but

and
'

fast local worship

seems to prove that

a position

the importance

of

Docs

this not really allude to the victorious introduction

of the Syrian Set

into

Lower Egypt by the Hyksos, rather

which had been noted by the Pharaohs of the middle kingdom, and close to the very centre of
the Hyksos rule
the

than to the era of a king Nubti 1 The supposed Hyksos king has not the usual Kfi in the name. If so it records the four hundredth anniversary of the conquest of Lower Egypt, by

a position which

commanded

northern route to Syria and placed the

which Set (or Nubti) became king both of Upper and Lower Egypt. It was erected on the order of Raraeses II. by Seti, Avho was governor of the foreigners and of the fortress of T'al here Horus of Mesen, the especial enemy of the Asiatic Set, was worshipped. It would thus be a sign of the tendency of

king after the conquest of that country in easy

communication
in

yyiih all his dominions.* local cult,

There was no strong

and^Rameses
rule,

renewing the temple, which had no doubt

Rameses II. to make a patronizing alliance witli the Asiatics and their gods, and his desire to adopt the worship of the It was Rameses II. and his father Seti that foreigners. first raised the northern Delta from the disgrace into which it had falleti, probably as the seat of growth of the Hyksos, and restored it-s temples. The head-dress of Set on the monument is very curious. The cap is that of Upper Egypt with a lotus flower instead
of the uraeus, while from the apex hangs a long riblion or cord,

been entirely neglected since the Hyksos


introduced the Avorship of the gods

who

])lcased

him most. Ptah Tathnen of Memphis, Harmachis and Turn of Heliopolis, Amen of Tliebes,
The
Abusimbol (published by Ed. Naville,

'

inscription of

end which reaches below the knees. It is probably this ribbon that is seen behind the figure of Set on the statue of Merenptah, son of Pa mcr kau, from Nebesheh.
forked at the

Trans. S.B.A., vol. vii. pi. i. p. 119, &c.) says appropriately that it was built " to strengthen the two lands of Egypt " (see

16 of the stela), and it is evidently counted as one of tho most important achievements of the king.
1.

TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.


held the chief places.

chapel was given to

the field of

Set aa pehti or Sutekh, the Hyksos god, and

and Psalm

Ixxviii. v. 43,

Zoan where, according to Exodus Moses performed the


to belong to the

much honour shown


polis also

to him.

Thoth

of

Hermo-

miracles before Pharaoh.

probably had a chapel, and certainly


recollect that the limestone walls

That Tanis was considered


district of the fourteenth

an

altar.

noma may be
In

conit

We

must

sidered nearly certain.

Roman

times

have entirely disappeared, and that while occasionally limestone monuments were saved by
being covered up with rubbish,
portion
of

seems to have been the capital of a separate nome, the Tanite, with the worship of the same

we have

only a

the decorations

of the

temple to

hawk god as the nome has not been


lists,

fourteenth.

This separate

identified in the Ptolemaic

assist us in

our researches, and practically none

of the temple itself.

There

is

a fragment of a
in

and on the blocks of the temple built by the Greek dynasty the city seems to have the name

local

name, no doubt of the name of Tanis,


It

of

Bennu, the name that the territory

of the

Inscription 114.

perhaps preserves a portion


i.e.

fourteenth
i.e.

nome

bears in the

lists.

of the sign ha, " house,"

of

Rameses
II.

II.

the religious centre, at that

The capital, time was still


Tal

The name
the

of the city of

Rameses

occurs on

Tal,

which probably lay


but
its

at

Tell Belim.

Roman

or Ptolemaic statues of Teos, from

remained a nome capita


period,
district

also in the

Roman

San, in the

Bulaq

Museum, aud
is

therefore

was then only the

remained to a very

late period.^

Sethroite nome, outside the arms of the NUe.

That Tanis was Avaris

not
the

probable.

There are

still

many

questions to be settled

As
Gen.

to

the
in

Biblical

Rameses:
Israelites

land

of

in this region.

Let us hope that the papyri of


difficulties.

Rameses
Goshen,

which the

were

settled.

Tanis will help us out of some of the

xlvii. 11,
v. 6.

was approximately the same as There is also the store-city

22. Historically,

one looks for hght from the


on the question

Rameses or Raamses, Ex. i. 11. If the land of Rameses, which was " the best of the land," means the district of the city of Rameses, then the latter must be sought for near Goshen.
If,

sum

total of these inscriptions

of the Tanite dynasties.

But not much is to be obtained from the monuments. The evidence


of the preference for

Amen

ra,

king of the gods,

however, the

district is

not connected with

is in

favour of the hypothesis that the Theban

the city, then Tanis

Pa

Pa

Ramessu mer amen


Cf.

Rames

is

probably Raamses.

M.

and the Tanite kings of the twenty-first dynasty were identical, and that Thebes was their
original
chief seat in

NaviUe's " Goshen," especially pp. 17 and 20. There is also the question whether Rameses,

home, Tanis being only adopted as their Lower Egypt, as seems to have

from which the


or the district.

Israelites started,

was the

city

been the case with Bubastis under the succeeding dynasty.

From Tanis
and would be

to Tel el

Masline

There

is

no trace at Tanis of the

khuta (Pithom) the distance in a straight


is

thirty miles,

at least

two days'
city in

XXIII. dynasty, which Africanus calls Tanite. The early monuments of Tanis are provokingly
suggestive of having been brought by Rameses
II. to

journey for the mixed multitude.

In

all

probability Tanis

was the royal

adorn his new

capital.

It

has never been


done.

absolutely proved
The inscription mentions Amen of Eameses in Pa Rames Other geographical names arc (i.e. Pa raraessu mer amen). Khent alt, name of the sixteenth norae, T'ar its capital, Mesen nut aat, " the great city," datu nu sexet fan,
'

that

this

was not

The truth about the age of Tanis can only be ascertained when deep excavations are made
in the

mound

itself

or a sufficient examination

in the fields of Zoan."

of the extensive cemeteries has been carried out.


TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTiONS.

The latter are in danger of being entirely worked out by the Arabs before the explorer comes upon The Saite kings may have built the ground/ Only one monua separate temple in the city. ment later than Taharqa seems to have existed but the site was at least in the great temple
;

mother to Tanis, and of the submission


people to her and her son, but
to put
is

of the

also intended

forth

the

claims of Taharqa to the

throne by recounting the king's early favours


to him,

and then the nomination of

his

mother
It is

as queen-mother.

The

stela

throws a good

inhabited then, for Mr. Petrie found the car-

deal of light on the family of Taharqa.

on a porcelain disk. The decree of Canopus must have been placed in a Ptolemaic temple on almost the same
touche of Psamraetikhus
II.

clear that he belonged to the ro3-al stock, but

was not

in the direct succession,

and no doubt he

gained his throne chiefly through Shabatok's


defeat and his war.

ground as the great temple. The stela of Taharqa is an important monument, and
it

own

success in the Assyrian


is

feud

in

the family

hinted at in the

is

very imfortuuate that

it is

not

comparison of Taharqa to
following genealogical table
is

Horus,

and the

more

perfect.

It is probable that the stela is

probably not far

not only a record of the visit of the queenI.

from the truth


of

Kashta, King
\

Thebes

Sbabako (King of Thebes, and of Lower Egypt by conquest).


II.

Shabatok, contemporary with Shabako, defeated by Sennacherib, and


III.

IV. Ameniritis, clain>ed as daughter of Kashta supported claim of Shabako and Shabatok, reigned also in her own right, and married Paankhi, wlio thus became nominally king put down by
:

Aqleq

succeeded to the rights of


I

.Vmeniritis.

'lisplaced

by Taharqa

Taharqa

VI. Taharqa (Tirhaka) her son, King of Ethiopia and Egypt by force and conceded right of his mother.
VII. Urdamaue, stepson of Taharqa, king with Taharqa, and nfter Taharqa's defeat by Assurbauhabal remained King of Ethiopia. He invaded Egypt, but was driven back by Assurbauhabal. The same as Amen ta nuath of the hieroglyphic inscriptions ?

V. Shepenapt, daughter of Amoniiitis

and Paanlchi, gave rights to her husband Psammetichus I., in Lower Egypt, one
year
?

after death of Taharqa.

That the five members of the families of Shabako and Ameniritis held together and
reigned contemporaneously
is

Egypt she appears


oval,

to have
in

had a second royal


title

and she bore

addition to the usual

rendered probable
stela at

titles of

the queens, the regal

Net, implying

by

their

names being found upon one


Ameniritis
is

sovereignty

over Lower
list

Egypt.

This

adds

Turin.

also found in conjunction

another to the
king.

of honours paid her by the


at Pithom,

with Shabako.

Their monuments never mention

The

title

Net was not found

the family of Taharqa, and those of Taharqa


are silent about them.

but appears plainly on the two

stcljE of

San.

There
queen of

is

a point worth noting about the

Ptolemy Philadelphos.

In

Lower

It is important, now that the " Livre des Rois " of MM. Brugsch and Bouriant is in the

'

time

In 1884, Mr. Petrie made some trials at Zuwel^n at a when he was taking the first .stops in obtaining those

hands of so many who take an interest Sa Menthu, which


really exist.

in

ilated series of

common

objects wliich have already altered

Egyptology, to point out that the king's name,


is

the whole aspect of an excavation to those


study.

who
V)y

pursue the
his

retained there, does not


(Insc.

As

long oa the ceuietcrics of Tanis can wait,


attain

M. Naville
III.,
p.

Historiquo de
that
all

method
and

will

greater

preci.sion

year

year

but

destruction of

tombs

for the sake of amulets to sell to dealers

Pinodjem

IG) showed

the

travellers is going

on at a terrible rate throughout Egypt.

monuments on which Sa Menthu was supposed


TRANSLATIONS OF THE INSCRIPTIONS.
to occur, reall}' bore the

name Saamen, and

wonderful coincidence.
of the fourteenth

Moreover, the capital


is

with

Wiedemann drew

the conclusion that Sa

nome
T'al

referred to again

amen of Tanis and other places was the same as Herhor Saamen of Thebes. M. Naville, in a private letter to me, states
that he finds
at
it difficult

under the name of

on the tablet No. 168, and of Mesen on the statue from the temple, 167, as well as on the statues of Teos, which
omit
all

to explain the disco very

reference to the gods of


also

Amt.
remark
is,

San

of the Ptolemaic tablets in the chapel,

M. Naville

unless Tanis

that period

was in the nome of Am peh at and since the blocks of the Ptole-

that neither of

makes the the nomes

interesting
of

Am,

that

of

maic temple, which bear the name of Bennu,


merely form part of a nome
list,

may
it is

he thinks

Nebesheh and Bubastis, occur in the lists of Seti I. at Abydos, and suggests that these nomes may not have been organized at the
time.
It

most probable that Tanis was a second principal


city in the I

may

same nome with Nebesheh.


this possibility before,

of the Delta

be said, however, that the Bast seems to have been more honoured
Possibly

had considered
it

but

by the early kings than the West.


the architects of Seti
full list,
I.

rejected

for

two reasons.

Of the supposed
that has survived

lacked space for the

nome
is

list,

the only city

name

Bennu, the territory and capital of a nome to which strong arguments point independently This would at least be a as being the Tanite.

and had to be content to omit those nomes which, like Athribis and many of the Eastern nomes, came late in their arrangement
of the
list.

In " Tanis I." the following corrections can


P. 6, col.
1, 1. 5,
1.

now be made
PI. xiii., 3
PI. PI.

the statue

is

of Usertesen

I.

(above, p. 16).

P. 6, col. 2,
p. 17).

18, the statue is also of Usertesen I. (above,

and 4, Usertesen I. xiv., 3, Osorkon II. XV., 3, is of a later Ptolemy


p. 30).

so also p. 32,

1.

8 (above,

P. 15, col.

2, 1. 10,

for Kamessu

II.

read Osorkon

II. (above,

p. 21).

Index of
11.

PI. xii., 1, Usertesen I.?

P. 15,

col. 2,

11 and 13 from below, /or


III.

Amenemhat

II.

and Usertesen

read Usertesen

I.

38

ADDENDA TO THE TRAXSLATIOXS.


me

M. Maspern has kindly


remarks of which
f;enealo<jy,

written to

in reply to

some
1.

6.

After hoin there

is

nothing distinct.

questions about the stela of Taharqa.


I

After some important


1.

have availed myself in correcting the as well as a point which I have noted in the

7.

Last part very indistinct.

translation,

"Kashta
il'Egypte.

he concludes by saying est roi de Thebes probablcment mais


:

nan
de

1.

11.

The

fir.?t

parts looks like

(.

II

me

parait certain qu'apres


la

I'expedition

Piankhi Jliamoun

Thebalde resta un fief de Tfithiopie, independante de la dynastie qui rcgnait dans le Delta." The squeezes of this stela, which had gone astray, have at After a very careful examinathe last moment been found.
tion of

'1
1.

13.

ta

meh
all

them
For

can

make

1.

the following corrections in the

18.

Cb

H.

doubt wholhor the ends of

the linos

Plate
1.

(ix.

Xo. 1G3):

are not liroken away.


u
is

1.

^^ read ^^^.
J
I I I

very doubtful.

1.4.
1.

1V'"#.--'^SS + M H
c
'^~ZZ>

5.

There are several indistinct signs beneath

Some
>

other slight alterations will suggest themselves as

probable, although they cannot be confirmed

by the

stela.

NUMBERING OF PLANS AND INSCRIPTIONS.

The geueral arrangements


before the inscription plates)
;

of the

numbering have been


is

fully stated in
list

Part
of

I.

(see fly-leaf

hence

it

only needful here to give the

numbers

of blocks

on the plan,

vs^ith

corresponding numbers of inscriptions on those blocks, so as to enable any one

to find the inscription of

any given stone.

Plan.

40

CLASSIFIED INDEX TO INSCEIPTIONS.

(a) Chronological

Name
in
[

List.
]

(Some K. K. K. K.

royal

names and notices


PI. xii. 5.

arc completed from

other publications.)

K. Shashnnq I., usurp., XII. Dyn., sphinxes, 14, 15 (partial). K. O.sorkon II., 41 (titles, see correction in text) usurpation ! K. Shashanq m., 157, &c j column lO"-'.
")

Pepi

K. Tahclq, 163
I., 2,
I., 3,

(stela).

Amenemhat
Usertesen
Usertesen
I.,

(his mother), 163.

[23] (text).

4, [5] (text), 8.

K. P.semthek n., PI. xii. 25. K. Ptolemseus II., 1G5, 166.


Q. Arsinoe, 1G5, 166.

II.,

6
(titles).

Q. Nefert, 171

K. Amenemhat
K. Usertesen

II.? sphinx, 14.

[K. Ptolemieus

III.,
?

decree of Canopus.]

K. Ptolemreus IV.
16.

164.

III., 7.

K. Sebekhetep III., K. Mermeshau, 17.


P. Nehesi, 19.

Q. Ai-sinoe, 1C4.

K. Ptolomseus IX.? 169, 170


[Tether (Teos) statues.]

(title).

K. Apepa,

partial usurpation, stituo of

Mermeshau,

Bakakhuiu
17.

(statue),

Tanis

I.,

Frontispiece.
Ranie:<''s II.

(Hyksos) partial

usurpation,

XII. Dynasty sphinx, [14],

(6)

Conquests o/

Hyksos sphinx monuments and usurpation ? 27, 28, 29. K.Eameses II. monuments, 32 135 and 172 174, including great colassus and [stela of 400 years].

Anu n

Kesh, 78.

Deshert, 50.

Kesh, 53.
Kheta, 47, 49, 65
Nehsi, 51, 78.
(cf.

K. Rameses

II.

usurpation, XII.

Dynasty (none
(partial).

certain).

36

b).

XTTT. Dynasty, Mermeshau

Middle Kingdom, complete usurp.,

statue.s, 11,

173.
61.

Rethnu,

4.5,

47, 53.

obelisks,

.5.5,

Sati, 33, 44, 52, 78.

Hyksos sphinxes, almost complete, 2531


Q. [Tua], 11 (titles).
Q.
Q.

Set Amentet, 78 obv.,

1.

12.

Sharutani, 78 obv. (sea fight). Shasu, 53, 81.


3.5 d.

Ra mat
Ra

neferu, 36 (titles).

merit or

Amen
e,

merit (see text),

Ta Kenset,

45.

Q. Bantau ant, 35
P. Merenptah

37

c.

Thehennu, 45, 65.


172
(titles).
(-)

(heir apparent),

Ddti's.
(Tahelcj),

usurpation, XII. Dyna.sty, statue, 4

(titles).

Aali,

43 b (R.
ra,

II.).

K. Merenptah, monuments, 136

140.
4, 5,

Amen
8 (partial),

163,

addenda
IT.).

136 (Merenptali), 14G

usurpations, XII. Dyn., statues, 3,

(Siamcn).

sphinxes, 14, 15 (entire).

Hyksos sphinxes, 2531


K. Seti n., 141. K. Rameses m., 142, 143. K. Siamen monuments, 145

(entire).

Amen Amen

ra,

173 (R. neb nes

ra

taui,

14 b (Shcshanq

I.),

102 (R.

11.),

136 (Merenptah).

151

Amen
(titles,

ra suten neteru, 15
II.).

n,

145

(Siiuiicn),

29

n (Piscb-

116).

khanu), 48. 114 (R.

usurpation, XII. Dynasty, .sphinx, 15 n (partial).

Apuat

res

sckhom
tuf, 4

taui,

172 (R.

II.).

K. Pasebkhanu K. Ra aa

I.

[bricks of temenos wall].

Aptaui, 3 B (Merenptali).
(jtartial).

usurpation, Hj-ksos sphinxes,


arq, 20.

2731

Anjiu top

(U.sert. 1.).
II.).

[An?] pu neb pa ahdu, 40 (R.

CLASSIFIED INDEX TO INSCRIPTIONS.


Antha, 44 (R.
II.).

41

Set,

5a

(Merenptab), 17 b (Apepa), 25

a, 78,

173 (E.

II.).

Asar

(Osiris), 7 (Usert. III.).


I.,

Set aa pebti, 4 a (Merenptab).

Asar neb ankh taui, 8 a (Usert. Uat Aptaui ? 3 b (Merenptah). Uat nebt Amt, 164, 165 (Ptol.

adopted by Merenptali).

Set neb re ahtu, 19 a (Nehesi).

Set neb hat uart, 5 a (Merenptab).


II., IV.).

Set nefer

pebti, 5

a (Merenptab).

Ba neb
Per
. .

dadat, 64 a, 102 (R. II.).


(goddess),

Shu, 47,

etc.

(R. II.).

20

(TIa aa arq).

Ka qem
Tum, 26

(black buU), 170 (Ptolemaic).


a, 44, 58, etc.

Ptab, 102, 174 (R.

II.).

(E.

II.),

141

(.Seti

II.),

heq An, 59

Ptah ur amakb ? f, 51 (R. II.). Ptab neb maat, 51 (R. II.). Ptab nefer ber, 16 a, Sebekbetep
Ptab
res

(R. II.).

Tum
III.,

Nefer, 139 (R. in.).

45 (R.

II.).

TumKlieper, 173 (R. XL).


Thuti (Thotb) neb khemenu, 66 (E. XL).
{d)

anbuf neb

taui'?

3 c

(Amenemhat

I.),

neb ankb

taui, XII. and XIII. Dyn., passim. Ptab Seker neb sbetbit, 3 d (Amenembat I.). Ptab Tatbnen (in comparisons), 25 a et seqq. passim (in 137 (Merenptab), dedication), 43 b, 52 (R. II.),

GeoffrajjMcal

Names.

AtAment: 170 (Ptolemaic). Amt: Kbem, Uat, Hor sam taui, Anu (Heliopolis) Tum, 49, 50,
:

164, 165 (Ptolemaic).


etc.,

Tum

neb

taui

Anu,

P. T.

(?)

aa pebti, 45 (R.

II.).

51, etc. (,R. II.).

Mentbu, 44

et seqq. (R. II.).

Mentbu neb uas, 67 (R. II.). Mart Ast, 170 (Ptolemaic). Met (Maut), 109 a (R. II.).

Neb

Ant Hathor, 2, XII. 5 (Pepi X.). re Ahtu: Set, 19 a (Nehesi). pa Abdu: [Anjpu, 40 (R. II.). bat Aat: Tum, Herkbuti, 68 (R. II.).
:

r ter,

34 (E.
II.).
II.).

II.).

re

A mu

(moutb
Ptab

of Nile

?),

48.

Nut, 173 (R. Ea, 25a(R.

An, 125.

Ankh
2, PI. xii. 5.

taui

res anbuf,
I.),

3 a, etc. (XII., XIII. Dyn.;,

Hatber, 159, Sbasbanq III.

Asar, 8 a (Usert.

Hatber neb Ant,


Hapi, 112 (R. II).

pa Arq, 151 (Siamen).


hat Uart
:

Hatber neb Mted, 172 (R.

II.).

Set, 5

a (Merenptah).

Uast
(R. II.).

Her (bawk), two bawks, 173

Mentbu, 67 (R. XX.). Benu: Her, 170 (Ptolemaic).


:

witb lower crown, 13 (Middle Kingdom).

Her neb mesen, 168 (Ptolemaic). Her neb setu, 13, 55 (Middle Kingdom, adopted by Her ber ab benu, 170 (Ptolemaic). Her ber ab set baa, 164 (Ptolemaic). Her kbuti, 47, etc. (R. II.). Her sa Ast, 163 (Tahelq). Her sam taui ber ab Amt, 164, 165 (Ptolemaic).
Hersbef, 19 e (Nebesil).
Khepra, 43
b,

Mesent: 168, Hor, 170, 167 baNub, 170 (Ptolemaic).


II.).

Ptolemaic.

R.

Set

Haa:

Kbem

= Hor,

164 (Ptolemaic).

Sesenu: Thotb, 66 (R.


Sbetbit: Ptah Seker,

II.). I.).

3d (Amenemhat

Dadat (Mendes): Ba, 64 a, 102 (R. II.). Tal: Her neb mesent, 168 (Ptolemaic), ha? (lost): Amen ra sutn neteru, 114
.

(R. II.).

68 (R.

II.).

(e)

Some Bare Words.


44,

Kbem Amen, 151 (Siamen). Kbem neb Amt, 164, 165


Khensu, 168 (Ptolemaic).
Sutekb, 17b(R. XL).

(Ptolemaic).

r^

>

78 obv.,

1.

8.

Seb, 4 A (Merenptab), 50, etc. (E.

II.).

n^ffi^(?),

78 (reverse).

Sepd, 64 a (R.

II.).

SekbetBast, 174 (E.

II.).

Wi

(title of

queen), 165, 16

42

GENEEAL INDEX.

Abusimbcl Abydos
Altars of

...

11, .33 (note),

PAGE 34 (note)
11 9

PAGE

Bennut
Berlin

31,33,35
17
II.,

Museum
uncertain
9,

R. II

Blocks of Rameses

10,

11
11

Am, nome of Amen iu XXI. Dynasty in XXII.


in

37

raised

by Shashanq

III.

and Siamen

18,20,35 18,35
30 33
of

British

Museum
inscription relating to

12

BuUding,
Bubastis

28

XXV.
of

...

Bulaq

Museum

18,35,37 13,31,33,35
31 15 (note), 16

ra

suten neteru (Amenrasonther, king


gods)

the

18,20,22,35
15

Bull(Horus) Burton, " E.Kcerpta Hieroglyphica "

Amenemhat Amenemhat

I. (inscr.)

19
16
17

Buto not

Amt
II.

12

II

sphinx of

(?)

Cartouches of Arsinoe

Amen

(?)

merit
carrying, from well
...

20
14

Cat mummies

Amphora, method of raising and Amt (Am), Nebesheh


gods of

Cemetery of Tanis
Ptolemaic

at

Zuwelen
I.

33,
..

30.31 .. 33 36
19

12,30,33,37
30
28 22

Chapel of Amenemhat

30, 31, 37
...

An, stone of (limestone)


Anaitis

35
11
1.-.

Colossus, great, of

Rameses

II., v.

E.

II.
... ...
...

Ankhsenast

33
15 (note)

Cramp-holes, dovetailed
Crypt, Ptah Seker, lord of the

Ankh
Antha

taui, life of the

two

land.-!

22

Cubit measure iu architraves

10

Anu

of

Kush
16, IG, 21

26
(?)

Anubis

Denderah
Doorway, Ramcsside

... ... ...

15
10

Apepa
Aptaui (Uat)

18

15,16
31
(?)

ofPepi
Drilling in granite

15 10

Apuat
Appropriation by .Sha.shanq III.
10,

...

28
23
10

Arabia
Architraves of pylon
(?)

Dynasty XXI., ThebanTanite XXII., Thoban Bubastite XXIII., Tauite ?

(note),
...

35

18,
...
...

35

35
36

oftemple
of Usertesen III

10

XXV.,

probable quarrel in

16

Ar-sinoc II

Arsinoc III
Avari,s

12,30,30 12,30 16,33,35


..

Early monuments originally at Tani.s

...

32 (note), 35

Edf u, myth

of

Horbehud

at

Engraver's mistake
Erasure, double, of cartouches on columns
...

10

Banta ant
Basalt statue, fragment of
...

20,21,22
..

Errata in Part I

12,37
23, 26
...
...

12,31

Ethiopia (Kush)
Eyes, inlaid, of early statur

Bedawin (Shasu)
Bekhtcn, princess of

23,27
...

13

21

Exodus

35

GENERAL INDEX.

44

GENERAL INDEX.

SAN
iz
h/h.i.t(.

RAMESSUII.
Ume.stont ALta-n.
6l>.

!tf

^BEB=MW*=^S V

^tf

l^^^4n^= (3^ 5:

u^S^^m^WMml
plcLn
/OS-

'''m3\\n.m\\>)^\\rTi^:
pin
I If.

-^y

.on

r.io

SAN RAMESSU

II

"%g?X^ (ingiFB:^IC^@^^^i^.^ ^p:^lAi^LtTfe1^^Tk^i^.-^yH^agt^


nh^^^\^i:^'^.^7.^-:Hf.^Ai'^t/r^ii&

nmkBs^'^Hm^A'B^.%^\im^,
\

^%Tr\.^rzBrtm'^iin^.\ik.m\^.

m^: 'mb'^^(mbMht^-zii^3z,k
W^ik_^V^^'',ii^^^''^llU^
zf^^:ijS>^/^^f<.T^Li^:^!r$j^gE^^

^ liiti^B giiV

^^^ ^yC^i
^^'^'

:i^m^miiumm'^^^W^'i':^'^A

^'A ^ "B'kVjmiliv^O^.^^.h^
'|1^^.-?'H77<iff^T;MIf^V^JJ^/^Ml^

UU^K^-A^^J-=^'^AlSlAf)(MB*^
77 Hlbs'ib':!;-^

1^

aj^^i9A:a"r

^^gggnUj^^mi^fl^^^^l^
^itys^M-f-ss-^^^'*.!^
'Trr^Ate^^i^ ^1?:|^.'frT.i^;je

^I^iii^^IIiU/(r~T^W^^^^:;;^'>"

^f^^1 r^^^t -J^'A'S^^vf^jL)(liB^'5^S)^IS4^S.

{l^i^L^vSi^^

'

'^^'.

tu^:=^t^
^^^^..^J^f f,l^C.^^^j,l^ J,c,-^i),Lx\\J
fi^i^.

V#fn:

~T^

5AN

RAMESSUII.
tt

snu.

.k-//////^^

S)

^-^ji^'

}-mi'^'B'kA^% ^.nLm
H/!lSt^^)l^MGil^t^i^' m^'i^^M'^^JL\i^M^^<'^^l

^/^

HAfia^t^s^iff f?

5^#
/,i<ic>v

z;^..

-r

a. n-u te.

f r a- a

m e,n.fs

b > o

JTt

l d.t

32. tkuJi.

A^*-V7-

II.
^Lay^iyo.

i:40

SAN RAMESSU
8/

II

|@t'i^^^i?^(^^
jo

LcLr^ Z64--

^Sffllf"
feL(x.y^!.bZ.

U8tMk6)>+

i:40

SAN. RAMESSU

II

t
lllllll
>(

/-''''
'

ill

i.
-

OB

H
V

//;

fe!

rir::
--i^

'X
^i

It

'\^\:\

1 li\lF
Ml
^;^,
^
,

^ ^ m

^V/^

v.

^^ ^-^^

/-^^<>^

jiLa-n.

4Z

i M

SAN. RAMESSU

11

pg^rrr^B^

fi--8rrTrnrsnirr^

^1,^^

"

Ay^o tker Ju^if C^tel iSXli

m
A.

sUi

nS
-

f5

>^a>.

-JTZTTJr

>i--'
l^.M.F.P. ciU.

HY

\:io

SAN XIX-XXDYN
Mere^n
p t cuk, stdnd^n^
B^ ci.f
o.or.u.

VII

stitu.e..
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NEBESHEH
ANT)

(AM)

DEFENNEH (TAHPANHES).
W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE.
WITH CHAl'TEES BV A.
S.

MURRAY,
ANTIO.UITIES, BRITISH

KEEPER OF GREEK AND ROMAN

MUSEUM

AND
F.

LL.

GRIFFITH.

FOURTH MEMOIR OF

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.

PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE COMMIITEE.

LONDON:
MESSRS. TRiJBNER &
CO., 57

&

59,

LUDGATE HILL,

E.G.

AntiijuU'j

thou ivondrous charm, what art thou ?

"

Ei.i/

CONTENTS.
Chap. V.
Inscriptions.

Pkeface Introduction

...

By
SECT.

F. Ll. GniFFiTH.
I'AOK

NEBESHEH.
Chap.
I.

28.

TheCity

of

Am
'

28
29

29. Inscriptions of the Xllth Dj'nasty

Position and History.


...

30. Inscriptions of the


31.

Present State

Changes in the Country around Changes elsewhere and loss of Ceme


;

32.
33.

teries

34.

'

XlXth Dj-nasty Ushabti before XXVIth Dynasty Inscriptions of XXVIth Dj-nasty Sarcophagi of XXVIth Dynasty Ushabti of XXVIth Dynasty
. .

29 31
33 35

36

The City Am, and nome Am-pehu


In Eamesside and later Times

Chap. VI.

Gemaiyemi.

Chap.
G.

II.

Temples.
35. Position

By
3G.

F. Ll. Griffith.

Discovery of the Temples

7. 8. 9.

Egyptian System of Foundations

Temenos
...
...

Temenos Column and Propylon


and Statues

37. Inlaid Shrine


...

38. Foundation Deposits


39. Glass- working
...

10. Pj-lon

11. First
1 2.

Temple Second Temple

40. History
41. Sites near ]S''ebesheh
...

13. Shrine

14. Foundation Deposits, &c.


15. Altar

DEFENNEH.
Chap. VII.
42. Position

Position and History.


...
...

IG.

Government of the Hyksos


Chap.
III.

...

Cemetery.

43. Piamesside Period


44.

17. Classes of 18.

19.
20.

21.

Tomhs Red Brick Tomhs Tomhs of the XXth Dynasty Cypriote Tombs ... Saitic Tombs

45.
...

The Camp of Psamtik The Jewish Migration


Jews

I.
...
...

46. Hellenization of 47. " 48.


49.

The Palace of the Jew's Daughter".. Pavement before the Entry Removal of the Greeks
...

22. Amulets
23. Objects from Saitic and later

Tombs

50. Later Notices

Chap.

IV. Town.
51

Chap. VIII.

The Kasr and Camp.

24. Destroyed Building with Deposits 25. Plan of

Nature of the Kasr

Town
...

52. Periods of Building 53. Original

26. Ptolemaic Houses, Coins, &c. 27. Miscellaneous Objects


...

Form

... ...

54. Foundation Deposits

fv

PLATES.
NEBESHEH.
I.

DEFENNEH.
to

Funereal

Objects,

XXtli

XXVth

XXII. Foundation Deposits


XXIII.

of Kasr.

Dynasty.
II.

Plans. Pottery, Vllth

Funereal Objects,
,,

XXth

Dynasty.

XXIV. Greek

Figures and

III.

,,

Cypriote Tombs.

cent; B.C.

IV. Great Shrine of Uati.

XXV. XXXI.
Plans.
&c.

Painted Greek Vases.


Vases.

V. Foundation Deposits, Temple of Uati.


VI.

XXXII. Lined Greek

XXXIIL XXXV.
XXXVI.
XXXVII.
XXXVIII.

Plain Pottery.

VII. Objects from

House 100,

Lids and Sealings.


Military Iron-work.
Civil Iron-work.

VIII. Beads, Scarabs, &c.

IX. Inscriptions, Xllth


nasty.

and

XXVIth DyDynasty.

XXXIX.
to

Bronze Work.
Objects from

X. Inscriptions, Xllth

XXVIth

XL.

Camp.

XL
XII.
XIII.


.,

XlXth Dynasty.

XLI. Small

Antiquities.
Stela.

XXVIth
Ushabti.

Dynasty.

XLII. Inscription of
XLIII. General Plan.

XIV. Plan

of Temple.
of Cemetery. of

XLIV. Plan

of Kasr.

XV. Plan

XLV. Plan

of Eastern Buildings.
of Weights.

XVI. Plans

Tombs.

XLVI. Types

XVII. Plan of Town, and General Plan.


XVIII. Glass Mosaics.

XL VII. XL VIII.
XLIX.

Types of Weights.
Curves of Naukratite Weights.
Curves of Dafniote Weights.

XIX. Foundation

Deposits.

XX.

Bronzes.
of

L. Curves of Weights compared.


LI. Inscriptions of Kantara.

XXI. Plan

Temple of Gemayemi.

PREFACE.
In placing before the public another record of explorations in Egypt,
a fitting opportunity to define the general j^rinciples
it

seems

which

have had in
of some such

view in conducting and publishing these researches.


definition
is

The need

apparent from certain miscoucej^tions which I have observed


serve to

and

as it

may

some extent

as

an end in

itself, as

well as an explanation
it.

with regard to this work, I need not apologize for stating

Just as one person has, for economy of time and means, to jierform
difi'erent functions in

many

carrying on such w^ork

so, in

the same w\ay,

it is

needful

for

one expedition to be made to serve

many

different ends, in such


rest.

w ise that

the explorer in striving for one end should not disregard the

In Avorking

on any

site

the opportunities are many-sided, and our research should neglect


if

none of them
desire
it is

we would

use well our advantages.

The

collector,

whose

to see sometliing beautiful in a


scientific interests
;

museum, should remember the


art,

larger

and more

the student of

who

seeks to recover

links in his

dim pedigrees, must remember how much history can help him
is

the linguist, whose idea of Egyptology

restricted to

hieroglyjahics,

may

recoUect that Egypt

is

not the
to

name

of a dead language, but the country of a


times, our

grand
will

civilization.

To look

modern

own thoughts and

doings

be found quite as well recorded by the homely Metropolitan Board of


as in

Works,

the archives of the

War

Ofiice.

Our

object then should be not only the discovery of an historical text, or a

geographical identification, or a

new

construction

in

the language, or the

development of an
or the

art, or

the history of pottery, or the details of manufactures,


all

mode

of living, but
is

of these together

the whole body of archaeology.


;

Archeology

the history of men's thoughts and works

it is

to the history of

,i

TREFACE.

mind, what mineralogy, and geology, and


Doubtless

palaeontology,

are to

matter.*

language and political history are the grand sciences Avithin the
;

domain of archa;ology

but they are only


is

sections,

and not the

Avhole.
little

Another point not to be overlooked


to do with their true value.

that the condition of objects has

Perfect and pretty things are no doubt very useful


;

to serA-e as lures for attracting the public to the education prepared for tlicm
it

but

often happens that for real instruction a broken thing

is

Avorth

more than one


it

whole, and in no case should

we

neglect an injured specimen because


it
is

has

been better

originally.

FrencliAVoman,
" did not

reported, said on seeing the


to see a hospital of

Parthenon sculptures, that she


cripples
;"

come there

but then she should rather have visited the Crystal Palace or a
sIioav.

Avax-Avork

A museum
;

is

in

the

first

place a treasure-house
place

for

systematic and

scientific research, and in the second

an educational

establishment for the public

in

no case should

it

descend to the past indignity

of a collection of curiosities or a place of amusement.

To

reject anything

because

it

is

not popularly attractive

is

a concession to

mere showmanism.

Let us suppose, in biology for instance, that a

set of preparations illustrating

each of the main discoveries of recent times Avere placed on one side of a gallery,

and a roAV of execrably stuficd beasts on the other


side Avould be Avorth
Avorthless side
?

does any one doubt Avhich


Avould iiock to the

most

Or doubt that the populace

The

lines,

therefore, on Avhich exploration sliould be conducted, are the


all

ascertaining of

facts

concerning the history and Avays of the people

Avliose

remains avc are examining.


tion of Avhat
is

But

a difficulty at once meets us in the discriminais

accidental and Avliat


it

general, in the immediate valuing of each

isolated fact as

appears

in short, in dealing Avith a larger


it

amount than can


go along Avhat
is

be recorded or preserved, and abstracting from


intelligibly connected.

as Ave

perfect excavator Avould need a perfect

memory,

since

it is

impossible to record or preserve a tenth or even a hundredth part


is

of

all

that
is

seen and found.


?

Tliere

is

no more troublesome question


trifling chip of

tlian.

"What

AVorth keeping

Sometimes one

pottery

may be

wortli

* Nothihj^ shows better

tlie

ignoring of true arcliaeology than the journalistic lieading " Arehajology

uiJ Art," two titles which have the tame relation as archa;oIogy and history, or archaeology and poetry.

PREFACE.

vii

keeping and recording, when thousands of sherds and pieces of bronze have

been rejected.
in

The

difference

between collecting things because of their value


information their
site,

themselves, or because
is

of the

position,
tall

and age
copies,"
fine

impart,

just the difference between a bibliomaniac collecting "

and the historian who studies the copies regardless of large paper or
binding.

Now
Yet
it is

it

will

be evident that, for

all

purposes of true archaeology, specimens


lost

of which the age and locality are

unknown have

more than half their

value.

unfortunately just such specimens, collected by dealers and travellers

for the sake of their value in themselves,


collections, public

which form nearly the whole of

all

and

private.

Here

lies,

then, the great value of systematic

and

strict excavation, in

the obtaining of a scale of comparison by which to

arrange and date the various objects


inferior to others already in a

we

already possess.
it

A specimen

may be
all

museum, and yet


it

will

be worth more than

of

them

if it

has

its

history

and

will bo the necessary key, to be jDreserved

with the better examples

as a

voucher of their historical position.

When

it

can

be said that a dated collection consists mainly of objects already in a public

museum,

it

shows how invaluable such a

series will

be for helping to reduce the


for

undated and unlocalized chaos to some order, and


historical value.

stamping

it

with an

The aim,

then, in excavating should be to obtain and preserve

such specimens in particular as


existing.

may

serve as keys to the collections already

"Whenever, therefore, I have the opportunity of carrying on such work, I

wish to glean every fact which can be intelligibly built into the general fabric
of archaeology
;

and

specially to attend to such details as

have not yet been

recorded, and can only be ascertained by means of close attention to every step of the work.

Much

of the

work described

in the present

volume has been carried on

with the help of Mr. F. LI.

Griffith,

who

has also contributed some chajDters on

those matters to which he paid particular attention.


visited

As
all,

I have only briefly

Gemayemi, and not seen the Kantara remains

at

he of course writes

quite independently.
this year

Of the
five,

plates

Mr. Percy Newberry has again aided

me

by di-awing

and Mr.

Griffith has

done

six jjlates of inscription

the remaining plates arc of

my

o\Yn drawing

and

I Avish

here to disclaim
point of view
;

any intention that these should be looked on from an


they are simply representations of
in their
Avith
scientific
antitpiities,

artistic

and their only value

consists

accuracy.

Mr. Spurrell

has also

generously helped
;

me

a serious task, by ^veighing nearly a thousand Aveights

and only those

Avho have done such wearisome


I

work

Avill

know
it

hon' to aj^preciate such service,


likely that I shall carry on
I

much

regret that circumstances

make

my

Avork in

Egypt independently of the Fund, with which

have had

tlie

pleasure

of opening so mucli

new ground.

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE.

EllO.MLEY,

KkXT,

^^ovemhcr 20, 1886.

INTEODUCTION.
The work
ever
of this year has lain at places scarcely
off

from the world


is

except in the driest months

visited

by any European, and at

wliicli

there

but one path through the marshes, and

no exploration bad previously been attempted.


Naukratis
ancient

that impossible for any but a native to find, while

was wholly unknown,


I first visited
it

even

as

an

on most sides are desert or marshy


to to

tracts

down

site, until

two years ago,

Lake Menzaleh.

The

old shekh

was delighted
seen

and

its

exploration

only dates from last year.

have his sohtude enhvened, and his affection

Nebesheh, on the opposite side of the Delta, was


never seen by any archaeologist, imtil
visit

was almost embarrassing.


his life
;

He had

much

in

my

flying

about as old as the century, he had in

when

was

at

Tanis

and

Defenneh,
travellers,

his
far

younger days been the shekh of the Bedawin,

though seen by one or two passing

and wide on the E. of the

Nile, about

Esneh

was tmtouched and unheeded


at the

until I settled there

he had fought along with Ibrahim Pasha in his


campaigns, and was never weary of telling long
doings with Ibrahim

end of

last

March.
I need
it.

Of Naukratis
already described
there,

say but

little,

having

tales

of

his

and Abbas.

I stayed less

than a month
;

Falling into

some disgrace with the Government,

merely to induct Mr. Gardner

but in

he was pitchforked out of his high position, and


sent

that time I saw the cemetery successfully opened

down

to near Naukratis, in the quagmires

by him in the mound which had been suspected


the year before to be probably the site of
it,

about Tell Afrin;


again,

then after a while removed

and

and given the grant of two or three


still

he also found the temenos of Hera.


of the Dioscuri
I cleared

The temple
remained, as

hundred acres of marshy ground where he


lives.

came

out, so far as

it

He

feels his

change and his present

state,

more

in the area of the


;

temenos which

and longs

for

some one
;

to listen to the stories


is

I found last year

and, most happily, within ten

of his old wild days

he

truly solitary, with

days I had the clue to the temenos of Aphrodite,

only a few rough attendants, and one son

who

is

and

identified the temple.

There the pottery of

but a sorry result for

all
is

the six and forty wives


credited 'with having

the finest Naukratite ware, with the dedications,

which the old shekh


in times
past.

had

came abundantly to light, and a rich field was opened, which was most successfully worked out
by Mr. Gardner.
appeared;
all

He

provided us with a guest;

room, and a smaller roofless room adjoining

the

Other points of interest also

walls of both were tunnelled by rats and white


ants,

of which will be duly recorded in

who had

to be kept in check respectively

by

his forthcoming volume.

At Tell Nebesheh the


:

heaps of broken shabti and insect powder.

With

ground was wholly

different

there was no flourish-

some

iron roofing

from

my

house at San, this

ing native village as

at Naukratis,

but only a

place was inhabitable, and Mr. Griffith or myself

few scattered huts of settled Bedawin, or Arabs


as they should be called in their present state, in

occupied

it

for full three

months.

contradistinction to the

fellahin,

in

whom

old
live

Of Defenneh no real account could be obtained before I left England I was told that it was inaccessible until near the
told there

Egj'ptian blood

is

prominent.

These people

summer.

At San I was
to
di-inli.

here under their aged shekh Nebesheh, almost cut

was no water there

At

IXTKODUCTIOX.

Nebesheh
would be

heard of a farm

there.

All of this

information proved wrong.


in the

The

best time there

mundation, for then there would

The experivoked under several hours' journey. supposed; ment answered better than I could have there, far from though I had up to seventy people
all

and the place, be a fuU supply of fresh water; all the year. and the way there, is dry desert in the canal The water begins to turn brackish
about the time I went
fluctuates
there, in

had the least dwellings, in the desert, I never heard a squabble trouble with any one, and I never
two months. between them during the whole known them They worked as well as I have ever thoroughly work, they obeyed completely, and a always seen. contented and happy spirit was

March, and

as between better and worse according upper canals. more or less is let down from the on a few the sembbiest corn is grown

Some

Not only
to

so,

but the Bedawin around,


could

who used
our

of

attended to by its patches S.E. of the site, but it is place a dozen owners from the nearest inhabited
habitation is to be miles off, and no trace of any stray tent of the seen beside the rums and a

hunt

for stray antiquities

and weights, were as


be wished;

quiet and respectful as

camp used
a mile

to be left without

a pin in the flap of

my

any guard, and only tent, while we were half

Bedawin.

These tents they pitch out in the by bushes remotest edges of the lake, hidden up a ruddy and it is only when theh: fires send
glow
at night that

away

they can be found.


is

All the
less

marsh gi-ound of the north Delta inhabited by men who have fled
scription,

more or

fi-om the con-

and two

of

my

stoutest workers were

had we any while heading two months more smoothly than Yet the people had not much our desert camp. they came without any shelter, to content them what they wore they had dry but nothing and and drink eat, and brackish water to
; ;

nor yet nothing was ever disturbed, I never spent complaint to make.

bread to

liberty men of Zagazig, who had thus saved their inhabited land by settlmg^on the borders of the

day, most of them for they worked for sixpence a they had to walk but five days of the week, as
then- food. Some twenty-five to forty miles to fetch left the place, but had a of them, indeed, never over once a donkey-load of provisions brought

near Defenneh.
people at

Lon

before I went there,


all

my

Nebesheh were

clamorous to go with

intentions were me, and the questions about my When at last I more pressing as time went on.
started,

week.

by Their shelter they made up, partly

we fonned a procession

of about forty,
;

with two baggage camels of

bundles of broad on their

the men with backsfor no food can

mme

mounds, partly by digging a hole in the sand bushes ; some were booths'' of thin tamarisk
content M-ith
bole, while

lair

hardly more

than a dog's

boys with the hoes, be bought in th? desert,the their heads, with andthegirls with the baskets on In spite of the work a few hdlehs and utensils.
stUl being carried

some made an approach to distmct With all this, a chambers in their construction.
one or two merry party they were ; excepting a lad over twenty or older men, there was scarcely whole lot. Each night giri over fifteen in the
a
flickered their yellow a blazing row of camp-fires all along the line of stariight, the into flames up

on at

Nebesheh by Mr.

Griffith,

the people back from the difficulty only was to keep was a sort Defenneh at settlement This going. often wished for; I went with of experiment I had Muhammed a lad of about only my faithful rds and his younger cousin, a fine, sturdy

twenty, were all stray workers boy named Tulbeh; the rest before. whom I had never seen till a short time no We had no soldiers, no police, no shckhs,
guards,

canal banks mounds of booths which skirted the tamarisk bushes (in sand tufted over witli dark .IwcUings) backed the which they muaed tluir ruins of the kasr showed Une, while the distant
;

dimly on one

side,

nor

any of
;

the

usual

machinery

of
1

canal on the other.

and the gleam of the sluggish Parties would go into the

Egj-ptian rule

there was no authority to be in-

circle to hold a zikr of half darkness, and form a

INTRODUCTION.
the howliug derwishes, for

we had one holy mean


;

hardship

is

taking ten

men

to do the

work of one,
they will

among us who
Perhaps some

led such devotions

and the grim

and removing them beyond reach of their homes.


Otherwise, shelter

sawing howl would go up by the hour together.


girls

and

food

supply

would sing on in their wild


side, or a

manage
I

easily without

any arrangement, and do

Arab unison on another


enjoy a

group of boys
oiir feast

a long tramp in the bargain.

hearty game.

Such was
at last

of

must not conclude


is

this without

acknowledging
work,

tabernacles, where

we had

got clear of

what

a necessary part of

my

facilities for

the

official

curse of the

mammon

of unrighteous-

the characters of
selection

my

overseers.
I

By

continual

ness.

and weeding,
I respect

have now three or four


I

One

result,

which was very plain,

is

that

it

is

men whom
know them.
and

and trust more, the better

hopeless to try to begin work in an out-of-the-way


place, unless

The

three brothers

Mahajub,
el

Said,

you can carry over with you a party

Muhammed

abu

Daud

Gabri

have

who
had

already
to wait

know and

trust you.

At Nebesheh

proved unequalled for sturdy independence, unceasing goodwill and kindliness, obedience, and
readiness
for

could be got together

some days before a working gang but so soon as they knew


;

any

service,
little

asked

or

unasked;

the work, they were ready to go anywhere to

while Tulbeh, their


quite
their

cousin, promises to be

continue

it.

This experience at Defenneh has

equal.

Though they never stand


workers in any matter, yet
to maintain such a

also a decisive bearing

on the real hardships of

between
it

me and my

the

clear

much abused institution, the corvee. It is now what natives will gladly do, and what
go
without, for

would be impossible

good

spirit

and straightforwardness in the work with

they will

the

lowest ordinary

men

inferior to

my

good

friends.

wages, and without any compulsion.

The

real

TELL NEBESHEH.
CHAPTER
POSITION
1.
I.

Tanis
islands

is
;

built

upon one of the largest of these


double

the
;

cemetery of Snellen

is

on

AJS^D

HISTORY.

another

and Tell Gemeyemi, Tell Nebesheh, and


on the gezirehs around.
of Tell

One

of the furthest outposts of cultivation,

many

lesser sites rest

bordering

on

the

salt

desert

swamj^s which
is

The present appearance


low dusty
side of
rise of

Nebesheh

is

suiTOund the marshes of Lake Menzaleh,


low

the

ground, with sand hillocks on one


is

mound
Eas

of Tell Nebesheh.

Originally

known

it,

as

it

seen in crossing the swamp,


lie

as Tell Farun, with the gi-eat


called

Farun

or

monoHth shrine " Pharoah's head" it

three miles of which

between the edge of the


this

regular

cultivation
site is

and

furthest

outpost.

acquired the

name

of Tell

Bedam from
of

the settle-

The whole

about a mile across, with the


pi. xvii.)

ment there of a number


generation back.

Bedawin about a

temple at the west end (see general plan on


projecting into the cultivated ground
adjoins
is
it
;

Neither of these names, how-

the town

ever, were convenient to use, as very similar

names

on the eastern

side,

and east of the whole

existed elsewhere, and would cause confusion in

a hillocky,

sandy plain covered with tombs.

future

so the third

name

of Tell Nebesheh, so chief of the

The highest
of the plain

part does not rise

more than

fifteen

called after

Shekh Nebesheh, the old

or twenty feet above the country.


is

Bedawin, seemed the best to adopt permanently

the mud-house of the

On the south Bedam shekh,

The other names are, however, better known, and are sometimes marked on maps. The position, as may be seen on the
for archaeological pui-poses.

Nebesheh, and on the east and north of the plain


are the mud-huts of the

Bedawin

settled there.

War

Office

map

(Tell Badaui),

is

about 8 miles
miles

2.

S.E. of Tanis or San, and about


of Salahieh.

N.W.

mound

But though the present elevation of this is so slight, it must have had a far more
it first

imposing appearance when one of the

attracted settlers

At

this point

many sandy
swells

rises of

there in the early days of the twelfth dynasty.

ground that occur

in this district

up from
All the desert

The changes which


almost

the Delta has undergone within

beneath the general plain of Nile mud.


eastern part of the Delta clearly shows
origin
;

historic times are as great, perhaps, as

those of
so often

its

any other country.

Egypt

is

it is

a piece of rolling sandy country, just

spoken of as unchanged land, ever the same,

hke the entirely desert regions outside of the Delta but being at a lower level it has been
;

owing to the similarity in many respects of

its

ancient people and ways to those of the present


time, that the great physical changes which have

inundated by the Nile, and a sea of mud deposited


over nearly the whole of
of the sandy hillocks
it,

leaving only the tops


in

taken place, in especially this eastern side of the


country, are liable to be overlooked altogether.

and low ridges exposed

the midst of the black

soil.

Thus these "gezirchs

"

Some new and important


state of the land

evidences of the past


this last

or islands, as they are called, crop out at every

have come to light in

few miles, and have formed from the earliest days


the sites for dweUings, temples, and cemeteries.

year; and, broadly spcalung, we

may

say that

when the ancient

inhabitants settled and built

LiBftARY

CHAP. I. POSITION
here
it

AND

HISTORY.

was not, as we now


hills of

see,

almost

all

a level

sepulchi-e above ground.

Now

these tombs were

plain, but retained

much more of its


sand
still

desert features,

naturally sunk to various depths

when they were

having high

remaining.

constructed

some only
that

just beneath the surface,

Not only has a


at

levelling action

been constantly

others to a greater depth

more resembling the


the
cliffs

work

in the filling

up of the valleys by the


been

mud
in

profound tombs

pierce

of the

deposits of the river, until they are all but obliterated, but a converse action has
at

Memphite

hills to their

very base.

From

the

work

almost complete removal of some tombs of the


sixth century B.C.,

the denudation of the exposed parts by the wind


thus, from being a piece of native desert such as
is

and the height of those tombs


it

which have escaped denudation,


said that at least six feet, and
feet of the

may be

safely

seen around Ismailiyeh, or almost anywhere

more probably ten

outside of the Nile valley, the country has approxi-

whole surface of the ground has been


little

mated

to a perfectly level plain, filled

up and worn
all

blown away within


years.

more than two thousand


of the twelfth dynasty

down
to

until its original elevations

have

but

Hence the

hills

disappeared.

The

deposits of the Nile

we know

must have stood some


present tops.

fifteen feet

higher than their

have averaged about four inches per century in


;

The
it

plain being also by about as

depth

being this or rather more at Naiikratis in

much

lower than

now is,

there were thirty feet

the rise since Greek times, at Tanis in the rise of


water-level since

more of apparent
fifty feet in

elevation, or a total of about

Greek

times,

and about

this

place of the twenty feet or thereabouts

same amount

at

Heliopohs and Memphis.

Hence

now
see,

to be seen.
this afi'ect so vastly

at the time of even the twelfth

dynasty (to say

Not only does

what we now

nothing of earlier times), the black plain must

but there can be no doubt that

many

parts

have been about

fifteen feet

lower than

it

now

is,

now covered by
feet

the black plain stood then some


;

and
this

all

the elevations accordingly standing by


level of the

above

it

as sand islets

so that the country


its

amount higher above the general


this is

then more resembled a piece of desert with


valleys covered

country.

by the inundation, than a plain


rises of sand.

But

probably only half of the

tale.

The
is

of

mud
3.

broken by a few low

denudation of the high sandy ground by the wind


is

something hitherto quite disregarded, but


seen to be a great
first

To

turn briefly to other places, the extent


is fully

now

factor.

At Nebesheh
if

of this denudation
of the

borne out by the state

the tombs at

sight appeared as

they were

camp

at

Defenneh.

There a sohd brick

merely the ruins of built tombs which had stood


above the ground
only
;

wall, fifty feet thick,

and doubtless more than half


been completely carried

perhaps a foot or two, perhaps

as

much

in height, has

an inch or two, remain of their walls,

away, swept off the surface of the ground, without


leaving an inch above the plain, within twenty-five
centuries.
state of the

sometimes even two or three walls have wholly


disappeared.
to

But these tombs, while they seem have been like the modern Arab cemeteries of
yet bear in most cases the evidence

The bearing

of this evidence on the

hydrography of the country, especially


If fifteen
less,

dome tombs,

of the isthmus of Suez, is all-important.


feet of
it

that they were really all subterranean chambers.

sand has been scoured away, or even

Not only may they be found

in every stage,

from

must have completely modified the water depths


it

being nearly entire beneath the ground, to being

for

must be remembered that

all this

storm of

almost swept away, but they have usually the well


of access remaining (see Nos. 1, 11, 38, and 42, for

dust must be dropped somewhere, and the water

and wet country


which
all

is

an ever-ready trap

for

it,

into

instance, on pi. xvi.)

and no such chimney with foot-holes could have been built by the side of a
;

goes

in,

but none comes out

again.

The

Bitter Lakes, and other stretches of water

TKLL XKBESHEH.
across the isthmus of Snez, are less in area by far

that of Tanis, and these two sand-hills of Nebesheh

than the country around them, which has been


scoured by the wind, so that a foot off the country

and Tanis were very


time.

likely settled at the


is

same

How

far they

were related
if

yet undecided.

would mean much more than that dej^th of deposit


in the water.

At

first it

seemed as

Nebesheh might have been


it is

It will thus be seen that, so far as

a cemetery of Tanis, and

not certain that this


;

this evidence goes, a depth of twenty or even fifty


feet of

sand

may have been


;

laid over these lakes

during historic times

thus completely altering

was not the case to some extent especially since we see that the temple and cemetery of Nebesheh are larger and more important than would be
expected in proportion to the size of the town.
Snellen,

the conditions of the water communication, without

any need of
upheaval.

relj^ing

on

geologic

changes
it

of

about

three

miles

from
;

Tanis,
if

was

From

other considerations

is

not

certainly one cemetery of Tanis

and

a funeral

likely that the

changes have been so extensive as

procession once took boat to a place three miles


distant, there is

this scale of denudation

would produce

but at least

no reason against their going

we have here to reckon with a factor capable of doing aU that we need to account for, and even more.
This fact of the denudation opens our eyes in a

eight miles.

nineteenth

The name of the city Am, capital of the nome of Lower Egypt, is closely condifferent

melancholy way

to the reason

why early

cemeteries
If

nected with Nebesheh, having been found there

seem to be unattainable

in the Delta.

tombs

on eight

monuments

and since three of


all

of the nineteenth, and even of the twenty-sixth,


d}-nasty are often so scoured

these were in the temple (to the exclusion of

away that barely


a simple conclusion

other town names), one of them being on a

list

of

anything remains of them,

it is

the temple festivals in honour of Uati, lady of


there
is

Am,
the
for

that earher tombs, perhaps of double that age, have

scarcely a possibility of
city

Nebesheh not
still

vanished into

air,

entirely

denuded aM-ay

may

be

being this

of

Am.

This leaves

a couple of thousand years ago.


exceptional depth, or preser\'ed by
protection,

Only tombs of

question whether there was a separate


Tanis, or whether that lay in the
of which

nome

some accidental
shown by the
;

would have any chance of coming down

Am

was the
;

capital.

nome Am Pehn, The latter seems

to our days.

We may

see this also

the

more

likely

and thus Nebesheh would be the


capital,

proportions of tombs of different ages at Nebesheh

legal

and religious

Am,
as

while Tanis, owing

one of the nineteenth dynasty, two or three of the


twentieth, half a dozen

to superior position
its

and importance, overshadowed

or a dozen

before the

legal

superior,

much

Chatham exceeds
Greek

twenty-sixth, and a hundred or


sixth and Persian periods.

more of the twentyYet the place was

Maidstone, and Liverpool and Manchester eclipse


Lancaster.

Then
from

in the reconstitution of

grander, to judge hy the remains of the temples,

times, Nebesheh, having dwindled away, the

nome

under the twelfth and nineteenth dynasties, than


in later times.

was
case

called,

its

most important

city,

Tanis.

What,

therefore, with fifteen feet

Such seems, so
;

far as

we know,

to be the probable
I

of

mud

over

all

the works of

man

in the plains,

and

and the discovery which


at Tanis,

made
of

three years

fifteen feet of

denudation sweeping away the tombs

ago of two tablets,

naming Uati lady of

in the hills, there is a

poor chance of recovering

Am, Khem

of

Am, and Horus


at Tanis.

Am,

points to

the remains of early ages, except in the rocky sites


of

there not being a religious centre of oqniil impor-

Upper Egypt.

tance to rival

it

This fixing of
4.

Am, and

the

nome
first

of

Am

rdin,

From

the statues found in the temple

it

is

at

Nebesheh

is

a step of the

class in tjie

clear that this

place was of importance in the


its

geography of the Delta.


to be equivalent to Biito,

Am

had been supposed


in the central

twelfth dynasty ;

history

is

probably parallel to

somewhere

CHAP. I. POSITION AND HISTORY.


delta (owing to Uati being
its

goddess), and had

Though no monuments
the the
of

of the earlier part of

otherwise
safely fixed

been placed

at Pelusium.

Now
in

it

is

twenty-sixth
temple, yet

dynasty have been


this

found in

by the monuments, both


to the

and out

place

arose

by the time
importance.

of the temple, to the region of Nebesheh, and

Aahmes

to

be

of

considerable

most probably

mounds themselves.

Apparently

some

Cypriote

mercenaries

were

stationed here in the military reorganization of


5.

Founded

in the twelfth dynasty, or earlier,

Psamtik I., when he established the Greek garrison


at the fortress of Tell

the

temple of

Am

underwent,

hke Tanis,
II.

Defenneh, seventeen miles


Cypriote pottery and

complete
far

rearrangement by Ramessu

How

to the

east.

Tombs with

he redecorated the temple, or founded a new

spears have been found here, and in one case


earlier

building,

we cannot

learn

until

we

extract the
;

than a tomb which

is

of the twenty-sixth

foundation deposits of the great temple

but

it is

dynasty,

and therefore early in that dynasty.


the rebuilding of the temple,
site

certain that he j)ractically appropriated the place,

Aahmes undertook

as he did Tanis, and re-established the worship

but apparently considering the old

in the

of Uati, dedicating

beautiful

statue

of that

middle of the temenos as too large to

refill,

and

goddess in highly pohshed black syenite.

He
with

perhaps too
adopted a

also dedicated a pair of colossi of himself, in the

much encumbered with rubbish, he new site at right angles to the old one,
it

same

material,

beside

covering the

w'alls

and

at the north-east corner of

(see pi. xvii.).

his inscriptions,
like those of

and erecting clustered columns


In
fact,

Here he erected a new temple


in thickness.

to Uati, of large

Gurneh.

the

temple of
reahze that
Private

blocks of limestone, with a pavement two courses

Gurneh may very

likely enable us to

Bringing from the old temple the


dedicated

of Nebesheh as to general appearance.

beautiful

statue
in

by Ramessu

II.,

he

persons apparently also offered monuments, as a


large crouching
figure

placed
granite,

it

a great monohthic

shrine of red

was found here in


to

this

which weighed nearly sixty tons.

The

temple.

Merenptah

continued

favour

the

remains of the Ramesside temple were doubtless


largely used
for the

place, as a unique

monument
at

of a free-standing

up

for this

column was placed by him


front of the pylon,

some distance

in

pylon which
to

by the

side of the roadway.


III.

entrance

the

new temple, as they were Aahmes constructed in the temenos. The other statues

Setnekht and Ramessu

placed their names

on a sphinx here, but throughout the decadence


of the empire the place

which adorned the early temple were removed and placed in the later temple, though not all ot
them.

appears to have been

The tombs of this time are poor, and no monuments of Siamen, or the Bubastites,
neglected.

At the same time the tombs here rose


splendour
;

in

in place of small

chambers of crude
coffins,

have been found.

'The fiourishing time of the


brought favour to
did

brick, with rudely


fine limestone

formed pottery

we

find

Renascence
strange to

at last

Am, though
Tanis.
It

chambers, and sarcophagi of the best

say

it

nothing for
cities

class sculptured in basalt,

and even encased in

rather seems as

if

two

were too

much

to

outer cases of hmestone.

The

place, however,
at

support in this district in later times.


rose again under the Bubastites, while
effaced
;

Tanis

seems to have suffered severely


invasion
;

the Persian great

Am

was

and

it

is

most

likely that the

then

Am

was re-estabhshed under the was neglected


Ptolemies
;

destruction of the statues and shrine happened at


that
time, since

Saites, while Tanis

again Tanis

we

find

that

the

temjjle

was

flourished

under

the

and Romans,
and the

desecrated in

the

Ptolemaic

times, and

small

while

Am

sunk to be a mere
finally ruined.

village,

workshops and houses established

in the temenos,

temple was

even just in front of the temple of Aahmes.

The

TELL XEBESIIEII.
town, however, continued to be inhabited in the Ptolemaic period, though apparently deserted
before the

other nearly perfect.


statues while I

Mr. Griffith found these

was away.
to one side the temple site

Eoman

conquest.

Another town had,


north end of the

Having thus defined the temcnos and pylon,


I observed

however, spining

up

at

the

how much
had
first

cemetery, and this lasted until late


(see small plan

Roman

times

was
pi.

Avbich I
xiv.)
;

found (temple of Aahmes,


in

on

pi. xvii.).

and the

site

the
if

middle of the

temenos looked very much as

some building
blown dust,
it.

had stood

there, being a flat space of

CHAPTER

II.

with more or less of chips of stone around


Several pits dug in
it

brought up nothing, until

one showed at 12
0.

feet

below the surface a vertical


it.

On
its

first visiting

Tell

Ncbesheh three years


gi-anite,

face of

mud

with sand against

This was un-

ago, I

saw there a great mass of

which

mistakably the retaining wall of a foundation,


filled

from

rounded top appeared to be the bottom


This proved,

up with sand, on which


round the

to lay a building

of a sarcophagus turned up on end.

and sinking a row of deep


at
last all
all

pits,

we tracked

this

however, on digging to be the back of a shrine,


with a semicu-cular top (sec
all

site

of the building,

and

pi.

iv.).

It

was
and

found

the corners of the area.

(First temple

known
Faruii

over the neighbourhood as the Puts

of Uati, pi. xiv.).

In this way we recovered two

(Phai-aoh's

head)

or

Taget

Farun,

temple

sites

which were quite unknown before.

might be seen

for a mile or two, standing


It

up high
7.

above the ground.


I began to

was one
at

of the first places

Before entering on the description of these


it

work on

Nebesheh, and I soon

remains,

will

be well to notice what has been

found that there were remains of a building near


it.

observed here, and in other examples, to be the

This building we cleared


its

all over,

and traced

Egyptian mode of founding a building


Delta.
First a space, each
larger
Out,
it
;

in

the

the Hmits of

foundations (see pi. xiv.), finding

way about a

foot or

several inscribed

scattered

about

monuments lying broken up and among the blocks of paving


beginning

more

than the

intended

building,

was
built

marked
around
in

and a wall

of crude

bricks

which remained.
Shortly after arriving, and before
while making a plan, a line on

in

some cases the space was excavated

hard rammed
fiat

mud

the bottom of the space

work here,

I noticed,

was quite
partly

and

level.

This enclosure thus

the ground, on one side of which the tufts of coarse


grass grew scattered
side the

formed a shallow sunken chamber, which was


filled

about, while on the other

with clean desert sand, and on that

ground was nearly barren.

Suspecting
it

sand the building was placed, standing clear of


the retaining walls of the foundation, with a few
inches, or two or

at once that this

was a

wall, I traced

as well
it

as the surface would

allow,

and found that

three

feet of

sand

filled

in

enclosed

the
I

ground around the shrine.

This
;

between

its

foundation

courses

and the

wall.

showed that
and
after

had a large temcnos

to deal with

The depth
it

of the sand enclosure varies greatly

working a few days at the

shrine,

may
;

be only a few inches, a mere ceremonial


at

began

to try for the pylon of the tcmenos.

This

film,

as

Naulu-atis;
little

it

is

usually 2 or
site

was found very


the

quickly,

and the foundations of


:

feet

but at the

Ptolemaic

on the south

pylon were

uncovered

here

were

more

side of the

mounds

of Tanis, a pit has been ex-

monuments, a pair of sphinxes of the twelfth


dynasty (one broken to
colossi of

cavated tlu-ough the mass of dirty rubbish-ground


to

chips),

and a pair of
defaced, but the

more than 12

feet

deep, and

filled

up with
feet

Ramessu

II.,

one

much

dirty sand

and chips

for

feet,

and with 8

CHAP. II. TEMPLES.


of clean saud over that.

The foundation

deposits

position of the inner and outer

ftxces in

three or

are always placed in the sand, about

two

feet

four spots

on each
the

side.

The

wall

is

30
to

feet

inward from each face of the corner-stone, and a


foot or so

thick

at

thinnest

point,

increasing

45

below the stone.

This same order of

feet elsewhere,

and 63
It

feet at the exceptional part

building a retaining wall around the foundation


is

on the N.W.
as

was not so
of

gigantic, therefore,
feet), Sais,

followed even

when

the building stands on a


is

the great walls


still

Tanis (80

or

sand plain.
stone,

The

retaining wall

sometimes of

Buto, but

was a vast piece of work, being just


;

possibly in the earlier periods.

Such

is

half a mile in circuit the least

the regular system of foundation, which has been


traced during

if 30 feet high, which is we can expect (Buto is over 30 feet,

my

work

in

Egypt by the com-

and Tanis 27
it

feet, after all their

denudation), then

parison of half a dozen different buildings.

would contain 100,000 cubic yards of brickwork. At 170


propylou of the

8.

Turning now

to pi. xiv.

we

will notice the

9.

feet in front of the

details

there represented.
far

The
in its

great

temenos
but this

temenos stood a monument of Mereuptah, which


is

wall

is

from regular

plan

so

far as

we know

unique.

It is a

column
;

may

be to a great extent accounted


(pi. xvii.) it will

for.

On

the

of red granite,

now broken

in three parts

its

general plan

be seen
it

how closely

surface

is

divided by the large curves of a sub-

the cultivated ground approaches

on the S.W.

clustered form, the projection of each rib of the


surface

the ground falling away there into a small canal.

not

being

sufficient

to

interrupt

the

The

dip

must have been

still

greater before the


well have caused

sculpturing of groups on
scenes
of adoration

its sides.

Around it were
by the king
it is

plain rose by deposits, and

may

and

offering

the builders to contract the enclosed space at that


corner.

before different gods.

Unhappily
to

too

much
of the

The north
to

side, it

willbe seen,

is

also

decomposed on the surface


sculptures.

show much
flat,

askew

the

axis.

But while

planning the

The top was

quite

without any
it
;

temenos, and in fact while excavating to find the


edges of the wall, I was puzzled by two strange

sort of capital or even

moulding around

but

on the

flat

surface stood a group, of the king

changes in

its

thickness, at the northern ends of


I carefully

kneeling, overshadowed by a

the east and west sides.

fixed the

behind him.
the diameter
of a statue

The
is

total

height was 12

hawk which stands feet, and

position of these variations, and


plot

when

came

to

31 inches.
toj?

No

other example-

them found that,

quite unexpectedly, they were


;

on the

of a column has been


times, I believe;

opposite one to another

so

that a line

drawn

found in Egypt, until

Roman

parallel to the axis of the temple, as

on the plan,
seems, there-

nor any case of free-standing columns placed far


out in front of a building, to flank the avenue of

exactly connected the two points.


fore, very

It

probable that originally the temenos


;

approach.
far out as

Statues of

Ramessu

II.

were placed as

wall on the west side was parallel to the temple

230

feet in front of the

pylon of Tanis,

but after being ruined, say in the post-Ramesside


times,
it

but no columns.
of a pair, as
it

This column was doubtless one

was

rebuilt rather further out,

and

re-

would never have stood alone on one


;

taining a portion of each of the old corners.


still

side of the road

but though

many

trenches were

later addition to

it

was noticed

at the north-

dug around

this region,

no trace of the second


Architecturally, such a

east corner,

where

it

has plainly been thickened on

column could be found.

the north side.


if it

Some further details might appear


;

were

it

completely uncovered

but I could

column seems Asiatic rather than Egyi^tian, remembering the two great free-standing columns,
with special names, placed in front of Solomon's

not spare time or

men

for

more than a row of


it,

small pits and trenches around

just to

show the

temple

and again the great column remaining at


c

TELL NEBESHEH.
Persepolis,

some way

in front of the bulls

which

an original work of Ramessu

II.,

and has not

lead up to the gi-eat square building there.

been appropriated by any other king.


search, the fellow-statue

On

further

Passing this column, and a square base of limestone lying on the other side of the roadway,

was found, a good deal

we

injured, to the north of this.

come

to the propylon site, in fi-ont of the gateway.

The whole
been
built

of the substructure of this pylon has

Though none
substructure

of the stonework, except part of the of the pavement, remains,

from the ruins


evidently

of

the

temple of
re-

hardly doubt from the form of the


filled

we can shallow chamber The


is

Kamessu

II.,

by Aahmes, when he

estabUshed the place with the new temple.

On

with sand, that a propylon stood here.

many

of the blocks are portions of hieroglyphic

central hollow (shaded with dots)

the deepest,

inscriptions of a large scale,

and one of them bore


II.,

having 34 inches of sand in

it

beneath the pave-

a fine portrait of

Kamessu

happily quite un-

ment

slabs

while the side hollows had only C or

injured as to the face, though the back of the head


is lost.

8 inches of sand.
cleared by Mr.

No

foundation deposits were

This we were allowed to remove, by M.


it will,

found in these spaces, which were discovered and


Griffith
after

Maspero's permission, and


to the

I hope, be

added

I left

Nebesheh.

Fine Art

Museum

at Boston.

The

central

The width
70
of
feet,
it

of this propylon

must have been about


In front
they were cut in lime-

pavement has been


that, not

less injured

than other parts


;

judging by the foundation space.


:

of the substructure of the pj'lou

for the reason

two drains were found

having to bear any weight, the stones


inferior,

stone,

with two equal upper and lower pieces

were smaller and


removal.

and hence

less

worth

fitted together.

The

outside

is cylindrical,
;

feet
is

The

sides of the pylon are,

on the con-

or rather

more

in diameter

and the inside

trary, nearly all cleared

away, leaving only a few

hexagonal, each face about 6 inches wide, three


sides of the hollow being cut in the upper,

large blocks of the lowest course.

The edge

of

and

the pavement substructure which remains, shows


that the passage was about

three sides in the lower stone.

Another, similar,
site.

10^

feet wide,

and

drain was found at the S.E. of the great temple

the mass of the pylon on each side about 14 feet


wide, and 30 or 40 feet through from back to

10.
is

Beyond

this

sand foundation of the propylon

front.

a deep and massive pavement of four courses in


;

At the inner

side of the pylon stood

two sphinxes

thickness

the top course, which runs on over the


is

of black syenite.

One

of these remains complete,

sand hollow,
it

13 inches thick, and those below

with the exception of the head, and a flake off the


left

27, 21, and 20 inches respectively.

The

last

flank

it is

G7 inches long.

The

other,

on the

of these reaches to 9 inches below the water-level of the beginning of April.

north side, was broken up into chips, and thrown

Thus the

Avhole four

down

into a deep hollow left

by the extraction of

courses of this pavement are 81 inches thick, and

the foundations.

These sphinxes have a most

reach up to 72 inches over the present low-water


level.

remarkable history of appropriation, which seemsto

show that they were valued.

First carved,

and

Just beyond the propylon, guarding the entrance


to the pylon, were two seated colossi of Piamessu
II.

well carved, under the twelfth dynasty apparently,

they bore the founder's

name on

the usual space

One

of these remains lying on the

pavement
is

between the paws and on the chest.

Secondly, they

in a fair state of preservation, the face braised, and part of the beard
off,

rather

were appropriated by a high

official,

probably of

and ura;us knocked


It is carved in
all,

the thirteentli to seventeenth dynasties, the same

but othei-wise
syenite,

it

is is

perfect.

apparently

who

appropriated an altar which we

black

and

82 inches high over


life

shall notice farther on.


all

He

cut a long inscription

and therefore considerably over

size.

It is

round the base, which has unfortunately been

CHAP. II.TEMPLES.
nearly
all

erased in later times.

Thirdly, there

is

gone.

The

retaining wall of the foundation


it,

was

an erased space on the right shoulder, which


doubtless contained cartouches.
is

traced by pits around the circuit of

and a

Fourthly, there
flank,

piece of substructure remains at the S.E. corner,

an erased space on the right

which also
an erased
Sixthly,

on which a statue of an

official

was found
this is a
;

lying.

contained cartouches. space similarly on

Fifthly, there is
left

Along the front

is

a broad bed of sand in a


;

the

shoulder.

hollow, for a foundation

beyond

mass

there are cartouches of Seti II.

on the chest.

of brickwork (shaded in the plan)

and then,
for another

Seventhly, there are cartouches of Set-nekht on

beyond
there

that,

was another sand hollow

the
of

left

shoulder.

Eighthly, there are cartouches

foundation.
is

All around the rest of the building

Ramessu

III. cut across the ribbed lines of the

only the retaining wall, with clean sand


it
;

wig on either side of the any further claims on


it

chest.

Aahmes

forebore

against the face of

this

sand was about 30


it,

this defaced animal.

Indeed,

inches wide, and immediately within

where the
is

seems very probable that the head had been


off before his time.

stones had been extracted, the ground


of dirty earth

formed

knocked
is

The broken
if it

surface

and stone

chips.

The sand has

very

much smoothed by
when the

repeated rubbing, in
;

been partly dug out in removing the stones, and


is

spite of the htirdness of the stone

had been
course of

heaped up outside, over the top of the retaining


;

only broken

place was in

wall

while all around the area


chips,

is

a bank of earth
to

demolition finally, there would not be hkely to

and

which

reaches

up

the

present

have been enough passing to have gradually worn

surface of the ground.

These particulars were


cutting

away the

surface.

It

seems rather as
it

if it

had and

observed by sinking
wall,

pits

through the

been injured before Aahmes placed

here,

sand, and earth, so

as

to

show a clean
feet

had been worn by loungers and passers, while the

section.

The depth

is

10 or 12

below the

new temple was

frequented.
in the area of the temenos, are

present

surface of. blown earth accumulated in

Within the pylon,

the temenos.

various pieces of substructure remaining; pave-

When
by

I left the

work in Mr.

Griffith's hands,^

ment was found between the pylon and the temple, and just at the S.W. of the pylon is a piece of banded lotus column placed at the base of some
masonry.
This
is

after finding
pits, I

most of the

circuit of the

foundation

urgently desired

him

to finish clearing
if

the form of the foimdation, and to extract,


possible,

valuable as showing the style

the

foundation

deposits.
to

This,

un-

of the destroyed temple of

Ramessu

II.

The

ribs

happily, he

was unable

do with the most

of

it

are semicyhndrical, without any ridge or

strenuous
water.

efi"orts,

owing to the depth below the


to

break in the curvature, like the clustered columns


of the temple of Gurneh ; and from the appearance
of the

At the N.E. corner he went


to

25 inches
at

below water, at the S.E. to 35 inches,

the

foundation of the

first

temple,

it

seems

S.W.
in

25 inches, and

at

the

N.W.

to
;

40
yet

most
in

likely that

such columns formed a colonnade


temple, like the

inches below the low-water level of April

front

of the

colonnade

of

no case was any deposit reached, or the bottom


In the S.W.

Gurneh.
feet

This drum was measured as about 6


;

of the retaining wall discovered.

diameter

or the colonnets as

22 inches each

corner a fine limestone wall was found below the


brick wall, flush with the face of
it,

across,

which would give a

circuit of

175 inches
around

and forming
wall.

for the whole, there being eight colonnets


it.

the

lower

part

of

the

retaining

This

limestone
inches
11.

wall was of three

courses, each

20
the

thick,

and 12

inches deep

back

Of the

first

temple
far as

scarcely

anything

courses beginning at 6 inches above water-levei,

remains

in situ, so

our excavations have

and being found by probing

to

a depth of

5-1

c 2

TELL XEBESIIEH.
inches below the water.
of placing

fine

The sumptuous work limestone lining to a mere


but

The
that

size

of

the

temple, therefore, was

about

208x92
is

feet outside,

and

155x70

feet inside:

undergi-ouncl retaining wall suggests that a fine

to say, about the size of the temple of

deposit probably awaits the explorer here;

the permeability of

the great sand bed of the

foundation enables the water to flow in so readily,


that
it

Amenhotep III., or either of the temples of Eamessu III. at Kaniak. The only statue found here was lying on the
northern part of the substructure, at the southeast corner.
It
is

is

impossible to reach

it

without some
soil,

extraordinary means, such as freezing the


diving caisson, or

a figure represented as seated

dry with large


in

pumping the whole area around As has been observed pumps.


the
water-level of
feet

on the ground, with the arms resting on the


knees in the usual position.
official,

It represents

an

Chapter

I.,

the country

Merenptah, son

of

Pa-mer-kau, whose
in the
is

has risen 10 or 11

since this temple


feet, if it is

was

ushabti were found in a

tomb

cemetery

founded, perhaps even 15

the original

(No. 35).
of

Between the hands


11.,

the cartouche

foundation of the twelfth dynasty.


deposits

Hence the
below the

Eamessu

showing the age, and on the front


;

may

easily be

C or S feet

were two divinities standing

one

is

Uati, lady of
inscriptions

present water-level.

Am, and
shown on
There are

the other

is

defaced.

The

At the S.E. corner there remains one course of


substructure, of which the joints are

mention also the mother of Merenptah, Ta-uscrt,

and two other sons of Pa-mer-kau

evidently this

the plan;
level,

its
it

base
is

is

12 inches over the water-

family were the great people of the district in

and

IG inches thick.

those days.
ton.

The whole

statue weighs about a


lie

traces of the blocks above having been set back

Probably other sculptures

beneath the
it

8 inches
of the

along the front;

just

as

the blocks

sand in the area of this temple, but as


take
several

would

Aahmes temple foundation


it

recede.

On

weeks' Avork
it

and cost a hundred

the block with a spot on

was a mason's mark.


has a smooth
;

pounds to clear

out,

and there did not seem


it

Now

it is

evident that this wall did not run round

much
still

prospect of obtaining fresh information,

the front of

the building, as

it

remains to be examined.

There

is

some

facing in line on the north side

and from the

chance of finding Hyksos remains here, or inscriptions of officials of their period,

mass

of brickwork (shaded) ending so flatly on the

which would

west, and the disturbed soil going

water-level there,

it

seems that

down to below a more massive


this

perhaps make further work

desiral)lo.

tind important wall existed

on the west of

12.
built
ill

We nowturn to the second and smaller temple


by Aahmes
II.

brick mass.

It

seems

likely, then, that this brick

The only remains


front,

of this

represents the space within a colonnade in front

.situ,

above the foundation enclosure, are portions

of the temple

that the real front of the temple


it
;

of a thick double

pavement near the


still

and the

stood on the west of

and a colonnade, flanked

back of the great granite shrine

standing erect
rests

by

antfE, stood in front of the temple.

From

the

upon a block of quartzite sandstone, which


on some other blocks of the pavement.
is

drum found by the


Gurnoh, we

pylon,

and the intercolum-

The

front

uiation of the colonnade of similar columns at

peculiar in form, having a projection, unlike


flat

may
it

conclude that there were two


side

the usual

front of

Egyptian temples.

As

columns on either
classical phrase
anils.

of

the

entrance.

In

porch or portico seems to be unknown elsewhere


in

would thus be
is

tetrastyle in

temples,

it

seems probable that

this

was a

dotted line

placed around the area

small platform in front of the entrance, perhajis

of the building, showing the probable size of the


interior,

approached by one or two steps,

for the basis of

up

to the inner face

of the stone walls.

the statues of quartzite sandstone which stood on

CHAP. II.-TE.MPLES.
either bide of the

door.

The throues

of these
left

iv.).

It

seems very probable, therefore, that this


in

two statues were found lying in the hollow


the abstraction of the double pavement.

hy

was the statue of the temple, originally placed


the great temple by

They
with

Ramessu

II.,

and then removed

were

seated

figures

of

Usertesen

III.,

and enshrined afresh by Aahmes on founding the

standing figures of his daughters at either side


of his

new temple.
Beside this a group of three persons seated was found, holding a table of offerings in front of

knees.

The
i^lants

sides

of

the

throne were

sculptured with the group of the two Niles holding the


lotus

twisted
is

around the sam.


state, the

them, on the front of which a long inscription


records the festivals in honour of Uati, the lady
of

One

of these thrones

in

good

group
total

on the
height

side being in perfect condition.

The
feet.

Am, and

other divinities of the place (see sect.

of the

statues

was about 6
was found.
to

No

30).

trace of the upper parts

The temple
about 76

itself
ft.

would seem
37

have been

13. Finally, at the north end stood the great

47

outside,

and therefore probably


ft.

granite

monoHth
in.
ft.

shrine,

which

first

drew
is

me

to
all

not more

than

G6

inside.

The

roof

examine the
15
ft.

jjlace (see pi. iv.).

This

over

would, therefore, be doubtless supported by two

high, 8

ft.

7 in. wide

at the
;

base,

rows of
parts.

pillars,

dividing

the

breadth in

three

and 10

in.

from back to front

the total

Perhaps some indication of the internal


it

weight being about 58 tons.


rival the great shrine of

This does not quite


is

divisions of

may

be seen by the foundation


If

Thmuis, as that

18

ft.

deposit, found near the middle of the area.


this

high, and wrought to a fine pyramidal top, instead

was only a
one

sole

central deposit,

it

would

of being rather roughly rounded


fine piece of

but

still it is

probably have been put in the middle, and not

work, the sides being

flat

and well
off

SO
this

in.

to

side.

It

seems most

likely that

polished, and the edges

neatly bevelled

to

was placed beneath one jamb of the door of


If ^

avoid their being accidentally chipped.

At the

the cella.
of

about 30

in.

inward from the face


it

back, however, the stuff ran rather short, and both

the stone, like the

other deposits,

would
wide
;

the back edges are sloped


front

away

irregularly.

The

imply that the doorway was about 100

in.

and

it

seems not improbable that the door might

was decorated along the top by a frieze of crowned uraei surmounting the globe and wings,
so

have been of the same width as the shrine, which


is

familiar in late work.

Up

the sides of the


inscriptions, un-

just

100

in.

doorway were two columns of


happily
defaced.

In the area of the temple were several blocks


of red granite remaining, sculptured with scenes of
offering,

All

that

can

be traced

is

marked on the drawing

in pi. iv.

The banner
it

and

cartouches

which

have

unthese

begins with S-men, and this limits


II.
,

to

Aahmes
there
is

fortunately been

entirely erased.

Beside

Nekht-har-heb, or Nekht-neb-f.
latter kings here,

As

the loAver part of a beautiful statue of Uati, in

no trace of the two


is

and Aahmes

highly polished black syenite, was found, bearing


a dedication by

known from the foundation

deposits to have

Eamessu

II.

on the back.

From
at the
in.

built this temple, there

seems no doubt but that

the size of this fragment, broken off just above


the

he had this shrine made oh re-establishing the


worship of Uati at

hand holding the papyrus


it

sceptre,
it

and

Am.

The dotted

outline wall

ankles,

seems probable that

was about 75

show how the


found, would

statue, of
fit

which the lower part was


here

high when perfect.


apparently just
fit

This, with the crown, would

in the shrine.

the great granite shrine, which

The plan and

elevation

given are,

of

was about 90

in.

high inside above the bencJi in


(pi.

course, a restoration, as will be seen from the

which the base of the statue would be placed

sketch of the present state of the shrine on the

TELL XEBESIIEH.

same

plate.

The materials
In
all,

for this restoration

positions of these finds in relation to the corners

Tvere the

fragments found lying around the shrine

of the

brick

retaining

wall of the
are 17-9

foundation.

when

excavated.

twenty blocks were

The

bricks of this wall

8-9

5-2

carefully

examined and measm-ed.

The depth
shown
in the

inches.
I tried. after

from back to front was determined by the present


back, the piece of sculptm-ed front
elevation,

The S.W. was the first deposit for which Here we came down on the pottery, and
I

removing that carefully

found I was below


I

and a block which went between them


identified

water-level.

Scraping out the sand,

groped down

and could be

by the

fractures.

The

below the water, scarcely expecting to find anything


;

only uncertain points in this restoration are the


height of the doorwf^y, and the verticaHty of the

but after going nearly a foot below the

water I brought up a porcelain plaque, which on


hastily rubbing the sand off
it

doorway and

inscription, or its parallehsm with

showed the name of


were found by

the shghtly slopmg side, and also the thickness


of the reveals or jambs of the doorway.

Aahmes.
corner of

Many more
and
this
all,

plaques

That

further groping,

proved to be the richest

these did not

extend up to the bench in the

ha^ang a double supply of plaques,

inside is certain, as there is a piece of the side

and some pottery stands not fouud elsewhere.


After this,
I next excavated

near the bottom which

is

only 20

in.

thick.

the other corners

The
were
a

positions of the
all

hieroglyphs on the sides


fallen

with more space, and arranged to have baling


kept going actively
all

measured on the

jamb, which

lies

the time I was at work

little

way

in front of the shrme.


it,

The bench
the arrange-

below water-level.
bare
all

In this way I was able to lay


regularly,

inside has a recess in

evidently intended to

the deposits

and draw and


pi. vi.

hold the base of the statue.

What

measure their exact positions, as shown on

ment

of the statue and its base block was,

we

At the N.E. no deposit could be found, although

can best realize from the

alabaster

statue of

we searched
others
;

far lower

and wider than


set

for

the

Queen Ameniritis,
grey
gi-anite, in

still

fixed

on

its

base block of

and as a double

of plaques

was

the Bulak

Museum.

found at the S.W., I can only suppose that the

N.E. corner was accidentally not prepared pro14. Beside the large
statuettes

monuments, two pieces of

perly,

and that the

sui*plus

was put in the S.W.

were foimd in the chips of the temple.


piece found within this temple, on the

After

the corners, a set of pottery was found

The

first

near the middle of the area, probably below one

second day of digging, was a fragment of the legs


of a statuette in limestone,

jamb
it

of the door of the cella, as already noticed.

much

injured, but yet

No plaques were placed


The
pottery

with

this,

though

cleared

bearing the precious mention of the city of


close to its upper fracture (see pi. x. 12).

Am

to a far greater depth than the other deposits.

Two

was two

feet

over water-level, and

and a half weeks


cut inscription on
of the
thirtieth

later,

a torso of a very fine


!

I searched to

below the water.


(pi. v.),

green basalt statuette was fouud, with a dehcately


its

On

looking at the types of the deposits

back, apparently of the style


this again
its

the stone

plaques

arc

ground but not highly

dynasty;

bore the

polished, and the gold and silver arc

marked by
and

name
1)1.

of

Am,

but close to

lower fracture (see

punching
straight.

with

delicate
is

punches,

curved

X. 11).

Beside these the group with a table of

No. 9

of green limestone apparently,


are varied

offerings,

and the statue of


city of

Moronptah,

both

rather hard.

The green glazed plaques


nofcr or

mention the
it

Am, making

four notices of

the two cartouches appear one on each side, but the


title is either nulcr
is

in this temple.

sukn

sclhet.
;

The
it

We

will

lastly

notice the small objects,

the

lead plaque

distinctly not inscribed

and the

foundation deposits.

In

pi. vi. will

be seen the

copper

is

too

much

corroded to show whether

CHAP. II. TEMPLES

was

iuseribed or not.
phxinly

vessels

The types of the pottery show them to be ceremonial


and
material.

imitations of various vessels of larger size

sometimes of
therefore,

different

They

may,

be

the

cheap substitutes for

more
vessels

valuable vessels which were deposited in earlier

times

under

temples,

either

as

the

consecrated by having been used in the ceremony


of the foundation, and therefore not to be used

again for other purposes, or else as models of

what were to be used


re-use

in the temple.

The view
their
it

of consecrated articles

buried to prevent
likely;

seems the

more

and

would

explain the models of tools found at Nauki-atis

and Gemeyemi as not the models of what would


which would otherwise have been

he

used in the building, but as representing the tools


forfeit to

the

gods as having been already used in the foundation

ceremony

much

as

if

the silver trowel used at


left in

a modern masonic ceremony should be

the

mortar beneath the stone, or a cheaper substitute


for
it.

The

vessels Nos. 12

and 13 are evidently


modelled

copied from the bronze situla with a swinging

handle

Nos. 18 and 19, again, look as


;

if

from metal prototypes

Nos. 24, 25, and 33

may

well be imitations of stone vessels;


15,

and Nos. 11,

29 and 35 are clear copies of the larger

pottery vessels of the twenty-sixth dynasty, such


as I found at Defenneh
(see pi. xxxiii. 4, xxxiv.

19, 21).

The
these

full

catalogue of
is
:

all

that

was found
to

in

deposits

as

follows,

referring

the

numbers on

pi. v.

TELL XEBE.SHEII.
fine
lines,

and

high

poHsh

of

the

twell'th

sphinxes before mentioned, and this momiment,

dynasty.

The upper
of
it,

surface has
salt,

uufortunately

by long inscriptions.

This altar gives, therefore,


this obscure class of officials;
after the twelfth dj-nasty,

suffered severely
off

from the

which has scaled

much
it

fresh light

on

much

and has also so swollen the

shows that they existed

syenite that the

comers are flaked away Ukewise.


on syenite was
still

though of course before the eighteenth, and that


they usurped prerogatives otherwise reserved to
reigning kings.

This action of

salt

more shown
close to the
entirely

by some sculptured fragments found


surface just N. of the altar.

So

far

we

are on certain facts.

These were
crystals

frayed

into

their

component

by the

16.

To turn now

briefly

to

an

hjpothesis

crystalHzing force of the salt in the interstitial


joints of the

suggested by these

facts.

We

find in the

Hyksos

stone, so that the


far as
it

mass was held

invasion the rule of a hated and conquering race


yet

together
alone.
surface,

so
Any

would hold

by
is

the salt the


soil,

a rule which did not at

all

crush out the


in

porous material lying


salt crystallizes

near

civiHzation

which

it

already
it

found

Egypt.

where the

out of the

Further, after a time,


civilization over

gradually imbibed the

above the permanently

damp
it.

earth,

always

which

it

dominated.
civil

And

yet

it

thus attacked, pottery being flaked to pieces, or

was a rule without much


any, since
it

organization,
says,

if

Even mud bricks are frequently reduced to powder, and show as much salt as mud on cutting them through. The inscriptions added to this altar in later
large chips blistered out of

was only as Manetho


of themselves

" at
after

length they

made one

king"

conquering and i^illaging the country (Jos. Cont. Ap. i. 14). ITe/sas Se implies " finally," " at the

times than the twelfth dynasty are, however, the

end " of
of

all

the invasion, struggle, and capture

most important part of it

(see pi. ix. 1).

They were

the

inhabitants.

The

nearest

historical

engraved by a certain " chief of the chancellors

parallel,

by the light of which we must judge this

and royal seal bearer," whose name and further


titles

case, is the

Arab invasion of Egypt, and sub:

are effaced.
of oflScials

This person was one of a

jugation of the Copts

here the conquered Avere


rule, as the

series

whose

titles

were singularly

under the debasement of Byzantine

parallel to the English

Lord High Chancellor and


titles

Egyptians of the thirteenth and fourteenth dynasty


were living under the decayed forms of the
civili-

Lord

Privy Seal.
or

Such
in

imply a unique
only be held in

position,

one which would


a

zation of the twelfth; but the conquerors were

duplicate

by a viceroy

diflerent

province,

more civihzed probably than the Hyksos, and more


capable of organizing themselves
;

such as the Princes of Cush under the eighteenth


dj-nasty.

yet

we

see that

The

further evidences of the

power of
is

they adopted the arts and the government which

the successive holders of this double office

seen

they found in the country to a great extent, and


like the

from

their having a series of scarabs, like those

Hyksos

became Egyptianized.
much
as

But oue
it,

of the kings and

members

of the royal families of

thing

they took

they found
all

the
of

the twelfth and fourteenth dynasties, with then.

bureaucracy who

managed

the

details

names and

many such are known, as for inhes, Se-neb, stance, Ha-sa-r, Ptah-ran, Ka-cm and Herfu. Senb-su-ma, Senb-a, Hor-em
titles
;
. .

the needful administration of the country.


officials

The

continued to
little

be Copts, and there was


inherited offices of

.,

probably

break in the

Beside
far as I

this

no other instance
usui-ped royal

is

known, so

the internal organization.

Now
the

this is exactly

remember, of a personage not actually

an explanation of what we can see under the


Hyksos.

reigning

who has

monuments

in a

They

conquered

country
;

as

public temple, and even in a capital of a


this

nomc, as
two

militai-y horde, without

even a king
;

they levied

chief chancellor has

appropriated the

tribute (1st Sail. Pap. line 2)

but they probably

CHAP. III.THE CEMETERY.

had the sense


them, and
its

to let

the natives collect

it

for

lower

title

which the chief of the native ad-

left

the native organization to follow

own ways.

very curious evidence of this

being in after times believed to have been the


case,

had to adopt when the Hyksos made themselves a king. This is a point on which we must wait for more light.
ministration

even when the

Hyksos were
is

as

much

But yet one


as giving

further

document may be quoted,


this question

Egyptianized as possible,
brated fragment
of

given us in the celeSallier

and receiving light on

the

first

Papyrus,

the

account of Joseph in the book of Genesis


to

which at

least

shows us what was the tradition of


find, that
is

undoubtedly refers
there

the Hyksos

period,

and

their rule.
letter the

In that we

even for a royal

we

read,

" Let Pharaoh look out a


set

man

Hyksos Apapi

said not to dictate his

discreet

and wise, and

him over the land of

own words, but


his scribes, for

to be completely in the

hands of

Egypt,"
o^^Ti
. .

not,

let

Pharaoh give orders to his

" King Apapi sent to the Euler of


according
as
his

officers.
.

" And Pharaoh said unto Joseph

the

South
in

a notice,
affairs

scribes

Thou

shalt be over
all

knowing
the

said."

This view explains

unto thy word shall

my house, and according my people be ruled only


;

continuity

so

evident between the middle


rise of the

in the throne will I be greater

than thou.
I

And

kingdom and the

empire

it

exactly

Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See,


all

have

set thee over

agrees with the one or two fragments of information that remain to us, and
it

the laud of Egypt.

And Pharaoh
and put
it

took off his

accords with the

signet-ring from his hand,

upon Joseph's

historic parallel of the later invasion

from Asia.
:

hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and

Now to
There
is

apply the facts we have noticed above


a series of viziers,

put a gold chain about his neck


to ride in the second chariot

and he made him

men who

acted for

which he had; and they

the king over the treasury and taxes, and over the royal decrees and public documents, bearing

cried before him,

Abrech

and he

set

him over aU

the land of Egypt."

Here we read

of the investiture

the king's seal.

These men lived

after the twelfth,

of a vizier under the Hyksos, creating


seal-bearer,

him

royal

and before the eighteenth dynasty.

And,

further,

and giving him the honour of the


This we

they would seem to have acted for rulers

who

did

second

chariot.

now

see

was not an

not care about the public monuments, and would


allow

extraordinary act of an autocrat, but the filhng

them

to

usurp them at their pleasure.

up of a regular
administration.

office of

the head of the native

Here we have the exact description of a native vizier of a Hyksos king. We have but fi-agments
and suggestions to lead us, but every item that

CHAPTER
17.

III.

we can glean
on
to

exactly falls into a consistent place

THE CEMETERY.
The cemetery
to

this hypothesis,

and would be hard to adjust

of Tell

Nebesheh covers a
but does not

any other.

Leibleiu has already pointed out


its

large space of ground (see

pi. xv.),

how

the fourteenth dynasty, with

short reigns

seem

have been arranged on any regular plan,

averaging only two years and a half, represents


viceroys of the

or to have conformed to any Hues of road across


it,

Hyksos; but may these not be

The tombs
all angles,

are placed, as will be seen, at

identical with the

men who
viziers,

in the

Hyksos country
by
their

almost

though roughly

to the cardinal

were reckoned as

while

own
a

points in general.

countiymen

in

the
?

upper

country they were

seem

to

The earher tombs, however, be inclined more to the east of north


;

counted as kings
different title,

They may have even had


viziers

than the later

Nos.

4, 3, 5, 7, 8, 27,
all

31 of the
to

and acted as

in one part

Eamesside period are


east, only

considerably

the

of the countiy, and as semi-independent kings in

No. 21

is less so.

The Cypriote tombs


D

another part.

Or the

viziers

may have been

the

are rather less incUned on the whole, Xos. 1, 17,

TELL NEBESHEH.
18, 26, 29, 33.

The

later

tombs of the twentywhile No. 23,

when more complex,


subterranean.
in the

as in No. 31, developed into


is

sixth dynasty, such as Nos. 28, 12, 42, 38, 39,

hoshes, as in No. 28, which

nevertheless

still

are nearly due north and south

They

also

were lined with stone


all

which

is

certainly of the Persian period, is even a

twenty-sixth

dynasty (No. 4G), and

little to

the west of north


77,

so

is

also the great

such tombs have a wide well of access, with one


or two ledges narrowing
it

tomb No.

which

is

probably late in the

part of the

way down,
These

twenty-sixth dynasty.

Note also the two tombs

on the side opposite to the doorway.

marked "earher" and "later." A far greater number of tombs were excavated
than those here shown on the

tombs developed

into

what must be reckoned a


;

distinct class, the third

these are large square

map

many times
all

hollows, such as the


77,

Psamtikmcukh tomb. No.


square,

more than these

in fact.

But nearly

which

which

is

60

feet

Uned with brick


built

were of interest from their form or contents have

walls and
space,

having stone
filling it

chambers

in the

been planned and mapped.

few were

lost

and

up

to the lining with a

mass

from the record, as their numbers (which

I always

of constructions.

cut deeply in the brick walls with a knife) crumbled

The

positions of the bodies are not constant,


lie

away while Mr.


cavations before

Griffith

was finishing the ex-

though they generally


planned in
pi. xvi.,

east

and west.

Those

my

return to Nebesheh to
all

make
was

and some others noted, give


:

the plan.
noticeable

Otherwise, the record of


is

that

the following results

Eamcssidc.

Head 2

E.,

complete.

2 W., 1 N., 1 S.

Cypriote.

6 E., 1 S.
clear

Sake.

There are here two entirely separate classes of


tombs,
if

17 W., 3 N.

Here a very

distinction

not three (see

pi. xv.

and

xvi.).

Fkst,
called,

between the classes

may

be seen.

The IlamesAs the

there are the great hoshes (as they

may be

sides were nearly indifferent, but the Cypriotes

from the Ai-ab name

for a large

chambered tomb

were exactly the reverse of the Saites.

building), which were certainly built on the surface

Cypriote tombs are, at least in part, contemporary

of the ground, and rose to probably 10 or 15 feet


in height (see

with the Saite, this complete contrast shows a


real

No. 7G).

The chambers
is

in

them
and
it

and important distinction between the two

sometimes communicated with one another, but

classes.

The

position of the
;

tomb

well of entrance

no instance of an outer doorway

seen,

does not seem so fixed


east,

though usually on the


in

rather appears that the access to the chambers

the

Saites

must have been from the


terranean
rebuilt,

top,

as in the sub-

placing the bodies

who were most regular yet placed the well on the


tomb opened, was one
built of

tombs.

Many

of

these

have been

east or west indifferently.

sometimes two or three times, on the

same

lines,

and many reinterments have taken


Their state
is

18.

The

earliest

place in them.

consequently very

red baked bricks. No. 35, almost at the extreme east


of the cemetery.
It

confused

but in no case have I found anything

had been much disturbed and


I

earher than the twenty-sixth dynasty, and they

broken up in early times; and


as the people
it,

could not plan

it,

seem

to have

come mto use


is

at that time.

The

fell

on

it

iu the night after

we found

second class

entirely subterranean, with wells

and carried

off all the bricks.

This was early

of access built by the side of

the tombs, and

in
in

my

residence here, and before I had


;

them well
to

provided with
42, 20).

foot-holes in the sides (sec Nos.


to the

hand

but

it

gave occasion for

me

promise

The entrance

tomb from the


Very usually
off

so absolute a decree of dismissal against the whole


village, if

well is always carefully bricked up.

any further disturbance of

my work

took

there were two or

more chambers opening


1, 38).

place, that I never

had a brick or a stone removed

common

passage (see Nos.

These tombs

afterwards.

This tomb was of Pa-mcr-kau, ac-

CHAP. III.THE CEMETERY.


cording to the two limestone nsliabti found in
it

forming an

ellipse

4^

4 inches, and the sand

and from a statue found in the temple, representing


Merenptah, son of Pa-mer-kau, and bearing the
cartouche of

stuck to the pottery within the line.

Over the

head of this
21 on
pi.
i.,

coffin

were the two ushabti marked


of rough red pottery; these

Ramessu

II., it

may

be dated to the

made

The style of the two ushabti (see pi. i., top hue, numbered 35) also exactly accords with that period and some fragments of
nineteenth dynasty.
;

are of a style never found again at Nebesheh.

With

these, over the

head of

this

E.

coffin,
i.
:

was

the upper scarab

marked 21 on
it

pi.

by the

wrought granite found


to a

in this

tomb, again

agi'ee

Eamesside period.
of red brick in this tomb,
is

name User it is made

hheper ma,

represents

Ramessu V.
was a large

of schist, white, and has been glazed.


coffin

The employment
is

and

In the N. part of the middle

in the next to be described, which

also Eamesside,

heart amulet of red glass, decomposed to green

of great importance.

Hitherto I had never

on the

surface.

In the

W.
i. ;

coffin

was the lower


Ramesside

seen any red brick in Egypt of earlier times than


the Constantine period
test of that age.
;

scarab marked 21 on pi.


in style,
titles,

it is

clearly

and

it

appeared to be a

and from the occurrence of Si-Neit in the


be of Ramessu XIII. (Kgsb.);
is like theis

Now we

see from these cases,

may

the

and from the discoveiy of red brick beneath the


black

character of the cutting

scarab cxhii. of

mud

brick of the twenty-sixth dynasty, at

Mr.
it is

Loftie's collection,

which

of the

same period;
Bulak.

Defenueh, that baked brick was introduced in the

made

of highly

pohshed dark green jasper.


at

Ramesside times in the Delta. There


distinction

is,

however, a
bricks in

These scarabs and heart amulet are now


Probably also of the twentieth dynasty
of
is

between these and the

Roman

the

tomb

point of size; those in


long,

tomb 21
;

are 13-5 inches

Nekht-Amen, No. 31.

This was disturbed by

and

at

Defenneh, 12-6

whereas the

Roman
rise

the Arabs before I began to work that region, and

are usually 8 or 9 in., and only at


to 11*7.

Dendera
to

they brought

me

six glazed-ware ushabti of the


pi.
i.

These early bricks seem

have been

type marked 31 on

Further working here

made much Hke


material
;

the thick pottery coffins as to


in size as they do

brought out pieces of the beautifully engraved


alabaster vase (marked 31 also) and the two plugs
of alabaster,

and

differing

from

other Ramesside bricks, they rather seem to be


classable with the large
articles of

probably from the

ears.

These

baked clay

objects were in the

S.W. corner of the chamber


probably the tomb

than with the crude

mud

bricks.

containing the two coffins;

The next tomb


XV., xvi.).

in point of age is

No. 21

(pi.

had been
vessels

rifled in early times,

and the alabaster

This

is

entirely of red

baked

bricks,

smashed up

in

this antechamber.

The

placed together dry, and irregularly bonded.

The

southern chamber of the tomb was almost entirely


lost

shaded part in the plan was of brick on edge; the


rest of the bricks flat.

by denudation, though more remained of the


side.

The N.
;

wall ran across


all

others owing to a great sand hillock rising on the

the foot of the coffin recesses

and

the walls

N.E.

The chambers were floored with


all

bricks

rose around the group of recesses, in a square


well, to several feet high.

two deep, and were

mud

plastered and white-

been disturbed in later times and


so that no further details
coffin in the
lid type,

The upper part had much denuded, could be obtained. The


mouth
to

washed

inside.

Slight remains of other tombs, probably of the

same work

age, were found on the S. side, and on the

E. recess was either of the slipper or

top of the

same

hillock;

also

remains of fine

not of two large pots

mouth.

in granite, &c., from destroyed

tombs E. of

It

was

of very hard,

good pottery, painted with

No. 25.

Further to the N.E. were more tomb

yellow bands outside on the red surface.


outside, beneath the head,

On

the

chambers. No. 41, and in the N.W. one of the


group were the two alabaster vessels, marked 41,

was a black Hue

traced.

D 2

TELL NEBESHEII.
pi.
i.,

standing in the

S.W. comer; and

in the

been smashed up in
cleared out
vessel,

earl}'

times, but I carefully

same chamber three terra-cotta ushabti of Patekh, From the style of of the type marked 41, pi. i.
the alabaster vessels and the ushabti
certain that this
it is

what remained.
27,
right

The broken
side

alabaster
i.,

marked

of

pi.

had

almost

apparently a

lid of slate

(shown above

it),
it

with a
turned,

tomb

is

of the twentieth dynasty.

knob of alabaster

to

cap the pin on which

Another early tomb of the nineteenth or twentieth

and another Imob to serve as a handle.


this

Beside

dynasty was found at No. 4


4,

(pi. xv., xvi.)


pi.
i.

were pieces of a bowl, a small dish, and a


;

with two limestone ushabti, see

on

sjTnbolic eye, all in alabaster

pieces of two cups,

one with a spout, made of blue-green glazed ware,


19.

The
3,
5,

best group of

tombs of the twentieth


and Ra-mes-neldit,
objects

ribbed

and

five

ushabti of blue-green, very rudely


All these are

dynasty was that of Ha-ra

painted with black.


pi.
i.

marked 27,
flask,

Nos.

7,

and on
pi.

8.
ii.

The

from these

There were also pieces of an ivory


flat

tombs are

all

Tomb

8 I cleared entirely

and of a blue glazed


colour of

dish, rather

Hke the

myself, and so

it is

certain that the very varj-ing

Roman

glazed ware.

styles of the ushabti

were

all really

found together.
20.

Beneath the

coffin of pottery,

which lay on a raised

We

now come

to a wholly difiierent class of

bench of brickwork covered with cement, were the


ushabti, of sandstone, of limestone, and three of

tombs, which, from the pottery found in them, I

have called here Cypriote.

Though such

pottery
as the

pottery beneath the head, and of limestone

and

was not found in every tomb so named,

j'et

two of pottery beneath the


in all directions.
vessel.

feet

they lay pointing

bronze spear-heads and forks often accompany


this pottery,

Across the head was the food

and are never found in purely


I include

Saitic

That such very diverse types of ushabti


all

tombs with ushabti,

them

in this class.

should

be not only of one period, but belonging


a strange and unexpected

The Cypriote

class, then,

may

be defined as having

to one interment, is
result.

Cypriote pottery, or bronze spears or forks, and

From

the style of the stone ones, and


in

never having any ushabti.


noticed, the bodies always

Moreover, as already
lie

from the green glazed ones of Ra-mes-nekht

with the heads to

tomb
is

3, it is fairly certain that this set of

tombs
the

the E. or rarely to the S., and never to the


or the N. as in the Saitic tombs.

W.
to

of the twentieth dynasty.

Two heads from

pottery coffms, painted with black, red and yellow,

Yet we must not conclude that these belong


a wholly diS'erent period to the Saitic tombs the contrary,
it -will
;

were sufficiently well preserved to bring away; and


parts of the coffins were brightly coloured with
stripes of the

on

be seen on

pi. xv.

that

tomb

same

paint.
3,

The square box


is

of

No.

2, a great brick-lined well of Saitic

work, has

pottery,

found in tomb
;

unhappily

much

cut into the corner of the group of Cypriote tombs,

broken up

it

appears to have had a

lid fitting in

Nos. 17, 18.


disregarded

the groove around the top, and the pottery jackal


of Anubis most likely was couchant on the
lid.

Hence 17 and 18 must have been when tomb 2 was made. Yet, on the other hand, after tomb 2 was ruined, and the
stone sarcophagi in
intei-ment
in
it

We

now know from

this

tomb the age of

several

smashed and
coffin

looted, a later

varieties of ushabti,
coffins.

and of these painted pottciy

a pottery
still

was

made over

them, and yet later


(pi. xv., xvi.) appears,

an intei-ment near the

Tomb 27

from the style


still

present surface, with a bronze spear-head of the

of the ushabti, to be rather later, but

long

Cypriote
Cyi)riote

class.

Thus

it

is

clear

that

these

before the Saitic renascence.


ally call
it

We may provisionIt

tombs began early

in the twenty-sixth
till

of the twenty-second djTiasty.

had

dynasty, and probably lasted

the middle of the

been nearly denuded away, and the contents had

Persian period

perhaps even extending beyond

CHAP.
these limits.
entire

Ill

THE CEMETERY.
the butt end, so as to get
better

From the pottery,


it

the spears, and the

grip of the
all unlikely.

absence of ushabti,

seems certain that

spear in charging, would not be at

these belong to a colony of Cypriote mercenaries,

On the whole,
in the

therefore,

it

seems probable that the

brought over by Psamtik

I.

when he

settled the

butt ends of the spears had a fork on

them

to stick

Carians and lonians at Defenneh, one day's journey


to the E. of this site
for
;

ground, and to put a thong over, which


;

and that

this colony lasted

could be fastened to the hand

and that a later

some two

centuries or more.

As the contents
illustrated

of these
iii.,

tombs are nearly

all

form had a bar across the fork to prevent the thong slipping off in action. The fork from tomb

on

pi.

with the numbers of the

24 was intended to
staff of

fit

on

to a naturally forking

tombs

to

which each object belongs, and the tombs

wood.
of this Cj-jiriote pottery so

are planned on pi. xvi., and


is

mapped on
iron

jjl.

xv.,

it

The presence
monly

com-

only needful to notice such as were peculiar.

here, in the beginning of the twenty-sixth


it

The only tomb containing


positions

was 17, which

dynasty, suggests that

was

really

from

this type

contained both bronze and iron spear-heads in the

shown

in the plan.

In the same tomb


coffins, the
is

of pottery that the Egyptians formed the "pilgrim bottle " type of red pottery made on a sand bag,

was one of the best preserved pottery


lid

of

which has
pi.
i.

been
It

brought

away, and

lotus necks,

and of green glazed pottery so often found with and inscriptions impressed down the

represented on
hole,

has also a curious round

edge.

Such forms
in

are,

so far as I remember,

made

intentionally, in the
is

head of the

coffin.

unknown

Egypt

until the Cypriote types

were

Tomb 26
scarab
(fig.

of interest
viii., fig.

as

having three gold

introduced.

earrings (see pi.

18) and a rude glazed


21.

19), together with an indistinct blue

The

Saitic

tombs are characterized by the

glazed figure of Mut.


of pilgrim bottle type,

Tomb

33, beside five vases

stone sarcophagi, and the abundance of ushabti.

As

had the curious vase in the


and pieces of pumice, sand-

Mr.

Griffith will describe the ushabti as a separate

mid-bottom of
stone,

pi. iii.,

subject in Chapter V., there is not


said here of these remains.
to place one or

much

to be

and alabaster, together with apparently a


finial for

The usual course was


with

bronze knife, with hilt-plate and


of the handle (see pi.
iii.).

the end

two

finely inscribed ushabti,

The

positions of the

several rougher

ones,

and a few hundred small

spear-heads and forks, whenever noted, are marked

uninscribed ones, in a wooden box in the tomb.

on the plans.

Generally the outline of the square box-full could


be traced on clearing the gi-ound.

The use
is still

of the curious bronze forks here found,

Thus

in

tomb

undecided.

They are generally found along


;

11 (Plan,

pi. xvi.)

were 11 ushabti together, and


;

with the spear-heads

yet they cannot be weapons,

only one inscribed

again 16 ushabti, and only


parallel,

as they are never sharpened, and they frequently

one inscribed, lying


with feet broken
off.

one on the other,

have a cross-bar.

This bar also prevents our

In the next chamber was a


all

thinking them to be fishing spears.


explanation that occurs to

The only
It will

box with 5 ushabti,

plain

then a wooden box,

me

is

that they were

the shoeing of the butt ends of spears.

which had been 26 inches square and 15 inches high, had contained 45 ushabti, of which only 5
were inscribed.
flooring

be remembered how the Egyptian sceptres always

end in a fork

at the base,

which suggests that


Again, for
utility,
it

This tomb had part of a wooden and panelling which had been covered
;

such a type was familiar.

with stucco
large

possibly, however, this

was part of a
In

was needful
yet a

to have a point which could be driven


;

flat coffin

placed close against the wall.

into the ground, to stand the spear upright

and

means

of fastening a leather thong on to

tomb No. 39, again, were two boxes of ushabti; one had been about 17 inches square, and contained

TELL NEBESHEH.
154 ushabti
;

and another, 19

12^ inches,
In
I

broken up to force an entrance, this

is

in a very

had 171, of which only 3 were

inscribed.

bad condition.

tomb 46, which


inches, with

is

stone lined, with a brick well


I

Tomb No. 42
sarcophagus in
j

of

Pet-amen has another


;

fine

of access on the west side, was a bos

19^

22

it,

but entirely of limestone

the

204 uninscribed ushabti


pi. xv.,

and another
In

hd sloping
which
is

to a flat space along the middle,

on

heap of 62 more, pell-mell in the comer.

a column of inscription of Pet-amen, a

tomb No. 39 (map,


two mummies.

not planned) was a

general (mer-mashau), son of Psamtik-mer-ptah

box of plain ushabti, lying on the legs of the

and Ta-asar.

This again mentions the city iVm.

The
finest of
in

bricks of this

tomb

are 14-1

C-9

The
all in

gi-eat

tomb No. 77 is probably the


It still

inches.

the cemetery.

has the sarcophagi


;

Out of the hundreds of tombs which we


only one contained the bodies with a
of

cleared,

situ,

and the hmestone pavement

but the whole

very few proved to have been unrifled before, and


full suj^ply

of the stone structm-e which has stood in the great


lining of brickwork has been removed.

The two

amulets undisturbed.
pi. XV.),

This

was tomb 23

western sarcophagi are of hmestone, rough-adzed

(map,

where in seven chambers we found

on the outside, and with a band of hieroglyphs

one undisturbed (marked with a spot), and in this

mnning

all

round on each of them.

The

in-

were four bodies lying as in the plan

(pi. xvi.).

scriptions record a chief secretary of the city

Am,

There were traces of the paint of wooden boxes


left,

Psamtik, son of Uat-em-hat


ab, son of Aset-khebt,

and Psamtik-menkhheld the same


office.

sticking to the walls against which they

had

who
is

been placed,
disappeared.

although the
It

wood had
there

entirely

The

great sarcophagus

of polished basalt, with

seemed that
jars,

had been
and
a'

the usual head, collar, and columns of inscription

wooden
doorway.
22.

canoplc

wooden

boxes,

on the

lid,

found on the best examples of the

wooden door

just inside the bricking

up of the

twenty-sixth dynasty; the body of the sarcophagus


is also

of basalt, and has a line of titles around the

The amulets found on


all carefully collected,

the four

mummies

upper part.

The whole is encased


and the
lid

in

an enormous
is

were

and (excepting what

outer case of hard limestone, the body part

were accidentally disturbed in

by the workman's

cemented

in,

was covered with a


It

cor-

pick, before the bodies were seen) the positions

responding block of limestone.

belonged to

of nearly all of

them were noted.


Bodies

have mounted

Psamtik, son of Paserf and his wife Naisharu.

each set on a card in their original order, and


noted the positions.

For the

inscriptions see Chapter V.

In the tomb GO, on the


is

N.W.

of the cemetery,

stone amulets, and bodies


pottery

A and B contained C and D, green glazed


work.

a similar coffin

but as the huge upper block


lid

amulets of

fine

The

positions

has been only broken away, and the basalt

were

CHAP. III. THE CEMETERY.

TELL NEBESHEII.
by several examples.
and
gilt,

The body

was pitcbed

demotic inscriptions was found in the hosh

W.

of

eyes inlaid with wbite glass and tbin

No. 76.

In tomb 25 we found a few amulets and

glass edging.

part of an armlet of horn, such as are

known from

Beside tbese, some otber sets of amulets were


found, but not in position on tbe bodies,
therefore not needing notice in detail.

Thebes

this is fixed

by the amulets

to the twenty-

and

sixth dynasty.

In a tomb S.W. of the plain,

But of

towards the tovra, some Arabs found a set of gold


foil

types not included above are, in

tomb 39, tbe sun


disc

objects,

shown

in pi.

viii.

10 to 17, which
In another tomb

on the horizon; cartouche plaque, plain; breasts?;

look most like Ptolemaic work.

and

in

tomb
;

49, Tat with feathers

with

near that, two large scarabs of jasper and basalt

feathers

and head -rest.

two camelian eyes

three crescents, tongue-piece,


all in

and figures of Hapi and Tuaut-maut-f,


23. In the S.E. corner of the great hosh No. 7G
foil
;

gold

with a quantity of small blue glazed beads.

we
III.

found, high up, a tetradrachm of Alexander


;

In a late tomb in the plain, No. 70, was found


a number of beads of glass, pottery, bone, and
vertebra; of fish,

below this

level a great miscellaneous

bed

of loose bones, ransacked out of tombs near, and


all

which are shown in

pi. viii. 1

thrown in together ; below that two sarcophagi


of stones and mortar, one of large blocks

with these was an oval plano-convex piece of dark


green glass, polished, for setting
:

built

as several small

well laid, the other thinner; and below these again,


at the bottom, the remains of a rich interment.

brass coins of Constantine II. were found with


these, they

may

be dated to the middle of the

There were

silver cases for the fingers,

and portions

fourth century a.d.


the

In some other interments in

of foot-cases of silver with the toes modelled on

mound on

the extreme E. were five brass

them

15

silver

gilt figures

of Neit seated, 3 of

cymbals, a turned bone pot (gnawed by rats), and


a clear glass flask with

winged

Isis,
;

and an

eye, similar.

Cow's head
size,

in

wavy brown
ears
also

rings on the

red glass the heart

green jasper scarab, large

from

neck

the neck of a glass flask, with a bronze


;

square and altar of Bast in lapis lazuh.

handle looped in the


pottery

a piece

of a

Also great quantities of beads, over a dozen pounds

mould
black
to be

for

making patterned
;

pottery,

weight
gilt
;

these are mostly of blue

paste,

some

scribbled on in Cufic

and some pieces of very

many hundreds
in

of lapis lazuli, but mostly


to save the

coarse

wrapper.

made

two pieces cemented together

seemed
perhaps

of various ages,

The interments here some poor ones


or

labour of drilling the hole, which could thus be

only

century

two

old,

but

the

made by a

saw-cut

many dozens
made by

of small round

cymbals and

flask

were probably of the Byzantine

carnehan, of blue glass sloping to a ridge around


the middle, and of silver
of sheet silver.
coiling a piece

or early Cufic period.

Among

miscellaneous objects from tombs, of


&c.,

This interment, which from the


dated before the twenty-sixth
built in

which a great quantity of amulets,

were

style could not be


djTiasty,
its

obtained from the Arabs, a few require notice.

had been made before the huah was

A double
plaques
(viii.

Tat, joined by the sides, in schist, glazed


of bright
;

present form, as a great deal was taken out from


walls.

blue glaze, with four deities

under the

2)

an

aegis of

Bast in blue, with yellow


(viii, 3).

Among

other articles from the tombs

may

be

facing to the disc and bands


eyes,

Quadruple

noted the large bronze pail and

lid (pi. xx. 5),

two pkcjucs, 2 inches long.

Amulet of

The pail has found deep in the sand in tomb IG. been wrought in one piece, with handles riveted on and the Hd seems to have had a leather (?)
;

groyish gi-een glaze, about thirtieth dynasty, in

form of a kalantika wig


fine

(pi. viii. 7).

Bes

seated,

work.

Large plaque with head of Bes, 2


Lotus flower of blue paste
(viii.

handle riveted on

it.

pottery jar

^\ith

two

inches wide.

G).

CHAP. IV. THE TOWN.


Blue glaze
Osiris,
flat

cups,

1|-

and 2^

in. across.

Bronze
base.

required to excavate

it.

It will

be noticed that

poor
Isis,

work,

on

original

wooden

though several long

lines of street

may be

followed,

Limestone

of Ramesside period (?},on oi'iginal


It is evident that a large

yet the houses are mostly separate


several of

insula'.

In

bronze base, 2| high.

them we can

see the one larger space,


it,

amount of sepulchral
from
this

objects

may
is

still

be obtained

sometimes indeed with an outer doorway into


which was the open court
branched.
off

cemetery

but

it

doubtful whether

which the rooms

much

of interest or of scientific value

would repay

Such

is

now

the almost universal form

the time required.

of even poor Egyptian huts, the court serving in

such a chmate most of the purposes of a room.

But the greater number

of the walls are evidently

CHAPTER

IV.

only the foundations, below the level of doorways,

THE TOWN.
24.

and so the internal


plained.

arrangements are not ex-

few chambers were excavated, and

We
of
is

may
a

begin

by

noticing

the

slight

some

articles

found

in

chamber 99 a

terra-cotta

remains
cemetery,

building,

which, though

in
site

the
of a

impression of a mould with a good head of Horus,


of Ptolemaic

not a tomb, but rather the

work

a piece of a dark blue glazed

small chapel.
seen
(pi. xv.)

Just north of tomb No. 42 will be


the site of a " Destroyed Limestone

cup, and a piece of an iron pruning-hook.

Others

of these pruning-hooks, probably for use in vineyards, were found in the town (see pi.
vii.

building."

Nothing

remains

of

this

but

the

14, 15).

retaining wall of the foundation, and a quantity of

chips of limestone

but in
surprise

tracing

it

out the

26.

The most

important
of the

house we cleared

digger

came

to

my

on

a foundation

was one
the

in that part

town which had


In
con-

deposit in the

N.E. corner, of which he preserved

encroached into the temenos of the temple.


S.E.

only the mortar and a plaque.


I

The S.E. corner


pi.

corner

of

the

temenos

is

carefully cleared

myself, obtaining the set of

siderable

mound

of house remains,

and one house.

objects

shown

at

the

foot

of

xix.

Their

No. 100, can happily be well dated by a find


of twenty-five Ptolemaic tetradrachms which

positions are
pi.
vi.

shown on the plan

at the top of

we

This more resembles the Ptolemaic de-

found in
is

it,

the latest of which (in good condition)

posits of Naukratis than the deposits of

Nebesheh
;

of the year 4 of Ptolemy III., or 244-3 b.c.


this

and Defenneh of the twenty-sixth dynasty


seems probably as
least.

and

it

So the burning of
curious
well as

house and

its

contents
Several

late

as the Persian period at

can scarcely be put later than 230


objects

b.c.

No name

is

marked on the plaques.

No

were found in this house, as


ordinary things.

trace of a deposit could be found in either of the

many

On

pi. vii. will


is

other corners.
N.,

712

S.,

The enclosure measures 697 in. 408 E., 405 W. so the building
;

be seen some of them.


jackal standard
(fig.

In bronze there

the

3), the bronze bowl (fig. 6),

must have been about 57


25. Turning

feet

33

feet.

and the

little bell (fig.

4)

beside these there were


;

three large bronze nails, 5^ in. long

Nefertum
;

now

to the

town proper, there

will

in bronze, large but

worn

Osiris in bronze

and
In

be seen on

pi. xvii.

a plan of such parts of

it

as

a piece of iron inlaid with strips of bronze.

have been cleared by the natives in digging for


earth.

stone are the small alabaster pot

(fig.

2)

a rude

As

have not before seen a

site

on which
filling

hawk
of
piece,

in limestone

a marble foot from a statue


in.

they have so consistently carried away the

Greek work, 1|

wide;

a marble tongue-

and

left

the walls, this oifered a good opportunity

such as those found with

mummies

and a

to get a plan without spending the time or

money

necklace of carnehan, onyx, and coral beads of

TELL NEBESHEH.
the globular, bugle, ribbed, and truncated parallelepiped forms.
(fig. 1),

In

glazed

ware are the pot


figure (fig. 8)
;

and the very curious draped


to

which seems

have been a small flask

also a

scarab with legs, and an ibis amulet.


cotta is

In terra5)

the

remarkable
;

lamp

(fig.

vdth a

central open tube


all

the tube lamps of Xaukratis

belonged to the sixth century, instead of the

third century e.g.,

and are in a hard, close-grained

Greek pottery
of a tube

this is the only instance I

know
is

lamp

of such late date.

In ivory

the

female figure
rod.
in

(fig. 7)

and a scrap of ornamental


(with the

The tetradrachms found

numbers

E. S. Poole's B. M. Catalogue of the Ptolemies)

are of
Ptolemy

I.

CHAP. IV. THE TOWN.


than Egyptian in
its

appearance

(fig.

20).

A
her

head,

Triad,
;

Khem, Amen

Ra,

and

Horus.

plaque with a female figure

standing with the


beside
(figs.
(fig.

Three beards
gilt
;

a ureeus inlaid with red glass and 7 in. long


;

hands
(fig.

on

the

hips,

and a vase

Osiris feather,

and feathers of
swing
high, with
basket.
(16).
l}r

23).
19).

Two

rude heads of animals

17

Osiris with ursei

pendants.
Situla

Situla with

and

four-handled model vase

16),

handle,
incised

in.

high.

5f
(8),

in.

and a curious form of two-handled bowl in hard,

figures.
(2),
in.

Model
sticks

situla

and
arrows

smooth pottery of dark bro-mi

colour.

Also, not

Bodkins
Bowl, 6
long.

kohl

figured, several small long-necked flasks of dark

across.

If high.
an
iron

Plummet,
asehead
slab

in.

brown
age

pottery,

with loop handles, such as

are

often found in Cyprus and in


shall

Egypt
their

until their

We may
long,

also

note

in.

be

established,

origin

must

2
2;^

wide,

and f
,

thick.

of

iron

remain unsettled.

Also a piece of pottery painted

3j

with a cross-line pattern in brown on a white

the sarcophagus in

f found with the broken pieces of tomb 77. A base Athenian

ground

as this

is

not like late Roman,

it is

more

tetradrachm.

An Athenian drachma.
(pi. viii. 4),

Silver ring

probably of the beginning of the


dynasty,

twenty-sixth
painting
still

with Har-pe-khruti

which may be conBulak.

when

the

Ramesside

nected vdth the hieroglyph of the city of

lingered in a very rude form.

A
a recumbent female "
:

second like this was kept

at

Am. Two

Of stone
(xix. 9),

objects there

is

plain silver rings.


(pi. viii. 5).

Silver ring with gold foil inlaid


silver earrings,

in limestone, like those figured in " Naukratis

Three

and one gold.

but of rather better work


figures

this

seems to

piece of a throne of a large statuette of glazed


;

show that such


Greek.

are Egyptian,

and not
of dark

pottery

on the back Horus holding a hare and


;

whetstone, 5J

inches long,

another animal
sides.

Nebkau and cynocephali on the


bone
;

green fine-grained stone, and well shaped.


small
alabaster
vases,

Two
lotus

die of blackened

and a piece
of

with

very

rude

of

skull,

of the

extraordinary thickness

pattern.

A Bennu

mould

in limestone.
vii.

piece

inch.

of a trachyte corn-rubber (pL'

21).

Eight-

The

scarabsei only remain to be noticed.


pi. viii.

The
is

angled pieces of black trachyte are often met

whole of them are drawn on


style characteristic of the

The general
the

with in late

sites,

and hitherto their object was and Nebesheh,


this year,

Nebesheh scarabs

unknown
this

at Naukratis

small

size,

high

finish,

and often bright appleSchist

pieces with a wheel on the side were found, and

green colour of the glaze on the pottery.

implied that
;

some motion was connected


I

scarabs are not so characteristic here in their work,

with them
plainly

at

Defenneh

found

pieces which

and do not so

clearly belong to the place.

Of

showed them

to be corn-rubbers.
slit

Made
to the

scarabs most distinctly belonging to Nebesheh,

we

of a flat slab, with a

down

the middle nearly

may

notice

20

to 28, 33, 37,

44

to 48,

63

to 67.

from end
slit,

to

end, the sides sloped

down

The Tanis
figs.

scarabs, on the other hand, are nearly


still

out of which the corn passed to be rubbed

always of schist, and are often


69, 71, and

smaller, as

on the slab below; the small plan and section


with
fig.

80

to S3.

The
hetcs

fig.

36

is

not a

21

show the form.

Three

dice

of

scarab, but a
relief

little

plaque of schist with Sekhet in

limestone, large crystal of calcite, and a rockcrystal seal of Pehlevi period.

on either

side.

The

scarabs (47, 48)


II.,

Of bronzes, a king

kneeling,

15

figures

of
of

now known name on one of


are

to be of

Psamtik

by a double
No.
hardly to be
eighth
:

Dr. Grant Bey's collection.


it is

Osiris, 5 of Har-pe-khruti,

5 of Nefertum, 3

60 seems

to read Ra-en-ka, but

Khem, 3

of Isis and Horus, and 1 of

Khonsu.
II is

supposed that a king of

the

obscure

Flat bronze head of Isis chased both sides.

dynasty would be noticed in the later times


2

it,

TELL XEBESHEH.
as well as scarabs Gl

aud 02 of Xaukratis,

is

of the Delta to Polusium by a guess not far from

probably a blunder for Ea-men-ka,


noticed in later times.
to find is

who was much

the truth.

one of

The most singular scarab a queen Aahmes, who must be


;

In 1884 Mr. Pctrie found at Tanis a chapel of the

gods of Amt, in which were limestone sphinxes and


tablets

of the beginning of the eighteenth dynasty

and

(now in the British Museum).

One

of the
?

the work in clear


period.

carnelian
this be of

is

exactly of that
-mie of
it

tablets represented

Ptolemy IV. Philopator

and

Whether
I.,

Aahmes, one

Arsinoe giving land to these gods; another smaller

Amenhotep
is

or of Nofertari or Meritamen,

one was a plain representation of Ptolemy


Philadelphus and Ai-sinoe.

II.

the
I

first

fragment of the eighteenth djuasty

This chapel was on the


river to
this,

which

have seen in the Delta.

No. G3

is

one

N. side of the road leading E. from the


the temple
(cf.

of the well-wishing scarabs, " All good business ;"

Tanis, Pt.

I., p.

31).

Besides

and Nos. 65 and 66 the very usual "praise to

a similar scene of Ptolemy II. and Arsinoe offering

Khonsu " or " devoted to Khonsu." The Tanite scarabs were brought over by my workmen who came fi'om there. No. 71 is of
Sheshank
I.

land to the same gods was found on a large tablet


discovered with a sphinx "just on the watershed
at the S.

end of the valley that runs

S.

from the

or Takelut II.

No. 75 proves that the

pylon."
that

From

these discoveries

it

was concluded
but

bright Indian red glaze, of which I had suspected

Amt was

probably none other than the city


possibility of this
is

the genuineness,

is

undoubtedly ancient, and of

of Tanis.

remains

still,

the twenty-fourih dynasty; this also shows that


the series of scarabs of possible vassals of Pianklii

the site of Nebesheh

quite important

enough
nome.

to be that of the capital of the nineteenth

(Ea-men-kheper) do belong to the Delta,


being of Ea-men-i.

this

one

The name
side

of

Amt

occurs continually on
its

its

Eamcs-

The

others

do not show

and Saite monuments, and


fine statues

great temple

anything of importance, beyond the general connection of the very rude schist scarabs with the

adorned with

and monuments was

dedicated to Uat of Amt, a very different matter

San

district.

No. 81, of " praise Tahuti,"

is

one

from the chapels

at San.

of the smallest inscribed scarabs

known.

Eeturning to the hieroglyphic name of Nebesheh,

Diimichen

shows that

the
;

wine of

Amt was

CHAPTER V. THE INSCRIPTIONS.


Bt
28.
F. Ll. Griffith.

celebrated in the earliest times

while in Ptolemaic
it

times wine was also imported into

from Syria.
vines, being

The land now would


very
salt,

scarcely

grow

except southward along the edge of the

The

hieroglyphic inscriptions of Nebesheh

desert

about Salhiyeh and Faqus, where palm

are fairly numerous, and add considerably to our

trees gi'ow abundantly

and to a great

size.

Some

knowledge of

local history

and

religion

in

tliis

small sickle-shaped implements of iron, that were

comer

of the Delta.

found in houses of Ptolemaic date at Nebesheh,

The inscriptions on the sarcophagi and temple monuments show that here were the city, temple,
and cemetery of Amt,
capital

were perhaps used in vine-dressing, when under a better system of irrigation " the fields of Aanru,"
as the
territory of this

of the nineteenth

nome

of

Lower Eg^qit,

Am

pfli.

This name was

those bearing the same

nome was named (like name in the lower world),


such as appear
in
ilic

foi-merly identified with

that of Buto, owing to

produced rich corn


vignettes of the

cro2)s,

the worship of Uat (Buto) as the chief divinity of

Book

of the Dead, instead of Ihe

the
in

city.

Diiniichcn in his History of Egypt had


I'anat

1879 shown that Amt was not the same as


it

meagre and stunted growth of the small part that At the present day tliere is is still cultivable.
only. a very

(Buto), and Brugsch removed

from Hk; N.W.

narrow

strip of

good

liuul

on

tlie

edge

CHAP, v. THE INSCRIPTIONS.


of the desert,

and every mile that one proceeds

sites in this far-off

corner of the Delta which was


It is strange

northward the land becomes rapidly more barren,


until at

honoured by these early monarchs.

Nebesheh, six miles N., we reach the limit

that in the rest of the Delta, HeHopolis alone can


as yet

of cultivation,
tilled

and north of that

for

miles no

show a monument

of equal age.

ground

is

seen, except where a village such

Perhaps from the same remote period date two


sphinxes of black granite which were found in
the gateway of the temenos.

as San, existing for other reasons, has contrived


to
till

a small patch.

One is headless, and has been so for ages, the broken edges being worn
Nebesheh are
smooth
;

29.

The

earliest inscriptions of

the other
to

is

broken into small fragments.

those upon the

monuments
The

of the twelfth dynasty in

They seem

have corresponded exactly.

An

the small temple.

Here were found three monuearliest is a large part

inscription cut in the

rough

style of those that

ments of
king

this date.

were added to the altar ran round the base of each,


but had been almost erased, having
itself

of an altar dedicated by
is

Amenemhat

II.

The

appa-

described as beloved of Osiris lord of Tattu


(pi. ix. 1).

rently replaced an earlier erased inscription.

and of Anubis on his sacred mount


dynasty, and have no local reference.

That on the right side ofthe base of the southern sphinx


given in
pi. x.

These are the usual epithets of kings of

this

is

6.

The
6c.

left

side is entirely

It is unforit

erased.

The remains
pi.

of that

on the northern
legible part

tunate that the dedication

is

imperfect, as

might

sphinx are in

x.

The

shows
says,

have contained the name of the chief god of the


city at that period.

the end of a proper name, perhaps " Bai


I

Inscriptions have been added


altar.

was
is

.'"

and

"says,

'I

was chosen.'"

in later times

on the sides of the

A
c)

hori-

This

the formula of a high functionary, not of

zontal line

commencing with the titles


(i

-'erpei

hd"

a king.

appears on the top of each side


vertical line
titles

and
it,

with a

(d

and

e)

cut below

giving the

was broken
breast

The head of the sphinx had been recut before it off. Between the paws and upon the
were erased cartouches.

"the

chancellor,

the chief of the sealers

On

the

right

nub mertu."

Those

on the

right

side

have
left

shoulder also was an erased cartouche over which

been almost entirely erased, while on the

Setnekht placed his ovals

(pi. x. 6b).

They

are

they were allowed to remain, being probably out


of sight.

found on both the sphinxes, while Barneses III.


chiselled

This side

is

now

unfortunately

much
hiero-

his

name

lightly

upon the

front flaps

broken.

The

horizontal and vertical lines pro-

of the wig of the southern sphinx.

These early

bably belong to the same person.

The

usurped sphinxes are a feature of SAn, Nebesheh,


Khata'ueh,
el

glyphs are so rudely cut in both that they are


difficult to

Muqdam, and

Ismailiyeh (from Tel

recognize.

Maskhuta).

fragment of another with part

The

other two

monuments

are thrones of statues

of the cartouche of

Eameses
at

III.

lies

exposed
of the

fpl. ix. 2).

The name

of one is lost, but they

amongst Eoman remains


huts of El Ebshari.

Nebesheh,

W.

appear to be a pair, and the

name
to

of the second

was found on a fragment which


showing
Usertesen
it

fitted

the throne,

to

have

belonged

statue

of

30.

The only remains ofthe eighteenth dynasty


HeHopolis and Benha.

III.

The name
is

of the princess

who

hitherto found in the Delta were in the south central part at

stood at his knee

not legible.
of the

Nebesheh,

too,

The

inscriptions

twelfth dynasty are,

was under the ban, and a long blank follows the


twelfth dynasty

therefore, without local signification.

But from

monuments and
Seti I. has left

their

imknown

them we learn that Nebesheh has with San and Kliata'neh as one

to be counted

usm'pers.
II.

Even

no record. Eameses

of a group of

perhaps built the great temple whose founda-

TELL NEBESHEH.
tions
still

remain there.

He

at least rebuilt the

The family
at

of

Mereuptah was an important one

temple and pylon.

Part of a black granite statue of


lies in

Amt

for at least three generations, as

we

see

by

a goddess or of Ptah

the temple of Amasis


II.,

the recurrence of the

name

of Uat.

Of

his father

with the cartouches of Rameses

"beloved of

Pa-mer-qau we probably have the ushabti.

The
small

Sekhet, Uat, and Turn ?" on the back support


the last figure
is

name
of

of

Merenptah occurs
granite

also

on a fragment
the

distinctly bearded,

and wears

another

monument from

the lower crown (pi. x. 7).

temple.

In the pavement at the gateway, but not built


into the substructures,

Uat

is

supreme again upon the monument of

was a block with the

titles

black granite found in the small temple, which


represented three figures seated before two altars
(pi.

of this king.

He

adorned the entrance with two

large black gi-anite statues of himself.


scriptions

The

in-

X.

5).

The

inscriptions

are cut

on the

on these are of no particular

interest.

front of the altars.

The columns succeed each


but the inscription in each
left.

Several other monimients should probably be


attributed to this period.

other from

left to right,

In the great temple was


life

column reads from


altar

right to

Before the
offerings

first

a crouching figure of a functionary,

size,

and

was

one

figure.

Funeral

are

wearing a large and carefully worked wig, upon

demanded

of Uati, lady of

Amt,

for the

judge Ai
Before

whose knees between the hands was the cartouche


of Piamessu

by his son, the royal scribe Khemmes.


the next altar are two persons.
are

Meramen

the

The statue represents nomer?) Merenptah, son


governor of the desert
hill

god (pi. xi. 1Gb). the " Pa raslu (astroof

Similar offerings

demanded

for

Rennefer by her son, the royal


finally in

the

judge

and

scribe

Khemmes, and

a longer inscrip-

country, Pa-mcr-ejau,

tion funereal offerings are prayed for from " Uati,

and of the singer of Uati Ta-usert," while a deceased son of his was " first prophet of Uati,

lady of Amt, on the occasion of the feast of Uati

lady of Amt, in the


the feast of the

named Se
Uati.
.

Uati, whose

mother was the Urt


cf.

^(enrat,

." (pi. xi.

lOg.;

16c).

entitled qat'en or

" royal courier."

He was also He professes


(pi. xi.

Thoth, of

mouth ... on the 15th day, new year, the feast of Uag, of Sokar, of the going forth of Khem, in

the feast of the beginning of the season, each one


that takes place in this temijle of the two justices,
to this gi-eat goddess, mistress of the two lands,
for the

himself to be " the high priest of Uat " Aral

16/), " one near the noble portico

? (of

the temple)

of the mistress of the two lands (Uat)," and calls

qa of the eiyd hd supeiinteudcnt of the

upon the

priests to offer food


xi. 16(/).

and incense

to his

prophets of Menthu lord of Uas, the chief superintendent of the buildings in the temples of the

statue (pi.

The

statue

was dedicated by
on the right

another son, the priest i\juen nu ? as we are infoimcd

gods of the north and south, the superintendent


of the cattle of
altered probably

by a kind of
arm.

graffito

roughly

cliiselled

Amen
owing
scribe

(this god's

name has been

to another mistake of the

On

the front of the garment below the knees

is

engraver)

the

of

the

king loving him,

a curious scene of Uat, mistress of Amt, regent of


the two lands, confronted by a half-erased figure.

Khemmes."
His
office

in connection with
is

the temples of

This person's
to

name and speech and Uat's speech him have been carefully erased. The figure
II., to

Upper and Lower Egypt


explain

a sufficient reason to a

the

discovery

of

monument

of this

can scarcely have been a king, and at any rate


not Piameses

Thebau functionary

in the temple of at this period.

Amt.

His

whose period the statue unProbably


it

name
to the

is

common one
feast

At Edfu
tlu;

doubtedly belongs.
himself,

was Moreuptali

the date of the

of

Uat

is

from

l'2th

and the priests or the

laity considered the

17th day of Payni.


this time
is

scene a piece of presumption.

Another monument probably of

CHAP, v.THE INSCRIPTIONS


small crouching figure in black granite of

Amen-

relief

was found

at the

gateway, and two more in


style is

hotep

(pi. X.

15).

He

invokes Mentliu, lord of

the great temple.

The

that of Set!

I.

An
to

or Hermonthis, and calls himself scribe of the

One

of the blocks at the S.E. corner of the great

district of

Ani and

priest of

Menthu.

It is

a puzzle

temple was engraved underneath with the curious

know -why this statue should have been found here in Lower Egypt. There is no local reference to Amt, or even to Lower Egypt, in any remaining
passage of the inscription, which
is

mason's mark

(pi.

xi.

17),

which

is

therefore

probably of the nineteenth


uncertain

dynasty.
period

Another
xii.

fragment of
title

this

(pi.

4)

nearly perfect.

contains the
taui,

of a priest of

Amen

ra neb nes
It is

Amenhotep
dynasty.
to flee

is

name belonging
for

to the eighteenth

and probably came from a tomb.

very
this

Perhaps

some reason his family had

finely cut.

Other traces of rich tombs of

from Upper Egypt, and carried with them

period exist at Nebesheh in small fragments of

the statue of their ancestor.

sandstone sarcophagi with elaborate sculpture.


After

This figure was not found in the temple, but

Rameses

III.

there

is

a complete blank

was brought to our hut a few days


Its weight
far.

after

our

until the twenty-sixth dynasty.

settlement at Netesheh, and sold to us for a few


shillings.

would prevent

its

being

31. I have hitherto neglected to speak of the

brought from

ushabti found in the cemetery.

Before proceeding

The name
II.,

of Merenptah, successor of

Rameses

to the inscriptions of the twenty- sixth dynasty, I


will

was found on a biock of hmestone


in the cemetery.

built into

make

a few remarks on those figures that can


(cf. pis.
i.

tomb

He

also left an unusual

be placed earlier

and

ii.).

monument in front
colossal
figure

of the gateway of the enclosure.

The

principal distinction between the early and

Here a red granite column surmounted by a

late kinds of ushabti is that the Saite type is that

hawk

overshado-SN-ing

small kneeling
its

of a bearded,

mummified

figure,
;

resembling Osiris,

of the

king bears
of

upon
(pi.

sides

the

placed upon a square base


beardless,

the earUer type being

standard

name

Merenptah
of

x.

9a), alter-

not so

completely mummified,

and

nating with
(pi. X.

figures

Amen

ra neb nes taui


figures of

without either back-support or stand.


at

The former

9h) and

Merenptah exchanging
the god for victory.

Nebesheh stood up

in their boxes, the latter

mat (Truth) with


Setnekht,

were lying down, as far as could be ascertained,

At the beginning of the next dynasty comes

beneath the earthenware coflSns

but nearly

all

who

chiselled his cartouche


(pi.

upon the
His son
is

the early tombs had been disturbed.

In the early

sphinxes in the temple

x.

Qh).

ushabti the elbows almost invariably project, and

Eameses

III. did like-^-ise,

and his cartouche


unusual form

the

arms are frequently traceable and crossed


These early

found on the fragment of another sphinx


above), and in a rather

(see

upwards instead of horizontally.


statuettes

upon
x.

a
8).

show much more

variety than the Saite,

block

of

pavement

in

the gateway
(pi. x.

(pi.

which seem never to depart from the closely

Another hmestone block

10) built into the


this period

mummified

type, while the former often ajjproach

pavement of the gateway of about


contains the
also
titles

the figure of the living person.

of liorbehud of Edfu,
capital
;

who was
is

god of the
of

city of the

fourteenth

nome
disk)

Lower Egypt

but perhaps this

only

The collection from Nebesheh contains specimens of various materials limestone, sandstone, The style varies red pottery, and glazed ware.
:

from the representation of the god (the winged


usually placed

according to material, but

all

these materials are

over

the

entrance

to

found together in one tomb, the group of chambers


8, 5, 7, 8.

temple.
A.

fragment of limestone with hieroglyphs in

The

red pottery specimens are the most elon-

TELL XEBESIIKH.
gated, and the porcelain the most stumpy.

The

early ushabti from Xebesheh, 5 inches (nineteenth

single specimen of sandstone is rather stumjiy, the

dynasty).

limestone specimens are less so.

Tomb
Asar Pa
made,

41.
te^^
.

Three
. .

specimens,

inscription,

sht'

Those
clearly

in stone

and red pottery have the features

now

illegible,

red clay, well


red, hair

marked

in the cutting

and moulding. Those


in front, the

lips

and

implements coloured
black.

in red pottery have been

moulded

and

inscription

One

entirely
6i-

painted

lump

of clay in the
;

mould being then roughly


the

with reddish stucco, lappets straight,

inches

shaped with a knife


are often apparent

marks
side

of this shaving

found with two large alabaster vessels (nineteenth


dynasty?).

on the

and back.

The

end of the figure

is

bent forward at the

feet, \Yithout

Tomb

4,

two specimens limestone with

incised

any stand being formed.


In the porcelain specimens the features are very
shghtly indicated in the moulding, and colour laid

inscriptions illegible, 7 inches, one rather flattened

(nineteenth or twentieth djTiasty).

Tomb

of

chambers

3, 5, 8, 7.

7 and 8

are

beneath the glaze was depended on for marking


details.

two parallel chambers, crossed at the end at right


angles by 3.
5 seems to be a later addition. 7
is

The
The

legs

and

feet of the figures of this period

the innermost, a

man

entering 3 from the added


(cf. pi. ii.).

are veiy shapeless.


earliest

5 passing through 8 into 7

specimens to which a date

may be

7.

Two

specimens red pottery.


heavj' features

assigned, are those of


(pi. xiii.

Son),

tomb now almost

35.

The

inscription

8.

One very

and stumpy, red

entirely lost through

pottery.

Three slender, red pottery, one being These are marked with incised
below waist.

efflorescence

of the salt contained in the lime.

coloured yellow.
lines (pi.
ii.

stone,

seems to have been


Tliis

mer qau in half

8) in front

hieratic script.

may be compared

with the

Also two specimens hmestone, 6 and 7 inches,


rather flattened, holding two hoes.

name, Pa mer qau, of the father of ilerenptah on the statue of the


unless
it is

Wig

curves

latter in the great temple,

away over back

lappets, small

and pointed, come

title

as on the group of three figures.

out in front from beneath the wig.

They were found amongst the rubbish of a destroyed tomb in which red tiles had been used. (Two specimens,
from back to
basket
fair

Also sandstone one specimen, 7^ inches, coloured


red; inscription incised, hair &c. and inscriptions

work,

Umestone, rounded

coloured black.

Tunic projects in front; holds

front, crossed

hands hold two hoes,


wig painted

hoe in
left
;

right, broad-bladed

hoe with cross-bar

in

hangs

between

shoulders,

wig short, lappets very short.


lines

Inscription in
shot'

black, straight lappets, inscription in thick black


hieratic in vertical

vertical

down

tunic

and

legs,

Asar

Imes

(?)

5| inches (elongate)

Harud,
3.

&c., part of

Chapter VI. of the Ritual. one with very heavy

and

G.\,

nineteenth dynasty).
31. Six specimens porcelain, pale yellow-

Two

of red pottery,

Tomb
brown
brown,

features, the other coloured j'ellow.

glaze, inscription lines,


sht'

and features dark


JVt'xi

Also

ten

specimens

bluish

porcelain,

wig

Asar aiknnu n pa amen

amen,

marldngs &c. black,

collar, straight lappets.


front.

Two
In

" lieutenant-governor of Diospolis Nekhtamen."


Diospolis in the Delta was probably the same as

specimens have the tunic projecting in

these the wig is short, the implements are more


like

Pachnamounis,
the coast.

in the direction of Damietta, near

cuiTed clubs, and the basket


is

is

absent.

The

Inscription in horizontal lines in front,

deceased
J.

named Rfunscsnekht.

finishing with a vertical line

down

the back, figure

Two
is

slender specimens.

A
ilie

hieratic inscrip-

holds two hoes, and basket between the shoulders,


straight lappets, legs rounded.

tion

written on the back of one in two lines.

The

best of the

From

21, a tonil) in wliich

sarcopliagi were

CHAP, v.THE INSCRIPTIONS


built

up of red

tiles,

were taken two

scarabs

examples

in

which characteristics of the early and


combined.

indicating the twentieth dynasty, and two ushabti

late types are

of curious form. cLay

They

are of red pottery.


off at the

The
heads,

About

200 specimens were brought together


and shoulders very
like that of

lump has not been shaved

of a broad flat shape, elbows

nor has the foot been turned.

Lappets straight.
raising the

prominent, the vdg curved somewhat

To one have been added two arms


tunic in front.

Hathor, cream colour with a tinge of chocolate,


the wig chocolate, back almost
indicated, bearded.
flat,

tools scarcely

These are the larger specimens of early ushabti


in the collection.

2-2t6 inches.
(not Saite) porcelain, wig

But there
have

are besides a

number

One specimen green


support.

of small ones which

many

peculiarities.

black, rough work, heard, square pedestal and hack

They

are all

made

of porcelain.
fifty

11 inches long.
featm-eless, cylindrical like

(A tomb

at

Zuwelen furnished about

small

One specimen,

an

ushabti of a female musician of

Amen

qemdt n

irregular column, but has indication of a square

Amen named Ankhsnast, 2|


are
of a

inches long.

They
with

base and back support.

2^ inches.
the arms, back

greyish
hoes.

colour, the

markings black,
is

One rough, very stumpy below


cut flat, bearded, pale

holding two
painted

The back
upon
it

cut

flat,

green porcelain, lines of wig

inscription

from head to foot

impressed.

2 inches.
last are

(twentieth to twenty-fifth dynasty ?).

These two
in the

probably degradations of the

Ushabti of priestesses are not


early period.)

uncommon

Saite type.

A
is

more

interesting

specimen from Nebesheh

Tomb
six

27, Nebesheh, with alabaster, potterj-,


vessels,
'2h

of red earthenware (black inside) impressed in


It

and porcelain
specimens,

and

an
long,

alabaster

eye,

a double mould.

has been shaved at the side

inches

very
at

slender,

where the two halves of the mould joined.


wig as usual.

The
but

roughly

modelled

and

ridged

the

back,

face projects very little, the ears are distinct, the

markings and
colour
pale

illegible inscriptions black,

ground
-

No

arms or hands are

visible,

blue

(twentieth

to

twenty

fifth

the implements are indicated, and the basket in


the form of the sign Neb
is

dynasty)

slung over the shoulder.

From Nebesheh

also

are the

follo-ssing,

but

There

is

a very doubtful trace of a beard.

The
is is

their exact provenance is not

known.

elbows do not project, and the whole figure

Three specimens of a pale gi-eenish-blue.

They

smooth, as
impressed,

if
t'et

well bandaged.

The
prd

inscription

appear to have been pressed into u mould on a


piece of linen to facilitate their removal from the

an Asar hn
. .
.

ntr

....

"says
of

the prophet Phra the figure


is

."

The lower portion


lost.

mould.
cut
flat,

They

are very rough.

The back has been


project.

unfortunately

3^ inches

(?).

leaving projections at the hips and the

bottom of the wig.

The arms

32. Pieturuing
fillet

now

to the larger

monuments,
found

round the head, tools and basket are daubed


black 2i inches.

no cartouche occurs of any king between Rameses


III.
j

in

and Amasis

11.

The name

of the latter

is

Another, of

much

finer work,

has been similarly


I

on the plaques of the foundation deposits in the


smaller temple,^ and on two fragments of hmestone.
In this connection it is interesting to note that a small is preserved atBuIaq of Amasis II., " beloved of

shaved at the back and painted.


Another, well modelled,
porcelain,
is

of pale-greenish
figure

'

elbows prominent,

that

of a

clay seal

female, feet lost.

Probable height 2^ inches. Amongst the small specimens, most of which


to

Uat lady of Amt." Salle du Centre, Vitrine P. No. 3937 The monuments of Sais show that at this (see pi. li.). period Uat of Amt had a chapel dedicated to her worship
in the

seem

belong to a transition period, are

many

Egyptian

capital.

TELL NEBESHEH.

One

of these

is

carefully cut,

and the sign mer,

The

royal

titles
is

have been

almost

entirely

beloved, remains, but the god's


a-way;

name
piece
it,

is

broken
the

erased, but there

an important remnant of the

the

other

is

rough

with

standard which begins with S.


is

The same

letter

cartouches of the king cut upon


of the

and portions

the

first in

the standard on the side of the great

former

name name

of
is

Uat and

Khem

remaining.

The

shrine, the inscription

upon which has likewise


supposed the
stele

beneath the preuomen, the latter

been erased.

No.

3.
I at first

beneath the personal name.

For many reasons


and the shrine
middle kingdom, but

is

In the hieroglyi^hic Usts and the papyri, Uat' always mentioned as the goddess of Amt, but on

to belong
it

to

the period of the

is

clear that

they were

the Ptolemaic tablets


consisting of

from San there

is

a triad

placed here by Amasis.

Nearly the whole of the

Kliem

(called Ilor her ah set had),


latter pair being

standard

name

of the king, smcn maat, can be traced


;

Horus sam

taui,

and Uat, the

on the side of the great shrine


the fine shallow
cutting

and the material,


poHsh, and
stele

closely connected together.

and

the

We
There

now
is

see that

two members of this triad

erasures are sufficient to

show that the

was

date back at least as far as the reign of Amasis.

made and To

defaced at the same time as the other

no appearance of a third name having


temple of Amasis was being exgranite

monument.
dispose at once of the
left

been inscribed on the block.

shrine, the only

When

the

hieroglyph that has been

untouched when few


is
it

cavated, several red

blocks were found

signs can be even traced elsewhere,

an eye

between the vestibule and the shrine, with scraps


of hieroglyphs

following the cartouche.


first letter

To suppose
it

to be the

and sculpture on one

face.

These

of the formula of dedication, iir-nef in

blocks had been


the stone.

much

scaled by decomposition of

mcnmtf, &c., seems insufficient:


of the

should be part

The

inscriptions

had been very

lightly

name

of Osiris.

The

dedication must have


styled himself
mcr'iti

engraved, and parts had been cut out.

Squeezes

been to Uat, but Amasis


beloved of Osiris, her ah

may have
set luia,

were taken of them as each was found, before they

or

her ah

were passed and covered up by the advancing


lines of trench

Amt, or even as

in early dedications Iseh Tattn.

and rabbish.

It

was not

until the

There are two instances

in the British

Museum

squeezes were compared together in England that

Gallery that I have noticed of erasures of the

any idea could be formed about them.

By good luck

name

of

Amasis

No. 134, statue of Henaat,


:

these blocks, the only granite blocks that occurred


in the small temple besides those that obviously

whose great or good name was Rakhnemiib men


the basalt has resisted the evident attempt
erasure
;

at

belonged to the shrine and lay around

it,

make

and No. 94, which

is

not so clear an

up the greater part of a large

stele (pi. ix. 4).

instance, as battered.

much

of the inscription

has been

In the upper part in two compartments the


vultures of the north and south
their wings a royal

These

monuments

are

undoubtedly

shadowed with
which are un-

from Sais.
If at

name and

titles

Sais itself the cartouche of Amasis

is

fortunately no longer legible, having been erased.

found to be defaced on a statue placed in the

Below

this

two more compartments, edged on


of symbols of
life

tomb-chapel of a functionary
also
is

(for his

sarcophagus

either side with a line


stability, contain

and

in the British
if

Museum), we need not be

figures of

Khem
king.

back to back

surprised

the people of

Amt,

terrified l)y the

before the standard of the

same

Behind the

approach of the victorious army of Cambyscs from


Pelusium, hastened to own themselves vanquished,

god are traces of the usual altar or stand.


these again are the king's
of Horus,
/i':r

Below

titles.

He

is

"beloved

and

to

show

their zeal in the cause of the con-

trp ^^as-xet."

queror

by chiselling out the name of the king

CHAP, v.THE INSCRIPTIONS.

who had
ments,
shrine.

offended

him from

the temple

monu-

"undulating desert," as opposed

to tau, alluvial

-with

the whole of the dedication of the

plains of the Nile valley, delta, etc.

Heq

xas-

Xet, a title occurring both in the earliest


stele, it

and the

Returning to the
built

can scarcely have been

latest periods,

may

be the equivalent of Hyksos.


if

up of separate blocks, but must have been

Heq
It

is

used most commonly,

not exclusively,

cut

up

in

order

to

be

reused.

Perhaps the

with names of places, not of peoples.

Sebennyte kings required the granite of the defaced stele for

would seem that the

desert, or half desert,

some

alterations above ground, in


dis-

portion of the

nome was

called Set or

Xas haa,
(sar-

which the foundations of Amasis were not


turbed.

" desert of exultation,"

over a town of which

The

basalt statuette (pi. x, 11) found in


it

name

Osiris

mertu presided as well as

Khem

the temple seems to show that

was not

entirely

cophagus of Nekhtnebf

at Berlin), while the inun-

abandoned

after the Persian invasion.

dated portion was the Sex^t haa, "field of exul^^^^

The god Hor

hr

tep

x<^^X^'

'^^

^^^^^ i^

tation," celebrated for the abundance of its canals

found on two monuments at San, on the pyra-

and herbage

(cf.

Brugsch, Diet. Geog., 482).

midion of an early obelisk re-cut by Rameses


(Tanis,
I.,

II.

The

triad then

seems

to

combine the

desert

god

pi.

x.,

No. 55), and on the original

Khem

with the goddess Uat of the marshes, and

part of an altered obehsk of the middle empire


(pi.
ii.,

her nursHng, the young Horus, destined to unite


the lands of upper and lower Egypt.

13,

and
is

p. 7).

This Horus

This latter

remarkable for the two hawks,

sam

taui is

crowned on the Ptolemaic monuments

crowned with the lower crown, which support the


king's

with the double crown.


sign

The

prince in the

nome

cartouche

on the pyramidion.

Beneath

probably has no

mythological reference,

this is a scene of a king offering to a

hawk-headed

and the crown which he wears varies only to


indicate the relative position of the two halves

god who

is

connected with the representation of

Khem
head.

by the double straight feathers on his The king is " beloved of Horus neb xcsxet."
is

of the province of

Am

which formed the nomes

of Bubastis and of the Eastern

Buto or

city of

Probably the hawk wearing the lower crown

Uat.
of the

purchased in Alexandria a bronze figure


only, in

symbol of

this

god as
see that

well.

But on the

Saite

young Horus with the lower crown

monument we
assumed the
god's

Horus

her tep x'^^X'^^ ^^^

the act of walking.


to the division of
in

This form, however, refers


Set,

full

Khem

form, and even bears the

Egypt between Horus and


fell

name upon

his head.

This reminds us of

which Lower Egypt

to Horus.

the

Khem

hor-ur of Coptus, a city which lay at

the Nile end of another desert route,

and the

33. In addition to these

monuments from

the

god of Panopolis was a form of Horus.


probably Horus
of the desert
is

Very

temple, several inscribed sarcophagi were found


in

identical with

the cemetery.

The

fine basalt

sarcophagus
Nais-sharu
of

Khem, who takes the first place in the Ptolemaic triad of Am, and the second place on the block of Amasis, and is there called Hor her ah set haa. The word x^^X^^ ^^ considered by Brugsch to mean " foreigners," in which case Horus, at the
head of the foreigners, would be the god of the
Phoenicians and Greeks settled in the district;

of Psemthek,
(pi.
xii.

son

of Pathenf and

18),

servant of the

crown

Lower
and

Egypt (worn by Uat), Amt, or "high


'

priest,"

'

secretary of the city of

Amt

the friend loving

his master," was found with two other inferior

ones of Hmestone

(pi. xii.

19 and 20) of Psemthek

menkh

ab, son

of Ast khebt, and of Psemthek,

and non-Egyptians must have been

in this border-

son of Uat emhlt.


latter are cut in

The
line

inscriptions

upon these

land as early as the twelfth dynasty.


perhaps, possible to take
it

But

it is,

one

round the edge of each,

in its original sense of

starting at the centre

of the head and running

TELL NEBESHEH.
both ways.

The limestone has not been smoothed


and the cuts have been
filled

lady TeduiiSiir
meriti

(pi. xii.

21).

The chapel

of Osiris

for the inscription,

may

be marked

by the adjacent building

with

hme

deposit,

making

it

impossible to take

with foundation deposits. In the temple was found the burnt fragment of a limestone statuette
(pi. x. 112)

a squeeze, and diflBcult to copy.

The

titles are

nearly the same on the three sarcophagi.

The

of a priest (?) of

rehgious texts are

made up
the

of sentences that are

Uat

of

Amt,

chief of the singers of the king's


.
.

found in

the

pyi-amids,

and the use of which


twenty-sixth
dynasty.
to Osiris, rescued

house Se hotep

was

revived

under

The two
periods.

basalt statuettes

(pi.

x.

11

and 18)

They compare the deceased


the
gods.

belong, perhaps, to the Sebennyte and Ptolemaic

by his son Horus, and eventually seated among

11 was found in the temple, and


fine

is

the
in-

The

translation

of

the
:

inscription

back sui)port of a figure of


scription

work.
lines.

The

upon the basalt


to

lid is as follows

" (says

upon

it is

in

two vertical

Several

the Osirian) the ser^'ant of the lower crown

of the signs which cross the lines are to be read


-nath both.

the

Amt, the secretary

of the
is

nome

of

Amt,

13

is

from the back support, and


left

Psemthek whose
art perfected

mother

Nais-sharu,

Thou

13a from the side of the advanced

leg of a

by the eye of Horus namely the


:

fragmentary male figure brought from the village.


3-4.

lower crown
colours.
(its)

great are thy spuits

many
it

are thy

The ushabti
is

of this late period were very

It (the
It

crown) rescues thee as


places

rescued
Osirian

numerous.

In general no colour was used, and


therefore

Horus.
at

thy

spirits

the moulding

much

deeper, sharper,

Psemthek
urseus

the

head of the
forehead.

gods with the


thou
Osiris

and more careful than in the former period.


Several types

on
it

thy

Eise

may

be distinguished.
flat,

Probably
broad, and

Psemthek,

leads thee to thy mother

Nut while
not
in-

the earhest are those with legs


curveless
;

she takes thine arm.


cast

Be not dispmted be
Horus places thy
all

the latest, those in which the swell of


is

down be not
at the

....

the calves and of the chest

exaggerated.

The

telligence at the

head of

intelhgences,

thy

former type only occurs

in

small

specimens.

power

head of

all living,

Osiris servant

The irnplements
a basket.

are usually a " fas," a hoe, and

of the lower crown.

Amt, secretary of the nomePsemtliek whose


In the linos at the side Amseth,

capital, friend loving his master,

There were frequently several interments

in the

father is

Pathenf

'
'

same tomb-chamber, two earthenware

coffins or

(Hapij, Tuautmetf (and Kebhsenuf) say " I


to protect thee, Osirian

come
"

stone sarcophagi, or an earthenware coffin and a

Psemthek son

of

Pathenf

sarcophagus being often found together.

And

In the rubbish of this tomb were


ushabti, unfortunately

found two

more than one type


in a

of ushabti

is

also often found

much damaged.

They

are
xii.

tomb.

The

figures were generally scattered


in the rubbish of the

of a son of a servant of the lower crown (pi.

and broken, lying


in

tomb
ruin,
tlie

but

21 and 23), and probably would have given the


genealogy on
tenants.

4G and 39 the boxes lying against the wall of

the father's side of

some

of the

the

tomb

had escaped the general

and

although the wood had decayed away,


of

tigniis

The name

Psemthek
II.

nionkli

iib

points to the

were found standing in

a rectangular group as

time of Psammetichus

they had stood in the box thirty or forty together.

In tomb 42 was a limestone sarcophagus with

From one tomb, No.


one type, in several

4G, over

2G0 were taken

of

an inscription in one line down the middle of the lid, containing an address to " Osiris meriti, in
the midst of

lots, all uuinscribed.

These

figures often vary in size in the

same tomb, while


preserved.

Amt,"

for the

commander

of infantry

the

same type of

features

is

The
is

Pcduamen, son of Psemthek mcrptuli, and of the

most

remarkable specimen

from

Nelx'sheh

CHAP. VI. GEMAIYEMI.

from tomb 20.


the inscription

It is of the true Saite


is

form, but
filled

not only impressed, but

son of Ta du ast,"
J

with dark colour, which in some of the specimens


is

Other names are 50 b "Hun," o " A her un nub e, " T'ed nub," h "Peduchonsu," " Ast? " son of " Ta hetr," and the two more

almost hidden by the thick coat of bluish-green

interesting ones, d "

glaze.
to be

The name

is

difficult

to read, but

seems

commander of ? troops of Khent abt (fourteenth nome), " Pef (a) chonsu son
of the mistress of the house
?
.
.

As(?)ames, a commander of troops, son of


In the same tomb were several small
(?),
is

."

very

much

Teduasar.

blundered (this was brought from the excava-

specimens with the name of Seni


high, coarse work.
size,

four inches

Asames, which

of the larger

6^ inches,

is

very flat-chested, the shoulders

town probably it was a keepsake when the family of " Pef a chonsu " removed to the nineteenth nome) and B, governor of the
tions in the
:

low and square from the neck, the elbows rather


prominent.
Seni,

great house " Pef a (?) net deceased, (son of) the
se)(em hau

though of small

size,

has no

of Sais ?

Sebek

(or

Se sebek) and

mark

of a particularly early date, the swell of the

of

."

calves being clear,

and

is

probably

later

than
it

There are no Greek or Latin inscriptions and


is

difficult

to find

any

classical

name

to

cor-

Some

of the early type, with straight legs, four

respond with Nebesheh.

Perhaps
75.

it is

the Arabian

inches high, were found in

tomb 45 with three

Buto of Herodotus

II.,

small peg-bottomed pots of rough red earthenware,

2\ inches high, (e) in the plate is of this type. The ushabti of " the chief of the singers, the
priest

CHAPTEK
By
35.

VI.

Har
for

ut'a son of

Uat

CxEMAIYEMI.
F. Ll. Griffith.

hat,"

tomb

40,

is

perfect

material

and workmanship.
is

The
har-

contour of the slender mummified body

On

the

right

bank of the canal which

moniously curved, while the angular details are


sharply cut.

connects San with Faqus, and three and a half


miles north-west of the hamlet of Nebesheh, rises
the small high
a conspicuous
salt-encrusted

This

may

be taken

as typical of

the Saite style.


:

The specimens measure seven inches with them were found some well-worked figures only 2^^ inches high, more stumpy. Of the later style are a number of figures
brought in together, one of which
is

mound
plain

of

Gemaiyemi.

It stands

landmark on the brown, barren,


that
stretches

northward

from Nebesheh almost without a break.


the temple enclosure of

From

inscribed
(/), a

Amt it is

visible as a high,

Her ha

ar neb, or

Hor kheb

ar

neb

(?).

reddish-coloured

hill,

due south of the distant

specimen of the same type,


bears the

in the British

Museum,

mountain-like

heaps of Tanis.

As one walks
is

name

of T'ether, thus affording an in-

over these hot, level plains, the sense of size

dication of date.

almost

lost.

Against the horizon


while a succession of

rise
hill

mounds
barriers

As to the inscriptions upon them, we find one " erpa ha" (tomb 39); eight "commanders of troops " (tomb 39 50 a. " Hor, son of Khabes "),
;

on

all

sides,

appears to block the way.

Yet when these mounds

are reached they prove to be


collected

mere heaps of dust


thorn-bushes

12 ("Hor
pesh
tion,
?

heb, son of

Ment

?"), 11

("Pa hor
on the

round

the
little

desert

the
of

son of Tefnut "); and of the general collec-

long barriers are

more than a succession


banks.
are,

perhaps g

(but

the

inscriptions

such heaps

run

together into

From

numerous ushabti of
and no two are
troops (?)
. , .

this person are all blundered

Gemaiyemi the landmarks

on the south, the

alike),

and

("

commander
k,

of
/

mound and sand


lection of
its

ridge of Tel Far'un with a colcalled 'Ezbet Beshare,

son of Teduamen"), also


. .

and

Arab huts,

on

(" Peduasar son of

.").

northern edge, and the ruins of

Amt

on the

TELL XEBESHEH.
west.

Beyond

rises the

sand gezireh of Menagi,

were duly oriented, and measured about 420

ft.

crowned by the buildings and huge tent of the


sheikh of the Hanadi Arabs.
twin cemeteries of Zuwelen,

from east

to west,

by 310

ft.

north to south.

The
ft.

Northward he the

entrance was in the centre of the west side, 25


wide.

now
the

as completely

The massive
brick,
It

enclosure wall on the outer

ravaged as that of Xebesheh.


is

Far beyond these


canal hes

edge was generally levelled by denudation to the


last

San.

South-west along

the

sometimes even

that

being washed

Band mound, and a few palm-trees of the Geziret

away.

was of variable thickness 24


9:^xl8iins.

28

ft.,

Abu

Qijh

marking the landing-place from the


but seven miles distant.
consists of

and

built of bricks

on

all

but the

Balir Faqus, while, though scarcely visible, the

east side.

These bricks were

laid at right angles

mound

of Khata'neh

is

to the direction of the walls,


at the

many

of the courses

The mound
remains
of

of

Gemaiyemi
brick

the

base

being

inclined

breadthwise at an

crude

houses,

dating

from

angle of about 45.

The

wall was lined inside


of
bricks
laid

Roman, Ptolemaic, and perhaps earlier times. Arab remains are absent. Round it, on the
north, are the walls of isolated buildings almost

with

one

or

two

thicknesses

parallel to its direction.

The whole

of the east
ft.

wall and the two side walls for about 70


their length
bricks, 8

of

washed

away by the rush of water

from the
Eastv,'ard

from the east were built of smaller


16
in.
ir>5

higher part during the winter rains.

The gateway was

lined with
its

a few insignificant tombs have been found, with

bricks 7

13-rV

two low walls connecting

earthenware
however,
is

coffins.

At the south-east comer,

sides were of similar bricks,

and made a complete


filled

a place of

more promise,
limestone

space

enclosure or chamber, which was

with sand,

of about three acres with

chips

on

and had foundation deposits


Naucratis in the

at the corners as at

the

surface,

enclosed by a

brick wall.

About
of the

gateway-building of the great


(pi. xxi.) it

200 yards from the southern extremity

temenos.
will

On

reference to the plan

mound
I
It

is

another smaller enclosure.


in

This latter

be seen that a few courses of brick wall were

tested

several places,

but found nothing.

traceable a few feet south of the centre, running


east a|^ west to within a short distance of the
east

had doubtless been


building
of

for defence, but contained

no

importance.

Denudation

had

and west

walls.

If

there ever
it

existed a

carried

away the wall almost


of dirty sand,

to the foundation,

corresponding one on the north,


disappeared.

has completely

and inside the enclosure nothing remained but a


foot

A
of

quantity of limestone blocks and

or

so

with scanty chips of


it

chips shows that these walls were part of the

pottery.

From
I

the

bricks

appeared to

be

substructures

stone

gateway,

and were

Ptolemaic, but

could obtain no exact measure-

intended to hold in the sand beneath the stones.

ment
30.

of them.

This

late

Ptolemaic gateway opened opposite the

extreme south end of the mound, and also in the

The

other enclosure, however,


.

is

of greater

direction of the present canal.

It is quite possible,

interest (see PI. xxi.)

'

The

sides of the rectangle

however, that in earlier times the gateway was on


the east side towards a canal which must have

everywhere where there was a slope. The water does not generally run in deep channels, bat washes over the surface of the lower slopes, wearing them down nearly evenly year by year. Much of the loose and crumbling material must be carried away by the hi"h
'

Water action was

visible

run beside Amt, and probably between Ncbesheh

and Gemaiyemi.
east wall
is

As

have

pointed

out,

the

all

of Ptolemaic date, of the

same
itself,

period as the earlier buildings in the

mound

winilp.

have

to

thank Mr. Petrie

and may therefore replace an


for

earlier

entrance.
building,

the plan of this ento

closure,

and for many valuable suggestions with regard

Within

the

enclosure

was

large

the antiquities obtained there.

apparently a temple or chapel, on the east of

CHAP. VI.-GEMAIYEMI.
the middle.

Besides this, aloug the south


small
brick

-n-all

of

coloiu'ed

glass

lay

among

the chips,

came
at

were
8

numerous

chambers,

bricks

upon a large bronze

socket.

In a few momenta
it

16, in places projecting far into the enclosure.


]

two more sockets were found beside


very top of the sand.

the

block of chambers of

5 in. brick

was

built

on

Digging deeper, he found


gilt

to the west wall

on each side of the entrance.


traces

immediately beneath them two


of a king in adoration
;

bronze figures
of

Here and there


buildings
at

remained of extensive
level,

and from the number

higher

which had been

fine pieces of glass that

were scratched out of the

destroyed by denudation.

In several places were

clean sand, and not from the layer of chips, with

circular, semi-circular, or square constructions of

the next stroke

it

became evident that we were


Scraping away some of the
I laid

the smaller brick, Uke shallow wells, that were

on delicate ground.
sand with
mosaic
that
in

perhaps intended for storing com.

They were
They

my
situ.

fingers,

bare a piece

of
at

placed either singly in the sand or in groups of

I therefore stopped the

work

two or three against the chamber walls.

point,

and hastily

fetching

tent

from

descended to about the level of the foundations


of the walls,

Nebesheh, established a camp of labourers on the


spot.
It

and were

filled

with dark earth or

was not

until several days

had passed,

sand.

The remains

of the principal building consisted

simply of the four brick walls of the foundation,


descending about 6
ft.

had made out something of the nature and plan of the buildings, and had determined how to rescue some of the mosaic, that we proceeded with
and
I this delicate job. laid bare, I scraped
off bit

into white sand, with a


in.

away more sand, and


bit,

thickness in parts of 18

of limestone rubbish

and took

by

a small panel of

and dust covering the sand in the enclosed space.

glass mosaic representmg a flying

hawk

of blue

The
110

bricks

measured 8^

17

in.;
ft.,

length of the
east
to west
ft.

glass in an upper compartment, taking

up nearly
Beneath

sides from north to south 70


ft.,

one-half of the panel.

Beneath the hawk were

the thickness of the wall being 6

In

four horizontal lines of difi"erent colours.

the north-west, south-east, and south-west corners,

these lines were uprights something like the sign

and in the centre, were


between four and
wall.
five feet

foundation

deposits,

above the base of the

aa or x) of pale greenish-blue, alternating with Below this rectangular plaques of lapis blue.

As

in the temple of

Amasis

at

Nebesheh,

came a row
line.

of baskets neb,

and another horizontal

there was no deposit in the north-east corner.

After this the mosaic was

much

disturbed,

The whole
deposits,

of the
to

ground enclosed by these walls


the

but the hieroglyph aa was near the edge, and a


piece of minute bordering.

was dug out

depth of the foundation


their

A bronze rod

stretched

and many objects were found with


i.e.

along the whole length of the mosaic, which was


lying on its side and in an almost perpendicular
position.
It

bases at about the same level,


first

within the

18

in. of

sand.

in

it

in Ptolemaic

Two pits had also been sunk and Eoman times, and filled
The positions of the marked upon the plan.
few hours, and

had been

inlaid

on a panel of wood.

The wood having

entirely decayed

away and

left

with pottery and rubbish.


principal objects found are

gaps between each minute piece of the mosaic and its neighbours, and no backing, it was
difficult

find that occurred in the first

to save

any of the design in the loose

made me stay and work was made as follows.


37.

out the place thoroughly,

sand

only a small portion could be exposed at

a time.

Pasted brown paper applied to the sand

face took off the mosaic very fairly, but

when

it

One

of

my men

digging a shallow trench

was

left

to dry the paper bent

up and broke the


the
disaster,

through surface rubbish and into the sand to test


the place, at a point where a quantity of fragments

larger

pieces.

plaster of Paris sent

To complete down from

ths

Cairo, to which I

TELL XEBESHEH.
transferred
it,

was so bad that

it

broke into

many

small hooks, holdfasts, and nails of bronze were


also foimd.

pieces

on the voyage

home.

Of

course, the

Upper Eg^-pt would have preserved the whole cache just as it was deposited. This find consisted of (1) Four bronze rods of
climate of

Perhaps
finished

all

these belonged to the


art.

same un-

work of

On

the surface amongst the

hmestone rubbish a quantity of fragments of glass


from similar mosaics were found, having probably
been thrown out when the rubbish
I

square section ^thsof an inch thick, two measuring

32i

inches,

and two 35 and 35|.

These had been

pits

were dug.

partially gilt

and cased with

rings.

blue porce-

found several moulds for hieroglyphs, &c., in

lain ring 1 f inches long

and of the same diameter


size.

limestone and terra-cotta in rubbish amongst the

remains cemented on to one rod of each


1 found

When
similar
glass,

chambers on the

S. side.

them there were adhering

to

them

thick rings of

some substance, probably

38.

The
the

following

is

list

of

the

principal

which

found also amongst the plaques of the

objects found.

foundation deposits, decomposed into a crumbling


translucent yellow mass.
as
if

In
(see

large

building

foundation
in

deposits

The

rings were spaced

PL

xix).

These were found

the N.W.,

a third kind, perhaps of wood, had alternated

S.E., and

S.W.

corners, and in the centre.


in

There

with them.

There were also traces of gilding in

was no deposit

the undisturbed N.E. corner.

places on the rods, but they seemed to have been


entirely cased with rings.

Three of these rods

clean

They were buried about 18 inches deep in the sand, and 4 or b feet above the base of
The centre
of each corner deposit was

were found together, the fourth lay parallel to

the wall.

them
(2)

at 2 or

3 inches distance.
lay in two planes sloping

about 80 inches from each wall.

The

objects

The mosaic, which


at right angles to

were arranged close together and upright in a

down
at the

each other and meeting

rough oval which pointed to

the

corner

and

bundle of rods, extended the whole length

measured about

16x18

inches. of

They included
size,

of the rods.

eight platters, one

being

large

three

Of one panel very little remained, and it seemed The other I have to have been left unfinished.
already described.

plain pots, one or two long jars,

and one or two


There was

short ribbed ones, in

all

fourteen in each case.

Traces of wood were found

These were
the comer.
details

all

of rough red wai'e.

where the panels met the bronze rods.


of the panels

The height

also a limestone

mortar

in

each deposit, towards


differed
it is

may have been 18

inches, but the

This ai'rangement

in

its

upper part had been destroyed.


(3)

in the three deposits,

and

probable

3| square.
holes

The bronze sockets were C inches high and They were intended to support some
inches wide, in order that
it

that

some

objects were overlooked.

In the

N.W.

corner was found a corn-rul)ber,


/.'?

framework, and were furnished with square stave3.^

a model bronze

with a socket in a platter N.

might be
itself is

of the mortar, a chisel in that to the S.

The

earned

like a

sedan chair.

The socket
square.

following plaques were found under the rim of a


large platter in the centre
:

2 inches deep and about 3i remains in


it

Cement
sides.

red (now dark green)

as well as nails, which were driven

glass, bronze, alabaster, lead ? tin ?;

and a spear-

through uprights rising 2 inches above the

shaped model trowel.


In the S.E., a
of gold, bronze,
j^air

The wood was


they were buried.
in

therefore

in

the

sockets

when
gilt

of corn-rubbers, and pliKjuos


glass.

They were

evidently deposited

and light-blue

linen

or

canvas wrapping.
inches

The two
high,

In the S.W., plaques of alabaster, red glass


(dark gi'een), and yellow decomposed glass
chisel
;

bronze figures were 4^

kneeling
Several

model

with hands stretched out in adoration.

and socketed

fan.

CHAP. VI. GEJIAIYEMI.

The
seven

central deposit consisted merely of six (or

large

head,

inches

high.

(xiv.
all in

and

xv.)

?) platters.

corner of
it

it -ft'ith

one or two

Cyhndrical pieces.

These are

coarse and

platters

was cut away before


(in order

was observed, bnt

crumbling plaster.

the rest was dug out with great care.

From some

other part of the enclosure

come the
a

Other finds were


bowl of
(2)
trachj'te,

from W.) (1)


feet.

large

fore

legs

broken from

small

sphinx, in

with three

harder plaster.

Three bronze pans nested together.


are small and of equal size,

Two
in

(6)

An immense

jar with wide

mouth, sa\Mi

in at

of

them

4f inches

two across the middle.

The base was about


It

diameter.
in diameter,

The

third is

much
it,

larger,

8 inches

the level of the bottom of the wall.


deepest
object

was the

and has a socket inside near the edge,


also

found.

Traces

of two

wooden
to

and a chain fixed opposite to


(pi.

on the edge
reflector.
it

staves, painted green,

and decorated with glass


it

XX. 2).

It

seems to be a lamp

mosaics, were
surface.

found projecting from


jar

the

But what kind


cannot say.

of

lamp was

to be
is

used with

The

must have been used

as a bin,

No
seem

such thing

known from Egypt.

for corn(?).

The

others

to be a pair of scale pans, not

(7)
sides.

Two

pieces of Hmestone sculptured on both

yet pierced for suspension.


(3)
tite,

They were

evidently pieces of trial work.

large

and

finely

worked
in

figure in stea-

Also from the sand were taken a bead of black


glass with eyes of yellow and black, and a bronze

16 inches high, and

perfect condition
It repre-

except for a slight injury to the nose.

plume-holder pierced with holes for sewing on to a


leather cap or helmet (?).

sented Isis crowned with the disk and horns, and


seated on the ground in the attitude of Mat,
i.e.

On

the N. side were

many bronze

figures of

with the knees bent up.


(4)

Now
in a

at Bulaq.
filled

a late period on the surface amongst the lime-

Beyond
marked

these,

pit

with late

stone rubbish; two are of base Greek style, a

rubbish and pottery, two slabs of limestone were


found,
(5)
plaster.
I.

head and a figure of Harpocrates.

There were

and

III.

near the centre.

also two specimens of Isis and Horus, four of


Osiris,

heap of figures of gods moulded in

head of Thoth, a large urseus with


cat,

disk,

Some were
is

of parts only,

showing that

small

and Anubis

and similarly

on the

they must have been for use as models.


following

The

whole of the E. side up to the middle of the chamber


were innumerable pieces of glass from mosaic
work, together with fragments of porcelain figures,
rings
for

list

of

them

(i.)

Osiris,

complete

figure with headdress,

on throne, beardless, 30

inches high,

(ii.)

Osiris with headdress,

and beard,
(iii.)

bronze

rods,

and other ornaments


fine

upper

part

down

to

waist,

15
(iv.)

inches,
Isis,

amongst these was part of a very


scarab for inlaying.

winged

The
figure
(v.)

same without beard,


Horus as
child,

complete

on throne without headdress, 19 inches,


complete figure seated as in
but without arms, headdress, or

Some of these objects must have been thrown out when the Koman pits were
dug
in the sand,

or left on the surface as the

the arms of

Isis,

sand was drifted away by the wind.


In other parts of the enclosure

lock of hair, 14| inches,

broken.
inches,

inches,

(vi.) The same much The same, front only, 18 (viii.) The same, back only to knees, 10 (x.) Khem, (ix.) Same as last, 8| inches,
(vii.)

many

objects

were found.

At the
(if

N.E.

corner,

apparently

under the wall

the very detailed statement

made

to

me was

correct),

which had been almost

head and neck on stand with ring of crown, but no


feathers; the head
is

washed away, were found four small door hinges,


two upper and two lower, of massive cast bronze
for

2| inches high,

(xi.)

The
of a

same,
(xii.)

left

arm, 6 inches from shoulder to elbow,


stand,
(xiii.)

a pair of doors, two portions of a bronze

Head and neck on

Back

framework representirg the hind quarters of a G

TELL NEBESHEH.
liou,

hollowed for tbe iusertiou of the wood with

which they had become mixed h\


ances of the sand, and by
its

later disturb-

cement in the sockets, by means of which the

gradually drifting

wood was

fastened

in;

fine

bronze

Ptah,

away.

probably from the


hinges belonged, a
later

shrine

to

which the door


(apparently

The

pieces of glass are of


ai"e

many

forms.

The

gilt steatite Osiris

larger figures

usually

made

in several pieces.

than

the

rest),

two bell-shaped bronze


pillars of the shrine

There are also hieroglyphs, each one generally


complete
fit
;

objects,

perhaps capitals of

a few pieces of background moulded to

or else stands, and two right-angled pieces of

the figures, and

bronze not pierced for nails, and therefore only


ornamental.

and patterns.

many pieces of border ornament Some are flat, others in relief.


The
colours

They were probably from the


Ptah
(pi.

sides

The

surface is nearly always shiny.


:

of the staircase of

xx. 3, 4).

are various

deep blue imitating lapis lazuli (in

At the gateway the fomidation deposits in three

which material there were two specimens of the


hieroglyphs
re

comers consisted of a small Hmestone mortar;


a
pair

(the

mouth) amongst the

glass),
(?),

of

com-rubbers,

the

upper

one with
;

pale blue, green, yellow or orange red, bro'wn

distinct handles,

modelled in hmestone

and two

dark green or sealing-wax red, and black.

The

plaques of green porcelain.

The N.W. corner


lost (pi. xix.).

colours vary slightly in tinge and intensity, and

was destroyed and the deposit


parts
of

change entirely by decomposition.


blue
is

The deep

Pieces of bronze slag were found in several the


enclosure,

often clouded with white or grey-wliite, no

and

small

bronze

doubt intentionally to imitate the pale crystals in


lapis lazuli.

oinochoe in a chamber near the "W. wall.

This

The pale

blue has often decomposed


(?).

had been burnt

a lump of lead at the bottom


in to steady
it.

white.

So has a red imitation of jasper

had apparently been put


thei'e

Of

iron

sealing-wax red decomposes dark green.


pale green turns brownish.
Different colours in the

Another

were found a knife, a

nail, a chisel,

and the

tip of a

broad hoe(?) made of two plates sloping

same

piece were ob-

together to an edge.
in breadth,

The edge measures 7 inches


is 2-\

tained (1) by simple inlaying in hollowed pieces,

and the sheath


in a

inches high.

This

probably when heated and without cement.

There

was found

chamber on the south.

few

are several pieces of large star and other patterns

bronze arrow-heads were also found, and

many

of this kind, without the inlay, and feathers, &c., of two or three colours.

cylinders of blue porcelain to be fitted to bronze


rods, a
(/'),

Or

(2)

by mixing colours
marble
(red,
dif-

mould

in

hard limestone for a skeleton eye

in lumps, as in one piece of imitation

and disks of porcelain pierced with three or

white,

and green).

Or

(3) to

by laying rods of

four small holes, or, Uke buttons, with pierced


cross bars at the back.

ferent colours side

by side

form a pattern, fusing

them, and reducing them to the required thickness

by drawing them out


39.

in

one rod, which was then cut

The remains

of glass-working arc of con-

into sections.

The

finest

work was done

in this

siderable interest (see pi. xviii.).

They

consist of

way, as by careful manipulation a pattern on a


largo scale could

moulds

in limestone

and terra-cotta found in a


of waste

be reduced to any degree of

chamber between the central building and the


S. enclosure

fineness, the bar remaining of the

same

quality
all

wall;

pieces

glass,

&c.,

throughout.

Several

bars

were found,

of

from various places;

and portions of mosaic

square or rectangular section.


the

Clear evidence of
is

including the fragments of the


pieces intended
for

hawk mosaic, and


^lauy pieces

manner

in

which the bar was formed

found

similar

designs picked out

in a piece

where one of the three bars that formed


In this example three

of the sand in the temple area.

a rectangular pattern has slipped from the pliers

were found above the sand in the rubbish, with

and been

left in

the rear.

CHAP. VI. GEMAIYEMI.


square bars of star pattern have been joined and

43

The mosaic hawk


inches
across

is

flying,

and measures 8

drawn out again.


have a thickening
cut
is

Other pieces have been drawn

the

wings,
It
is

and probably was 8


all

out of unequal thickness, and the bars generally


at the end.

inches in length.

of glass in

relief.

In one case a saw-

Each

feather

is

a separate piece.

The

five

long

visible

where a section has been nearly


side.

feathers of the tail are of green glass tipped with

sawn to the centre from each


done

brown.

The small

feathers of the back and neck

Flower and star patterns are very numerous


in this

and upper edges of the wings are represented by

way, and there are

many

pieces of

numerous hexagons of blue


feathers

glass.

The long
gi'een,

chequer pattern, sometimes of

five

colours.

down the middle

of the
blue.

wing are

bar one-sixth of an inch square


figure of a vulture

contains the

those

on the inner edge

These wing

crowned with the double crown.

feathers are all graduated,

and those that overlap

Irregular patterns were squared with blue glass.

the back of the bird are tipped with brown.

The commonest
rarer and the

colour

is lapis lazuli

blue,

and
the

The head
relief,

is lost

from the mosaic, but several

nest to this the pale blue.

To economize

upper mandibles are preserved of blue glass in

mixed

colours, very thin slices

were

and of
bird's

different sizes.

blue glass shank

cut and

mounted on hot

plates of dark blue glass,

of a

leg

probably held the signet-ring.

and occasionally of the pale blue.

There are also eyes hollowed to receive the pupils.

Some
shown

of the bars that were found have been

Of hieroglyphs, part
the

of the bolt which forms

cut up for distribution.

The

original colours are

name

of

Khem

is

very large, and must have

in these sections, all of

them being much

been borne above the head of a figure of the


god.

brighter than on the outside.

The forms foimd


merous

at

Gemaiyemi are very nuThere are portions of

The

following are

some
sizes

of the smaller signs,

(see pi. xviii.).

which are of various


either direction,

and colours, turning


flat

in

male figures kneeling in adoration, the largest


being about 4 inches
glass turned dark green.

and either
;

or in relief.
sepa-

high

these

are in red

Woman

seated,

wig

separate.

Bird

pa ? head and wings

Separate heads of deities, &c.

rate, the

They

are in relief, and

made
tlie

in

several

pieces.

The head and

the

one is hawk-headed. Child se. Arm remen, a and next-

eye inlaid, and a spot on the cheek inlaid with flower


pattern.

Hawk.
Owl.

advanced arm are separate from the body, and


figure is cut
oflf

above the waist, apparently


colour
to be inseiied.
lapis blue in

Mouth (lapis and red Les h. Hand t. Animal, ram or ox.


Lion.

glass).

Owl and arm ma.


Ibis on stand. Vulture met. &c., &c.
I

for a tunic

of different

There are several wigs and beards of


relief,

Amongst the purely ornamental


oblong plaques,
pieces
like

pieces are
stelae

flat

probably from these figures, and a large

small

with
if for

wig of a dull slaty blue.

curved tops, but themselves curving out as


cornice

There are also robes from the figures of women,


of red or bluish
glass,
flat

decoration (amongst

them

are

several

and streaked, the


drawing out the

sloping corner pieces), bars

or narrow lines of

curving folds of the garments being indicated by

different colours, pieces like fore legs of animals,

manipulation of the
piece,

rods

in

and

like

the disk on the horizon


is

(this

turned

which
is

is clearly

composite.

sideways

part of the decoration in front of the

There
red glass

the leg of a large standing figure in

hawk).
Pieces
of

relief,

and portions of a smaller one, and


pri-

background are very scarce, but

an arm seems to be in the act of holding a


soner by the hair.
tie

several forms occur that cannot be attributed to

In

relief also is a

well-worked

anything

else.

from a

girdle,

and a hand
fist

in green glass.
all

A
G

calf s head and a

are worked

round.

was shaped by being run into moulds. For the hieroglj'phs and elaborate forms earthen-

The

glass

TELL NEBESHEH.
ware moulds were used.
are

In this material there

evidently only retaining walls for the foundations


of a stone building, for there
is

moulds

for the

hawk's beak, for hieroglyphs,

no

exit.

The

sacred eyes, and a Bcs head.

They

are cut with

sand inside was quite clean, except where the pits

the sides slojiLng in, so that the moulded pieces


are narrower at the back than in
fi-ont.

had been sunk in

it,

or

wooden

objects

had decayed.

The

That the building was a temple seems almost


proved by the fact that no Egyptian stone building

same
seem
large

is

the case with the limestone moulds which

to

have been used here exclusively


bars, &c.

for the

has been found of an early date that


a

is

not either

and simple forms,

tomb

or a temple.

On

the analogy of similar

few words must be said as to

how they were


glass varies in

buildings the space enclosed

must have been paved


Yet in
objects,

put together into patterns.


thickness from
difi'erent
}j

The

with large blocks of stone over the sand.


this

to ^V of

an inch, and pieces of

sand were found

many

some of them
It
is

thickness were used together.


to

The panel

of small value

and deposited separately.

of the

hawk mosaic seems

have been covered

clear that the paving-blocks

would not have been


order to hide

with the thinnest possible layer of gilt stucco, and

raised all

over

the

building in

wherever there was no glass, even between the


feathers, the gilding appeared.

these objects.

It is evident, therefore, that

with

the exception of the foundation deposits, they were

Sometimes a piece of backing was inserted


behind the glass, and in one place a large triangle
of slaty stone

placed there after the complete destruction of the


building.

Appearances are

all in

favour of this.

had been put

at the

back of a group

Some

of the objects are unfinished, and parts only

of pieces to raise them, and cemented

on

to the

of large designs which were hurriedly buried in

wood with yellow paste.


to

The work does not seem


Probably
re-

small lots at

some time

of panic.

have been cloisonne in the wood.


with glass,

the panel
quired,

was grooved and channelled where


filled in

40. Tlio history of Gemaiyenii

may now

bo

and then

gilt stucco,

traced

somewhat

as

follows.

There was no

and cement,
the

like the

wings of the wooden

Isis in

building here of which I found any traces, until,

Museum

of Practical Geology.

about the time of the

twenty-first

or

twentybuilt.

Amongst

the glass pieces are numerous fragoutlines

second dynasty, a strong enclosure was

ments of the

of

cartouches.

These

Of
the

this

nearly
wall

square

building

tlire(>

sides of

are unfortunately in eveiy case

made
is

separately

great

remain, together

willi

small

from the signs enclosed, and there


indication of the king's

no certain
the hierorfi,

detached piece of brickwork buried in the sand

name amongst

between the E. end of the central chamber and


the later E. side of the enclosure, near the middle.
curved, and

glyphs found.

These include Su

(ten) se

&c.

The occurrence
his son,

of xmi suggests Philadelphus or


lions

This

is

may

be the last trace of a


wall perhaps enclosed

and the

might very well occur

in

gateway looking E.
I trenched

The

The hawk upon the panel was no doubt the hawk of Lower Egj^pt overPtolemaic cartouches.

a temple of the same date, which has


vanished.

now entirely

the whole enclosure tho-

shadowing a king's

title.

An

early Ptolemaic

roughly without finding any other bricks as large


as those of the enclosure wall.

date will agi'ee very well with the rest of the

This massive wall


at

remains found in the sand, which included a piece

no doubt served

to

guard the point

which the

Greek pottery, a small black and buff bowl of bad glaze, but probably made at the end of the
of

canal or river branched to Tunis niul Xeliesheh.

Nothing more can be told df

it

unlil duiiiig the

fourth centuiy.
PictuiTiing to the buildings in the
pi.

flourishing Saitc epoch the enclosure

was rei)aired;

Icmcnos (see

the E. end, which was tlien probably in ruins, was


carried out further, and the entrance stojqjcd, while

xxi.),

the walls of

the central clianiber are

CHAP. VI. GEMAIYEMI.

a new gateway was cut tbrongli on the


the growing settlement on the
rebuilding,
trusted, the
if

W.

towards

of

N.W.

In this
is to

faneral oiTerings.

Upper and Lower Egypt, Sankhqara, to grant The names of the two persons
and
feet.

the account of the w^orkmen


built over the

be

are unfortunately lost, with the heads

N.E. corner was

remains

The

style is that of the eleventh or twelfth

dynasty

of a shrine, perhaps part of the buried treasures

(see pi. xlii.).

Sankhqara, a king of the eleventh


for

of an early bronze-working community, or even of

dynasty, celebrated

an expedition to Punt
officer

the old temple.


is

The

style of the bronze, -which

undertaken in his reign by an


is

named Hennu,
some

unusually massive,

makes

this

possible.
built,

A
and

next to Khufu in a doubtful connection on the


similarly doubtful on

temple or chapel was at the same time


the enclosure
filled

San papyri, and Pepi

with chambers.

But

this -was

blocks at Tanis, the earliest king whose

name has
city.

soon destroj^ed, perhaps in the


vasion.

first

Persian inartistic

been found in the Delta.

It

would appear that he

The enclosure was taken up by


entirely

was

especially connected -with this

unknown
It is

workers, who covered the ruins with fresh buildings,

Perhaps he had a temple here.

worthy of
false

now almost
seem
to

washed away.

Here

they

remark that the cartouche on the curious


doorway in the great temple
and
pi. iv.

have flourished into the Ptolemaic period,

at

San

(Tanis, p. 10,

when
panic.

their trade

was suddenly put a stop

to

by a

28) seems to read Schotep ah rd on


If so, in all probability
it

The artisans buried their unfinished work and some of their less portable stock in trade before
taking
flight,

the squeeze.
to
is

belonged
I,

a chapel or cenotaph of

Amenemhat

It

but never returned to claim them.

probable that this king was regarded as the

The village, however, still flourished, and a new camp or enclosure was built on the S. But later
the place declined, and before the Arab conquest

founder (or second founder) of Tanis, and that he

was worshipped here

at a

tomb, or chapel in the

temple, in which his statue was placed, his real

Gemaiyemi, as well as Nebesheh, was abandoned.


41. Notes on villages, &c., in the neighbourhood
of Nebesheh.^
1.

tomb being more probably at Thebes


Egypt.

or in Middle

This throws light on the occurrence of


in the place of a

King Sankhqara

god

at Hata'ne.

Faqus

(F, Eng.), low

mounds on both

He may
sides

have founded the temple

afterwards

of

the

railway,

sebakhin.

In Baedeker's

now almost levelled by the Lower Egypt it is


some even
II.

adorned by the kings of the twelfth dynasty, and


his

memory was

kept sacred there.

We

must

recollect,

stated that there are inscriptions here, of the time of


to find

however, that, as the story of Saneha

Rameses

have not been able

shows, living kings were counted almost as gods


at that period. 4.

any of these.

Probably those at Qantir

Sema'ne, F. Eng.

are intended.
2.

West

of this

is

a stretch

Geziret

Dedamun,

of sand with pottery on the surface

and remains of

a sand-island, so called
(Fr.

from the village of on


its

Ed Dedamun

Dahdamoun)

buildings.

A large heap of limestone debris mixed


lies

western edge.

with granite

immediately N.W.

3.

Hata'ne (Eng. El
of

Khatanah) hes on the


I

5.

Qantir, F. Eng.
II. is visible in

The base

of a

column of

west

the

extensive though low mound.'

Piameses

the cemetery.

A quantity

purchased here a small fragmentary group in dark


limestone of two persons standing with an inscription between
^

of limestone remains

and a basalt architrave of the


been found.
Outside one of

same king have


the houses
is

also

them with an invocation


War Map

to the king

an inscribed box or trough of rough

limestone, 2G inches
F. denotes the Atlas Geographique of the Description
I'Egypte
;

18, with the base rounded.

The hollow

is

rectangular, 9 inches deep.


' '

The

in-

tie

Eng., the

Office

of

tlie

Delta.

M. Naville has described


Goshen," pp. 21-23.

the results of his excavations

scription runs,

The hereditary

prince, the divine

liere in "

father lovins: the 2;od, the roval scribe, the chief

TELL XEBESHEH.

the

commander of the troops Set her khepshef," and name of Rameses II. is inscribed in the centre. The mound here is very shght, but almost con6.

These are

all

pre-Saite.

From

another tomb

came some long beads, and from a third bronze and lead eyes and eyebrows with long beads.
These are probably of the twenty-sixth dynasty.

tinuous -with that of Hata'ne.

Samakin

(=

Amarin, Eng.)

is

name

that
trees

The other mound


also

of

Zuwelen

is

mile N.,

recurs on the road to Salhiye.


in the desert
7.

Some palm
;

covered with opened tombs, but with some


at
its

Geziret

beyond Pelusium belong to this clan. Abu Qeh (Abou Qahar, F. Abu

town remains

N. end.

This

is

only 2^

miles S. of San, and the two

Kabih, Eng.).
8.

must have formed

its

mounds together For previous cemetery.


I.

Tel Far'un (marked but not


;

Abou Qahar, F. Amt, but the name


heard
it

named due E. of The site of Tell Badaui, Eng.).


is

finds at

Zuwelen (Sueihn), see Tanis


el

p, 29.

11.

San

Hagar

(the village), and Tel

SAn

rarely used.

Mr. Petrie has

(Fr. Eng.).

granite shrine

The gi-eat spoken of as Tel Nebese. is well known in the neighbourhood,

12. Tel Dibqu (mines d'Ebqou, F.

Tell

Dengu

(but too far north), Eug.), according to Mr. Petrie,

and is called at Faqus Taqiyet el Far'un, or " Pharaoh's cap," which is not inappropriate,
though evidently arising from a mistake.
local
Its

5 miles N.E. of San, and on the 31st degree of


latitude
;

a large

mound

covered with

^Vi-ab brick.

It is lofty

and steep on the N., the

sides sloping

name, however,
i.e.

is

Taq'at

el

Far'un, or

Et

away towards the E., and forming


amphitheatre round a central hollow.
are regularly

almost

an

taq'a simply,

Pharaoh's niche.

In future the

The

bricks

mound

is likely

to be

known

as Tel Nebesheh, for

dug out and carried away.

Large

a well-known Bedawin sheikh,

named Muhammad
settled

quantities of wood and woollen material are found


in the ruins.

en Nebesheh,

has

recently

there

and

founded a struggling 'Ezbe. 9. (Tel) Gemaiyemi (Eng.

13.
;

Hamadiu.
El Menagi
(el

Mehallet

cl

Ga-

11,

Kebire
el

and

es

sagire).

nam,

F.).

Several in F. Eug.

At M.

Kebire, on the bare

10. Tel

Zuwelen (Zawalin, F.

Tell
;

Abu

Uelin,

sandhill E. of the village and S. of the cemetery,


lies

Eng.).

The name

of two sandhills

the southern
is

a block of sandstone, 16

20 inches (see

one, about 3 miles N. of Gemaiyemi,

the site of

pi. xlii.).

There

is

shallow sculpture on one side

the Bedawin.

an extensive ancient cemetery now ravaged by From one tomb I obtained about

representing the two Niles kneeling, and holding the

Sam

over the

Sam
tunic

sign are the ovals of

50 ushabti of a priestess of Amen Ankhsnast. Amongst them was a piece of limestone cut into
the shape of a tent peg with a head similar to
those of the ushabti.

Nekhtuebef.
standing and
visible

The
his

and

feet

of the

king

arm

raised in

adoration are

behind the figure of the lower Nile.


side.

Uati

Other objects apparently

probably stood at the other

An
is

inscription

from the same tomb are a portion of a gi-een porcelam vessel with long spout and small false
handles projecting above the rim and pierced
with small holes for suspension, a lion's head of porcelain, porcelain rings, with sistrum and hawk's

above the head of the lower Nile

restored with

the help of a duplicate on the other half, and


traces of a partial repetition of
it

remain behind the


:

god.

The inscription runs


Amt, thy
qa lord of diadems

as follows

"

Uati

lady of
^(cpcr

son, lord of the two lands


Ki-)(t iieh f,

Bu
all

head and

disc

on bezel

Isis

and Horns of good

cometh, ho

work, wig colom-ed black, on back of throne Ast nebtaui; Neb qau, porcelain scorpion with human
;

conducteth to thee the lower Nile with (?)

head, porcelain; two blundered scarabs of steatite

good things of the North country, tliat he (the " (of which the l;ordcr Nile) may give all pure life
of rt"x ""* ^^ emblematic).

and

porcelain,

and

innumerable short

beads.

CHAP. VII. POSITION

AND HISTORY.

There are no mounds here.


have
a
set this

Nekhtnebf must

the caravan road, and there can be no doubt but


that
line

up as a record of cutting or clearing


being

men have gone down


from the dawn of

into

Egypt along

this

canal, the water

admitted under the


six

history.

Immediately after

auspices of

Uat of Amt, whose temple lay

passing the southern end of Lake Menzaleh there


occurs a sandy plain, about a mile across, and

miles distant.

On

the other side of the village,


trees, there is a large block of

amongst the palm


a similar

bounded on three

sides

by water

(see pi. xliii.)

granite almost buried, that probably belonged to

Menzaleh

lies

on the E., the Pelusiac branch or

monument
the usual

of another king.
el

The canal

canal on the N., and a fresh-water lake, through

perhaps corresponded to the Bahr

Baqar (Eng.)
usually

which the canal runs, on the

W.
It

This

site
it

is

which

is

name

of the once large canal


is

only open on the south, and on that side


the line of the Syrian road.

faces

that flowed past Defeneh, and which

was, therefore,

supposed to represent the Pelusiac branch.

admirably adapted for a frontier guard, and we

portion of a small canal running E.

and
to

find that at least as early as

Kamesside times

it

W., and lying on the road from Nebesheh

was occupied.
Till this year, so far as I

Hamadin
of Habres.

before
is

the

great

canal

or so-called

know, no attempt has


site,

Pelusiac branch

reached, bears the curious

name

been made to work in this

beyond a stay of

two or three days by a native


(F. Eng.).

reis of the

Bulak
of the

15.

Samakin

Museum.

But

my

work there during two months


light

16. Qassasin.

in this spring has brought to


;

much

17.

Salhiye (F.

Es

Srilahiyeh, Eng.).

history of the place.


arrived there, I

The

first

evening that I

saw that the brick ruins in the

midst of the plain were of a large building of the

CHAPTER
TELL
42.

VII.

twenty-sixth dynasty; and I heard, to

DEFEXNEH POSITIOISr

AND

HISTOKY.

(for I

had only come with the Karian camp


it

my surprise in my
el

mind), that

was known

as the "

Kasr

Bint

el

In the sandy desert bordering on Lake

Yehudi," or "the Palace of the Jew's daughter."


This at once called up the connection of Tah-

Menzaleh, some hours distant on the one hand

from the cultivated Delta, and on the other hand from the Suez Canal, stand the ruins of the old
frontier fortress of

panhes, or TaphuG as the Septuagint version


with Daphnse
before
one,
;

is,

and with the situation of the place


is

Tahpanhes, Taphne, Daphnai,

it

impossible

to

disconnect the

or Defenneh.

That such a point should have

been selected
but
it

may seem
;

strange at

first

sight,

was the advanced post


position, the

to guard the great


at the
it

modern name, Defenneh, from the ancient. Indeed the identity of these names seems to have been taken for granted by most writers on the topography of the Delta.

highway iuto Syria


details of its

and when we look


advantages of
pi. xliii.).

are

evident (see small

map on

All traffic

43.

The

earliest

remains found here

are

taking the northern route by Kantara, which was

part of the foundation of a building of red bricks

more

fertile

and convenient than that by the Wady


of the

remaining beneath the pavement or platform in


front of the entrance.

Tumilat, must have skirted the southern shore of

From
this

the occurrence of

Lake Menzaleh, or
region which
ancient times.

swampy and
of the desert

canalized
site

similar red bricks in the


at

tombs of Eamesside age


being shown to be
it is

may

have

occupied that

in

Nebesheh, and from

The edge

was the

older than the twenty-sixth dynasty,

clear that

only suitable route within reach of the Pelusiac

some buildings existed here


twentieth dynasty.

in the nineteenth or

branch of the Nile

for watering.

This line

is

now

Curiously, a tale related by

TELL DEFEXNEIT.
Herodotos bears upon
Sesostris
this;

he says

(ii.

107) that

i-^ep0e Bov/BdcrTLo<; TrdXto?.

It will

be scon that

on his return from an Asiatic campaign, invited to a banquet by his brother at the Pelusian Daphnai,

(Eamessu

II.) was,

they must have Liin on the arm which flows by

Defenneh, and

it

seems certain that there

is

no

other Greek settlement anywhere near Defenneh

on that hne.
44.

But we roach firm ground when we come


under

We

see then that the guard

which Psamtik

to the bogiuuiug of the twenty-sixth djniasty

stationed at Daphnai

was the body of Karian and


he had fought his way

Psamtik

I.

give positive
still

The foundation deposits here discovered monumental evidence that the fort
was
founded

Ionian troops with

whom

to the throne, the reason for placing this

them

in

remaining

by
is

Psamtik

I.

region being doubtless to keep

them

as far

Here the evidence

of Herodotos

very valuable.

as possible out of the


tians,

He

says that "in the reign of king Psammetikhos

and yet

to

way of make use

ofl'cnding the

Egyp-

of

them by posting

guards were stationed in Elephantine against the Ethiopians, and others in the Pelusian Daphnai
against the Arabians and Syrians, and others in

them

in the line

from which danger was most to

be feared, namely, the high road from Assyria.

The settlement probably took


after the
civil

place very shortly

Marea

against Libya;

and even

in

my

time

war and accession of Psamtik, and

guards of the Persians are stationed in the same places as they were in the time of Psammetikhos,
for they keep a garrison in Elephantine

we cannot be far wrong, if we date the founding of Not long this fort and camp at about 6G4 b.c.
after this
fort,

and

in

other buildings were added around the


all

Daphnai "

(ii.

30).

So

far the agi-eement is just

probably

of

them being
set

built witliin
It

what might be expected; but there is another passage which is apparently show^l by the excavaAt tions at Defenneh to concern Daphnai also.
Defenneh, the bulk of the population seems to have been Greek; Greek pottery abounds, not
only painted vases in the palace,

generation after the


likely

first

great block.

was most
tablet at

Psamtik

I.

who

up the great

Defenneh

in the

temple of Ivliem, recording the

clearing of the canal in order to supply his troops.

Unhappily the king's name in the inscription


lost,

is

but

all

the
to

but there
if so, it

is

an indication that
in

it

contained S;

common
tools

pottery appears by the potters'

marks

and
all

would be Psamtik,

accordance with

have been made by Greeks.


are abundant, just
is,

Iron works and iron


;

the probabilities of the case. After the fort and

as at Naukratis

and

camp were

built, the

Greeks

there

on the whole, more evidence of Greeks

seem

to have settled there largely outside of the

than of Egyptians in the place.


therefore

The

garrison

must have been Greek,

at least in part.

And

camp, especially on the eastern part of the plain. considering that Herodotos says, " From the
time of the settlement of these people in Egypt,

Here

tlien

were the Stratopeda or


:

Camps menwith him,

tioned by Herodotos

"To

the lonians, and the

Karians, and those

who had laboured

we Greeks have had such constant communication with them, that we know accurately all that has
happened
till

PsammOtikhos gave places

to dwell in opposite

in

Egypt from the reign


154),
it

of Psammetikhos

each other, with the Nile flowing between; these The lonians and Karians were named Camps.
. . .

now"

(ii.

is

evident that the Greek

troops were not merely settled in a strange country,

continued to dwell in these places a long time


the places are towards the sea, a
city of
little

but were a base of communication with the Greek


world.

below the

And
slips

this again is

shown by

his continuing,

Boubastos, upon the mouth of the Nile


(ii.

"The

of the ships, and the ruins of the

" called the Pelusiac

154).

Here the camps

habitations, existed

up

to

my time." The
"docks"

shipping

appear to have been nearer to the sea than to Bubastis, as they are tt/jo? 6a\daari<;, and o\iyov

mentioned shows that a

f<jrcign traffic

was kept up.


or "rollers,"

'OXkol, variously rendered

CHAR
would seem most naturally to be the

VII. POSITIOX
slips

AND

HISTORY.

up

they would be tolerated, they would find a constant

which the ships could be drawn from the water


for repairs, the

communication with their own countrymen, and


they would be as near to Judea as they could in
safety remain, while they

sense being a place to draw a


outside the

vessel on.

The settlement
civil

camp

is

awaited a chance of

probably then the


sailors, apart

quarter, for merchants

and

returning.

from the garrison dwelling in the


is

The

last

and greatest migration to Tahpanhes

camp, which would easily hold 20,000 men.

that fully recorded by Jeremiah, which gives us

the pattern of what doubtless had been going on


45.

The

reign of

Nekau

gave, doubtless, an

long before.

After Nebuchadrezzar had retired

occasion for the use of the Daphniote garrison,

with his spoils, Gedaliah, the governor

whom
fell

he

when

that king

made

his great expedition against

had
were

set up,

was quickly
all

slain, the

country

into

Assyria.

Then

for the first

time did a body of

anarchy, and
left fled

the responsible inhabitants

who

Greeks come in contact with the Syrians and


Babylonians, and the Jews must have heard in
the speech of their conqueror's troops the tongue

into

Egypt

to avoid the

vengeance of
of Kareah,
all

Nebuchadrezzar.

"Johanan the son

and

all

the captains of the forces, took

the
all

with which they were afterwards to become so


familiar.

remnant of Judah, that were returned (from

The

slaying of Josiah, the deposition of

nations whither they had been driven), to sojourn


in the land of

Jehoahaz, the setting up of the tributary Jehoiakim,

Judah

the men, and the

women,

and the removal of Jehoahaz into Egypt, marked


the
first

and the children, and the king's daughters, and


every person that Nebuzaradan the captain of the

period of intercourse between Jews and

Greeks.

"The
16).

children also of

Noph and Tah-

guard had

left

with Gedahah the son of

Ahikam

panhes
(Jer.
ii.

have broken the

crown of thy head

the son of Shaphan, and Jeremiah the prophet,

and Baruch the son of Neriah


into the land of

and they came


not the
to

This intercourse, howeA^er, was soon to be increased; three years later

Egypt
:

for they obeyed

Nebuch adrezzar invaded


Egypt, and most
all

voice of the

Lord

and they came even


5, 6,

Tah-

Judea, and
at

all

who

fled

from the war would arrive

panhes "

(Jer. xliii.

7).

The

last

act in

Tahpanhes

in their flight into

this history is

mentioned by Josephus, when he

likely stop there.

In short, during

the troubles

says that Nebuchadrezzar "fell upon

Egypt

and continual invasions and sieges of Jerusalem


in 607, 603,

and took those Jews that were there


led

captives,

and

599

(in

which a wholesale deportation

them away

to

Babylon; and such was the end

of the people took place), and


final

above

all

in the
B.C.,

of the nation of the

Hebrews"

(Ant.

ix. 7).

As

long siege and destruction of 590


city

588
all

these Jews were fugitive and rebellious subjects of

when " the


of

was broken up," and

the

men

Nebuchadrezzar's own kingdom, it


that he would avenge
flight

is

most probable
and
he

war

fled,

every one

who sought
into

to

avoid the

their last rebellion


all

miseries of war, or

would naturally

who was flee down

politically obnoxious,

from Judea by taking captive

whom

Egypt.

Such

could.

This indeed was contemplated by Jeremiah


for captivity to captivity" (xliii. 11).

refugees would necessarily reach the frontier fort

"such as are
46.

on the caravan road, and w-ould there find a mixed

and mainly foreign population, Greek, Phoenician, and Egyptian, among


not be resented, as
it

We

are

now

in a position,

after

finding

whom

their presence w^ould


still

that Tahpanhes was the seat of the Greek frontier


garrison, to estimate the extent of the Hellenization

would by the

strictly

protectionist Egyptians further in the

country.

of the Jewish

race during the

five

successive

That they should


settle

largely,

or perhaps

mainly,
;

periods of trouble in Judea between 607 and 587


B.C.

there would be the most natural course

In this twenty years a constant intercourse

TELL DEFENXEH.
with the Greek settlers must have been

gomg

on,

in

Egypt

to

which the "king's daughters" of


this is the

and a

-wider intercourse

than even a Greek colony


produced.

Judah came, and probably

one building

in Palestine -would have

Here were

which would be allotted to royal persons, who

numbers of the upper and more cultivated classes continually thrown into the company of Greeks
all

came with a
if

large body of the

more important
Here,

inhabitants of Judea as political refugees.

-who could afford to flee


less

had

to

become more
language

au}-where, history locates the Jew's daughters,

or

acquainted -with

Greek

and

the last remnant of the royal family recognized as

ideas in their temporaiy exile.

It vias

not a case

such

and here to

this

day the Bedawin, the de-

of a single body of Je-ws going into Egypt, and

scendants of the very tribes

who were kept

in

awe

not returning, but of continual ebb and flow, of


alternate dwelling in the

by that garrison,
daughter.

call the palace-fort after the

Jew's

Greek settlement and of

return to their

own

land, as the tide of Babylonian

conquest repeatedly poured over Judea, and then


retired
;

48. Another connection of a different kind


to be seen with the narrative of Jeremiah.

is

and

finally

lonia of a large

came the deportation to Babynumber of those who had settled

" Then
in

came the word

of the

Lord unto Jeremiah


in

permanently to dwell in Daphnai.


circumstances were such
as to

The whole
tlic

Tahpanhes, saying, Take great stones

thine

give

best

hand, and hide them in mortar in the brickwork


(or pavement),

possible opportunity for the permeation of Greek

which

is at

the entry of Pharaoh's

words and Greek ideas among the upper classes The bearing of this on the of the Jewish nation.

house in Tahpanhes, in the sight of the

men

of

Judah

and say unto them. Thus

saith the
will

Lord
send

employment of Greek names ments and other


and
after the

for musical instru-

of hosts, the

God
and

of Israel

Behold, I

objects

among

the Hebrews, at
is

and take Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon,

removal to Babylon,

too obvious

my

servant,

will

set his
;

throne upon these

to need mention in detail.

fresh and unex-

stones that I have hid

and he shall spread bis

pected light

is

thus thrown upon a question which


criti-

royal pavihon over them.

And he
;

shall

come,

has been an important element of Biblical


cism.

and shall smite the land of Egypt


for death shall be given to death, for captivity to captivity,

such as are

and such as are


for the

and such as are


xliii.

-17.

Of the residence of the Jewish


nor
this

fugitives

sword to the sword" (R. V., Jer.

8 to 11).

here no material remains have been found in the


excavation of the palace
considering
the
;

Now

this

brickwork or pavement at the entry of

is

surprising,

Pharaoh's house has always been misunderstood,

short time

during which they

and served as a puzzle to translators.

But as

occupied the place as an important political body.

soon as the plan of the palace began to be


uncovered, the exactness of the description was
manifest.

But

it

is

not at

all

impossible that

the plain around the

some camp was occupied

part of as the

On

the Plan

pi. xliv. will

be seen a

Jewish quarter

in fact, the little

prominent part

large dotted area on the

N.W.
it,

of the fort.

This
sort of

of the site on the S.E. seems just such a locality

was a great open-air platform of brickwork, a


mastaha, as the Egyptians call
outside all great houses, and
this country.

as -R-ould be likely.

full

search of the plain

such as

is

now seen
in

might

result in the discovery of Jewish remains.

most small ones,


side

Yet two connections with the Jewish residence may bo noticed. First there is the remarkable

space

is

reserved outside of the

door,

generally

along

the

of the

house,

name

of the
;

fort,

" The palace of the Jew's


is

covered with hard beaten mud, edged with a ridge


of bricks
if

(laughter "
else in the

no such name

kno-wn anywhere
is

not

whole of Egypt.

This

the one town

kept swept clean.

much On

raised from the ground,

and

this platform the iiiliabitants

CHAP. VII. POSITION AXD HISTOKY.


sit, w'lieii

thcj wish to converse


;

-tt-ith

their neighsettle

referring to his constructions in Babj'lon, such as

bours or the passers-by

a great

man mil

would be used

for foundation

memorials (see Prof.

himself to receive his friends and drink coffee, and


public

Sayce in Academy, 19th Jan., 1884).


said to

These were
;

business
to

is

generally

transacted
this

there.

come from the Isthmus

of Suez

and they

Such seems
platform
;

have been the object of

large

apparently belong to some place where Nebuchadrezzar had " set up his throne," and " spread his
royal pavilion."
road, and

a place to meet persons

who would not


assemble

be admitted to the palace or

fort, to

guards, to hold large levees, to receive tribute and


stores,

As he only passed by the Syrian Daphnai would be the only stoppingcome from

to

unlade goods,

and

to

transact

the
is

place on that road in the region of the isthmus,


all

multifarious business which in such a climate


best done in the open air.

the inferences point to these having

Defenneh, and being the memorials of his esta-

At the same time the actual way into the palace


was along a raised causeway which rose
back of this platform.
at the

bhshment
after

there.

That they should be now found


is

having been buried,

just explained

by the

From

the platform

denuded

state of the great platform.

framing of removable wooden steps most probably


led

up

to the causeway, along

which the way led


end of
it,

49. There

does not seem to have been

much

to the entrance to the palace at the east at a height of 6 feet 9

activity in the place during the reign of

Haa-ab-ra

inches above the great


is

(Apries)

of his predecessor, Psamtik II.,

many

pavement.

This platform or mastaha

there-

sealings of wine jars

fore unmistakably the "brickwork, or pavement,

found;

stamped with cartouches were of Haa-ab-ra only one plaque with his
single sealing;

which

is

at

the

entry

of Pharaoh's

house in

name, and not a

and of his successor


This

Tahpauhes."
Jeremiah
fugitives

Here the ceremony described by


place
before

Aahmes many
important

sealings and other objects.

took

the

chiefs

of the

suggests that the place was not inhabited by any


officials,

assembled on the platform, and here


his
is

nor visited by the king during


it

Nebuchadrezzar "spread

royal

pavilion."

the time of Haa-ab-ra, and therefore

would be

The very nature


to all the events.

of the site

precisely applicable

the more likely to be granted as an asylum to the

Unhappily, the great denudation


this

Jewish refugees.

which has gone on has swept away most of


platform, and

The next important


the
history
is

step that

we can

trace in

we could not expect


is

to find the

the

result

of the

accession

of

stones whose hiding

described by Jeremiah.

Aahmes.

He

had,

as

have pointed

out in

turned over

all

that remained of the platform, but


it.

"Naukratis"

(p. 7), obtained the throne as the

found no stones within


stone lay loose upon
evidently never been
fallen

Some
in

blocks of lime-

representative of the Old-Egyptian party, pledged


to resist the Greeks.

its

surface, but they


it,

had

In consequence he restricted
it

embedded

but had only

the Greek trade to Naukratis, and repressed

from the masonry of the

fort,

and were

elsewhere under the most stringent regulations.

covered with burnt earth and

mud washed down


site,

Daphnai was
pletely break

the

place which
;

suffered

most
com-

from the destroyed walls.


unmistakable.

The
is

however,

is

severely from this policy

and

in order to

up the Greek commerce which had


Greek garrison.

Another discovery which


with this place

probably connected
but
is

existed here, he deported the whole

occurred some years ago;


into
for.

This, as part of the changes on his accession,

unhappily

it fell

Arab hands, and certainty

probably took place between 570 and 565 e.g.

not to be looked

native sold to the

Bulak

Museum

three cylinders of terra-cotta bearing an

As Herodotos relates of the Karian and Ionian guards, "These at a later time kingAmasis took
away from hence and planted
at

inscription of Nebuchadrezzar,

an ordinary text

Memphis, making

H 2

TELL DEFEXXEH.

them

his

guard against the Egyptians"

(ii.

lo-l).

any suzerainty over Egypt, only overrunning the


country to an imcertain extent, and then retiring.

The

civil

population of Greeks was also removed,

as "the slips for their ships and the ruins of their


habitations " ^vere
left

But

it is

at least

an interesting evidence of the

desolate.

All trade here

importance attached to the fortress of Taphnes in


later times,
It will

was aboHshed, as any merchant going even by


stress of

weather to any port but Naukratis was

when this was written. now be as well to state the


B.C.

varieties of

forced to

make

the best of

liis

way

to Naukratis,
else
(ii.

the

name

of this place in different authors.

and not allowed to break cargo anywhere


179).

garrison of Egyptians
fort,

was put

in

to

D:!3njT

circ.

G09

(.Jer.

ii.

IG),

but

many MSS.

keep up the

as

is

objects of the

age of

shown by the quantity of Amasis and these were


;

read as follows,

Drasnn
j

588

(Jer. xliii. 7,

8;

xlvi. 14).

succeeded in later times by a Persian garrison


(Hdt.
ii.

1 (Ezok. XXX. 18).

30).

Aa^v
Tacl,vai circ.

454 (Hdt.

ii.

30, 107).
Jer.

That the Greek trade was


entirely
is

really stopped here


j

200 (LXX,
Coptic.
Itiu.

and Ezek.).

shown by the remains found.

An

Taphnes
Dafno
Ad(f)ur)

abundance of painted vase fi-agmcnts belonging to


the beginning of the sixth century occur in the

Anton.

Steph. Byz.

chambers of the palace, and also in the camp.

Dcf'neh

modern pronunciation.

The

latest

fragments could not be later than the


;

There arc two suppositions on the origin of the

beginning of the Persian period

and yet

if

the the
it

name, beside Brugsch's theory of Ta-bcnet ; one


by
llev.

trade had lasted in the slightest form


free trade

till

H.G.Tomkins

(see Acad. Sept. 11, 1880),

days of the Persians,

it

is

certain

and the other by

:Mr. Griflfith (see

Chapter XFV.).

would then have revived, and we should find the


red-figured and later ware left here.
cessation of
is

In Ptolemaic times the dwellings here were


restricted to a small

The

total

compass in the N.W. quarter

Greek trade before the Persian period


of the
exclusive
is

of the plain, and do not

then a strong confirmation

consequence.

seem to have been of much Of the Roman period there is


of

privileges of Naukratis;
in the

and since there

nothing
to

scarcely a trace on the south of the canal, but

Greek pottery found which obliges us


after the

date

it

beginning of the reign of Amasis,

many fragments mound north of


seem

Roman

glass,

&c.,

on the
there

the canal.

Some tombs

we may
that all

well accept the statement of Ilerodotos

to belong to

an

earlier period,

and possibly

Greek influence here ceased

at that time,

a cemetery of the flourishing times of Daphnai

and take the date about 500


limit assignable

B.C. as the

extreme

mav

be found there.

to the varieties of

Greek vase-

painting found here,

CHAPTER
50.

VIII.

One mention

of

Taplmes occurs

in the
to his

THE KASli AXJ) CAMP.


51.

Apocrypha;
aid
. .

in the list of people

summoned
all

by Nabuchodnosor appear "

that were in

.Kadcs, and the river of Egypt, and Taphnes, and


all

mass of the
of the "

As has been already mentioned, the ruined fort at Defcnneh is known by the name
Kasr
el

Ramessc, and

the laud of Gescm, until you


to all the
!

Bint

cl

Yehudi," or Palace of the

come beyond Tanis, and Memphis, and


inhabitants of Egj'pt, until you
of Ethiopia" (Judith
unhistorical, as
i.

Jew's daughter.
garrison fortress

That
is

this

was more than a mere


l)y

come
This

to the borders
is

indicated
it,

certain additional

9, 10).

manifestly

chambers

built

around

which contained many

Nebuchadrezzar did not maintain

articles that

common

troops would nut be expected

CHAP. VIII.THE KASR AND CAMP.


to

require

by the large quantity of the best


-whicli

chips of limestone fiaked off a piece of the finest


hierogl^-pliic sculpture.

paiutecl

Greek pottery,

belonged to the
fine sculptured
;

Many

of these chambers
in

Kasr

by the fragments of very

had probably had an opening


roof, so as to

their vaulted
;

and painted hieroglyphs on limestone


with the royal cartouches;

by the

be used as store-rooms
all filled

and that

large quantity of plaster seahngs of jars impressed

they were not

up

to the level of the plat-

and by the

name
The
is

form

is

shown not only by the sculptured chips


such as the

Pharaoh's house

Beth Pharaohused
Icalah),

by Jereit.

found in 35, but by a few other things found


in

miah, who certainly was familiar with

them,

upper part of a good

Arab name ofKasr echoes the same, as that


merely a
fort

not

statuette of a captive found in the third

chamber

{Msn or

but a palace-fort,
;

"W.

of 35.

Tlie

northern large chamber was


else

where a ruler would


the

live

with his troops

and as

either hollow
air store

and vaulted, or

a deep open-

mounds

to

ordinary view were not different

place, as

some

large

blocks of fallen
it.

from any other mounds in the country, not having

stone were found lying near the bottom of

The

any stone walls or statues


this

to attract

attention,

form of

its

north end was not fully ascertained.

name of Kasr,

so exactly suited to the character

On

the eastern side the pile appears to be far


solid;

of the place according to other indications, seems


to be a genuine tradition

more

but

many

small chambers might have


solid with brickwork, as

from ancient times, and

existed there, filled

up

not merely a chance appellation.

several of those were which I cleared.

When

once

On

referring to the

Plan

pi. xliv. it will

be seen

a chamber
to detect

is filled solid, it

needs

much

searching

that several different periods are indicated by the


differences of shading employed.

it,

as the wall and filling are all of the

The

original fort

same material
and

mud

brick.

When

I first

began
all

of

Psamtik

I.,

founded about 664


all

B.C., is

marked
it

work, the outlines of the chambers were nearly


invisible,
it

full black.

Unhappily

the upper part of

had

was only by continual attacks on

disappeared

by denudation,

and

nothing that

the surface that they were discovered, and their

remains reached up to the platform of the top,

forms and sizes shown.

The whole

pile of the

on which the actual dwelling rooms were placed. Yet the height of the highest parts
the bases of the chambers.
of the top
is

Kasr was a smooth rounded


in parts

hillock of mud, capped

24 feet above

by bricks burnt in the conflagration, which


parts

Probably the platform


above the ground, as

had preserved the


directions of the

beneath

them

from

was about 30
chambers

feet

crumbling into indistinguishable paste.

Even the
out,

several of the

in the best preseiwed parts

main

walls

had to be found

show signs
corners
;

of the springing of

domes

in their

and
fort

it

was some days before the outline of the


clear.

the corners are rounded, and gather in

was

toward the vaulting, which has now disappeared.


It is

not certain that

all

the chambers were thus


filled

52.
in the

Tliere are

many

indications of

changes

domed over; many of them were

not with fallen


;

construction,

and these form the most


Continually

and washed-dov,'n brickwork, but with sand


the middle, which
as
it is

this

puzzling question of the whole place.

was the case with the southern large chamber in


is

on clearing a chamber to near

its

base, the wall

not likely to have been vaulted,

was found to stand out

in a different alignment
lines in the

16

feet

4 inches wide.

Remembering how

(some cases are sho'mi by

chambers)

a sand foundation was always provided for stone


buildings,
it

sometimes the upper wall only rested on sand


below, sometimes a fresh wall appeared within a

seems not imHkely that some superior

building stood over this sand chamber.


cation of this was, that in the square

An

indi-

chamber.

In the northern large chamber were

chamber

several dividing walls near the base, not at all in

35 adjoining

this there

were great numbers of

one with the upper walls.

On

the northern side,

TELL DEFENXEII.
where a cliamber
sho'sved walls

breaking

line, I

Pau-Hellenion at Naukratis the entrance was by a

made

a clear section through

them

to the outside

wooden slope or
clear

staircase, as

no

trace of building

but both upper and lower walls seemed to end in

existed before the high entrance, and the wall

was

one smooth face, without any difference on the


outside.

and bare.
outer -walls of the fort were covered with
;

The

sizes of the bricks again

do not clear

The

up the matter,
and
later wall,

for in one distinct case of earlier

two or three coats of plaster


present surface of the

and beneath the


I often

there was no difference between


positive case of different arrange-

mound

found this
the Karians
all

the bricks.

perfectly preserved, as fresh as

when

ment occurs

in the southern large

chamber, where

lounged around

it.

The

bricks

had been
mortar

the upper walls end, and a smaller square chamber


is

pointed in the joints

with

mud

stiffly

found within the larger going down 8 or 10 feet

pressed in by the fingers, and not merely laid with

further,

and

slightly cutting this lower

under the upper wall.

a coat of mortar.
All the chambers, except one or two

Yet the base of

chamber was just about


fort,

of the

the base level of the comers of the


pieces

and some

smaller ones which are

filled

with

solid brick-

of pottery which

cannot be referred to

work, were completely cleared out to the foundations


;

Eamesside, but rather to Psametic times, were


found in the bottom of
it.

but scarcely anything was found in the sand


filled.

The evidence from

and rubbish with which they were

In
fine

dated objects seems against any earlier fort having

chamber 35 there were


chipped

many

flakes

of

been ruined and built over again.


deposits,

The foundation

hieroglyphs from an inscribed block,


ofl"

evidently

which were well beneath the comers of

on purpose to reface
hard limestone, of

it.

In cham-

the foundation, lower down.than the bases of any


of the chambers, bore the cartouches ofPsamtikl.;

ber 40 was the


captive, in

upper part of a statuette of a


fine

work,

now

at

BO the building could hardly be earlier than his


reign.

Bulak.
type
pi.

In chamber 30 w-erc some jars of the


xxxiv. 23, of

Then the

jar sealing of

Nekau was found


this
is

rough-faced red
but poorly

ware,

on the flooring of

chamber 22, and


fort,

rather thin and

fairly hard,

made

not only of the age of the


periods of building (a, b, c,
all

but after four

these were partly beneath the foundation of the


wall.

d of the plan) had


to be that

In the lower square chamber within the

passed here since the curious basis of the fort


laid.

southern large chamber were some fragments of


similarly

was

The only explanation seems

rough pottery
line

and a piece with a rude


fticiug,

the fort was begun with a different arrangement of

wavy brown

on a white

which might
late

chambers, and that for some unknown reason

it

at first be almost

mistaken for the roughest

was stopped
to work,

for a

time

then fresh builders came

Roman

painting, but which from its position

must
oven

and began with the present plan, only

attending to the regularity of the outside.

be the latest degradation of the of the eighteenth dynasty, which


in the Piamesside times.

fine colouring
fell

off

53.

How

the original fort on the top of the


is

platform 30 feet high was entered

unknown.
seems
which

51.

The most important

find

belonging

to

Probably the approach was from the north, as the


later entrance

this fort

was that of the foundation deposits.

was on that

side

and

it

had become
finding

familiar with such in connection with

most

likely that a flight of

wooden

steps,

stone buildings placed within a retaining wall, from

could be removed, was placed on the broad parapet

them
Mr.

at Naukratis,
Griffith's

and twice
at

at Neljoshch
;

along the inner side of the maslaha, and so bridged


across the ditch left between this parapet and the
fort wall.
It
is

beside

find

Gemaiyemi

but

certain that at the fort in the

nothing was known about the arrangements for brick buildings ; indeed I much doubted whether

CHAr. VIII. THE KASR

AND CAMP.
alabaster
it

any deposits would have been placed beneath a


purely
tried
civil

building of such material.

At

last I

The curious piece of known purport but


;

(fig. 1-1) is

of un-

is

paralleled

by a much
little

the

two

most
orders,

accessible

corners,

the

smaller piece of the same form in the

late

N.W. and S.W;

unfortunately at the

man

disobeyed

and began to

S.W. the work in

foundation deposit of the building in the cemetery


of

Nebesheh
is
:

(pi.

xix.,

Nebesheh,

fig. 7.).

The

beneath the wall.

Before long he brought


(pi. xxii. 5)

me

following

a catalogue of the objects found in

green glazed plaque

with cartouches

each corner

of Psamtik I, which showed at once

who was

the

founder,

and proved

the

fruitfulness

of brick

foundations.

This corner was thus broken up,

and only the copper plaque beside was saved; but


the other corners I entirely worked out with

my

own hands, and noted the The plans of each corner

position of everything.

are given on pi. xxiii.

with sections of the lowest courses showing the

depth of the deposits beneath them, and the


absolute levels in inches above an arbitrary

datum

about 17 feet below sea level (212 to 227 below

Menzaleh) or 500 inches below the highest point


,

of the mounds, to which I always measured.

In

the
(pi.

N.W. and N.E.


xxii. 1 to

corners deposits of plaques

9) were found, all of which were

engraved, both metal and stone, with the cartouche


of Psamtik
I.

No

other set of deposits have I

yet seen with the hard stone plaques of jasper,

green felspar, &c., engraved.

But

at the S.E.

corner a greater surprise awaited


first

me

there I

came on some teeth and bones


ceremony
not

of an ox, in

tunnelling in below the wall, evidently the sacrifice


of the
;

then a huge pair of

com

grinders of

full size

in quartzite sandstone (figs.


in

15,

16)

mere models

hmestone or

sandstone, but the same things that were used in

each household.

They had not been worn


in

at all,

and were therefore a new pair used


of the ceremony for grinding wheat.

some part
Below the
(fig.

great lower stone was the hbation cup

13) of

green glazed ware, and beside that lay the various


plaques.

Here
ore

also

were samples of lead ore and


10,

copper

(figs.

11).

May

these

have

referred to smelting w'orks of the

Greeks here, as
?

they certainly did smelt copper and iron

or

may

they refer to the protection which the fort afibrded


to the caravan road for the

metal trade from xlsia?

TELL DEFEXXEH.
joins the fort --wall on the X. side.

This apparently

sticks

and mud, just to keep out sun, on the

rain,

and

Berred as a

new entrance

to the fort, in place of

dust; and the space below served as a store place.

the older plan of wooden stah-s.

At a

level of

The

trace of this roof remains


is

W.

wall,
tiie

over 6 feet ahove the mastaha (dotted in the plan),


or 12 feet above the plain,

which

preserved above that level, owing to


it

was the

sill

of the

complete baking

has had in the conflagration.

doorway leading
still

to these

chambers.
^v-ith

The block
shown
in the

On

it

may

be seen a gently sloping groove on the

remains in position,
its

a block beneath

face of the wall,

beam

holes below

it,

and the moroff

having a drain cut in


plan.

upper

side, as

taring of the wall perfect beneath

it,

but washed

Kising about a foot and a half more up the

above

it.

This shows that a roof had protected the

passage,

we enter an open-air court 12 feet 2 inches


5 inches, which had a cornice and fluted
its wall.

lower part.

Around the top


frieze,

of the court thus left

14

feet

was a band of stone


lihalccr

sculptured with the

moulding of limestone around the top of


Another passage led out

ornament, painted in red and blue, so usual

to the east, serving as a


;

from the twenty-first dynasty onward.


this

Within

second entrance apparently

while a third led

chamber 22 was found the jar sealing of


(pi.

northward into the mass of building.

The north

Nekau

xxsvi.

2),

which proves

that

the

part of this building having been greatly denuded,

fourth period, d, of building

was before
includes

his reign.

we cannot
feet

trace this passage for

more than 22
it is

This block of buildings was by far the most


fruitful

from the court, up to which point


;

hori-

in

antiquities,

as

it

a line

of

zontal

but

it

probably led to an ascent by which

Idtchens or store-rooms on the ground level.

The

the upper platform was reached.

As

its floor is

group of chambers 2,

3, 4, 9, all
sill

entered by one

now about 18

or

20

feet

below the probable level

doorway (of which the stone


full

remains), was

of the upper platform, and the distance to the

of jars and pottery, and two or three weights

N. wall only GO

feet,

the ascent must either have


its

were found in

most of these

chambers.

The

been by steps, or else have turned in


it

course

if

chambers 11 and 17 (entered by the previous


second entrance to the palace which was turned
into a passage) were
filled

were a slope.

The
filled

walls and floors of this


;

court and passages are smoothly plastered

and

up with earth

to a

though they were

with burnt earth from the

higher level, about 5 feet above the outside group,

conflagration of the upper parts of the palace,

and only 2

feet

below the passage which led to


court.

yet the sides were in good condition


cavated.

when

ex-

them from the entrance


the largest
It

In No. 17 was

On

the

W.

side

of this block were

found the great Triton vase

(pi. xxv.),

which

is

found pieces of cornice with ordinary Egyptian


cavctlo

and

finest

discovered at Defenneh.

moulding; these show that the outside was decorated with a limestone top, as well as the
inner court.
After this block had been built, a second

was

in

99

pieces, evidently having

been carried

out of the palace above,

and thrown

away as

broken in the

first

disused

room

that was handy.

mass
;

The

further chambers 19 a, b, c,
level ,

had no doorways
the long
for a

was added

all

along the E. side (period c)

this

on the ground

and were probably reached by


floor,

only touched the previous block at a small point

a wooden staircase from an upper


recesses in 19 a

but later a blocking was put in (period d) on the

and 19 b being just suited

N.

side, so as to leave a

space enclosed between

staircase or ladder.

On

tlie

N. and

W.

sides of

them (chamber
a smooth clay
sloping roof
platform.

22).
floor,

This space was floored with

19

A are

benches or recesses which were covered

and roofed over with a


level

with pottery, jars stacked on their sides, dishes,


cups, and a fine black and
xxxi.
fig.

some way below the

of the
slight,

buff"

Greek vase
flat knife,

(pi.

This roof must have been very

17).

Iron pokers, a large

and

probably of thin cross beams covered with palm

other things

were

found

here,

beside

several

CHAP. VIII. THE KASR


-weights.

AND CAMP.
xli.

In the floor was a large sink -jar, placed In 19 c was a recess on the

(pi.

33) and a few arrow-heads which had

half in the sand.

been

lost there.

E.

side,

and a

sink-jar placed in the wall


little

on the

The body
thick of

of the

mastaba

is

from 20 to 40 inches

E. of that with two


the jar to

recesses on each side of

mud and

brickwork, with a foundation of


all

stand small things in as they were

brickwork about a foot deeper

round the edge.

washed up.

The

sink-jar

was

full

of pottery

The precise form

of the

N. end of the mastaba is not

(including the pieces of the fine vase, pi. xxxii. 5)

very certain, as only the foundation of the edging


wall remains, and that

and organic remains and


it.

fish

hones mixed with

may have been


;

altered
it

by

This whole block of chambers was built with

enlargements or otherwise

but so far as
It

could
to

a shght batter in the wall, and covered with white


plastering like the fort.

be detected

it is
it,

here marked.
as
it

was useless

try to follow
slope,

was much worn away


correctly

into a

At a
period

later time,

perhaps soon after the building

and yet buried in washed mud, so that


it
;

of these chambers, the great block of brickwork of


i:

scarcely any Arab could track

it

was
that
side

was inserted

to block

ofi"

communication
side, leaving

only by cutting frequent sections through

it

outwards from the palace on the E.


only the front entrance on the
still

anything could be determined.


it

On
an

the

W.

W.

This block

is

seems to have had a bounding


southern
part;
possibly

wall, at least

on

20

feet high,

and had

to

be cut through from

the

awning was

top to bottom, to extract the N.E. corner deposit.

stretched across the corner thus formed between

Later

still

the long

enclosing wall of period f


1

the western and southern walls; so as to

make a

was
It

built

around the chambers

9,

and also the

shady corner.

The two
seem as

recesses in the southern


if

small block to narrow the passage in the palace.

wall at this corner

they might be sentryas to be sheltered

seems probable that the space 26 was an open


so as to hglit the chambers 11

boxes for guards to stand

in, so

court,

and 17

from the sun.


have been a

From

ofi"

this

mastaba there must


broad causeway

without needing external windows.

set of steps to reach a

which was
;jG.

all in

one with the south wall of the


is

B afore

describing

the

lesser

buildings
or

mastaba;

this

causeway

11

feet

4 inches

wide,

around, we will

now

notice the great mastaha

and probably had a parapet wall on either hand,

pavement
xliv.).

in front of the entrance (dotted in pi.

now washed away.

But from the

raised ledge, or

All the

N. end of
its
is

this

is

so completely

roadway, over 10 feet wide, along the west wall of


the block of period b, there was probably also a
flight of steps

denuded away, that


where
edge.
tlie

limits

can only be found

brickwork

unusually deep around the


end, and eastern side par-

up to the causeway,

for direct access

The southern

without going on to the mastaba.

The mastaba
feet

ticularly, were,

on the contrary, buried deep in


This
easy to examine, and time
it

was about 3

feet

above the original plain, and the above the

wash and rubbish from the ruins above.

causeway and entrance about 6^

made
failed

it

not at
to

all

mastaba (the exact levels are given in Chapter XIII. )

me
such

work

out as closely as I should


least

For defensive purposes


the mastaba
wall,
level
is

it

will

be observed that

have

wished.

To

at

determine whether

any

stones
still

as

those
or

mentioned

by

away from the fort there being a complete drop down to ground
carefully kept
fort,

Jeremiah

remained,

any cylinders of
undenuded,
(excepting
cut

between the parapet and the

a drop of

Nebuchadrezzar
I

in the lesser part yet

10

feet

on one

side

and probably 40

feet

on the

had the whole


ledge

of
S.

the

mastaba

other, with

a gap 10 feet wide.

The

wall

was

on

the

side left as

evidence)

only allowed to touch at the here


it

N.W.

corner, but

away

to over a foot in

depth and turned over,

probably did not reach within 30 feet of


of the
fort.

but without finding auvthing but a silver rva"

the top

The

entrance,

it

will
I

be

TELL DEFENXEH.
noticed,
is

well

protected;

an enemy's force

wall can be traced along the western side of the

must
the

collect

on the causeway, which was comall

mastaba; but
inch or two of
find
it

it

is

so

nearly

all

gone (only an

pletely

open to attack
above;

along by missiles from


the

mud

remaining), that I could only


sections.

fort

while

low

roadway ran
it

by cutting cross
the southern side

alongside of the wall from which


attacked.

could

be

On

many chambers have been


fort,

The mastaba was commanded by a


fi-om

built to

a considerable height against the

cross attack

two

sides,

and

no

shelter

that at the eastern half reaching as high as the


fort is preserved.

could be obtained by

means

of any of the walls

Why
is

such a mass of building

belonging to

it.

was allowed, when the

fort

was kept so insulated

The burnt
mastaba
is

brick wall

marked on the plan

in the

on the E. and N.,


is

not intelligible.

One

result

a piece of the foundation of a building,

clear, that a great

mass of limestone building


fort

of which two or tlu:ee courses remain.

At the
beneath

stood

on the top of the

along this side,

eastern end
the

it

was

distinctly seen to be

possibly such a high blank wall that they were


indifferent to buildings being set against the lower
wall.

undisturbed

surface

of

the

mastaba,

and

therefore older, although the north part has been

Most of these chambers


from
the

are full of stone

exposed by denudation.

This

is

probably of

chips,

breaking up and trimming of


carried away.

Hamesside age,

as compared

with

Eamesside
bricks are

the stones
12,

when

The chamber

at

red-brick tombs at

Nebesheh.

The

however, seems to have been the receptacle


the
it

12-GxG-2x3-2,

'

the

Nebesheh
up

bricks

being

of all

broken pottery thrown down from

13uX6-2. The roadway which


wall

the fort;
led
to the entrance

was

entirely filled with shards.


if

It

can

looks on the plan as

the broad, long wall had


fort,

be traced bylines of chips, &c.,


;

down

to the

camp

been part of the defences of the

within which

and there

is

a distinct break in the inner

chambers had encroached.

In

fact,

on each side

wall near the Kasr, and remains of a stone gate,


in that line.

may

be seen a length of wall at 10 to 14 feet

distant from the fort wall.

At the S.E. corner were some more chambers,

To turn now to the other buildings around The oldest, so far as evidence goes, is the Kasr. the chamber 8 on the W., as in this the jar But from sealings of Psamtik I. were found. various indications (such as the stamp of Nekau
57.

18 and 29, which seem to have been solely used


in
later times
it

for

throwing away good pottery,

most of
nowhere
all

painted Greek pottery.

Why

this

should have been thus accumulated here, and


else, is a puzzle.

Fully nine-tenths of

in
in

chamber 22, and


the
eastern
of

the

depth

of

remains
below

the painted pottery of Defenneh was found in


It lay iu a

chambers
II.

18

and 19
it

these two chambers.

bed of dust,

articles

Psamtik
all

and Aahmes)

would

which appeared close to the surface by denudation, iu fact, the

seem that
to

the buildings here were probably


I.

of the time

of Psamtik

Chamber 8 seems
to

out of the ground

pamted fragments were sticking and first picked up by chil;

have

been

devoted

entirely

unsealing

dren iu the dinner hour

they

led

me

to begin

large
it,

jars;

not a single

jar

was

found

iu

work

at 18,

and then

to search all the pottery of

but dozens of lids and pieces of the plaster

the neighbourhood, and find

chamber 29

also.

sealings.

At

1, just

at

the

N.W.

corner of the

The bed
floor.

of dust with pottery was only 9 inches

fort, a scrap of painted


(pi. xxiv.

pottery of the seventh century

or so in depth, and lay on a hard, smooth,

mud
from

G)

was found down on the sand.


it is

The

After clearing

away the whole

of

it

chamber adjoining
at the comers.

curious, with four recesses


of an enclosure

18, I then

dug down below, and found two or

The foundation

three feet lower

down

a (piantity of twenty-sixth

CHAP. VIII.THE KASR AND CAMP.


tlyuasty pottery,

showing that the chamber must


This shows that

of

Khem.
this

But

it

would be strange

if

a temple

have been in use long before.


this deposit of

should be built so close against the camp wall.

Greek pottery does not date back


any means
;

Yet

seems as

if it

were the original place of

to the foundation of the fort by

but

the stela, as
it,

many

flakes
it.

and blocks broken from

must probably be half a century or more


was found among the pottery, that might
be twenty years old when thrown away.
best dating
is

later.

lie

all

aroimd

The account
Mr.
v.)
;

of the in-

Moreover, though a jar handle stamped by Nekau


easily

scription will be found in

Griffith's

chapter

on the inscriptions (chap,

most unhappily, a

The

flaw in the stone has just broken out the

name

of

obtained by finding jar sealings of

the place, that

it

ends in

hor-f is all that

we

Psamtik

II.

and Aahmes, mixed with the potsherds.

can say.

This shows that the upper level


pottery

belongs

of painted Greek
5G5
b.c.

On

the west of the Kasr


soil, filled

many chambers may


:

to

595

to

But, as

be seen in the

up with stone chips

as

already noticed, the removal of the Greeks from

these chips have hindered the denudation

more
as a

here by Aahmes, and cessation of

all

Greek trade
might,

than the mere brickwork, so they are

left

prevents our dating this pottery later than about

heap in the chamber

w^alls.

These chambers are


plan.

565

B.C. for its introduction,

though

it

shown by dot shade on the

Away

to the

perhaps, be thrown out broken at a later date.

S.E. were a quantity of buildings inhabited by

With the pottery


door-sill lay

in

18 were found an iron

knife,

workmen, the armoury of the camp.


hundreds
the

Iron arrow-

and a quantity of iron scale armour.


on the ground
the chambers of 18.

stone

heads strewed the ground, and were excavated by


;

at the north

end of

same

of bronze

iron and copper

slag abounded;
all

and many other small objects


it

Having now described


Kasr,
pi.

the buildings of the

w^ere found.

As

would not be worth while to

we

will notice

the rest of the

camp

(see

excavate on a large scale without a definite clue,

xliii.)

In front of

the
;

Kasr was a brick

and

yet,

owing to denudation, the surface dust


soil,

wall, with a

gateway in

it

but the ends of this

was richer than the general


instead of trying to dig

I determined,

I could not trace

on the surface, and I could not

down two

or three feet to

give time to clear

up the course of the


affair,

wall, as

the sand, to only turn over the dust.


less labour, as
it

This was far

that

is

generally a very tedious


attention.

and takes
is

did not need to be put in a basket

up a large share of
on

The

wall

only

to

remove

it,

but could be just raked over with a

detected by the cessation of a strewing of pottery


its

hoe, and pushed back by a child with a bit of pot-

inner side, and a similar cessation of stone


its

sherd

and

in this

way about

six acres of

ground

chips on

outer side

the brickwork

is

com-

were

all

turned up to about 6 inches deep.


if

Someanything

pletely swept

away

to the ground,

and the wash

times a chamber would be worked out

of rain and wind-blown sand disguise the foundations.


is

good was found


the plan
plainly.

and

after thus turning the soil

Further out to the north wall of the camp


;

of

chambers and walls showed very


objects found,

a quantity of stone chips

basalt, granite, sand-

For a description of the

stone,

and limestone

lie

thickly on the ground,

chap.

xi.

must be

referred to.

and

apparently important buildings have been

At the south wall of the camp three heaps of


chips were noticed in the middle, and I guessed
that these represented the chips
left in

destroyed here.
stone,

line of chips of basalt, sand-

and limestone mark the

side of the road-

the road-

way up

to the entrance of the Kasr.


its

way, and on either side, of a stone pylon that


edge,
is

Just outside of the wall, lying on

half
I.,

stood here.

On

excavating we found the corners

of a great sandstone stela, probably of Psamtik

of the foundation, where the stones

had stood,

which states that

it

was dedicated

in

the temple
I

but

no

foundation

deposits

had been placed

TELL DEFENXEH.
here.

The X.E. and S.W. coruers


gi-eat

of the

camp

been cleared up.


to

It

was a custom

in

most rooms
a
littlo

wall were also cleared, but no deposits were found.

have close to the wall, sometimes cut


it,

The

wall of the

camp has been cntkely


rain, as there is

into
into,

swept away down to the ground by denudation

down to, and the sand beneath, with an amphora which


a hole in the
floor
;

lined

removed by wind and not by

no
it

had holes in
out.

its

bottom and sides to


filled

let

the water

wash
from

of

mud around
tent to the

its site.

walked across

This amphora was

with large shards,

my

work a couple of hundred


it.

and smaller pieces on the


flow freely

top, so as to let water

times without perceivmg

At

last I noticed a

away and yet support any cup or dish


Fish bones are often found
is

space clear of potsherds on the E. of the Kasr,

that might be washed.


in these sinks,

and finding

could track

it

southward to where
it it

it

and the pottery

alwaj's covered

turned a comer, I then guessed


the camp.
all clear

was the

wall of
to be

with a concretion of yellow matter which seems


of organic origin.

On

cutting into

it,

was found

Sometimes the sinks arc much


feet in

mud, and therefore probably brickwork,


all

deeper, and prove to be veritable dry wells, one

though

semblance of bricks had long since


I

S.W.

of the

Kasr being about 10


with shards.
for

depth to

vanished under the soaking rains.


diificulty in

had some
and

the sand,

all filled

Sometimes jars
as
is

tixiug

it

at

the

N.W.
it

corner,

were made on purpose

small sinks,

several pits there did not clear the matter up, as

shown

in

No. 37

(pi.

xxxiv.).
is

so

much mud

identical with
settle
it

lies

around

it

At some distance south of the camp there

hence I could only

by the direction of the

mound

bordering on the caravan road, with some


it.

north and west walls.

pottery scattered to the north of


is

On

excava-

Beyond the camp there


the plain the
is

little to

be noted

ting in the
;

mound, largo

quantities of limestone

covered with potsherds, as shown on


xliii.),

chips were found, together with


granite and basalt
;

some

pieces of

map

(pi.

and walls can be found in


searched in every direction

and some limestone paveas several


Ijrick

almost any part.


for stone chips or

ment was found


walls,

in aitu, as well

broad walls that would indicate

which are marked on the

map

^pl. xHii.).

the

site of a

Greek temple, but was unsuccessful.


had a temple
all

The

bricks were between the rather varying sizes of

group of walls away to the east of the Kasr, I


I

those of the Kasr, and therefore probably of the

began on early in the work, hoping


site
;

same

age, certainly not Ptolemaic or

Koman. This

but I found small dwelling chambers


it,

may

well have been the site of a guard-house by

over

and sinks

for

washing-up, without any

the side of the road, or, from the fine stones used,

sign of an important building.


walls
is

plan of these

perhaps a temple.

It is

a very striking proof of

given in

pi.

xlv.
all

The work was very


but identical with

the fixity of the line of road; for, luul not a road

slow,

as the walls were

passed here, there would have been no appnront


reason for placing a large building far away from
all

the

soil

around them, and only two fellows were

competent to track them.

One

lad, Khallil Sidah-

the rest of the town, with a stretch of deej),


;

med, was most

skilful at this,

and often

it

took

sandy desert between

Itut its

place by the roadjust in the

me
was

a long examination to prove to myself that he


right,

side exactly explains this.

It lies also

and not merely cutting a trench as


Yet some
result

axis of the

camp, probaljly whore the


ofi"

branch

fancy directed.

was obtained, as

road turned
the camp.

to

go up to the soutliern pylon of

this turned out to

be the earliest Greek locality

that

we

cleared,

and most of the objects

in

pi. xxiv.

were found here (marked 51).


time that such arrangements have

Many pits were sunk N.W. mound marked


Greek exodus had
left

iit

iutirviils

all

over

tlic

" Ptolemaic."

This was

The
as
it IS

sinks which often occur here deserve notice,


the
first

evidently the site of the reduced town, after the


tlie

great

plain

deserted.

CHAP. IX. THE POTTERY.


All across the plain there
is

uot a fragment which


fifth

Naukratis.

The

Egyptians were not familiar

can be
is

tlatetl later

than the

century, B.C.

it

with a wide neck or contracted rim to bowls and


flat

absolutely clear of later pottery, so far as I have


find.

vessels, their

forms are either an open bowl

been able to
there
times.
is

But on the N.W. mound

or a distinct neck,

and the break of the curve


is is

pottery as late as perhaps early

Roman
these

and

slight

narrowing

distinctively

Greek.

Scarcely anything

was found

in

Another early type here

the stamnos (xxiv. 10),


is

excavations, though I generally sunk large pits

the plain line pattern of which pottery


at

like the

early

down
and

to the water level,

and cleared some large


that was

Naukratis, and distinctly archaic in

chambers.

Three bronze pots of cylindrical form,


amulets were about
all

comparison with the later ornament found on

a lot of late

stamni among the fragments of chambers 18 and


29; there, about 580
e.g.,

found.

this

form

is

always
xxvi. 8.

On

the other side of the canal, which I rarely

decorated with the lotus flower, like

pi.

visited, there is late

Eoman
Tombs

glass strewn about,

Again the neck


which

(xxiv.

9)

is

earlier

than
8),

the
of

and an impressed glass


sail

seal with a galley in full

necks of the black and buff vases (xxxi.


it

was found

here.

also exist,

and some

is

the prototype.

And

the fragment

have been of limestone.

Doubtless objects might

of a stamnos with

PET

incised

upon

it

retro-

be obtained irom here, but


of workinir on that side.

my time

did not permit

grade, seems certainly to belong to the seventh


century.

With
idol

this pottery
3),

was found the archaic stone


terra-cotta, (xxiv.

(xxiv.

the

4),

and

CHAPTER

IX.

probably the rude idol (xxiv. 2).


of such figures here
is

The

finding

THE rOTTEKY.
58.

of great value, owing to the

narrow limits of the Greek

occupation

here.

The

study of the pottery of Defenneh

is

For once

it

can be

safely said that

we have

the natural complement of the work last year at

figures certainly

made within one

century.
site, is

The
will

Naukratis

each explains the other, and shows

other pottery found in this early

marked

by
the

its

relations

and

differences fresh results of


is

50 and 51 in the numbering of


or vases in pis. xxxiii. to xxxvi.

sites,

which

painted

Greek pottery, which


finds at Defenneh.

one of the

be seen at the lower right hand side of the types

most valuable

Of the circum-

The types

are

stances which give a chronological value to the

Nos.

1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12,

14 without a base,

main

find of

Greek vases

here, I have already

16, 19, 21, 22, 35, 37, 38, 39, 63, 75, 78, 93.

rendered an account in the previous chapter.

The

earliest potteiy

found here, to judge by


the buildings

its

59.

The bulk
the

of the painted pottery, found in


is

style, is that

among

away

to the

chambers IS and 29,


from
pottery
is

remarkably
at

different

E. of the Kasr.
(pi.

Here were found two bowls


which are
distinctly

found

Naukratis.

The
from

xxiv.

12, 13)

non-

difference

partly

due to age, as Naukratis


times, but that
is

Egyptian, and yet are not familiar in Greek types


they seem
like

lasted rmtil

Eoman

far

the prototj^Des of the forms so

accounting for the whole difference.


fact is that all the types

The main
at

common
reduction

in the temples of

Naukratis; with

most usual

Naukratis

and a sharpening of the

brim they

are absent at Defenneh, and all those most usual


at

would reach the black and buff bowl which may


be called the Naukratite Apollo bowl
;

Defenneh are never found


Unck
" Apollo

at Naukratis.
Defenneh.
deto

and on
Buff and

Naukratis.

the other hand, a narrower form, with a base,

Hundreds
dicated Apollo.

One

piece

reaches

(Naukratis

x. 4, 5, 6).

plain.

the

white-faced

Aphrodite

bowl

of

TELL DEFEXXEH.
Xaukratis.

Defenneh.
on

situla vases are in

some cases
like fig.

of Eg}-ptian origin.
situla
(fig.

" Hundr.;ds de- One piece White-faced " Aphrodite bowls plain. to dieated (Naukratis x. 1, 3). Apollo and Aphrodite " Rhodian " pir.akes, black and Hundreds of Xone.
red radii and
circles of spots.

On
1)

pi.

xxvi.,

which contains solely the


8, will

designs

on vases

be seen
is

hawk
is

on

basket,

which

a purely
neh.

pieces

in

town
" Korinthian " vases "Phoenician-Greek." Xaukratis lines, purple
wliite.

Egyptian
Xone. Xone. Xone.
fig

sign, being

the hieroglyphic

lu

Common. Common.
and
General.

a direct

drawmg
pi.

of an Egj-ptian, which I

have given again on a larger scale (reduced from


a full-sized copy) on
xxix. 2.
;

On

the other

hand

the shaving of

Situla-form

(Defenneh vases iiv. 3, xxvi. 8). itomni (Defenneh xxiv. 10),

X
Xone.
Rare.

Common.
General.

the face, the close cut hair (the hues of which


are yellow on black), the circumcision, and the

Fikellura pattern (xiviii.). Fan lotus pattern (xxvi. 8). White spots and crosses (xxix.). dancers, with Imbricated, sphinxes, ic, (ixi. 2).

Common.
General.

Xone. Very r
Xone.

mode

of fighting (which

is

just

what

is

seen in

Common. Common.
tilings,

Egyptian figures from the


that this
is

earliest age), all

show

an Egyptian and not a Greek.

The
again

On

looking

at

such a state of
this hst includes
it

and

lotus

gi-oup

between the two fighters


like

is

remembering that
to think

most of the

not a
flowers

Greek lotus pattern, but


on
piles

the lotus
It

potteiy found at these sites,


that this ware

seems impossible
to these places in

of

Egyptian

ofi'erings.

came

cannot be doubted that this was painted with

the ordinary course of trade

from Greece and

hving Egyptians under the


there
to
is

artist's eyes.

If

then

Asia Minor.

Even

if

vases had been

made by

good reason

to attribute the situla vases

Phcenicians,

a wholly aheu people, such as the Samnites or it would be unlikely that the Imes of

Daphniote potters, we are also led to attribute


the

to

trade would be so absolutely isolated to two cities in the Delta at the same period ; but when both

exactly the

same source the stamii, which are of same clay, and decorated with the

same

fan-lotus ornament.

With regard

to the age
all

those

cities

were inhabited by louians, and both of


intercourse witli Ionia

of the

pottery,

it

seems certain that

Greek

them kept up a continual


for

pottery from Defenneh


just about a century.

must be included within


fort

trading and information, and

derived their

The

was founded, and

imports through that Greek trade, this isolation To agree that each is the more extraordinary.
of these types peculiar to one or other site

the louians settled here, about C65 b.c, and the

Greeks were entirely removed by Aahraes about

was

5G5

B.C.
;

Few
but

sites

can give such a well-defined


of

made on

the spot, and that but

little

of all the

period

probably no large collection


is

pottery was imported,


archaeologists
;

may be

scarcely allowed by

painted fragments

so closely limited as

is

the

yet the facts of the


;

case

point

bulk

of the

pottery here,

which comes
this

from

unmistakably

in that direction

and the probaship

chambers 18 and
which
refute.

29,

as
B.C.,

may

be dated

bihty that a ton of rough clay was easier to


to
is

between 595 and 5G5


only

with a probability
exception

Egypt than a ton


But there
is also

of brittle

and bulky vases

some vciy

clear

could
is

entirely in favour of this conclusion.

As, however, in no instance apparently


is

strong evidence that one of


of

there any pattern or style which

known not

to

the

most

important classes of the potteiy


in the countiw.
is

have been

in use then, the case

must be accepted

Defenneh was made


tj-pe

The

situla-

at least for the present.

of

vase

(pi.

xxv. 3, xxvi. S)
at

unknown,
it is

We
there

have above seen what a great separation


is

until discovered

now

Defenneh, and

obvi-

between the potteiy of Xaukratis and


;

ously copied from the bronze situla of the


tians,

Egypon

Defenneh

but so far as they can be compared,

which was very

common from

this period

mainly on unpainted pottery


veiy satisfactoiy.

the
are

result

is

to Ptolemaic times.

Further, the dcsigus on these

The

following

styles of

CHAP. IX. THE POTTERY.


pottery whieli were found at Xaukratis, and can

be approximately dated by the levels as published


in

"Naukratis"

I.

(pp. 19, et seq.).

TELL DEFENNEH.
and xxxi. 11, were done on the uufired
not after
it

clay,

and

Some
tum

of the typ^s figured call for notice.

is

bad been rendered almost unseratcb-

form found in tbe early

levels in the oldest stra-

able by tbe final

bakmg.
to tbe unpainted pottery,

of Naukratis, from which I obtained a perfect


xvi. 4)

amphora(Xauk.
Gl.

only slightly shorter in the

To turn now

we
at

stem, which I attributed to tbe middle of the seventh

bare at Defenneb a mixture wbicb is confusing


first,

century(Xauk.

p. 21).

Here

tbis

form

is

bebeved to

but at tbe same time veiy instructive.

We

range from tbe seventh century down to 505 b.c.

find purely

Greek pottery, and purely Egyptian


first to

strange fact

is

that tbe amphoraj scaled witb

pottery

and we bave

distinguisb between

tbe royal stamps of tbe characteristic


curling

Aabmes
white

are of tbis type, with

tbom, and next to

see, if possible,

wbetber tbere

is

facing,

and red

lines

a mixed style, wbetber tbe Greeks learned from tbe

about

their

surface.

Whether

Greek

Egyptians, or wbetber tbey stood quite separate.

potters were employed to

make tbe

jars for tbe

Tbese
until

latter questions

we cannot

finally settle,

royal vineyards, or wbetber the wine was trans-

we bave examined pm-ely Egj'ptian sites of Tbe figures iu plates xxxiii. xxxvi. of types are numbered continuously, so tbat we sball not need to quote tbe plate number for
tbe same age.
tbese
in

ported in
jars

skins

and then poured into


iu

Greek
is

and sealed
;

tbe palace at Defenneb


it

doubtful

or

possibly

was Greek wine

imis

ported in these jars and sealed iu Egypt, but this


less likely. All varieties of this pattern are

tbe

following

account.

And

tbe

found at
tbe

numbers

at tbe lower rigbt


list

band

of eacb type,

Defenneb, tbe light brown with


white-faced with

red lines,

refer to tbe

of sites,

and tbe cbambers on


a

red lines,

and the white-faced

tbe plan, pi. xliv.

with black lines, just as at Naukratis.

we can set aside certainly made by Greek


First

number

of forms as

The
here

great loop-handled amphora, 6 (which

is

potters, since on pieces

shown

witb

pole

passed

through the
it),

of sucb vases

Greek

letters (or

Karian in some
be approtypes
are

bandies to illustrate the


very
as

mode

of carrying

is

cases) are found

incised

by tbe potter wbile wet.


all

common
B.C.,

in fragments at Naukratis, as far

Tbus

figs. 1, 6,

10, 12,
tbis

and 39 may

530

when

it

aj^pears to bave died out.

priated.

Besides

some

otber

It is

always of a light drab ware, sometimes

common
alily

at Naukratis,
;

and are tberefore presum2,

whiter, sometimes

more green.

The bottom

is
it

Greek

such as

2G, and 44.

And we

always scraped and not turned, showing that

may

probably assign by tbeir forms tbe following

was made bottomless on tbe wheel, and bandfinished

also to

Greek bauds,

5,

27, 32, 42, 43, 44, 48,

afterwards.

Tbe

massive

cylindrical

49, and 67.

handles are firmly applied, and never break off


origin

Of Egyptian
by
its

mucb may
in

be distinguisbed,
other Egyptian

the

surface, but

crack through
is

the jar

wIk'U

agreement witb forms


3, 4, 8,

broken.

The form

most admirably adapted


the strain coming

sites.

13 to 25, 28, 30, 31, 33, 34, 40,

for carrying a great

weight,

45, 52, 53, 54, 55, GO, 01, 03 to GO, 09, 70, 75
to

nearly as a direct pull on the material with tbe


least possible transverse stress, both

100 may be

fairly attributed to native potters.

when

carry-

But there are some cases


in the curves of

in

which the form

ing

it

suspended

or resting
it

it

on tbe ground.
sand

seems Egj-ptian, and yet witb a Greek character


it
;

When
floor

placed in store

Avas buried iu tbe


;

such as 41, 40, 47, 51


like tbese is

68, 72,

up

to

near tbe middle


still

and

tbis fine

exam-

and 74.
where

As something

found else-

ple,

which

rings clearly,

was preserved by
amphora;
sideways

in the Delta, I should be

rather inclined

standing thus

upright, while all the


in

to attribute

them to Egyptians who were inpressed

around

it

in

chamber 9 were crushed

by Grook models, or perhaps by Greek blood.

by tbe pressure of the earth.

CHAP. IX.-THE POTTERY.

The small furnace


nozzle to
it

is

new type

the long

being to attach the


;

skin

bellows
its

without overheating them


explanation.

such seems to be
for trays or
:

are found at Nebesheh (pi. iii.). It seems Qnmistakably the parent of the long barrel-shaped pilgrim bottles of the second century a.d., such as

The stands

dishes, 8

are found at Tanis.

and
all

9, are

not

common

elsewhere

is

found in

The

platters

parts of the plain at Defenneh, and

may

be a

yellow- faced

stool for sitting on.

twenty -sixth
until

35 and 36 are of the white or brown ware, which characterizes the dynasty, and is found at Nauki-atis,
It looks as if it

The "

Polledrara " ware, 12, of thick dark grey,

610
fine

B.C.

were made to imitate

has the massive cylindrical handles which characterize a rather different

the

close

drab pottery

which belongs to

form found

at

Naukratis
it

the same period.

(Nauk.

xvi. 6).

While
Nauk.

referring to this plate

The
it

sink pot, 37, has been already noticed


to

may

be noticed that a piece of a swollen-neck


like xvi.
7,

is

made on purpose

place in the sand,

amphora chamber

was

found

in

hole downwards, for pouring away water.

19. b.,

showing that

this belongs to the

The amphora 39
19
A.

was found with about a

sixth as well as the fifth century b.c.

dozen others lying on the benches in


for
if to

chamber
of un-

The

curious form 13

seems to be a cover
flies

They

are of a dark dull red-brown.

placing over food to keep

and dust away


This form
toj),

The forms
say.

40,

46, 47, and 51 are

all

be placed on ajar

it

would probably have some sign


is

certain use, whether for cups or lids

we cannot
found
at

of fitting, and not be so deep.

also

40

is

purely

Egyptian, being

found with a small opening at the


a short tube at the top
:

and with

Nebesheh.

as

if to

allow the escape of


in,

The pot 55
and one
3.
filled

is

steam, or to put a few flowers or herbs

as

is

rather common in chamber 18, with resin was found in chamber

commonly done with


day.

water-jars at the present


lid

They

are of

brown-red

ware, faced

with

large

disc-shaped

of the

finest

bright polished red.

greenish-drab ware, which was kept at Bulak, has

a cylindrical tube at the top

"n^ith

a perforated

Whether 57 is early, or not, is uncertain it was picked up by the Bedawin and brought to me,
;

bottom to

it,

suggesting the same purposes as

and

its

use, with the curious hole in the side, is

these bell-shaped covers.

unknown.
all

The types 19
and are most
dynasty
:

to

25 are

purely Egyptian,

characteristic
is

of the twenty-sixth

ing

The Bes vases 64, 65, 66 are useful as showhow early that type began, and what its

the ware

always red and thin (except

forms were.

fragment of the
it

fine

drab ware

22), but varies from a coarse lumpy surface, as


in 23, to the finest polished dark red face, as
in 20.

has an arm of Bes on

hkewise.

perfect.
is

The cups 75, Dozens

76,

78, 79 are difficult to get

of broken ones were

found

The strange pot 2G


found at Naukratis
;

exactly like what was


it is

but the only perfect examples of the thin drab cups,


76, were taken out of the insides of large
phorae,

the knob inside

shown
of the

amin

by the

series there to be the prototype

which were cracked, but not crushed

by

"Bacchic handles" of

later times, the develop-

the

earth.

The

greater

number

of cups

are

ment

of

which can be seen in the types from Nau-

shallower than No. 76, and sometimes have a


slightly turned-out side.

kratis in the British

Museum.

The type 29 bears on the origin of the " pilgrim bottle" form (67) but it looks, with the neck on one side, as if derived from the
;

The
only

braziers, type 77, are rather

common, but

one has

survived with

the top complete.

asJios,

and not from the Cypriote bottles such as

The base of a large one was found in 19. The various types of lids are placed together
K

TELL DEFENNEH.
on
pi.

xxxvi.
of

figs.

80

to

100.

They

are

the

found iu each

site

may

be given.

Where

sites

commonest
foiuid
perfect.

all

forms at Defenneli, and are

are practically equivalent they are here grouped

by the dozen in any digging, but seldom

together.

They

are of all -wares, the


red,

fine

close

The

earliest is of the

beginning of Psamtik

I.,

drab,

the

polished

and the rough

thick

chamber 30, type 23.

Then

the sites 50, 51, on


12, 14

brown.

They were many of them, 81,


fit

95, 97,

the east plain, types 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10,

98, intended to 21, 23, and 28.


fitted into

on a

jar, like

96 or 19, 20,

without base, 16, 19, 21, 22, between 34 and 30,


35,

Others, as 81, 84, 85, 93, 94,

37, 38, 39, 63, 75, 78, 93,

all

probably of

a jar neck.
if

And

others again (87 to


fit

the middle of the seventh century.

Then chamber
lids of

92) seem as

intended to

the cups 75
lids at

79.

8 with Psamtik jar stamps,

many
to

88 type,

The reason

for

such an excess of
its

Defenneh

and others varying from 91


under the
floor of

93.

Then 28

may
all

be seen in

isolated situation in the desert

chamber 18, with types 15, 17,

liquids

(except water) had to be brought iu


oil,

28 (no handles), 50, 54, 58, 76, many thick and


coarse ones of 83, 91, and 99.

jars,

neither milk, honey,

nor wine, could


least.
lid, to

Under 19

a.

was

be obtained under about a day's journey at


Therefore every jar that came needed a

a quantity numbered 32, with types 17, 30 (no


brim), between 31 and 35, between 34 and 36,
35, 36, 58, 83, 90, 92 coarse, and 98.
far

keep out sand and

flies

and the jars were soon

This so

broken into indistinguishable shards, while the


lids retained their

probably includes only pottery of the seventh

form.
is

century B.C.
illustrated

The
84,

sealing

up of the jars
xxxvi.

by the

examples on

pi.

large bung-lid, such as

earlier,

Of the first half of the sixth centuiy, or possibly we have in chamber 35 type 19, and
In the chambers
2, 3, 4, 9, the

sealed (as will be noticed in


lids

was put in and then fastened down and chap, xi.) ; some
have cross grooves, as 85, and others single

between 31 and 35.

and

types 2, 4, 0, 9, 11, 17, 20, 28

(no

handles), 30, 31
34, 47
(flat

(no base), between 31 and 35,


,

grooves, to hold the string for tying.

base), 55, 59, 01, 65, 79, 80, 84, 91

99,

Beside the pottery here illustrated, the finest


of
is
all,

and 100.

In the

chambers 11 and 17, were and 100


(also shallower).
4, 13, 19, 26,

the beautiful drab ware, remains

but that

types 14 (small base), 30 (no brim), 31, 61, 80,


82, 83 (also coarser),

so generally broken

up that
is

its foi-ms

can hardly

be

ascertained.

It

perfectly

characteristic

In chambers 19 and 27, were types


29, between
larger), 81,

of the twenty-sixth dynasty, so far as I have seen,

31

and 35, 39, 46, 76, 77


In

(also

and

therefore the

forms are of less consequence,


It is

92 (coarse), 93, and 94.


pieces of type

the

as the material suffices to show the age.

rubbish chamber on

the south of the fort, 12,


1

sometimes, perhaps iu the earlier examples, thick

were

many

0,

with Greek letters.

and massive, but always


types
are

finely finished

a few
also

On

t)ie

east of the

fort, 16,

were types 35 and


In the painted

given

in
;

15;

70,
it

81,

91,

94,

98, with plates with low brim.

thinner in 70 and 80

while

was reduced often

vase chamber, 18, were types 2, 4, 12, 35, 47, 55,


(Jl,

to a thickness not gi-eatcr

than thin card, a sort

82, 83, 90, 92, 97, and 99

and

in the other

of egg-shell pottery, of the most exquisite finish.

chamber, 20, were similar forms.

Another very
is of-

fine

pottery, but seldom


soft,

met

with,

a rich brown, rather


;

and polished with a

Beyond chamber 18 at site 25 were types 19,30 (no brim), between 31 and 35,01,
between 91 and 93, and 92.

14,

88,

glassy surface

it

is

only found iu the form of

In the dry well


10, 20,

thin plates, almost

flat.

The

sites

of each type of form arc


list

marked

to

S.W. of the Kasr, 21, were types 2, 4, In the dry well east 79, and 98.

of

19,

each figure, but a complementary

of the types

mnnberod 31, were types 28 (no handles), 36,

CHAP. X.-KEMARKS ON SOME OF THE VASES OF DEFENNEH.


aucl

46.

In

the

dry

-ft-ell

S.

of

the

Kasr,

it

is

uumberecl 54, were large quantities of the types

Pegasos,

observed that Bellerophon, mounted on is kept to one side of the vase, while

54 and 80.
than other
coarse,

In chamber 22, high up, and


sites,

later

the Chimgera, with open jaws, stands waiting


for

were types 24, 83 thick and


In the camp in general, reach-

him on the other


is

side.

More than

that, the

and 98.

drawing
though

full

of archaio spirit and beauty,

ing perhaps to the end of the sixth century b.c.

the

illustrations

here and elsewhere


It is surely strange

were types

5,

7,

14 (small base), between 15


21,
22, 25,

may

not convey as much.

and 70, 16,

19,

28

(28 without

to find a subject thus divided into at so early a date.

two parts

handles), between 31 and 35, 34 and 36, 35 and


70, 33, 42, 43 (two handles), 44, 45, 46, 48, 54, 56, 58, 62, 63, 64, 69, 71, 74, 76,
"il ,

AYe are accustomed to such

things

in later vase painting,

and even then

79, 83,

they are not very common.

Bellerophon was a

83 coarser and very coarse, 90, between 91 and


93, 93, 97, 98, 99.
it

The

lid

85

is

the latest

Corinthian hero, but the scene of his adventure with the Chimera was Lycia, and it is conceiv-

drawn, as

was found

in the

Ptolemaic mound.

had chosen his subject from a consideration that any scene thuslocalized would be attractive to the Carians and lonians in
able that the vase painter

CHAPTER
REMARKS OX
SOLIE OF

X.

DaphnjB.

Besides, Bellerophon would naturally

THE YASES OF DEFENXEH.

share some of the popular favour accorded to

Perseus in Egypt, seeing that thehorse, Pegasos,

on which he rides
62. [Mr.

was brought into being

Murray has kindly favoured me with


observations

by Perseus.
ment,
Perseus
as

"We have a Medusa on the fragand

the following important

on the

pi. xxvi. 10,

may

reasonably supply a

vase paintings of Defenneh, as compared with

the

missing

companion

figure.^

those of other

sites

and I gladly

avail myself

of his permission to publish

them

here.

W.

Bellerophon and the Chimfera were sculptured

M.

F. P.]

on the throne of Apollo at AmykliB by Bathykles of Magnesia, and those who believe that this
subject had been
first

" Nothing

is

more noticeable in Greek

archteo-

worked

into artistic shape

logy at the present day than the eagerness with

in Ionia will be confirmed in their

view by the

which painted vases are on all hands examined and discussed. It is noticeable also that a
large share of this discussion turns on questions of date

occurrence of

it

in so

Ionian a place as Daphnfe.

63.

On

a fragment of a situla,

pi.

xxvi. 4, is

and the

local origin

of this or

a figure of Nike, which suggests a comparison

that style of vase painting.


stances,

In these circumis

with the marble statue of her from Delos, the

the

pottery of Daphnas

a most

work

of the sculptors Mikkiades and Archer-

valuable acquisition, by reason of the limits of

time which Mr. Petrie has worked out for


the earlier half of the sixth century
B.C.

it, i.e.
'

Compare the
sphinxes,

./Egina vase in Berlin with Perseus


pis. ix., x.

and

Gorgons, Arch. Zeit., 1882,


horses,
Jilgina,
lions,

The

figures of bulls!,

In addition, however, to these considerations

and local influence or origin, the Daphnsean vases present some interesting points of view to which attention may be called.
of

date

remind one
is

of the animals

which decorate that vase from on the Daphnaean pottery,


system of geometric
;

while there

also a similarity in the

ornament employed
two.

to

fill

vacant spaces
is

but there

is

always

this difFerence,that the ^Egina vase

the more advanced of the

For example,

it

is

interesting to find on one

The alphabet used on


publishes
it, loc.

it is

Attic.

But Furtwaengler,

of the situlee (pi. xxvi. 8) a representation of

who

cit.,

and in his Catalogue of the Berlin

Bellerophon and the Chima^ra, especially

when
K 2

Vases, No. 1682, does not go further as to date than say that it is older than the Fran9ois vase.

TELL DEFENNEH.
mos, marble
father

and
rise

son.'

The

wings of the

in

some
of

respects,

was represented with the


If

Kike
latter

from

her back,

and

not,

" tails
then,

serpents instead of feet."


to

we,

as on the fragment of pottery, from her breast,

decide

name
if,

this

figure

Boreas,

which

seems to have been the older


figures

instead of Typhon, and

further,

we expect on
side of the

manner.

Both

are

alike

in

having

the analogy of Bellerophon and the Chimasra, a figure related to


vase,

wings to their

heels, but they differ again in

him on the other

the rendering of the face and hair.

Possibly

we

shall

have no

difficulty in identifying

in these matters, also, the vase painting repre-

the figure actually there with one of the windgods, sons of Boreas, either Zetes or Kalais, both of whom Pindar " describes as " men with

sents a slightly older stage of art.

Archermos

was reported^
first

in

antiquity to have been the


If this report

to give Jfike wings.

true,

and

if

the statue found at Delos

was was the

purple wings rising from their backs."


figure

The
would
not

being

beardless

and

winged,

one from which it originated, then the statue must be older than the vase. There was, however, another

answer
Boreas.
start

perfectly, so far, to
It
is

one of the sons of

true

that the

wings do

claimant for priority in giving


the painter, and in

from

his back;

they start from his breast

Nike wings
view
of

Aglaophon,

as usual, in archaic art, at least in art older

this

uncertainty

we may perhaps

than the chariot victory of Arkesilaos of Cyreno

fairly decline to

report.

draw any argument from the Archermos ^ is calculated to have lived

which

Pindar

here
in

celebrates.

The

figure

appears to be

the act of letting loose two

in the first half of the sixth century B.C.

birds of prey, whicli

swoop down on a hare.


above the hare
its
is

That, again, seems a not inappropriate act for a


C4.

On

another of these

situliB (pi.

xxv. 3)

is

wind-god.

In the

field

represented a winged and bearded figure whose

grasshopper, or tettix, which from


tion with the Athenians

associa-

body ends

in

a serpent, while in each hand he

and lonians,' may be


his

holds out a snake.

we know

of

The design answers to what Typhon, and if that is so, we have

held to localize the figure in some measure to


Attica, where the

legend of Boreas and


if it

here another instance of a vase painter utilizing


local traditions or belief

sons was at home,


Ionia, as

was not
the

for it was in the Ser; bonian lake near at hand that Typhon lay buried, according to the legend referred to by Herodotus
(iii.

some

believe.

On

home in whole then we may


also at
it

venture to identify these two figures as Boreas

and one

of his sons

and here

may be
pi.

noticed

5).'

This
to

much

is

certain, that the figure

also that the owl

on the fragment,

xxvi. 5*,

belongs
yT)yei^el<;,

the

class

of

earthborn beings,

clearly points to

an acquaintance with Athenian

giants.

fact attested

At the same time there is the by Pausanias,' that on the box of

Kypselos, Boreas, a kindred figure to Typhon


'

The drawing of Boreas and his companion figure seems to be more archaic than that of Bellerophon and the Cliimajra already
symbols.

spoken
See Petersen in the Mittheilungen des
pi. xi., p.

of.

Tiie figures are


slip;

painteil

in

l)]ack

Inst, in

Athen,

and purple on a white


is

a process which the

1886,
' '

372.

Scholiast to Ariatophancs, Birds, 573. Pliny, N.H., xxxvi. 11, gives the genealogy of Archermos, and states that his two sons, IJoupalos and Athcnis, made a
statue of

attended
slip
is

by

this

disadvantage, that
off,

white

apt to peel
it,

taking the black

design with

and leaving only the outlines

the poet Hipponax,


it is

who

llourislied

from which

estimated that their fatlier


first

Olymp, 60, must have lived


'

towards the end of the


Pindar,

half of the sixth century B.C.

Pyth.

iv.

182, ai'Spa?

7rT(pOL<Tiv

vCra

iritf>inKOVTa.% H/xtfita

Pra^.

7,

says

that

Zeus slew Typhon

tV

Trop<{>vpOii.
'

Thucydides,

i.

G,

speaks of the golden tcttiges which the

V. 19. 1.

ilo4

To8uiv ila

old Athenians and lonians before his time used to wear.

CHAP. X. REMARKS ON SOME OF THE VASES OP DEFENNEH.

and the inner markings where


have been incised through the
65. This disadvantage

tliey

happen

to

blished, that
to the

is

to say, a state of things anterior


vase.

slip.

Amphiaraos

On

this latter vase

was represented had apparently come by the potters of Daphnge, or makers of these vases may have lived. For in another class of vases yielded by Mr. Petrie's excavations, we see
to be perceived
decide,

also

the

chariot race,

with

three tripods for prizes, and three judges to

and a horse

race.

The horsemen and


;

wherever

else the

horses have a strong resemblance to Bellero-

phon ou our

situla already described


flies

while
is

the bird which

behind each horse


class of vases

an

that

the

figures

have been painted in black

element of design which occurs frequently in


this

straight on to the red clay,

and next

fired at a

same manner on the


or

known,
other
the

heat which has burnt the colour into the vase,

rightly

wrongly, as

Cyrenaic.

On

and has
glaze.

at the

same time brought out a lustrous


the instances of this process
(pi.
is

vacant spaces of

the Amphiaraos vase,

Among

painter has put lizards, a serpent, a hare, and


a creature which looks not unlike a hedgehog.

a fragment of peculiar interest


has the remains
of
parallel bands, the

xxx.

o).

It

two scenes, disposed


one above the other.

in

This vase has been assigned to the end of the


sixth century
r,.c.

On

the lower band are athletes wrestling and boxing, with a

claims

it

as of

Coi'inthian

by Professor Robert,^ who workmanship, and


it

judge beside them, and three tripods


Evidently this
is

points out the coincidences between

and the

as prizes for the victors.

designs on the box of Kypselos.

But

this

may

representation

of

games held

at the funeral

be too late a period

if

our fragment represents


it

obsequies of some legendary person, like the

a more advanced art, as


if

seems to do, and

games

in

honour of Pelias on the bos of


or of Akastos

the whole of the pottery of Daphnse belongs

Kypselos,

on the

throne of

to the first half of the sixth century.

On

the

Apollo at Amykla3.

On

the box of Kypselos,

famous Franyois^ vase in Florence

is

also to

Pausanias

(v.

17, 4),

says that the


as

tripods

be seen a chariot race for prize tripods.

were
here.

represented

in the scene,

they are

So far we have noticed only the lower band


of figures on

It should be observed that the athletes,

our fragment, with

its

resem-

though they are drawn nude, are yet painted


over
the body

blances to the Amphiaraos and Fran9ois vases.

with purple

colour, as

if

to

indicate a close-fitting dress, though none of

the details of the dress are given.


(i.

Thucydides
his

But on the upper band of it there is the remains of a scene which bears a striking likeness to the ujDpermost band of the Frangois
vase. This scene has represented the

6)

tells

us that

it

was not long before

hunt of the

time that the ancient habit of athletes wearing


Sia^cJ/xara

Calydonian boar.

In the centre

is

Antgeos lying

Olympia.

had been given up in the games at There is, however, a vase, known as
the

prostrate under the boar, in almost identically

the attitude of the Frangois vase. In


of detail, as in being beardless

the Amphiaraos vase,^ which shows that what-

some points and having a

ever

may have been

case

at

Olympia,

spear in his hand and a helmet on his head, he


differs as if

athletes were certainly in the habit of wrestling

the drawing might be a httle older

nudely in the games

much

before the time of

while on the other hand, he differs from the

Thucydides.

In the case of our fragment we may, perhaps, assume a transitional state of


things

Antseos on an archaic vase from Corneto,* in


the direction of being a
=
'

little

later
p.

and more

when the new custom

of

contesting
fully esta-

games nudely had not yet been


'

Annalideirinst., 1874,

110.

Moil, deir Inst., x.

pis. iv., v.

Mon. dell' Mon. deir

Inst., iv. pis. liv., Iv.


Inst., xii. pi. x.

TELL DEFENNEH.
advanced in
style.

Our fragment ought then

to

66.

Another

class of vases belonging to the

stand between these two vases in point of Over the body of Anta^os is the boar, date.

black figure style, in the true sense of having


the black figures burnt in on the red clay,
is

behind which are the remains of a dog leaping on the flank of the boar, and the remains of

represented by the fragment,


Avhich
is

pi.

xxix. 4,

on

painted a nude female figure on horseflies

two heroes, who on the analogy of the Francois vase ought to be Kastor and Pollux, while on the analogy of the other vase just mentioned they ought to be Meilanion and some one
else.

back

behind her

an eagle

the space

among her horse's feet is partly covered by a The great size of the horse compared with dog.
the rider, the use of a saddlecloth, and the form
of the bridle and collar, are features which

we

We have
two two

thus on the fragment from Daphnas

find also

on one of the fragments of the sarco

parallel scenes corresponding in general to

on the Fran9ois vase, with strong resemblances also to scenes on other, apparently more archaic vases, found in Etruria,
parallel scenes

phagi from Clazomense,^ and on archaic reliefs from Xanthus in Lycia.* These are features which may be traced to the influence of Persian,
or at
all

events, Ionian art.

Nude women
Daphnas

not
said

but bearing inscriptions in the Corinthian alphabet. There is no more difficult problem at
present, in the history of vase painting, than
these vases found in Etruria with Corinthian
inscriptions; the

Amazons

riding

on horseback seem more to


is

Asiatic than to Greek taste.

by Herodotus

to have been occupied

sian garrison in his

by a Pertime, and possibly it had


in

problem being how far they are

been so held from the date of the invasion of

Corinthian productions imported into Etruria, or


the productions of descendants of those Corinthian potters who, in
after being expelled
B.C.

Cambyses, who also had lonians


according to Herodotus
(iii.

his

army,

1).

If the facts are

655, settled in Etruria,

otherwise in accord, there would be no objection


in point of style to place these vases in the time

of Kypselos.

from Corinth by the family Unfortunately our fragment has


In other ways, however,
it

of

no inscription.
have
its

may

possessed.

Cambyses instead of Amasis, whom he disBut it is hardly necessary to take

uses in discussing this problem further.


to the
is

into consideration the question of direct Persian


influence,

With reference
hide of the boar
of

manner

in
is,

which the

when

there

is

every probability that

rendered, that

short incised

lines,

by meaus we may compare the

Carians and lonians living in a frontier town


like

Daphnaa would have been from the beginand


taistes of

figure of an ape on an archaic vase from Caere,

ning of their settlement there affected by the


arts

representing also the hunt of the Calydonian


boar.*
It is true that
is

Asia

]\Iinor, if

not of Persia.

on

this

Caere vase the


67.
cal in

hide of the boar

not rendered as on our


is

The amphora given


that,

pi.

xxxi. 17

is

identi-

fragment, but the hairy skin of the ape


distinctly so rendered.
It

most

shape with the Burgon Panathenaic vase.

has been usual to

More than

among

the fragments of vases

assign vases of this Caere class to the sixth

of this shape from Daphna?, are several necks


of amphora},
tlie

century

B.C.,

and some of them even to the


.-

from which

it

is

to bo seen that

latter half of the seventh century


'

opposite view of Brunn, see his recent addition to his


in der Gcschichte dor Vasennmlerci,
j).

Mod.

dell' Inst., vi. pi. Ixxvii.

Problcme
'

45.

'

amphora, Mon.
Isracne
B.C.,

See Dumont et Chaplain, C^raraiques, p. 261, where the dell' Inst., vi. pi. xiv., with Tydeus killing

See the fragment in the British

Museum

engraved in

Ilellen.

Joum.,

iv. p.

is assigned to the second half of the seventh century and the vase, Mon. dell' Inst., vi. pi. xxxiii., with the banquet of Hcrakles is assigned to the sixth century. Fur

in Constantinoi)le are
liv.
*

The two sarcophagi now engraved, Mon. dell' Inst., xi. pi. liii.,
19,
fig.

14.

Murray, Gr. Sculpt.,

i.

i>\.

v.

CHAP. XI. THE SMALL ANTIQUITIES.

on the body of the vase there had been


figures exactlj in

left

a red panel on which had been painted black the

case it may have had its origin in observing these amphoras sealed up over the mouth.
w-Iiicli

manner

of the

Burgon

vase.

They have

also, in

common

with that

The name of pseudamphorte might therefore be apphed to vases of this form."


A. S. Murray.

vase, a purple ridge or cord


It has
in

round the neck.

been argued, and

is

apparently accepted

most quarters, that the amphora with red

panel was an Athenian invention.

CHAPTER

XI.

On

the neck of the

front a Harpy,

Burgon vase is on the and on the back an owl, the


and the wings aided with
pi.

THE SMALL ANTIQUITIES.


68. In describing the small antiquities
it

will
is

be

faces being in white


purple.

best to notice

first

those few which there

good b.c;

One

of

our fragments,

sxxi.

5,

reason to assign to the seventh

century

represents the neck of such a vase with the


figure of a

next the general bulk of the remains, which are


of the
objects,

Harpy very much


little
is

like that of the

sixth

century

and

lastly,

the

later

Burgon

vase,

iu respect of colours, but the

drawing may be a
fragment.

more archaic on our


true, therefore, of the

found at Defenneh and elsewhere in the neighbourhood, reaching down to Cufic times.

"Whatever

The
posits,

earliest objects

after the foundation de-

Burgon vase

as to date, will be at least nearly

true of these fragments.

not be older than


naic

B.C.

The Burgon' vase can566, when the PanatheCertainly there


is

are probably the very rude figures found in the buildings on the plain, eastward of the Kasr (pi. xxiv. 1 to 4). These

and some pottery

games were
assign
it

instituted.

are of a style which has been hitherto very un-

no older specimen of these prize vases known.

defined in age
figures
at

and when I found several such


it

Some

to b.c. 550.

It

may be added
was
stele of Aris-

Naukratis,

could not

be decided

that a vase found in the


of this description,

tomb

of Aristion

whether they were archaic

i.e.

of the earliest

and as the

Greek times

tion is generally placed in the first half of the


sixth century
P.O.,

work

in Egypt, before the rise of better

or archaistic,

and belonging

to

the

de-

we may assume
to

the same

cadence of a barbaric relapse.

Now
is

such

fio-ures

period for the vases of this kind from Daphnge.

being found at Defenneh, and in a


the pottery and other indications,
late as the

site

which, by

With reference
amphora, which
xxxvi. 5,
it

the upper part of an

not even as

is

sealed over the mouth, pi.


possible to trace to this cusis still

sixth century, at once fixes


;

them

to

may be

tom

of sealing, a shape of vase which


It has

and further, as we know that nothing of Greek work here (unless, possibly, an
the archaic period
ancient
object

source of some perplexity.


at Mycenge, lalyssos, in

been found
dimensions,

imported)
at

can be

earlier

than

Egypt and elsewhere,


small

665
class

B.C.,

we

once gain a fixed age for this

always

of

comparatively

of figures.

The horseman
similarity to

(fig.

1)

was
is

having a neck, two handles and cpout.


the neck
is

But

picked up by chance, and the precise locahty

useless

for

ordinary purposes,

unknown
(fig.

but

its

the stone idol


of

because
It
is,

it is

completely closed over the mouth.

3),

and the complete absence


to the

Greek

in fact, a false neck.

The vase must be

objects after the middle of the sixth century b.c,

both

filled and emptied from the spout alone. The shape of the vase has thus every appearance

warrants us in dating

it

seventh century.

This carries with

it

the age of a large class of

of being a derived,
Pettier iu

and not a simple shape, in


Chaplain, Ceramiques, pp. 315-

such figures picked


xix. 5).

up

at

Naukratis

(Nauk.

Ji'

Dumont and

The stone

figure (3) is of the rudest


;

317.

type possible, without limbs or features

were

it

TELL DEFEXXEH.
not for a ledge rcpreseiiting the
feet, it

miglit be

was placed, and


(like

six different
xli.

seals

of inspectors

almost doubted
with a notch to
(fig.

if

it

were not a loom weight,


in.

those in
it.

pi.

32

35)

were impressed

tie

a string

The

terra-cotta
still

upon

(In two instances there are six seals,

4)

is

comparatively shapely, but


fig.

very

in one case there is the

royal cartouche.)

This

rude.
figs.

This and

3 were found with the bowls

clay crumbled and


left

washed out afterwards, and

like

12 and 13. The terra-cotta (fig. 2) is much some of the idols found by Dr. Schlicmann

a cast in the plaster, showing the seals as in


After the six inspectors had thus each
it,

fig. 4.

in the early

Greek

sites

here we, at least, can

put his seal on


plasterer,

the jar was sent out to the


the whole top with a head
it

date

it

to

between G65 and 5G5

b.c, but

its

who capped
and sealed

precise locahty

on the plain of Defenneh was not

of plaster,
all

with the royal cartouche


this did not secure
it

known, as
surface.

it

was picked up on the denuded


terra-cotta soldiers' heads (figs. 7
also,

over

(fig. 5). (fig.

But even

The

the neck

5) is

an instance of a successful
;

and 8) are probably of the seventh century


by the extreme rudeness of them
the crested helmet.
;

attack on the royal stores

the cap of plaster has

they both show

been bored through just at the edge of the jar, and


the large

bung

inside

smashed through, so as to
;

Shell-carving seems to have been carried on


here, as
shell cut

freely reach the

wine

the piece of plaster broken


fig.

at Naukratis

a piece of a large cone

out

is

here shown missing in


;

5,

though

it

was

up was found, as well as some small


;

found with the jar


of the neck, old plaster,

the hole just shows the edge


filled

cones pierced for necklaces

and a piece of en-

and was

up with a scrap of the


difierent

graved Tridacna, like those found at Naukratis,

and a smear of new of a


to

was also picked up on the surface (Nauk. xx.

16).
in

quality;

no attempt was made


cellarer's suspicions,

imitate the

button of shell

(pi. xl.

10)

is

new form
xxiv.
5)

missing half of the cartouche, and this probably


raised the

Egyptian remains.

and made liim


as

The

piece

of
it

a whetstone

(pi.

is

break

off"

and preserve the whole jar-neck

noticeable, as

appears to bear an attempt at a

evidence.

The

jar

is

one of the great white-faced


lines
;

cartouche by some

one who

Imew nothing

of

Greek amphorai with red


it is

the pentagon on

hieroglyphs, nor indeed of any writing apparently.

incised, like a

pentagon on a piece of early

pottery at Naukratis.
09.

The

sealings of

tlie

aniplione extend over

the whole of the Greek period at Defenneh.

The

The number

series

of

sealings
I.

l)egins

with

largo

of

Psamtik

(pi.

xxxvi. 1), found with


8,

general system of sealing

may

be seen by the
(pi.

a quantity of lids in

chamber
is

on the west of
(pi.

example of a complete jar neck

xxxvi. 5),

the Kasr.
xxxvi.
of
2),

Next there
22.

but one of Nekau

found with the painted Greek vases in chamber


18.

found on the

mud and

mortar

floor
II.

First a large

bung of

pottery,

made

hollow,

chamber
3),
all

Next, several of Psamtik


indistinct,

such as xxxvi. 84, was put into the mouth of


the jar.

(fig.

which are generally very

and

This was next fastened down, some-

were

found in the Greek vase-chambers, 18


latter.

times by string alone, sometimes by a piece of


thin linen beneath the string
linen
:

and 29, mostly in the


of Haa-ab-ra, unless

None were found


illegible his.

the cast of the

some

ones,

like

as

thin as muslin

may
it.

be seen in the
;

those of Psamtik
plcte jar-necks

II.,

might be

Two comfine
all

inside of the plaster cap xxxvi. 4

here

it

was a
into

and many pieces (including a


18 and

band wound round the neck, and then drawn


a lump in the middle to
tie

top

now

at

Bulak) wore found of Aahmcs,


29.

in

The

strings also

the vase-chambers,
little

very neat

passed across and across


tying up in the middle, a

it,

and then, on the


of scaling-clay

stamp of Nekau was found impressed on a

lump

drab pottery vasc-handlc in chamber 18.

CHAP. XT. THE SMALL ANTIQUITIES.


In noticing the general antiqnitics of the sixth
century,
to
it

The Egyptian
lets.

objects in stone are mostly

amu-

will

be best to group them according


stone,

Several examples of calcite (Iceland spar)


:

material

pottery,
;

bone,

&c.,

gold,
is

have been found about Defenneh


stones,

beads, sealis

silver,

bronze,
the

and iron

for

though

this

&c., but the only engraved one

the

usually

least

rational

arrangement,

yet

natural

rhomb

(pi.

xli.

40) engraved with the

here

the

impossibility

of

separating

Egyptian

name
nefers

of the spirit Ket in a cartouche, and two or ncfenii on the

from Greek work, and the main need of showing the special work and products of the place,

other side

this

was

doubtless a

charm.

small

hawk

in greenish-

make
70.

this the best system.

white translucent steatite was found in the camp.

Other amulets found were

Taurt, cynocephalus
;

Of stone remains there

are the
;

curious

ape,

and three scarabs

in haematite

lion curled

figures of captives carved in limestone


all

they are

round,

ram with a

scarab head, scarab, Horus,


urseus
(pi. xli.

represented as having the legs bent back from

hawk, lion-headed

39) of very

the knees, and the ancles and elbows bound to-

delicate work, star (fig. 38),


fifteen

and Tat of lapis lazuli


;

gether

(pi. xl.

8 to 13).

The

cutting varies from

symbolic eyes and Taurt of grey syenite


;

the rudest scratches on a mere peg of limestone,


as in
fig. 8,

snake's head in green felspar

papyrus in beryl
schist
;

up
fig.

to rather

good work of a rough

three symbolic eye-plaques in

crocodile

kind, as in

12.

The form being always an


for playing

and frog

in steatite.

The cover
from a

of an eye, hemi-

approach
that they

to a

peg in the rougher ones, suggests

spherical, probably

cat's

head,

is

brilli-

may have been draughtmen


little

antly cut in rock-crystal, with the corners of the

with on the sand, sticking them in a draught-

eye produced.
in the

model rubber-stone was found


slate
(pi. xl.

board marked by

rows of

pits in the

sand

camp, cut in

2)

also part

made by the fingers, as the Arabs do The form of the head-dress is peculiar
rises in a ridge

at present.
it

of large dish of slate.

scarab in banded agate,


is

generally

found in or near Defenneh,

exactly of the stone

from back to front; sometimes, as

and work of the Phoenician scarabs.


ber 19.

piece of

in

fig.

11,

it

resembles a wig.

These were
all,

all

a finely-polished syenite bowl was found in cham-

found together, some thirty or forty in

many

Three jasper earrings were found, the


slit

being broken, lying in the desert on the east of


the Kasr, beyond 29.

ring form with a

in one side

one of them

with a crenellated edge.

Also a carnelian finger-

Of limestone
(pi.
xl.

also is the piece of a cake

stamp

ring,

and draughtman.
scarabaei are not

14,

14a
This

the
is

reverse

side)

found in

The

important.

One
is
;

(xli.

chamber 27.
fore before the

clearly Greek,

and there-

42) of green paste, imitating jasper,


regular style of fine Phoenician work

of the

middle of the sixth century, yet

it

comes

the style of

it is

what otherwise would be


It

attri-

from the north


Eamesside in
rather
Iclhcpcr

of

Defenneh.

Fig.

54 looks

buted to a later period.

shows that the cakepi.

its style.

Fig. 55 is another of the

stamps of Naukratis (Nauk.

xxix.)

may

in

common

scarabs of Sheshonk IV.,


p.

lia-

some cases be much

earlier

than was supposed.


in

("Tanis,"

40).

Two

scarabs of dark
I.

With
drop

this before us,

we might not be wrong


leaf,
fifth,

green jasper, 56 and 58,

name Psamtik
57,
is

for

attributing

some with the honeysuckle,


to

or

Uah-ab-ra) and

Ba men,

probably a Greek mistake.


of a

patterns
B.C.,

the

or

perhaps sixth,
imitative

The obsidian
paste scarabs,
tatives at

scarab,

fig.

new

king,

century

instead of to the

Roman
to

probably of the thirteenth dynasty.


figs.

Two

blue

archaistic taste.

Two

limestone dice were also

68, 69, are the only represenclass of

found, also seven alabastra


high, from the camp.

2^ inches

4 inches

Defenneh of the great

Nau-

kratite scarabs, another

evidence of the strange

TELL DEFEKNEH.
isolation

of

these

to\\-ns.

Two
are

small

bronze

in

chamber

9.

Also

large

plate

scored up

scarabs were picked up.

into 3 X

10 squares very roughly.

Many

other

Of stone-working
Four
jjlain

there

many

examples.

pieces of plates scored up in the

same way were

seal-stones unengraved, one broken

found, suggestive of a habit of playing at draughts


after dinner.

in drilling, were found, three of pale gi-een trans-

Two

or thi-ee stone slabs similarly


It

lucent calcite
lized calcite

(fig.

74), the other of white crystal-

divided were found.

was probably the

idle Hfe

(fig.

75); the three former are of the

of a garrison which causes these

objects to be

Syrian type, of which an engraved porcelain one


(fig.

commoner here than


and not Egyptian
mouth,
I

elsewhere.
is

A A

curious

little

73) was found in the Kasr.

piece of a

neck of a vase of drab pottery


(pi.

distinctly

Greek
the

pohshed cylinder of jasper, which had been 2


inches across, was picked up by the Arabs.
Drill-

xl. 3).

whistle in the

form of an animal's head, blown through


is

cores from tubular drillings were found of alabaster, obsidian, syenite, basalt,

also in drab pottery,

much

like a whistle

and jasper
all

also

found at Tell-el-Yehudiyeh, perhaps modern.

a piece of sliced lapis

lazuli,

showing

those

Many instances

of inscribed pottery were found

stones to have been worked at Defenneh.

Many

one large jar with a sj'mbolic eye incised beneath

pieces of designing tablets of limestone ruled in

one handle, and one painted beneath the other,


with
a

squares were found in the


of the
fort.

camp and

in a
;

chamber
and
of

demotic inscription
;

another jar with

Whetstones abounded

two of veiy

demotic inscription
large vase, pi.

a demotic inscription on the


;

fine-gramed, soft stone, quick


excellent

cutting,

xxv.

and

about a dozen frag-

quahty, were found, 3 and 4

mches
An-

long, pierced at one end for hanging up.

other larger and coarser whetstone, 9 inches


2}i

ments of demotic inscriptions on pieces of jars and cups. Also a shuttle of Neit incised on pottery, by rocking an edge-tool about | inch wide
from side
to side to

inches, of a

shai-p grit, fine grain sandstone,

produce a line

and an incised
hills).

worn rounded by sharpening knives on it, was found in chamber 19 also a similar piece, 4|
;

fragment, with h-m-kliu (bowl, owl, sua on

inches,

was

in

chamber

17.

A
of

large

number

of

72.

Of glazed ware there

is

a blue ushahtl

tapering

square whetstones
;

sandstone

were

with inscription, a Shu, and an eye in green glaze,

found in the camp

and on a piece of one were


(pi,

found with the painted vases in chamber 18, along


with
a smaller

some Phoenician and Kypriote characters


xl.

green Tahuti.

blue-glazed

1).

Two

basalt

mullers for grinding were

Taurt, 3^ inches high

down

to the thighs,

crowned

found in the camp.

One

syenite pebble pendant

and holding one


Taurt

breast.

green-glazed

monkey

was found,
kratis.

like the

dozens which occur at Nau-

from chamber 29, with the painted vases.


(pi. xli.

A
all

A piece of pumice was found in chamber 19; and some pieces of lead ore (galena) in the
ore, like the pieces of the

72), a combination of Ptah-Sokar,


(70), a

Khnum, and hawk


porcelain seal
(xli.

symbohc eye (71),


3.

camp, from thin veins of

in green glaze of fairly

good work, found with the


Also

foundation deposit. Of flint the only objects were a burnisher 2^ inches h^ng, and three struck flakes.

73) in chamber 2 or

a small crown of

Lower Egypt,

} inch high, blue


4.

glaze of delicate work, in


71.

chamber

Some
lid

Of pottery, beside the

archaic figures noticed


of rude

finely
Isis
I

made symbolic

eyes, a plain blue ushabti,

before, tliere is a torso of a seated figure

and Horns, blue, found with a tiny drab


pattern

work, found in the camp.


of a rectangular

draught-board,

made
in

I inch across, a conoid draughtmau, and a piece


vase
(as xxx.
2), all

slab of ten-a-cotta

marked
with

of imbricated

in

some draughtmcn made of rounded chips of pottery.


up,

X 10

squares,

found broken

chamber
buttle"

7.

Pieces of thick blue ware " pilgrim


clianibor
19.

in

Some

dnuiLrlitinon

of

CHAP. XI.THE SMALL ANTIQUITIES.


white pottery (glaze
lost), in
;

form spherical,

flat-

branches found in the south part of the camp.


jar of resin, the jar of type resin
clear

tened below, in chamber 2 green glaze, deep in


2.

and an Anubis

in

55

(pi.

xxxv.), the
3.

blue paste button,


it,

browTi, found in

chamber
in

And

with stitching holes in a rib behind


ber 3.

from cham-

some
73.

incense,

and native sulphur

chamber 17.

All these being from the Kasr, are dated


certain,

to the twenty-sixth dynasty for

and pro-

Coming now
10)

bably about the middle of


also found

it.

In the camp were

striking object found


(pi.
xli.
;

to metal work, the most was the piece of gold work

many

objects

of glazed

ware

the

the lower ends of this have been


off'

lotus heads of green

and blue glaze

(pi. xl. 5, 6),

violently A\Tenched

some

object,

and as they
probable with
the
of

pierced, probably for handles

of feather fly-flaps.
(xl. 7),

have been made with a bend at right angles a


little

The plaque
seems as
if

of Haa-ab-ra (Hophra)

which

below the
this

lotus, it

seems

most
tray,

made

for a foundation plaque, but

was

that

was the handle of a


it.

found in a chamber in the camp along with other Many varieties of " pilgrim bottles " of potter}'.
green or yellow paste, with necks of lotus and

straps of gold passing beneath


this

The body

was

cast

and the dividing

ribs of the lotus

flowers, for holding the inlaying,

were soldered on.

palm

patterns,

some very
Avith

graceful,

and wreathed
;

around the body

very varied patterns

many

bearing portions of inscriptions, and one a longer

The whole was polished and bm-nished quite smoothly, so as not to show any joint. No trace of the inlaying remained when this was found,
but the two flowers were bent one half over the
other,

wish than usual


or " to

(pi.

xl.

4)

"

May
all

Neit give
children,"
is

hfe and health always to the souls of


all
:

by the violence of the grasp with which


off the tray.

it

beautiful
it

souls."

One

bottle

very

had been wrenched


loot of

Thus, found in
it

peculiar

is

of a dark greenish-grey, with a


thick,

a camp, we can hardly look on

as other than
arises,

band of

bright,

green glaze
;

around the
is

some

soldier.

The question then

wreath and around the edge

it

thin and

small, but such thick glaze is rarely, if ever, seen

when would an Egyptian soldier loot a piece of Egyptian work ? And we see an event which
would exactly account
for this, occurring at the
civil

before

Roman

times.

large

number
will

of blue-

glazed amulets, beads, &c., were found in

the

most

likely time,

during the
It

war between
likely

camp, and a selection of these


gether in the British
of

be kept tostyle

Apries and Amasis.

seems then more


is

Museum

to

show the

than not that this handle

a part of the royal


is

known work

of the twenty-sixth dynasty.

A
(pi.

plate of Haa-ab-ra (Apries, Hophra), and

thus
is

ring bezel of grey-blue glaze, almost like that of

the only relic of such luxury of living which


left to us.

Tell-el-Amarna, bears the head of Hat-hor


xli.

It

was found along with about 1^

lbs.

of

41).

A piece of a pot
frit

of refractory material,

silver in

lumps, buried in the camp on the S.E.

in

which blue

has been prepared in

the

of the Kasr.

furnace,

for blue

paint,

was

also

found in the
in the scarab

Another
(xli.

fine

object
is

is

the gold statuette of

Ra

camp

it is

just like

what occurred

9),

which

highly finished and burnished,


Saitic period.
It
(fig.

factory at Naukratis, and points to a manufacture


of blue-glazed articles here.

of the finest

work of the

was
8),

found in the silver amulet case, or shrine


the following.
(pi. xl.

Of other materials we may note

the sliding

Hd

of which had been

left slightly

drawn

An

ivory die found in chamber 27


dice

15),

and so carrying back such


century.
across,

to

the sixth
-^o

Three ivory hemispheres fV to


flower,

iiich

and forced inwards, showing the toes of the figure. It is the more satisfactory to find it so, since not only is this little suspensory bos a unique object,
but
it

and top o an ivoiy papyrus

from the

guarantees the genuineness of the image


it,

camp.

A large

quantity cf white coral in natural

foiuid within

since the lid

is

stuck tight, and

TELL DEFEXXEH.
the
side

of the box had


figure.

to be broken

open to

precious metals.

We

see then

by

all
;

these signs

remove the
of
uninjured.

This was picked up by one


plain,

that this was a manufacturing centre

and

if so,

my workmcu

on the

and brought

to

me

may
found

not Daphnae be the source of

much

of the

Greek gold-work
pi. xli.; all

with

quasi-oriental
?

designs
all

Other pieces of gold work are shown on


u funerary finger-ring
riiJg
(fig.

over the Mediterranean


:

Here are

1), a large plain finger(figs.

the elements
to

Greek workmen, on the high-road


in

kept at Bulak; earrings

2 to 7), of
frag-

Assyria, living

Egypt, close to Phoenicia,

which about forty were found (including

constantly trading to Greece, and


lery (as the

making jewel-

ments) by the Bedawin who hunt the neighbour-

abundance of their weights shows) on

hood: pieces of globule work, probably of earrings


(figs.

a large scale.

12, 13), and


(figs.
;

of
;

chains (14,
pieces of

17)

symboUc eyes
(figs. 18,

26,

30)

chain
(figs.

7-j.

Of

silver

several wrought

objects

were
silver,

24, 25)

beads and

foil

oniaments
;

found, and

many pounds'

weight of lumps of

1923,
tase

27)

setting of a

stone (29)

and a

melted and roughly cut up, besides large quantities

piece of dioptase set in gold.

Where
it

this diop-

of scrap silver in fragments of


It

20

to

200

came from is not known in Hungary and


the
it

clear;

is

now

only

grains found by the Bedawin.


likely,

seems most

Siberia, but considering


it

on considering

it,

that this scrap silver

copper-mines of Sinai,
be found there.

is

not impossible

was the equivalent of coinage in the pre-Persian


days in Egypt, when the metal went by weight

may
74.

and we should not conclude such finds to be a

Among

the multitude of fragments of gold-

sign of a silversmith's

place,

but merely of a

work picked up by the Bedawin who hunt over


the denuded surface of the
site,

man's exchangeable wealth buried, as coins were


buried in later times.
Several

were some impor-

lumps of

silver

tant scraps bearing on the manufacture of these


articles at

were found with a

silver

bowl at the S.E. corner


:

the place.

There are many globules


;

of the camp, buried close against the wall

the
or-

and

httle

dumps
one

of melted gold

scraps of gold
chiselling,

bowl is

6iJ

inches across, and If inch deep

it is

cut out of a

plane

surface

by

and
a

namented with three rows of broad dots punched on


it
;

above

all,

piece

chiselled

out bearing
(a),

four dots in a group extending one inch, then

beautiful

hieroglyphic

feather

evidently

a space and then another group, and so on round

because of a mistake in the work which had to be


altered
;

each of the three

circles.

With

this

was found a

further, a piece of gold-foil,

cut into the

silver dipper (trua), the

long handle broken and


articles are

form
as

for

making one of the hollow earrings (such


was found with one end partly begun.
unsold and unengraved.
together,

twisted up.

Both of these

now at Bulak.
33) on the

xli.

2),

Many
surface,

silver rings

were found, mostly on the


(xli.

The
as

large plain gold ring found here, also seems

by the Bedawin, but one


outside

if it

was

still

Placing

pavement

of

the

Kasr.

They

all

all these

facts

but

that

we can hardly doubt a jewellery trade was carried on,


of gold

belonged apparently to priests or temple


(see pi.

officials

xh. 32 to 35).

One bears a winged


silver

especially as scraps

ornament arc comI

scarabseus

(36)

and one has a

scarab

moner here than


Again there
only
three
is

in

any other place

know

of.

which turned on the ring anciently (37).

a profusion of minute
thirty or forty grains,

weights,

A
xh.

fine

ram's head with the untus

(mi

it

(pi.

most of them under


or

many

of

11),

probably from a statuette of Klmnni,


in

four grains;

over

thousand

was found

the camp, with two silver uriti, and

having been collected in a couple of months by

a bronze Apis.

small silver Horus,

much

worn,

me, and such could only be of use

for

weighing

four tctradrachms of Athens, and one of Ptolemy

CHAP. XI. THE SMALL ANTIQUITIES.


II.,

complete the

list

of silver objects found

at

found, aud some pieces of a


doubtless net sinkers.

shape, which were

Defenneh aud the neighbourhood.

76.

Bronze objects were common


xxxix. 8 to 16).

in the

camp,

77.

Iron

is

as

common

as bronze, or rather

particularly arrow-heads, of

which many hundreds


It is useless

commoner, and
these

this

shows well the relation of

were collected
to do

(pi.

the metals in the early historic period to which

more than describe the

principal objects, or

remains
divided

belong.
into

The remains may be


mihtary

those of interest.

bowl, 7^ inches across and

broadly

and

civil.

Of

inches

deep

(pi.

xh. 17), was found in the


(triia)

military iron the principal pieces are


pi.

shown on

camp with a dipper


the large bronze

17 inches long, and

lid (xxxix. 23).

Two

small pans,

xxxvii. The horses' bits are sometimes bars which have had loops of cord or leather at the

which from

their

convexity cannot be mirrors,


6, 7).

ends, as in

fig. 1,
fig. 2,

or with holes for the attach-

seem to be most probably frying-pans (xxxix.

ment, as in
as in
1 is 4)

or riveted through cheek-pieces,

The bronze stamp

of

Aahmes

(pi.

xH.

76) was

figs. 5,

oa, 6.

The

twisted pattern of

fig.

found in chamber 19, with the stem of a dipper,

shown

also in 5a.

Several lance-heads

(fig.

and some arrow-heads which

still

retained the
(xxxix. 19,

and pieces of such, were found.


3)

The bident
it

wood

in the sockets.

The knives found

(fig.

may

be perhaps for fishing, or

may

be

21) are a puzzle, as they do not seem ever to

the butt of a spear like the bronze tridents of

have had any sort of edge;


manufactured here, and
use
;

perhaps they were

Nebesheh.

The sword
at

(fig.

7)

shows the guard

not yet sharpened for


is

well developed (though

now much broken away)


the end of the handle to

fig.

21, however,

from

chamber

3.

and an equal stay


prevent
its

Chisels were found of various shapes (xxxix.


28), one in
is is

24

to

slipping out of the grasp.


side for
is
;

chamber 19a, and a dupUcate of

this

had a
the

rib

on each

some

little

The blade way from


it,

kept at Bulak.
of interest, as
;

A
it

staple found in

chamber 2

hilt.

The handle

curiously shaped, with a


partly to lighten

has been fastened to a thin

groove on either side

and

bronze vessel
its

a washer of bronze

was put round


straining.

partly to hold the rivets by which a leather cover

tangs before
its

they were bent over, so as to

prevent

tearing the vessel

by

was probably fastened on, without a chance of their galling the hand such a hollow also would
;

large quantity of bronze tubes were found, often

help the grip.

A
;

rather different sword-handle


it

curved, ith of an inch across, and with signs of

was kept
the

at

Bulak

has a knob or pommel at

having been bound


stuff:

over with
if

some

string

or

they seem as

part of

some

furniture, or

end of the handle to balance the blade. Another form, more Hke an ordinary knife, is fig.
17; the thickness of the middle of blade (the
section being rhombic)

possibly, a
tents.

metal-piping sewn into the edge of


articles

More Egyptian

are

an Osiris

seems to show that

this

found in chamber 18, a sistrum head in chamber


3, a situla
in.

was

for warfare, but, if so,

a guard was probably


knife
(fig.

2f in. high in chamber 3, another 85 high in chamber 14, and a double-ended kohl-

fastened to the handle.

The
;

20)

may

be perhaps for

civil

uses

the handle shows well

stick in

chamber

18.

That copper was largely


is

the grain of the wood, which was fastened on by


five

wrought here, ground and

and indeed smelted,

evident
;

rivets

of iron.

The

objects

8 to 11 are

from the large amount of waste lying about


is

the

difficult to

explain

possibly they
:

may

be orna-

thick with scraps and drops of copper

ments

for the

peaks of helmets

the thin strips

bits of slag in

many

parts,

and pieces of large

bent out splay at the bases of 9, 10, 11, seem as


if

crucibles covered with copper slag are found.

to fasten the spike into


it

some leather

object,

Of

lead

a few pieces

of

ore

(galena)

were
|

and yet

would not be suited

for a spur, owiu"-

TELL DEFEXNEH.
to the barbed

form

these barbs

could

hardly

the scale next before that. a

be for use, as the attachment of the spike by


the
splay branches
to bear the

would

scarcely

be

strong

enough
spike

wrench of di-agging the barbed

Thus the result was mass three deep sideways and two deep from top to bottom, making the whole mass six scales thick at every part. The inner surface showing
the stitching holes
is

out

from

anything.

On

the whole then

given in

fig.

19,

and the

they were more probably ornamental.


spikes were kept
(xxxvii.

Similar

outer surface at

fig.

19a.

at

Bulak.

Iron

ai'row-heads
78.

12 to 16) were found in great quantities,

Of civil

iron- work the

most common objects

the denuded surface of the ground being strewn

are chisels

(pi. xxxviii.

15 to 20), of which about 40


rejected.
left

with them along the south side


only the unweathered

of the

camp

were kept, beside

many

One was found


to the entrance

ones were collected, but

low down in chamter 11,


level floor

before the higher-

about a couple of hundi-ed of these were brought away.

was made opening on


in

They

are always of a tang form,


is

and not

from passage 26.


iron staple

Another was found with an

socketed, which
for

exactly contrary to the usage


;

chamber 19.
in
fig.

broad form of

bronze arrow-heads

the reason

is

that the

wood
in

chisel is

shown

22, and the socket of

iron were wrought, while the bronze were cast so

a large wood chisel like those found at Naukratis


fig. 3.

that a socket could be readily made.


triangular

The
(12,

solid

large long metal chisel

was found,
(fig.

form

is

the

commonest
;

13),

with a square shank and pointed end

2).

though some are bladed (14, 15, 16) none are of the three-blade type of the bronze (xxxix. 9, 12).

Two
none

pickaxes are of a form


like

new

to

us

(fig. 1),

this being

found at Naukratis.
knife
(fig.

The

The

large swivel ring

(xxxvii. 18)

is

probably a
(figs,

large double-edged

6) is

a splendid

part of chariot fittings.


19, 19a, 19b) is the
scale

The

scale

armour

specimen in perfect condition, found in chamber

most unusual

find of all
at

19a

the grain of the

wood on the handle

is

very

armour

is

represented
of

on a statue
II.,

plain,

both the

cross-piece on the haft of the

Kamak, probably
scales is

Ramessu

a corslet of

blade fastened by three rivets, and the handle


itself

there

is

shown in the tomb of Ramessu III., scale armour on a bas-relief at Tanis,


III.,

fastened by two rivets.


it,

Three pokers

(figs,

11, 12) were found with

of the type of that


knife
(fig.

probably of Sheshonk
for.slet

while a piece of a

from

Naukratis.

small

23) was

of leather with bronze scales, two of which of

found in chamber 18, and another in the camp.

bear the name


collection.

Sheshonk,

is

in the Abbott

The
also

knife or razor without a handle

(fig.

8)

was

The present example seems


in the

to have

found in chamber 18.

large auger or
is

been a large part of a leather

thrown away
it

corslet, which was Greek vase chamber, No. 18 ;

lymer, apparently, with a cross-head handle

shown
of

in

fig.

4,

and some very curious rasps or


10; these are made of a
2>iece

was covered with


in pi. xxxvii.

scales of iron of the form

borers in

figs. 9,

shown

19b

(all objects

on

this plate

thm

sheet-iron,

punched

all

over with holes

an inch thick
below

arc half-size), which were originally about ~i^ of these scales were sewn on by six ;

like

a modern grater, and coiled round into a


;

cone
base,

they have been found with string at the

holes, each line of scales lapped over half the line


it

and

fitted

on to wooden handles, making a


or rasp
17.
:

so as to completely cover the stitching

sort of rat-tail

file

five

were found, three


(fig.

and each scale lapped over two-thirds of the previous scale in the row ; thus as each scale was
put on the right-hand pair of holes was stitched through, going through the middle pair of the
previous scale, and the Icft-liand pair of holes of

of

them

in

chamber
21

The axe

24)

is

of

a different type to that of Naukratis, which had a


socket
;

but

fig.

seems to be a socketed

plough-share
!

of rough form.

block of iron

was found

at

the

bottom of the

CHAP.

XL THE SMALL may

ANTIQUITIES.
glazed pottery amulets of late work, prob;

chamber adjoining

site 1

on the plan, lying on


trident, fig. 5,

tity of

the sand in the corner.

The

ably late Ptolemaic

as the varieties of a large

be intended either for fishing or for a spear-butt.

number
logued.

are worth

noting they are here cata-

The
use.

fish-hooks,

fig.

14, are exactly like those of


fig.

Khnum
5,

4,
5,

Tahuti

4,

Shu
5,

4,

Taurt
2,

5,

Naukratis.

The

object,

7,

is

of

unknown
camp,

Hapi
5,

bull 5,

Lion

Monkey
4,

Ram

Rabbit
5,

A large quantity of iron

scraps, apparently a
in the
bit,

Scarabs

Eyes

Papyrus

sceptres

workman's scrap heap, was found


a hook, a
cruciform

including the side piece of a horse's


piece of thin
1^-,

arrows,

Lower crowns 5, Upper crowns 5; beside some much smaller and ruder ones, Shu 2, Bes 1,
Cynocephalus seated
Rabbit
2. 2,

sheet-iron,
;

Hawk

6,

Cat

6,

Lion

2,

squares of sheet-iron 1^,

f,inch, &c.

a piece

with a square-toothed edge, probably for riveting


it

Of stone
bourhood.
to describe

objects the

main

class is that of beads,


in the neighit is

on by a row of laps to another piece of sheet,


slag.

which were found in large quantities

and much
thin

In another place was a mass of

As

the age

is
;

uncertain,
suffice to

useless

sheet-iron with strips of bronze

and

iron,

them exactly

say that the

apparently part of some armour inlaid with ribs


of metal.

forms
discoid,

are

spherical, ovoid, bugle, pear-shaped,

S.E. of

The amount of slag found all over the the camp was astonishing; some was
away,
including

discoid with edge or double cone (only

amethyst and carneHan), square prism, hexagonal


prism, square prism with replaced corners (only
carnelian), and pentagonal
syenite),
fluted,

brought

complete

crucible

bottom of slag mixed with charcoal.


fine haematite

Some

very

rounded bead (only


shapes.

was also found.

It is evident that

beside

irregular

The

Defenneh was as important a place


and iron working, as Naukratis
kinds, throws on archaic
;

for smelting,

materials are clear quartz (rock crystal), milky


quartz,

and the

light

amethyst,
(red,

carnelian,

clear

chalcedony,

that these finds of arms, armour, and tools of all

agate, jasper

black, green,

and yellow),

Greek metallurgy and

onyx, plasma, beryl, felspar (green, red), brown

workmanship

is

of

permanent value.

porphyry, garnet, lapis lazuli, turquoise, calcite


(Iceland
spar),
syenite,

and

mother-of-pearl.

79.

We

now

turn to the later objects found at


site

Ten examples

of engraved stones of the

Roman

and near Defenneh, the exact


uncertain unless here specified
;

of which

is

period were found, on garnet, clear quartz, and

they were mostly


all

picked up by the Bedawin,

who hunted

the

neighbourhood for

me

as far as Tell Sherig (or

carnehan, some of very good work of its period. I found half a Cufic seal of lapis lazuli at Tell Sherig. Of glass a tolerable amount was obtained, both
of beads and of pieces of vases
;

Behm
The
the

as they call

it) at

nine miles to the north.

all

probably of

plain of Daphnae, in the midst of which


lie, is

the

Roman

age,

and mainly from Tell Sherig.

camp and Kasr

absolutely free from all

The beads

are of the usual types, blue eye-beads,

objects of a

later period

than the twenty-sixth

dynasty, so far as I could find by continually

green with yellow, fluted, zigzag, hexagonal mock beryl, flatted hexagonal blue, amber polyhedra

searching

it it

during
is

my

stay there
is

but at the
the

and

fluted, clear

with gilding inside, mock onyx,

N.W.

of

a mound, which

highest

of the place, and usually called Tell

Defenneh

black with red waves, green stripe with red and white eyes, blue and white millepore with red

this is of later age, but not reaching to

Roman

times.

In

excavating here two bronze vessels


flat

ends (hexagonal prism) twisted yellow, black with red or white zigzag, and covered with broken
scraps stuck
in.

were found, cylindrical with


across and 4-8
in.

bases, 4'0 in.

The fragments

of cups, &c., are


;

high, and parts of a large bronze


;

of the usual varieties of


of yellow
in

Roman

glass

millepore,

pan with

a handle

with these were a large quan-

green, yellow

in brown, red

and

TELL DEFEXNEH.
yellow in green, white in purple, and yellow iu

high (xxxix. 3) comes from a nortlioni


rings were

till.

Bronze

wavy "Phoenician" of white on blue, white on purple, blue, yellow and brown on brown, yellow and white on blue, jasper-red on
white;
black, yellow on blue
blue,
:

common, 33

in all being

brought up,
interest,

mainly

Roman and

Cufic, of

no particular
is

with the usual devices; one


inscribed
I'tah-luifej).

Egyptian, minutely

wavy cups

of pink-opaque,

Buttons made concavoacross


on.

and yellow mixed, also clear green on opaque


;

convex,
pierced

with
for

a bar

the

concave back
pentagonal,
for

a bangle of clear white with twisted red yellow glass " Phoenician " heads, figures of Bes

white

sewing

Beads,
Swivels

hexagonal,

and

round.

putting
links,
flat,

in yellow,

Baubo

in clear green

(xli.

78), a term

through eye-holes.

Chain of

and of 8
all

in clear blue (xli. 79), Isis in

hght blue, and a

and of woven

wire.

Nail-heads of

forms,

cat in
lion

brown

stamped pendants with Cupid on

round, massive parabolic, pyramidal, rosette, and


concentric circles.
2,

(xli.

77),
glass,

of

amber
(xli.

and Cupid with goat (xli. 81) head of Anubis (?) of green
from a bottlefor in-

Earrings of the
Also

tj'pe of xliii.

and

of

wire.

many
5.

small

pieces

of

glass

80), and a full face


;

unknown

use, such

as xxxix.

curious seal

handle of green glass


laying of clear

knobs or bosses
yellow,

with a man, bearded, with long hair, holding up

white,

blue, pink,

and

two crocodiles by the


xxxix. 1).

tails

is

worth notice

(pi.

green

pieces of cups engraved with

Une patterns,

Many

rings were also found,

43

in all,

of yellow

and blue

mosaic of an owl's head,

varying from 1^ to ^ inch across, probably from


curtains or tents.
are
It

very dehcate and minute, of which (fortunately


getting a piece of the rod) eight slices have been
cut

seems evident that there


sites

some

considerable

to

the

N.

of

and mounted on glass


weights
are

slips

also a

wing and
Ciific

Defenneh, and Tell Sherig


for all the things

will scarcely

account

a piece with red and black rosettes.


glass

Two

brought to

me

there

may be

the

latest

glass

objects.

another

camp somewhere (according


camps

to the notice

found

many pieces
windows,

of coloured flat glass, probably

of the two

of Herodotus), beside the small

from

at

Tell

Sherig

pm-ple, pale

settlement with tombs close to the Defenneh canal.

purple, blue-green, and pale bine.

This

district is

worth more examination, which I


it

should have given


80.

had not Defenneh occupied

An

aureus of Yalens, and a Cufic dinar,

every day up to the close of the working season.

were brought up to me, and several of the pieces


of gold ornaments

already described

may have
81.

CHAPTER

XII.

come from the northern sites. Of bronzes a large quantity


were brought
in
;

THE WEIGHTS.
of small objects

The past year has proved even more


While at Naukratis

but

it is

needless to do

than note the main classes.


figures
Isis

more The numbers of


13,

important for the study of weights than the


first

season at Naukratis.

of deities
7,

were,

Osiris
9,

Horus
4,

10,

last

season with Mr. Gardner a large number


in

and Honis
Tahuti
1,

Anubis

Nefertum

Khonsu
1,

came

0,

Amen Ra
1
,

1,

Bes, seated squat,


1
,

loft still

standing with sword

part of Xeit

upper part

from the native diggings, and after I more were brought, so that he returned with 358 altogether, which I have worked out
and treat of
in

of winged cat-headed Bast (?) 1, Aegis of Bast 3,

the present chapter

thus
in

we

one with handle

(pi. xxxix. 4).

The usual

sistra,

have

874

weiglits

from

Naukratis

two

feathers, discs, flails,

sacred animals, &c., were

seasons.

At Nebesheh but few weights were


Defenneh
T

found.

Two arms from

a figme holding a tamit,

to be had, only 21 in all being obtained there.

bourine, with a hetinu on each side of

were

But

at

the

supply seemed inexin

found in a chamber of the Kasr.

bell 3 3 inches

haustible.

have bought over 70

one dnv.

CHAP. XII. THE WEIGHTS.

picked up on the denuded surface of the ground

here,

to

bj

the

Bedawin,

who

find

them both

at

dealing with 1600 metal weights.


aside of these, however, does not

show the questions which arise in The setting

Defenneh, and at
to Tell Belim.

sites to the

north of that on
there in two

much affect
;

in

The whole supply

any case the

results

which are here stated

for

months was 397 stone weights and 1600 metal weights. Altogether over 4000 weighings were performed, of which Mr. Spurrell most kindly did nearly a thousand. Unhappily, owing to the weights of Defenneh being found exposed
on the surface, they have on the whole suffered more by weathering than those of Naukratis,
which are found bedded
prevented any access of
all

the changes of metal weights are in general so


great that they are worthless for showing the

exact standard, though of as


for ascertaining

much value
The

as

any

the

distribution of different
limit of

standards and the forms.


error excluding a weight
results,

2%
of

from the curves

in stiff
air,

mud

that has

which I saw need to impose in dealing with the Naukratis weights before, I have still
maintained as essential to a proper treatment
of the results.

and has preserved


I

the products of corrosion around the weight.


of

I have also found the need of

The metal weights


found
it
;

Defenneh
set

have therefore
for

another hmit,

when a
;

large quantity of minute


it is

needful to

aside

a special

weights are in hand

clear that a weight

research
in air

though every one has been weighed


in water,

of 10 grains cannot (with a given imperfection

and

and

it

did not seem a very


their original vahies,

of balance)

show a standard

as accurately as a

serious matter to

work out

weight of 100 grains; hence some limit of


smallness
is

yet a fresh difficulty stood in the way, for they

needful, below which weights fall

proved to consist of
alloys,

all sorts

and conditions of
copper

under much the same uncertainty as when they


have
lost

from almost

pure

down

to

sulphides oE copper and tin, with perhaps other


materials.

substance.

any considerable percentage of their From comparing the curves of


of the ^ths, Jrds,

Probably these alloys are the black


inscriptions.

distribution

and other Kat


fully repreline at

and white bronze of the


these circimistances
fails to

Under

weights (as
sented),
it

the

standard

most

even the

specific gravity

seemed best to draw the

40

show us the internal state of a weight and fresh modes of examination must be worked out and formulated before we can say anything exact as to the original values. The whole subject of the modes of patination discussion, and some unexpected requires
results

grains, thus including in the curves all the Jrds

of the shekels

and

kats.

Perhaps, seeing the

number of
this

low and high Jrd kats, may be too low a limit, and 60 grains
erratically

might be safer ; but, at least, if the source of these stray groups is noted, not much harm
will

have appeared

as,

for instance, that

have been done.

weights lose by exudation of their more oxidizable


alloys

sponge of metal

from the whole mass, leaving a and the last stage of this
;

course ends in the complete replacement of the

weight by a siliceous or calcareous pseudomorph


of the exact form

The general arrangement of the catalogue on the same lines as that of last year, and therefore the prolegomena need not be repeated. The only difference is that where
82.
of weights is

and polish

of the original.

Thus are produced those strange casts of coins, vv-hich appear as if made artificially in plaster The whole of the stages (see " Tanis," p. 40). and proofs of this alteration I hope to work
out and state in future
:

a weight is under the limit of size a bar is put across the change column, " Ch," to call attention to it;

the other entries in that column


as before to weights which have

call attention

suffice to

mention

it

more than 2% of change, and the broken ones are marked B. The numbering
suffered

TELL DEFEXXEH.
of the weights
is

continuous from last year's

NAUKR.\TIS.

II.

catalogue, so that in future the


will suflSce to refer to

number alone
No.

Egyptian Kat Standard

(107).

any weight published in


of

these works.

The types

form are

also

same as last year; only as several between 50 and 100 were not required
for reference, this year I have substituted for

numbered the

them on

pi.

xlvii.

the

new forms over

100,

which are referred to


to

in the present catalogue,

and only those numbers appear on that plate which I need


to
refer.
it is

In defining the
necessary to use

materials of the weights

terms with a meaning more general than in a


severely geological system; the subject, indeed,

of Egyptian geology and mineralogy

may

be

was far from my present object, and as few names have been used as would suffice to mark the most distinct groups of materials. To avoid
well studied on such a collection, but that

misunderstanding,

it

will

be as well to give

general definitions of the use


terms, as follows
:

made

of these

Basalt
black,

fine-grained
grey,

uniform

silicate,

green,

or the
:

brown, with earthy

fracture, except in
crystalline.

brown which

is

sub-

Syenite

quartz, hornblende, and


in-

felspar,

quartz

always scarce, sometimes


Granite

visible

varying from coarse grain to a micro-

scopic
felspar

magma.
or

quartz,
:

mica, and
felspar

hornblende.
all
:

Diorite

and

liornblendc, including
silicates.

hard mixed magnesic

cates.

Gneiss

Serpentine all soft magnesic sili" any hard quartzose semi:

crystalline

schistose rock," according to the " very vague " but convenient definition men-

tioned by Geikie.

Porphyry
Silicate

a lighter hard
silicate, and homogenous nature. The

silicate dispersed in a

darker hard
:

not

hornblendic.
silicate
it

any

hard

of

undetermined
is

ha3matite,

should be noted,

almost always

very rough, and coarse brown, often a mere pebble or nodule ground on one side; thus
quite unlike the exquisite polished weights of
Ijlack haematite

from Syria.

CHAP. XII. THE WEIGHTS.

Present.

Ch.

Ancient.

Basalt, br.

Sandstone, br.
Basalt, bk.

3740 1143

Bronze
Basalt, bk. Basalt, br.

Limestone, wt.
Syenite, bk.

3843
37 105 38

Bronze
Basalt, br.

Limestone
Glass, dark Basalt, bk. Basalt, bk. Basalt, br.
Basalt, br. Basalt, bk. Basalt, bk. Basalt, bk. Pottery, brown Basalt, gr.

3031 4044
33

1464-0 2928-8 293-5 39-4 49-0 737-9 738-5 1447-7 745-9 1479-3 1476-8
71-8

1464-4 2932293-5
49-0 738-0 738-6 1447-7

739
1479-3 14S074-

20-40 1927 1226 38-43


33

296-3 5866-6
74-1

296-3

5930
74-1

5-43
41

10-35
112 65 33

Limestone Lead
Syenite, gr. Basalt, bk. Basalt, br. Basalt, br. Basalt, br.

1479-8 296-9 297-6 2976-4 1487-7 2981-6 1494-7

1484
296-9 297-6 2976-4

3191
300-3 3010-6 753-0 1506-6 301-4 75-4 151-3 41-4 303-8 29-0 3062-7 307-5 77-4 2228-8

1488 2983 1495 300


300-3 3010-6

1054 2733
33 33 84

7530
1506-6 301-4 75-4 151-3 37-9 303-8 25-4

Limestone, gr.
Basalt, br.

Quartz, bk.

2633 17-25 1113


12

Bronze
Syenite, br. Syenite, bk. Basalt, bk. Basalt, bk.

54 44
33 33

3065
307-5 77-4

3100
(90).

AssTEiAN Shekel Standakd


Basalt, bk.

26

Alabaster

Bronze
Serpentine

Bronze Bronze
Limestone, wt. Bronze, L. ? Bronze

Bronze Bronze Bronze Bronze Bronze Bronze


Limestone,

Limestone Bronze Bronze Bronze


Basalt, br.

Alabaster Alabaster

Bronze Limestone Bronze


Serpentine
Syenite, bk. Basalt, br. Basalt, bk.

TELL DEFEXXEH.
Form.
Present.

729 730 731 732 733

Limestone Bronze
Basalt, bk. Basalt, br.

19-33 5859
79

3302-3

3303
529-

50
8

'

66-06

5547
1321-5 3297-3 1319-2

001
Oii'll

1322-3

1136
33 18

3309
1323-6 662-0 662-

Basalt, br. 7:m! Basalt, br.


:

735! Bronze 736 Bronze, L.

33-37
26

737 Bronze 73^; Bronze 73!) Limestone


7li>

3337 2633
102

1345-7 129-2

1328 133

20 50 20 10 10 20

001^
00-lS
001>(I
(;o-2

00-4
,

Basalt, br.
.Syenite, gr.
Biisalt, bk.

2310
38

71

742 Bronze
7-13

714 Basalt,
7-1.5

br.

3337 23^10 37-39


38

1332-0 665-7 666-9 70-5


1

3-8

667-3

6680
267-1 33-4 515-3 133-8
267-1 33-4

74G
7-17

Syenite, bk. Jiisper, bk.

1417
33
27 36 55 33

Bronze
li:isalt,

535
133-8 67-1
3.357-8

7 1
7l'j

bk.
br.

Limestone,
Gneiss, gr.
1

671
3357-8 2674-7
134-5 67-2

7.JO

751 Sj-eiiite, gr. 752 Basalt, bk.


753' Basalt, bk.

3738 33^10

134-5 67-2

751 Basalt, br. 755 Syenite, gr.


1
[

20--10 1332-0 26 13,410

1345 13470
1349-1

756!
'

B.isalt, br.

39-40
10

13491
254-4 27) 9-3 670-2

757 Alabaster
758; Basalt,
br.

1910
33

271 2720

759 Bronze
761*; Basalt, bk.

40
33

27271
136-4 1364-5 137-3 1371-3 6867137-6 11-9 136-4 1365-5 137-3 1374-

761
76-2
7ti:i

Basalt, bk.

Basalt, bk.

Basalt, bk. Syenite, gr.


B'asalt, bk.

44.15
1138 1038
26
;

7'i 1
7i;.5

6871
137-6 11-9
(15).

766 Alabaster 767 Limestone


i

1938

JEaisETxv Dbachma Standabd


768 Gneiss, bk. 769 Bmnze 77U Basalt, bk.
771
itronze
liusalt, IJasalt,

21

772 773

bk. bk.

774 .Siudstone 775 Bronze 776 Bronze


777 Steatite
77"< 77;i
1

hematite, red

U.salt, bk.
(ineiss, bk.

7m

7Sl SandsUine 782: Basalt, bk.

CHAP. XII. THE WEIGHTS.

Form.

861 Bronze 863 Bronze 863 Bronze


1
j

865 Bronze 866 Bronze


I

TELL DEFENXEH.

Ko.

Material.

CHAP. XII. THE WEIGHTS.

Attic
1131 Hfematite 1132 Silicate, bk. 1133 Basalt, gn.
113-1,1

Dbachma Standaed

(43).

316
14r-17 33

Basxlt, gr.

113.5, Ba.salt, bk. 113l>| Diorittf, bk.

2633 3840
5 33 33 33

1137
1 1:!S

Hiematite, bk.
Basalt, br. Basalt, br. Basalt, br.

1139 1110 1141 Gneiss, bk. 1112; Basalt, bk. 1143 Syenite, bk.
I 1

51-0 25-55 61-1 307-3 76-9 25-7 51-4 77-2 77-2


18->5

51-0 25-55 51-1 307-3

1.53-0

153-3 153-3 153-6

No.

77?
51-4

154
154-2 164-2 154-4 154-6 166155-7 156-7 156-0 156-0
1.56-2

3100
51-9 1557*1 52-0 52-0 312-5 52-1
(55).

2141

51-9 1557-1 52-0

IIU

Flint, br.
br.

1145 Basalt, 1146 Basalt,

3813 3839

520
312-5

br.

521

156-3

AssTHiAN Shekel Standaed


1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1153 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182
1183 1184
1

Basalt, bk.

Limestone, gr. Limestone, bk.


Basalt, br. Syenite,bk.,wt.

1516 517
16

2326
115 108

19-4 59-3 11-3 59-5 19-95


20-1
111.5-0

Bervl

19-7 59-3 11-9 59-8 20-0 20-1

118-

IISG
119
ll:ii;

120-

120-6

Limestone
Basalt, bk.

911
15

1210
20-3 43,950 123-0

121
121-8 121-8 122-1 123-0 124-

Mica

slate

64

18-85 20-3

Sandstone Marble, wt., gr, Granite, pink Sandstone


Silicate, bk.

2033
33 33

43,950
122-2

2031
32

44,420 43,480
8-0

44,700 44,500
12-5 41-7 12-55

124 125
12.5-1

Limestone, gr.
Steatite, bk.

Chlorite
Basalt, br.

2633 432 2022 3638


26
11

Alabaster

41-6 12-55 8-3 121-5 118-1

12.5.5
l-2i;1:2(;-

Limestone Limestone
Diorite, bk. Basalt, br.

2462-8
12-65

2520
63-2 12-65 759-2 15,200 3807-3
12-7 10-6 12-75 12-75

126-

Limestone,

-wt.

Syenite, gr. Silicate,bk.,wt.

3240 1621 3839 1921 3739


59 33 33

126-4 126-6 12iV5


i-jivr
l-2r,:i

15,200 3807-3
12-7 10-6 12-75 12-75

Haematite
Basalt, gn. Syenite,bk., wt. Basalt, br. Basalt, br.

2224
33

7641
1276-4
10-65

7649
1276-4 10-65

Homstone,gn.
Basalt, br. Basalt, bk.

Alabaster Alabaster Alabaster


Silicate,bk.,-wt.

1840 1617 3738 3233 2333 1819


43

3068
34,480
42-8 2491-7 635-8 42-9 1274-5 12-8 763-3 1247-1

3068
46,000 42-8

127-2 127-5 127-5 127-5 127-6 127-8 127-8

128
128-4 128-6 128-6 128-7 128-7

2570 643
42-9 128712-9

185

Basalt, br.

iisi;

117 II 88 iisy 1190 1191 1192 1193 J 194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199
1-JOO

Diorite ? Bisalt, br. Granite, pink

1181 2033 2235

129
129-0 129-0 129-3 129-6
1-29-G

4^35
43 111

774 1290
2586-5 43-2 43-2

Limestone
Basalt, gn.

2585-8
42-85 42-75

516
1238
high 33

Basalt, gn.

Limestone
Granite, gr. Granite, gr. Slate? gn. Syenite, bk. Basalt, gn. Basalt, gr.

1261
21,320 33,070
43-6

1560
26,000 39,000
43-6

33

3340
16

130 130 130


l;iii's

3336
23

8384
br.

Limestone,
Basalt, br. Basalt, bk.

20 44

15,720 13-15 43-8 44-1 44-2

15,720

1315
43 8
44-1 44-2

1201

3640

2586

4000

1311) 131-5 131-8 132-3 132-3 133-6

TKLL DEFEXXEH.
JEgixeta.v

Dbachma Standaed

(10).

No.

Material.

CHAP. XII.-THE WEIGHTS.


peculiarities.

larger

and

more

extended

in the

commonness
is

of different value of the

collection

might just as

likely

have blotted

standard
existed
;

that several archetypal

standards

out

all

these rises and falls in a dead level, or


if

and these by more care being exertimes

even reversed them,


of a

they were but accidents


or
selection;

cised in later

became

fixed,

chance

distribution

but

transmitted in different proportions.

and were Thus in

when

we

see

every one of these

details still

the Attic group there were standards of 65"2,


66"3, 67'3,

and even reinforced into more striking proportions, no one can doubt but that there is a distinct meaning in almost
prominent,
every turn and twist of the curves.

and 68*4 grains


all

and these were


65*2,
;

transmitted and
the

used contemporaneously in

same

place.

The

lowest,

is

the

In fact

standard of

the

earliest

coinage

later

the

they represent

a whole

history
to of

of changes

coinage went over to the standard of 66'3,

which have gone before, and


needs
similar

unravel which
other
see ages.

passing from a rather low 66'0 to a higher


66"6, but
still

information
in
detail,

distinctly belonging to this group,

Looking at them
80-grain

wo

that the

and not

to that of 67*3 or 68*4,

which seem

to

curve
1885,

has

lost
is

the

slight

dip

it

have been entirely commercial


86.

varieties.

had

in

and

carried
is

rather lower.
enlarged,
re-

The

Persian
still

curve

precisely

Having

then,

by the

close

similarity

though
into

very small.

The iEginetan

of the results of the


of weights
stantial

two

different collections

more markedly the sudden division which we might distinguish perhaps as the monetary and the commercial.
tains even

from one place, proved the subof


their

two

varieties,

reality

fluctuations

of

standards,

we

Some examples included in it last year should, now think, be otherwise attributed; Nos.

results to see

now turn to how far such

the

Defenneh

fluctuations ex-

tend.

Are they the


will

results of local accidents


?

415 and 416 to the Persian, and Nos. 419, 420, 427, 429, 431, 434, and 436 to the Jrd

of mixture, or are they general characteristics

On

pi. xlix.

be seen the Defenneh results

and uth

kat, since

more

of these are

now unfollows

shown

in full line,

doubtedly found.
in the curves.

These changes I have made

in dotted line,

and the Naukratite results which are reduced to half the


Assyrian, three-fourths in the
one-third the height
in

The Phoenician curve

height in the
Attic,

much
at

the same irregular course, and the rises

and

to

the

223 and 231 grains are well reinforced.


irregular in the
it,

Egyptian standard, in order to bring them


within the sheet and avoid confusion;
this

The Assyrian, though rather

changes of the sparse beginning of

shows

merely affects the height, without in the least


altering

the same characteristics generally strengthened

the

form or range of the curves.

and brought
the Egyptian

out.

The Attic

is

a fine case of
Lastly,

The

results are

most

instructive.

The ranges
though
in

every feature being well


is

reinforced.

of the curves are almost unaltered,

also bettered in a remarkable

way
140

the slight pause in the dotted curve at

is

deepened into a distinct separation in the


falls

general curve, the rises and

of the curve

beyond are heightened and deepened, and the

^ginetan and Phoenician) The 80-grain certain groups are missing. has a main development high up at 81 grains. The fluctuations of the Phoenician The Assyrian, are seen to be purely local.
some cases
(i.e.
it,

hump

in the old curve at 150

is

developed into

a distinct and second rise in the total curve.

though irregular in the scanty beginning of swells up at just the same point, 126 grains and has a corresponding fall between
;

85.

The meaning

of

all

these fluctuations

this

and the larger group

at

129 grains, which


N

TELL UEFENXEH.

may be
Darics
all

called

the

monetary

standard,

the

Here, after a
ples, there

little

confusion of scanty exam-

belonging to this grouiJ.

The Attic

is,

out of half-a-dozen waves and

entirely omits the earliest

65%
this

monetary variety of and begins with the group of 66-3 ; but


of 67 "3 are well de-

intermediate dips from 138 to 152 grains range,

but one turn not fully shown in the general


collection as in the Naukratite.

and the next group last group fined; the

The

dip at 139

extends

higher

at

grains

is filled

up, but only two examples surto

Defenneh, and this


the great use
kat,

may

be accounted for by
of /jrd

plus

here

suflBces
is

extinguish
;

it.

The

made here
to

and

-^ths of

the

correspondence

most remarkable

and the

which would incline the Greeks to

stretcli

comparison of these three cm-ves of the same


nature, but from different sources, establishes

the Attic
fact
it is

drachma
kats

meet

it

by the

oboli.

In

very possible that the low group of


J;tli

more

firmly

than any

reasoning could the

^rd and

may have been


and

intended as

decisive importance of even small turns in such

amphibious weights, serving for these fractions


of the kat or for tetroboli
dioboli of tlie

curves of distribution, whenever the number


of

examples

suffices

to

avoid casual errors.


large in the general

Attic system.

In the

Egyptian kat curves,

The numbers are never


collections

whick are the most perfect owing to the large number of examples, we have the most complete accordance. Not a wave of the Naukratis curve is lost in the Defenneh curve two cases at 143 and 150 are smudged and reduced to mere humps, but still the same cause is plainly at work whick produced the stable types of the
;

curve, never over 8, and


;

usually

but 3 or 4 in each grain space


of at

and yet a change omitting or including a couple more weights almost any point would impair the resemit

blance between

As many

of these weights

and the Naukratite curve. come from Thebes


derived from Naukratis to
is

and Upper Egypt, we are clear of the suspicion


that they were
all

Naukratis curves, wkich appeared in 1885, and


in both years together.

begin with, though that

probably the case

with some of them.


87. Seeing then that the archetype varieties

of Naukratis in the sixth century B.C.

and onof Defen-

88.

We

are then face to face with the con-

ward are identical with the archetypes


the same time, there comes the
question, are these aiThetypes

clusion that for the later periods of Egyptian

neh, on the opposite side of the Delta but at


still

history there were

different

families

of

kat

broader
to the

weights, perpetuated and transmitted without


their archetypes ever being quite

common
?

masked

in the

whole of
son

Egyptian

weights

Unfortunately

process,

and

that

these

famihes were genesimilar projjortions

existing collections are but scanty in compari-

rally diffused in

somewhat

with the large numbers we have

been
entire

throughout the country.

There

is

close

dealing with;

and we are
site

in

almost

literary parallel to this in the history of

manuits

ignorance of the
Still,

or age of a single example.

scripts;

they can be traced into families of

taking the whole of existhig collections


all

readings, any given

MS. can

be assigned to

(including

published and half as

much again
the curve

general group, and yet often cases occur which


are intermediate, just like those Aveights in the

of unpublished examples) without proper corrections for loss or changes,

wo have

dips between the groups.

These families of
certain archetypes
:

shown in dotted line in the top diagram of pi. 1. Here we sec the Naukratis curve of the kat, the Defenneh curve, and the curve of all previous
collections, given

MSS. have come down from


such
as, in

the case of the

New

Testament, the

Byzantine, the Alexandrine, and the Western


families
;

on the

same

scale.

and the versions,

Italic, Syi'iac,

Coptic,

CHAP. XII. THE WEIGHT.S.

Vulgate, Gothic, Etliiopic, Armenian, &c., each


leading off T^ith their family of readings.

from

Syria are
result
is

compared with
that

these.

The

In

general

the Asiatic

Assyrian,

the case of manuscripts the varieties are far

more perplexing, but there is also far more to work on they vary, in short, in n dimensions,
;

though showing the same general range as the ISTaukratite, does not develop nearly so markedly
in the higher values.

In short the two great

while weights vary but in one dimension.


the parallel historically
is

Still

archetypes of the Naukratite were only general

very close

and we
to be

examples from Asia, without having


ing importance there.
at

much
in
its

lead-

can realize from

it

that what

now needs

The Assyrian standard


then established
the

Assyrian, Attic, &c.,

done for each standard of weight, Egyptian, is to determine what the

Naukratis

was

country, and developed in families on account, and was

own
com"

pure archetype of each variety was as closely as we can (like the pure text of a version), then to
settle

not

merely

dependent on
of

stray examples washed in

by waves
is

when

that archetype arose (the date of a


its

merce from Asia.

This type

not nearly so

version),

and what

subsequent history and

strong at Defenneh, which seems therefore to

dispersion has been (like the history of a version)


:

have been more continuously supplied by the


Syrian road.
Phoenician,

in this

metrology may be made.


of weights
is

way an approach to At present much where the study

scientific

On
see
to
it

looking to the Naukratite


that

the study
of

we
as

though not

in close of the

MSS.

conformity

waves with either


is

was some centuries ago.


89.

Having now seen the permanent and im-

portant character of curves of distribution,


will

we

same range and the same general position of the most frequent examples as those curves, which are here translated by X V so as to meet it on its
Assyrian curves,
of just the

turn to see what can be further learned

own ground.
the

The

results

from

this are that

from them.
derivation

There are two theories of the of the Phoenician standard, one


deriving
;

connection between the

Phoenician and

Assyrian had been quite lost before the Naukratite families arose, or they

through an uncertain relation between electrum,


gold,

would be repreits

and

silver,

it

from the ^ginetan,

sented

also even before the Asiatic Assyrian

as proposed

by Brandis

unfortunately the un-

families
is

and curves.

In

fact,

though

source the

certainty of the value of electrum, and indeed its


variable composition, prevent this being accu-

strongly

shown by

the agreement in

general range of the curves,

we

are

bound to
Phoenician

But the other theory, that of Mr. Head, deriving the Phoenician drachm of silver from being of an equal value to the -^
rately tested.

carry back the

derivation of the

standard to a time remote in the history of the

Assyrian standard.

This shows that though


far earlier than the

Assyrian shekel of gold,

is

readily tested on

to all appearances originating in the relation-

the recognized basis of 40 of silver being worth


3 of gold.

ships of metals,

it

yet

is

According to

this the

Assyrian

introduction of a coinage, which in Syria and


the East did not take place until during
after the age of the weights

shekel
shekel.

X V

should be equal to the Phoenician


pi.
1.,

In the middle diagram,

we have

and which we are now

the curve of the Assyrian unit so multiplied,

studying.

both the Naukratite examples, and the curve


of all the Asiatic examples (Syi'ian, Assyrian, 90.

We now
it.

turn to another point, the origin

and

Babylonian)

of

the same unit;

while

of the 80-grain standard, as I called

have provisionally
it

the Naukratite Phoenician curve and the few

I had suggested that

was derived

examples of the same standard which I have


N

by a binary

division of the Assyrian shekel, or

TELL DEFEXXEH.
a -weiglit of 5 shekels, and

supposed that

it

Silver crater

might be

local to Naukratis.

In classifying the
distinctly stood
last there

4
.31

ladle
craters,

mean
,,

1125-^ 2000 = -502 -554 277-^ 500 -554] 144- -^ 1 250 = -576/

Defenneh weights

I refused to attribute to this


it

censers,

34-8 -^ 34

60

standard any example, until


outside any other unit
;

6
2
I

vessels,
tablets,

and at

was

2870o-r-

2 lapis lazuli blocks

90=-oC.l -oGl I 574 5000 1 140-5-;250 =-562/


-r-

50-5

= =

-580

a collection outstanding, belonging clearly to


this

Here we have
which are
all

a long

series of

quantities
kats, but
all

We

and not to any of the other standards. therefore now see that it was more wide-

spread, and

we may

numbers of which are manifestly connected, and


irregular

agree

well examine

if

it

were a

general standard.
the

On comparing
pi.
1.

to being simple multiples of a unit of about

together in

55

kat, equal to about

80 grains.

Taking the

lower

diagram of

the Naukratite

range of the kat as between 138 and 150 grains,


the units found above will be respectively
7G-G to 83-2 grains. 72-1 78-2 72-8 79-1

Assyrian weights, and the Asiatic with the 80-grain curve,


it is

examples,

seen that the

general range agrees very nearly, and

we

are

therefore warranted in attributing the origin


of

the 80-grain to the binarily divided shekel.

78-0 85-0

But the 80-grain curve has none of the characteristics of

Hence
the kat,

if

these are

all

one standard, rather


to the variations of

variously reported
it

owing

the Naukratite Assyrian curve, prograins.

would be fixed

to

between 78 and 79
fluc-

bably

it

and

it

was not therefore derived in Egypt agrees much more nearly to the style
its

Probably the Asiatic standard also


if

tuated, so that

ofthe Asiatic Assyrian curve,

lower varieties

77 and 80 grains
truth.

being probably cut off by being attributed to


the kat instead.

we say that it was between we cannot be far from the

Now

this is just within the observed

Can we then
traces of
it

varieties

of the 80-grain unit, as that ranges

find any Asiatic connection


?

with this standard


as a low variety

We
the

from 77 to 83 grains.

perhaps have some

Now
Asiatic,

it

will

be seen that this tribute


silver vessels

is

all

in a series usually of

smothered over
Kili-

and the
silver

probably came

Persian unit:

from Asia,
the Khita.

being the favourite metal of

kian and Kypriote coins, and the Phoenician


coins with a king's head and ship attributed
to

Seeing that this comprises also the


it

express tribute of the Khita,

Aradus are of 160 grains or a


Further on, referring
of
to

might not be

trifle

over

too bold to call the 80-grain unit in future the


Hittite standard,

that.
lists

the

tribute

and

its

presence in coinage
the
rather confirm

Thothmes

III.,
Kilts.

we

find

from the
Kate.

attributed to Kihkia will


this.

Mcnns.

Asi, lapis lazuli


Naliaraina, lead

1100-^
ijyS-i-

2000=

This unit seems to have been known in


as the Alexandrian

-5.5

1100O-i-i.'000O

Eutcnnu,
Kliitii,

golil

-.55 [-550 1000 =-.558)

later times

drachma, on

which was based the Alexandi-ian mina, and


the Alexandrian "

gold rings,

mean

.'57C-2 -f-

Khita, gold tribute

rnil."?

-^ 00000 -^

Assam, silver dislies Assam, block lapis lazuli

10

t'l -f.

20;

= -523 = -524 2000 = -522 100 = -522


720

wood "

talent; also a talent

mentioned by iElian.
'.il.

At Defenneh we

liave

foi-

tlie first
;

time
the

And,

in the offerings of Ranicssu III.,

obtained

many

sets

of weights together

outer chambers of the Kasr mostly contained


Electniin rin"s,

mean

5-.'r,-f-

1
3.',

11-H
GGG-i.
plates,
4

= -52G. = -520 / =
-530 )

three or four weights apiece, and in one spot


in the

12'=-.532r'
j

camp

the large find of seventeen weights

-^

was obtained.

Hence

avc

can at last ascertain

CHAP. XII.-TIIE WEIGHTS

how far tlie

variations

we know

of

were not only

contemjoorarj, and in use in one town, but

how

much they were mixed

together, and used side

by side indifferently. Or, in other words, what amount of error was treated as negligable
in ancient sets of weights.

This

is

a question

hitherto entirely untouched

and unknown.
all

The

weights here referred to are


preceding
list,
;

published in the

and hence
the
list

it is

needless to repeat

their details

number, the true weight,


is all

the multiple and the unit

that

is

required.
in the

The large
they are
will

find

(numbered
all

find 58)
;

camp contained the following weights


nearly

and as

small, the balance errors

probably be more shown by them than the


(i.e.

errors of standard

the absolute errors will


;

be larger

than the proportional variations)

therefore the defections from a


stated,

mean

scale are

the

mean

(excepting the one heavy

weight) being 144-5.


No.

TELL DEfENXEH.
Eronze kat 1129

sighting to the horizon over the top


1527-0
307-3

of

the

10
2
2

152-7

1134
997 1041
10G6

153G
143f<

highest point;

this

from

purely arbitrary
inches,

datum
1461
7379-'

level

was

called

500

and the

10

1461
147-G

levels

of

all

points

were
is

recorded in inches

50

above the datum, which


highest point.

500 inches below the


levels arc
classified

Here the

9SS 1185 1287


971

716-0

according to their subject.


128-:
81-:

1287
811-8
1422-8

10
10

The

original level of the

sandy plain
highest
the

may be
(i.e.

taken as about 227 inches above datum


10 10
2

142-3 142-7
145-6

970 1032 1109


92G 1006 1142 1145

1427-5
291-2
75-0
13S-S

500-227 = 273 below


present)
;

the

point
walls

at in

the

sand

beneath

i
1

150-0
138-8

1442-8
1557-1

10 20 4
I

144-3

chambers 8 and 3G being at this level, the sand between the mastaba and the fort being 230, and the sand beneath the mastaba about
235, which probably

312-5
48-5

was raised a

little

again

the base of the outlying west wall being 220,


1028 1065 1113 1261
145-5
147-6

295-2
751-5

probably built a
the ground.

little

below the surface.

The

150-3

foundations of the fort were naturally sunk in

9040
1384
299-8
47-5 28-9
50-2
.

40
10
2

920 1107
iVnothtr

138-4
140-9

to

The present sea-level according Lake Meuzaleh in May, when scarcely any
it, is

Nile water runs into


it

212, but in high Nile

973
IJronzc kat

rises to 227.

This

is

probably

much higher

chamber

1010 1116

than in ancient times, for as 15 feet of mud have


144-5
150-6

been deposited in the Delta since the twelfth

Now

reviewing

tliese

weights

found thus
cases there

dynasty alone,

it is

clear that the country

must

connectedly,

we

see that in

many

have sunk as

well, or else the parts

near the sea


;

arc close relations between them, not only of

would have then been under water


rise of

the 8-foot

one

family,

but

some

almost

identical

in

water so close to the sea as at Tanis

standard.

In some cases two distinct families

since

Greek times shows that a sinking of the


of

may be

seen, as in 19 a,

where there are the 145

country must have taken place along with the


rise

and the 153 families together.


of Ptolemaic
lOls
1081

On
1

the later

tell

by deposit

mud.

The whole Delta has


by the weight

age were found together


144-7
144-7

appai'cntly been slowly depressed

of superimposed deposits, at about the

1482-8

10

148-3

rate as those deposits have grown.

same Hence this


it

The other questions


different standards

of forms

and materials of

sea level relatively to the sandy desert has risen


considerably, and in

still

reinain to be examined

some centuries more

after

working out the IGOO bronze weights

may
is

cover large tracts.

The

level of the plain

but the present research has carried us forward


a decisive step by proving the fixity and generality of the variations

at the lowest point to the east of the

Kasr now
is

222, over a mass of remains, which

below

shown us by the curves.


XIII.

the high Menzaleh level; while the foundation


deposits of the fort were

CHAPTER
it:'..

sea level.
flat

LEVELS AND MEASUREMENTS,


Ttik levels at Defennch were taken

two feet below even Nothing but the evaporation over a plain almost at water level keeps the water
for these to be reached.

by

down enough

In a

CHAP. XIII. LEVELS AND MEASUREMENTS.

few centuries more Tell Defenneli will be an island in Lake Menzaleh, like tlie many other
tells

corner of the

fort,

410

at the S.W.,
;

414; at

the E. of chamber 44, 425


fort (period A),

at the

N.E. of the

wticli appear

now

in the water.

498
94.

The ground
and 187
at

level being 227, the founda-

tions of the fort wei-e S.E.,

sunk to 197 N.E., 190


;

448 ; at the S.E. of the fort, and the highest point of all just west of chamber 22 was, 500 inches above datum. Judging from the beginning of doming, to be
;

N.W.

the bottom courses


that the wall

seen in the highest parts of the cells of the fort,


it

retreated, however, inward, so


face ended at

seems probable that


in.

it

rose originally to at least

210 N.W., 209 N.B., and 197

500

before being closed over into a uniform


.

These S.B., or 1^ to 2^ feet below the ground. and the deposit levels, are shown in pi. xxiii. The sand beneath the mastaba is about 235, and the top of the mastaba varied from 268 to

platform, on which the buildings of the fort

proper were placed.


probably 20 feet in

Those buildings were very height, at least to the watch would thus easily commuand Tell Sherig.
were noted in

tower, which would thus rise more than 60 feet

mean 270, or 3| feet above the general ground. The north wall of the mastaba reaches down to 199, being a retaining wall for the whole mass. The raised road along the west The levels of the palace up to the entry is 277.
272,

above the plain.

It

nicate with Kantara, Tell Ginn,


95.

The

sizes of the bricks


:

elifferent

parts of the Kasr

they are, in the

of the sand in different chambers, &c., is as follows: In .36 and 8, beneath wall, 227; between mastaba and fort, 230 ; in 9, beneath

great square of the fort, period A, taking the

mean

of

two or three examples,


side
. .

E.N.E.

S.S.E. side

walk 251

in 42,

254

in 4,
;

259

in 41,

260

W.^^'.W. side

in 22, 260 beneath walls

in 43, from

275 at

south to 340 at north end;


inches
:

and

in 38, 299

Mid-chamber Above that

X 7-9 X X 78 X 16-4 X 8-1 X 16-G X 8-2 X 17-4 X 8-2 X


lG-2

4-9

16-3

4-5 4-2 4-3 4-2

these are evidently the sand fillings

The mid-chamber

is

the deep square chamber

in the latter instances,

put in to

fill

up the
245
;

below the large south chamber, and the bricks


above that are those of the large south chamber
itself.

chambers.
22, 265
;

The
;

laid floors are in 45,

in

threshold in the north of chamber 18,


in 45, a higher
;

These are
Port,

erratically

long,

and

ex-

269
279
11,

in 4, 271

pavement at
sill

cluding these,

we may say period A


B
C

II

for the X 8-0 X 4-4 X 8-7 X 5-1 16-1 X 8-0 X 5'0 lG-0 X 7-8
16-4
17-2

in 11, 283

in 10,

284

the stone

of

Entry court, period

,,

and plastering on the walls of a


the stone
floor
:

later date,

additions

331;
sages,

sill

of

the entry, 351;

the

period

16-5
.

mortared

of the entry court


last
is

and pas,,

J!

period

E
.
.

16-1 16-1

368

this

the only piece of

X. of E., period

true floor of the palace itself which remains.

Thus the outlying


feet

offices

stood at about 2 to 5
level,

Wall round 19, period F Chamber 8 (Psamtikl) Wall between 8 and fort
.

13-2 14-2 15-2

X X X X

8-0 8-0 7-8


G-8
7-1

X X
X

4-2
4-1

X
X X

3-5
3-7

7-3
8-1

above the ground

and the lowest

Walls

S. of fort

16-4

4-5

passages of the palace at about 12 feet above


the ground.
I went to

All of these are

known

to belong to the earlier

The present highest points when Defenneh, on the worn-away surface


were rubbish on south of mastaba,
level

part of the twenty-sixth dynasty, and show well how much variation may be expected in various
lots of bricks of the

of the ruins,

same general

period.

The

310 ; general

on west part of

fort,

324

on

east part of fort,

fort,

329 ; along south side of 342; and in middle, 349; at the N.W.

usual sizes of 16"4 agree closely to those of bricks of the same age at Kom Afrin 16-3, and

Naukratis 16-3, while those of

Sais-

agree to

TELL DEFEXXEH.
the longer length of
sizes are in
1

7'3.

The only

erratic

Hat

hor, E, y\, V,

Atlior, G,

chamber 8 and the walls by it, and in the wall around 10; and these warn us that the sizes, though generally a close indication of
age,

Horus, P,

Hor, P,

Hotep, B, L,

lietp,
;

R K

Har, B,

hotpou,
;

R Hat hor, AV. R Hor, W. M iiotep, E


;
;'

may

be in a few cases rather below the

standard.

The

walls of the building

down by

;" Khem, E, G, P, R xem, P Chem, :\Iiu, M Ames, R. Khmim, E Khnoum, 51, P xnum, P Chnuin, AV, R Knum, G. Khonsu Khoiis, B, E, G, P ;;(onsu, P Chonsu, R Chunsu, G; Khonsou, M; Kliimsu, E; Chens, R.
; ;
;

hctop,

"\V.

the caravan road are of bricks measuring


15-9

Khita,

Chela,

S-7

X 50

]\Ierenptah, P,

^eta, P.
;

:Mineptah, 11

Meneptali,

Mienptah,

which seem
the Kasr.

to be therefore of the

same age as

L; Menephthah, R.
Xekbt-har-heb.
Neit, P,

Next-hor-heb,

P;

Necht-Hor-heb,

W;

Xeclit-har-heb,

l^ext-liar-heb,
;

L
;

Xakht-hor-heb, E.

The red baked

bricks beneath the mastaba,

of Kamesside age probably, are


12-5

Gi'

31.

NOTE.
The names
transliteration of

W;"Neith, G, R Xit, M; Net, Br. Nokaii, L, R, \\ Xecho, R Neku, P Xeko, il Xeqo, E. Xofer, E; Xofir, JI; Xofro, R; Kefer, Br, P, R,AV; Newer, P. Pianklii, E P-anxi, P Pianchi, "W PiGnkh, 51 Panxi, L. Psamtik; Psemtek, \\ Psametik, E, P; Psamitik, M;
;

Psammeticlms, G, R.
Ptah, B, E, P,
Siamcii
;

Egyptian words and

Phtali, 51,
;

R
E

Ptah,
Se-,

W.
;

varies so

much

in the usage of the best

Siamoun, 51

S;h-,

Sa-, Br,

W.

any single system which could be followed would be but in a small minority.
scholars, that

Sekhet, E,
Sheshaiik,

R;

Sechet, R,

W;

Sokhit, 51.

5r

Sheshonk, G, P, R ; Sheshonq, E ; Shishomi, ; Scheschenk, sesanq, P sesonk, L. ;

The only system ever formally agreed


authorities in general
is

to

by

Tahuti, L,

R;

Tliotli,

R;

Tahuti,

E;

Thuti,

W.
;

Tum,
Uati
;

perhaps less followed

Toum,

M
;

Atum,
AV

Uah-ab-ra, P,
Uat,

R
;

Uahbra,
;

G G

Atmu,

Tmu, R.
Uahiibra, AV.
;

Ualiabra,

fe

Persons not familiar with the literature of Egyptology readily suppose that
some system must prevail, and
they happen to be familiar with.
fore put together here

than any other.

Uat'i,

Ueti,

Uedji,

Bouto, 51.

Usertesen;

Sesurtesen,

L;

TJsortesen,

E;

Usertsen,

R;

may

Osirtasen,

Ousirtasen, 51.

therefore

Ushabti (or shabti also iu hieroglj'phics). shabti,


sabti, usebti, suabti,

usabti,

be confused by finding a different name to what


I have there-

uschebti, "W.

The above

will serve as a

sample of what

may

some

spellings used in

be easily extended as to authorities, and carried

the best authorities in recent years (and others


that are
familiar)
for various of the
;

throughout Egyptian words.

names

occurring in this volume


writers use

premising that
of the

many
same

CHAPTER
By
9G.

XIV.

two or three forms


to

QANTARAII.
F. Ll. Griffith.

name according
I usually follow

the style of their subject.


I

the spelling most familiar to


it

English readers, except in cases where


the use of Greek perversions. the authors
: ;

incurs

For four weeks from the middle of April was at Qantarah, the village at which the
is

The letters denote


;

caravan route to Syria crosses the Suez Canal.


It

B, Birch Br, Brugsch E, Ebers G, Gardner Wilkinson; L,Lepsius; M.Maspero; R, Renouf W, Wiedemann. P, Pierret
; ;

quite

modern,

dating from

the

time

when the canal was begun.


hospital run

The houses and


from the

up

at that time for the engincer.s,

Aahmes, B, E, G, R Aahma.s, L Ahraos, il ; Amasis, li, G ; Ahmcs, ; Ahmus, P. (Pre-nomen Ra-nem-ab, or Ra-knum-ab.) Amen, B, E, G, M, Animon, E, Jf, R ; Amon, Cook ;

and

built chiefly of materials obtained


tell,

neighljouring

now

stand deserted a quarter


tlie little

of a mile E. of the canal,

village having
It
is

Aniun, L.

gro\vn up since on the E. bank.


f1
;

a wealthy

Amuncmhat, G, L Amencmliait, M Amcnemha, P; AmenemhS, W. Amc-niritis, M, P Ameneritis, G, "W Amuniritis, L


Amcncmliat, E,
;
;

little

community, owing

its

existence to thocaual,

and

its

comparative prosperity to the crossing


It consists of government

Amenaftas, R.

of the caravan route.

CHAP. XIV. QANTARAH.


offices,

a mosque,

and a

market, together witli sucli


as

are

necessary for

Arab and houses those "who keep them


well-furuishecl
liuts

Roman,

so the previous occupation

must have

been very short indeed.'


slightly

going.

On

all

sides

is

the desert with

its

The mound lies two miles E. of the Suez Canal, N. from Qantarah, and three-quarters of

meagre vegetation, or the salt marshes which support no life but wild fowl. The inhabitants, with characteristic indolence, which has spread also to the Europeans amongst them,
have
never
looked
into

a mile S. of the present caravan road.

The

the

desert; their

interest lies solely in the market-place

and along

bounded by the dry bed of Lake Balali, and the dry bed of Menzaleh on the N. and W. is less than two miles away. Thus there were marshes on three sides, and the title " Lord of Seshu," or the marshes, given
southern side
is

the canal.

It is therefore impossible to obtain

information from them of any value either as


to the
district

geography or to the past history of the


round.

god on one of the monuments, is not an inappropriate one, notwithstanding the dry and desert appearance of the district at the
to the local

A telegraph wire is carried along


although an

present time in spring.^

On

the whole of the

the

Arish

road to Syria, but

eastern side from N. to S. the desert hills rise


conspicuously, skirting the Balah lake and the

engineer has continually to pass backwards

and forwards between El Arish and Qantarah, no survey was made for it, and little or no information can be obtained in this direction.

marshes of Pelusium.
yards,

Maps

of

this

district

are

not to be
the best
stated, I

The mound measures from N. to S. 500 from E. to W. 700. The Ramesside blocks lie near the centre, and close to them
I

trusted.

The scanty Bedawin

are

found the square limestone base upon which


It

guides,

and except where otherwise

one of the monuments had been raised.

have seen everything that I record with

my

own

eyes.

In Qantarah, near the west end of the old Canal Company's buildings, stands a peculiar

measured 58^ inches square, and was built up of separate blocks. Round it at two levels were traces of pavements, made of small
chips

and fragments of limestone

cemented

monument of sandstone, inscribed with the name of Rameses II., his father Seti I., and his
grandfather Rameses " house of Horns."

together.

The lower pavement was 40 inches


Seventy-nine feet

bqlow the top of the base.


limestone, the
right, the
left

and dedicated in the On walking to the mound


I.,

E. of this I found a recumbent lion, natural


size,

in

head turned eastward

two miles E. one finds remains of a similar monument, likewise mentioning Rameses II. and Horus, Lord of Mesen. On this spot
then was a temple of Ramesside epoch.
ever, a fortnight spent in trenching the

to

the

paw

crossed

over the

right.

It

was

inscriptions.

bad condition, and without There were also considerable


in

Howmound

remains of rubble pavement, with occasional

produced nothing further that was certainly of


a period earlier than the later Ptolemies, nor

were any more hieroglyphic inscriptions


covered.

dis-

The rubbish was exceedingly shallow


;

' It is not necessary to suppose that the Kamesside monuments were brought here to adorn the Eoman camp. The early settlement, which probably existed only for a short time, may have been entirely destroyed, and being abandoned

for seven or eight centuries, the brick foundation in the sand,

a few trenches reached a depth of three metres


1 to 1|^

even

if

not removed to clear the ground

when new

buildings

metre was

sufficient to

bring up desert

sand in most parts, and often even near the


centre the sand

The
^

were erected, might itself be carried away by wind and rain. bricks everywhere were small, 13 inches being the largest

measurement.

was

practically at the surface.


;

The

cutting of the Suez Canal below sea level having

This proves a short occupation

nearly

all is

drained considerable tracts on the E. side.

QANTAEAH.
squares of fine

limestone

measuring

about

'

especially to strengthening the eastern frontier.

80 inches, apparently bases of monuments. The mound had been much trenched at the
time of the excavation of the canal, partly perhaps for antiquities, partly for the sake of

"We find this aim referred to in the inscription


in the

words

provideiitid suce majestatis (in fore-

thought for the safety of their majesty).


as to the dedication,
'

And

we know
as

that Diocletian

A large well, the limestone and burnt brick. which doubtless supplied the settlement with
brackish water, was at that time completely

styled

himself

Jovius,

being supreme in

council,

and Maximian Herculius, as being a

brave soldier.

Thus

it is

clear that

we have

excavated and stripped of

Hmestone lining this was S.W. of the sandstone blocks, which were discovered at the same time.
its

here the settled form of dedication in that year


in

Egypt.

The

inscription

is

dated

in

the third consulship

or year of Diocletian, giving the approximate


97.

Near the well

found fragments of a lime-

date of 288 a.d.

The

revolt of

Egypt under
appears that

stone slab which had been broken up and used


for paving-stones.
tion dating

Achilleus had to be suppressed eight years later.

Upon

it

was a Latin

inscrip-

From

the largest fragment

it

from the

joint reign of Diocletian

and

the inscription was painted red.


of the letters are mixed.

The forms
is

Maximian, and recording the dedication by these emperors of the camp of the first ala of the Thracian cavalry, termed the Mauretanian on account

The

distinctly

Greek, except in one case where the engraver


has followed his Latin model more closely.
I

some honourable service in North Africa,' to Latin inscripJupiter, Hercules, and Victory. tions are rare in Egypt, and it is curious to find
of

have completed the inscription in the plate by dotting in words from the Manfalut inscription.
"Where the two can be compared they agree
exactly, except
in the

published in the C.
tion

L., vol.

iii.

p. 8,

an inscrip-

abbreviations

and the
us

from a basalt block built into a Coptic church near Manfalut,- in which the camp of the
first

name of the garrison. The inscription docs not


the place.

give

cohort of the Lusitanians, distinguished as


I.

assistance in determining the classical

much name of
;

the Augustan praetorian (Cohors

Aug.

prist.

The

dedication being a fixed one

Lusitanorum), was dedicated in the same

ye.ar

can have no bearing on the local worship


as
to the

and

by the same emperors


It is well

to the

same

deities.

garrison, the

Notitia Dignitatum,

The explanation may be found in history. known that when Diocletian had raised Maximian to the position of his colleague in the Empire, and had entrusted him with the
western part of
'

enumerating the imperial offices in the time of Constantino, mentions Pelusium, Sella (Sile of
the Itinerary), Thaubastus, and perhaps other

posts on this line as occupied by cavalry


the Thracians are not

but

it,

he turned his

own

attention

named amongst them.


stationed here does,

The fact of a garrison being


This ala
is

also

mentioned in an inscription

of the

year 109 A.D., found at

Ramleh near Alexandria.

The

deI.

curiones alares of the Ala veterana Gallica and the Ala

however, strengthen the proof of its being Sile. In the mound itself there were remains of a
thick wall of unbaked brick that seemed to be

Thrac.

Maurct. dedicated a statue to Septimius .Severus.


of these

The

was stationed at Rinocolura (El Arish) when Perhaps one may supthe Notitia Imperii was drawn up. pose that these garrisons were not changed for a century, and that the ofhccrs of the two frontier stations on the land route between Egypt and Syria clubbed together to set up The Notitia places the ALi I. the statue of Septimius.
first

continuous for more than a hundred yards on


the north of the centre.

This

may have been

part of the

camp enclosure

of Diocletian.

Besides this inscription, I found a fine bronze vase in the form of a female head with inlaid
eyes of glass, of good

iEgyptiorum at Sella (Sile;. 'Dcr cl Gebrawi, Murray's Egj-pt, 1880,

p.

422.

Roman

work, kept at

CHAP. XIV.-QANTARAH.
the Bulaq

Museum.
?),

Also of bronze, a slender

viously, or

where the limestone had induced


This
fact,

knife, a figure of Osiris, a small bell (for horse's

the Arabs to dig for building materials.

trappings

a girdle-fastener (hollow triangle

cemetery in

from

its

size

and

position,

with button at

the apex), cylindrical socket

with traces of wood inside, perhaps the ferrule


of a standard.
bottle
?

much

would seem to belong to the caravan route as as to the town, from which it is threeits

Of

glass,

fragments of a large
of dark blue,

quarters of a mile distant at

nearest point.

in the

form of a bird
of clear glass.

and
99. I proceed to give a list of sites
^

Roman bottle
moulds
6,

Several disks of

in the

porcelain and rings for bronze rods.

Earthen-

neighbourhood.
Tel Farama (F.^ gives a good idea of the

ware
cord

for

glass

hieroglyphs, knotted

and cynocephalua.
maa.
Several

Large mould for Large porcelain


of

form and position


principal

of the

mounds, Eng. quite


of a mile

earthenware, of limestone.
feather

wrong), the ancient Pelusium, consists of two

pieces

limestone

mounds, about three-quarters


by marsh.

squared for sculpture, on one a lotus flower

from the edge of the desert on the


pletely surrounded

E., but

com-

was dehcately drawn

in black ink.

Coins of

the latest Ptolemies were abundant.

narrow, stretching 1^ miles or


"W. in a straight line.
of

The mounds are more from E. to


small, but

The E. mound is

98.

Amongst the deserted houses

Qantarah

high

an Arab fort 120 yards square completely


Details of the plan of this

are to be seen several limestone coffins of the

occupies the summit.

usual

Roman

type.
is

The cemetery from which


very extensive, stretching
of

building could probably be easily


excavation, as the lower part
is

made out by

they were taken

well preserved.

N.E. from the old hospital at the eastern end


these houses, where there
is

Between

this

and the W. mound a consider-

also the

modern

able space intervenes, through which a canal

cemetery, for about half a mile.

or perhaps the main stream of the Pelusiac


full of inter-

The more distant half of this is ments. Some of the bodies, none
mummified, have been enclosed
of

branch ran.
narrow,
well
all

The second mound


defined, but
sides to the

is

long and
gradually

of

which are
formed

sloping

in coffins

two

jars

joined in the middle, measuring

6 feet in length, with blunt ends, wide in the

marsh level, except where the Arab citadel (see French map) in the centre of the N. side rises abruptly from the

down on

middle

some

in terra-cotta coffins
flat

rounded at

edge.

The N. and

S.

walls

of this

measure

the ends with

base and cover.

Some

are
!

about 360 yards, the E. and

W.

about half as

laid at length in the sand,

crouching

position,

some apparently in some again gathered


|

much.

The

principal

gateway

is

on the N.,

near the E. end, where a narrow


'

mound
collect,
is

(not
at

under half a large jar broken longitudinally.


Others again were laid either with or without
stone
or
terra-cotta
of
coffins

Place names

are

ahvaj's

difficult

to

and

Qantarah they are particularly


tracks,

so, since

the population

very

in

constructed
rubble.

chambers

brick

or

stone

The

bricks are both burnt and unburnt, measuring


5 X 10 inches.

scanty, and the sites are often at a distance from the beaten and seldom passed even by tlie Bedawin. Tell Dahab and TeU Fadda, which were the names appHed to the mounds of Pelusium by Mr. Chester's guide, who came from Salhiyeh,

All these seem to belong to a

I often heard of at Nebesheh.

But they were semi-mythical

very late period, and are apparently without antiquities.

names, and the Bedawin about Qantarah only once mentioned Tel el Fadda, by which the mound E. of Pelusium was perhaps
!

I trenched in

all

parts of the ceme-

intended.

tery without finding anything

more than the


undistui'bed
pre-

Qantarah.
I

interments,

which were always

Tel Farama was known by report to every one at Tel el Dahab I never heard mentioned there. " F." refers to the Atlas Gcographique of the French " Description ;" " Eng." to the Map of Lower Egypt issued
-

except where

M. Paponot had excavated

by the EngUsh

War

Office.

QAXTARAH.

marked

in F.)

runs out northward nearly 300


Starting

It is

much to be

regretted that no inscriptions

yards, perhaps for quays.

the extreme
first travel

W.

end of the principal

now from mound, we

remain on the surface.

The numerous granite

along a narrow projection 800 yards

blocks are so weathered that not a trace of " working " remains, except where a column or

in length, of uniform breadth,

and only 30-90

square block has been polished with an even


face.

inches above lake level. This seems entirely with-

The

level of the country has

no doubt

out Arab remains, but


at the

extreme end.

Roman red brick occurs On it may have been


upon
it.

changed greatly, and remains would be found far below the level of the marsh, which now
dries

built the

quays and warehouses of earlier times.


tail the mound widens much higher with Arab walls and

in spring.

K"o large blocks of stone are visible

level of the rain,

mound

Another reason of the low lies in the denudation by


to

At
and

the E. end of this


rises

which must go on here


at

greater
It

extent even than

San and Defeneh.

forts.

At

the junction there seems

to

be a
is

would be
frontier

of great value to learn the ancient

gateway.

Immediately "W. of the citadel


in

a
lie

narae^ and earlier history of


city

Pelusium, the

large depression,

the

centre of which

in

which Phoenicians, Persians,

several columns of granite,


of

making three

sides

Cypriotes, Carians, and lonians

met with the

a rectangle,

probably having been rolled

Egyptians in peace or war a thousand times.


Perhaps, too, the Hyksos and Assp-ians

against the sides of a building which has

now

may be

vanished.

They

lie

half buried, probably three

metres above lake


granite,

level.

They

are

all

of red
it

added to the catalogue of Eastern nations who struggled for the possession of this " key of
Egypt,"
but classical historians can take us

and so much weathered as


decide their original form. the
citadel

to

make

difficult to

back

Avith certainty only as far as the begin-

Outside

gate

lie

two granite

ning of the Saite dynasty, and then Daphnaa

blocks about the centre of the projecting arm.

E. of the citadel about N. side of the

150 yards are two

it

groups of grey granite blocks.

Beyond on the
granite
other,
to

was made the frontier fortress, garrisoned, as appears from the remains, by Greeks and The notices of Pelusium as the chief Carians.
object of attack before this time

mound
and

lie

four red

may be due

to

columns
evidently

parallel

close

each

misconception of the condition of the times or


inaccuracy.

by the mediasval insome open space in the town (as one sees them now at Kosetta), and after its desertion denuded by wind and rain, and left lying high and exposed. They are large, but
rolled together

habitants in

This

is

one of the questions which would be

solved by excavation.

There

is

no doubt of

apparently of

Roman

date.

S. of these is

depression with columns and blocks

of

grey

and red granite almost buried, scattered over a space of 150 yards square. This is evidently
the site of the principal temple.

N. winds, and the marshes are almost dry, but there is a heavy dew, and occasionally rain. The distance can easily be accomplished in a day with a camel, passing Tel el HOr. A supply of water should be taken, as none can be obtained on the journey fit to drink. The place is quite deserted. In
the desert E. of Tel
el

Hor

the licdawin pasture large herds

Further E.,

near the end of the mound, are small blocks


of a basalt similar to that used in the

no milk can be obOnly in the date season do Arabs pass Tel Farama on their way between Port Said and the scanty groups of There was only one camel to bo palm-trees in the desert.
of breeding camels with their young, but
tained.

pavement

hired this year at Qantarah.


"

of the great pyramid.

In a depression on the

N. are two small columns.'


'

the source of the Arabic

The Coptic name of Pelusium, nepEJUtOVft, was perhaps name Farama, and possibly represents
Nothing, however,
is

the hieroglyphic {p-)rn-men.


of this

known

Tel Farama

ii

proliably beat visited from Qanfarali at

end of April or beginning of May.

The air

is

then cool with

Prumen, except that it was situated the Delta, and even the reading of the name

in this part nf
is

uncertain.

CHAP. XIV. QANTARAII.


the importance
of

the city as early as

Heroa strip
is

Trll

aim Sefe, called


the

"Old Qantarah"
of

(Q. el

dotus (Hclt.

ii.

141).
is

Qadhne) by
village, is the

inhabitants

the

modern
It is not

Along
of sand
called

tlie

coast N. of Pelusiiim
vegetation.

mound E.

of Qantarah.

-with

fort

N.W.

by the Arabs El Belaha

(Qala'et

et

marked in the French map in its proper place. The large mound (marked Euines), 3 or 4 miles
S. of its true position, is

Tineb of the French map).


very small

N.E. are two or

perhaps intended for

it.

three low mounds, in the lake.

There

is

Qantarah "bridge"
invariably
Qrt?uf fir

(F., Qanatir), is called

mound about

mile

S.,

covered with

"bridges" by the inhabitants

Arab

brick, evidently a guard-house

on

the

of the neighbouring villages on the

W.

This
of the

river or canal,

which passed between the two

must therefore have been the old name

main mounds.
100. Tel

el

Failda

is

said to be the

name

of an

insignificant

mound 30 yards
from the marsh
(F.

square in the desert


hills

crossing, which seems to have been only a few hundred yards S. of the modern vihage.^ As Tell abu Sefe lay on the S. side of the jST.E. end of the isthmus between the lakes, so a small
station

opposite Tel Farama, situated where the

represented

now by

a low

nameless

begin to

rise

level.^

mound on

the northern edge seems to have


It is diflScult to

TelelEcr

Her

Eng.), a small shallow

guarded the south-west end.


reconcile the details of the

mound

next in point of size to that at Qantarah.

French map with the


If the place

It stands

on the

S. side of a spit

of sand run-

present appearance of the place.


is

ning westward into the bed of the lake,


Greville Chester's
correctly.

Mr.

map shows

its

position

most
100

It is conspicuous for a

high mediseval

gone over map in hand, it will, I think, appear that much that is marked as marsh was really sand. About a mile farther along the
carefully
is

fortress of red brick at its E. end, about

road

the heap

known as

Qaliioet

IhraMm Bam,

yards square.
it,

Tel Farama

is

partly visible from

partly shut off by intervening sand heights.


Tel Hahiue,

" Ibrahim Pasha's coffee-house." The road then passes by a southern outlier of Defeneh (F.,
Tell Defeineh) to Salhiyeh.

on the

S. side

of the caravan

This succession, T.

route

a small heap of red brick on the sand,


itself.

Farama, T.

20 yards square, and very unimportant in

However,

it

is

a landmark from
is

its

colour to

Her, [T. Habwe,] TeU abu Sefe, Qanatir, the nameless mound, [Qahwet Ibrahim Basha,] Defeneh, seems to mark the
el
el

Fadda, T.

the caravans, and the place of the

worth noting, as

it

occupies

laud route from Pelusium.

It

seems strange

"Tel Semut "

of the maps,
identifi-

that so important a point as the passage between

which has been the subject of several


cations.

here, as

The it was

latter

name

to the

unknown French expedition, who


is

quite

left

Lakes Balah and Menzaleh should have been unguarded from the time of Eameses
almost to the Romans, but the history of his

only dot in surface ruins

here on

the map.

mound on
is

the road between Qantarah and

important corner of the Delta and of the desert E. of it, as well as the whole question of the
ancient routes,
is

Salhiyeh, as well as the


bridge, "

name of Qantarah, " the


by
the natives
(inf.).

as yet too

little

known

for

connected

with

one to venture on

much

speculation.
fine.

Both mounds, however, I suspect, are guardhouses of an earlier date.


Ibrahim Pasha's expedition to Syria
of these
Mr. Cliestor, when he visited this part of the coimtry in 1880, was informed that this was tlie name of one of the This is much more probable. great mounds of Pelusium
'
.

There is nothing of importance S.E. of this

^ This is confirmed by the name Qanatir in the French map, where two channels from Menzaleh to Balah are marked as crossed by the caravan road. Abu Asab is the name of a conspicuous hill, visible even from Defeneh, and lyin" perhaps 15 miles on the caravan road from Qantarah.

QAXTAIJAII.

Only S.E. of Tel Habwe, by tlie side of lialf-adozen palm-trees, there are the remains of a few
red-briek and other buildings.

4 miles N.W. of Qaulara,- and into the canal


that
canal, skirts

the N. edge
as the
is

of

Defeneh.
el

This

On

the other
is

now known

Bahr

Baqar, or

hand, N. and N.E. of Qantarah the ground

" canal of the cow,"

certainly artificial, as
its

frequently strewn with fragments of pottery.

may be gathered from


sand
for at
least

running through
near Defeneh.

The occurrence
ing, &c.,

of large stones for corn-grind-

miles

shows that there must have been in


far

The Pelusiac branch, on the other hand, running

some cases settled villages. These remains often stretch


dried-up marsh.

W.
into

of Heracleopolis, seems to have turned to


little

the

the N. a

before reaching Defeneh.

difiSculty

in

ascertaining
to

In the Itinerary of Antoninus, from Pelusium

the course of the ancient canals and river-beds


in this region lies in the complete silting

Memphis, Daphno

is

the

first

station

up

of

the lake.

We know

from the

fact of village
in places wliich
all

mentioned. It therefore followed this channel or " short cut," by the side of which a road

remains occurring in abundance

probably ran through


time.

the

marshes' at that
(at the E.
is

have evidently been under water


as well as

the winter,

The road from Serapiu

end

from other indications, either that the


has sunk.

of the

Wadi

Tumilut) to Pelusium

given as

drainage of the land has been stopped, or that


the surface
classical

We know

also

from

a Serapiu Pelusio, Ix. (xl.). Thaubasio (Thausasio),


Sile, xxviii.

viii. (viiii.).

authors that there

were lakes and

swamps all over the district in early times. The canals of such a district would require We continual attention to keep them open.

Magdolo,
Pelusio,

xii.

xii. (xv.).

Thaubasion, a place of some importance

in

know even
is

that a navigable branch of the river

Roman

times, has not been identified, and no

passed this way, and yet in spring the whole

likely place is

marked on the maps.

The

identi-

a stretch of barren salt sand, the level of


is

fication of Sile with Tell

abu Sofe may remain.

which to the eye

absolutely uniform, although

a difference in consistency betrays slight variations of level to the foot


:

for instance,

round

the edges of Tel

Farama

the current formed by

Magdolon was formerly identified with Tel Semut. The latter, however, does not exist. Tel el Her is more probable. It stands on the direct road, 11 or 12 miles from Tell abu Sefe,
and 6 from the E. end of Pelusium, which
is

the obstruction has left a space of


in breadth, perhaps 3 inches lower

20 yards
rest.

than the

Under such circumstances it is hopeless to look The only method is to seek for for channels.^
lines

of

mounds, natural or
banks.

artificial,

which
I

would cxcludi

channel or would mark siteg

upon

its

Thus, I think, a channel

may

From this moiuid there is still observable a peculiar line ?) strewed with pottery, running S.W and cutting the Suez Canal close to a group of deserted houses. I found I picked up on the mound a late Ptolemaic coin. also two double corn-grinder stones of a peculiar form, being shaped like a doubly-concave vertebra and pierced: On each side is diameter 18 inches, length 14 inches.
^

(an artificial roaclwaj'

be traced past the low mounds N.E. of Tel

a hollow

handle forming a square

socket, the

sides

of

Farama, and between the eastern and western mound, past the small red-brick mound S.W.,
past another low
Hfir, past
'

wliich are pierced with a small hole parallel to the circum-

mound

visible

from Tel

el

a sand island, and another low

mound

The socket must have been for the wooden lever fixed by a thin rod or wire It was then evidently worked on a convex The material stone, the upper bowl being kept full of corn. One of the convex stones for a similar mill resembles slag.
ference of the stone.
insertion

of a

through the hole.

of

The French map, however, marks a distinct channel W. Some traces of this may exist. I the Pelu-siac mouth.
visit that part.

lies
li.)

on the mound N. of the canal at Defeneh. (See I'latc No doubt these are Roman, and the material is

did not

perhaps trachyte from Syria.

CHAP. XIV. QANTARAH.


the nearest on the desert road.

These distances
for

would

be more correct than that given

Daphno (xvi., really about xxvi.) from Pelusium. The Arab fort at Tel el Her, wbicli is by far the
most important
in appearance

liyPrisse(or a friend of his) when it was in a much more complete state, and with the help of his plate (Prisse, Monuments, pi. xix.) I have been
able to make almost a complete restoration of
it.'

on the road, may

On an oblong

rectangular base, 2 1^ inches high,

very well stand on an earlier structure of the

32 inches broad, and about 40 inches long, stood


a kind of truncated obehsk, about 5 feet high, the faces sloping slightly inwards, and crowned

by the Semitic name Magdolon (Migdol,' or "tower"), which would point to an early date.^ South of Qantarah I have

same kind,

called

nothing to record. There is said to be a ruin " as of a single house" near the canal W. of

Lake Balah, but


find

I could not find

it,

nor did I

any pottery on the sand in that direction.


to the

The name Tineh given


have never heard, but I
does not
the
exist.
is

neighbourhood of Pelusium in

mounds and some maps I


it

by a cornice. On the top of this stood a colossal hawk, the figure of the god Horns, There were inscriptions on each face and round the base. Above the inscriptions were scenes of offering. The details of these are as follows Front (Prisse, Monuments, xix. 3). Scene.
:

Seti

I.,

wearing uraeus, presents two vases to

am

not sure that

In an early Arabic dictionary

Three fragments remain.

The

portion that stands in the

name
in the

applied to a fort near


fort

Farama,

and
of

French map to the

El Belahah.

I heard of no

more mounds in the W. portion the lake cut ofi by the Suez Canal.

shows the back as in the plate. The front is completely broken away, but portions of the eight lines of inscription shown in Prisse remain on the right side, and seven on the left.
village

The

greatest length that remains

is

35 inches.

Prisse figures

the front, back, and left side of the obeli.sk (the left side only repeating the inscription of the right), but omits the
inscription on the left side of the base, which is necessary to complete the sense. His figure is misleading, as the monument appears much more broken in the plate than it really was. Probably he had never seen it himself. His copy of

101. I will

now proceed

to describe the hiero-

monuments at Qantarah and Tell abu Sefe. I saw in all five fragments of inscribed The sandstone, belonging to two monuments. first of these monuments, a large part of which
glyphic

the inscription

is

fairly correct,

but

is

again misleading in

now
'

stands in Qantarah (see


(migdol) of Seti
I.

pi. h.),

was copied
is

the front of the base, where a7ix hor qa neyt maa mr and dnx sut xbt Ra user mad sotep n rd should be read in the two lines, starting in the centre and running both ways. The
top was lost in Prisse's time, but fortunately one of the remaining small fragments on the mound shows part of the

A maMv

in the neighbourliood

represented on the route of his triumphal return from Canaan


at Karnak.

throne name of Rameses

II.

and part of the

title

of Horns

This seems to be the jMigdol of the prophets,

in front of the double crown of a figure of the god, probably

which they speak of with the town of Seveneh (Syene) as a boundary of Egypt. It was, no doubt, the first place in Egypt reached on the northern road from Syria. See Ez. xxix. 10 and xxx. 6 ; Jer. xliv. 1 and xlvi. 14. It probably differed from the Migdol of the Exodus, which must have been on the southern road through the Wadi Tumilat. Another route from Pelusium is across the Delta past Tanis and Thmuis.
Heraclius, xxii.
Tanis, xxii.

from the scene on the back.


slope,

The

sides of this fragment

and there

is

therefore no doubt of its belonging to

the same monument.


portion of the

worked

Above the titles is the cornice and a top, which is flat and polished for a

few inches from the edge, after which is an irregular rise, where something has been broken off. This is evidently tlie upon tlie top, which from the shape of the base and from the dedication to Horus must have been a hawk. Thus we can restore the monument completely. The only question is whether Eameses II. did not take the No other monuments were place of Seti on the left side.
last trace of a figure

Thumuis,

xxii.
;

visible in Prisse's time (1840).

"

Abou

Seyfeh, I'ancienne

Tell Belim (Tell esh Sherig, Eng.

TeU

Sehrig,

R),

visited

by Mr. Petrie, is an important mound lying between Pelusium and Tanis, and must be Heraclius or Heracleopolis. This place was capital of the Sethroite nome, according to Ptolemy, and the nome and city lay outside the Delta, i.e. E. of the
Pelusiac arm.

Magdolum, ne presente plus aujourd'hui que des monticules couverts de tessons de poterie, parmi lesquels on
Jligdol ou
voit
les

fragments d'une superbe monolithe.

II est

de gres

ferrugineux et convert de hieroglyphes bien tallies."

second

The monument was probably found by M. Paponot, one

of the engineers of the Suez Canal.

gANTAKAH.
Horus, lord of Mesen,
pedestal,
Titles
\\]\o

stands on a low
of
life
I.,

Back

(sec plate).

Scene, apparently',

Rame-

and holds emblems


of

and

purity.

ses II. offering to


Insci'iption.

Inscription.

Seti

beloved of
his

Horus of Mesen. " The Horus, mighty

bull, &c.

Horus, lord of Mesen.


of of his Majesty

"

He

set

up

image

Rameses
carved

II.,

beloved of Horus, lord of Mesen,

good and enduring work. Behold, the desire was to establish the name of his father, King Rameses I., before this god

(this)

monument

of his father, Seti

I.,

making the name


ses
I., live

of his grandfather,

Ramebegin-

in the

temple of Horus."
in

and ever." The scenes and inscriptions on the two sides appear to have been similar. Prisse gives the remains of the scene on the right, representing
for ever

Inscription

round base

two

lines,

ning in the middle of the front, and running


each way.
Left side
uat) male
1.

An^

hor qa next {maa mrl vexeM


siit

Rameses I. crowned with the cdpf {ntr nfr rd men j)h) kneeling before a figure enthroned, of
which the upper half
Harmachis).
holding
is lost (perhaps Turn or Behind Rameses stands " Horus,

Qamt
2.

uafset,

xpt

Rd
Rdu

user

maa

stp

rd se ra

Amen

mrl, Sfc,

ma

rii.

Left side
(drnf

Anx

sut xpi

user maa, Sfc,

lord of Mesen, lord of heaven," hawk-headed,


in his right hand the palm branch, symbol of many years, in a slanting position.

m mennuf n) tef lior semf m an n ha dr f da dnx'


Right side
snt x^ht
se ru,
^-c.

neb mesen seha nef

1.

Anx

hor qa next

maa

mr'i

liq

iiut

ah neh dr x<d

Rd

user maa, ^r.,

Behind Horus

is

Uati,

"mistress of heaven,

regent of the gods," crowned with the disk,


horns, and uraeus.
pleted
left.

Right side
(Jior)

2.

Anx ^'^'^ X^^ ^^


r hhs

user

maa,

^c.

Prisse has evidently com-

neh mesen seha nef semf rn an ha dsO qem

some

of this

from the duplicate on the

n hn

f met?

satu hnti rnpt

asaiu.

lines

Below the scene were eight narrow vertical The first two lines of inscription. and titles of Seti I., contain the name
"beloved of Horus, lord of Mesen,
11.

The meaning of the last phrase is not clear. The monument was therefore a monolith figure of Horus as a hawk upon a pedestal,
which Seti
temple
of
I. had intended to dedicate in the Horus in memory of his father.

cles

u."

3, 4.

"

He made

this as his

monument

to his

Rameses
the

II.,

like

dutiful

son, completed
li>ft

father,

Horus, lord of Mesen,

des a, setting

monument which
parallel

was
a

unfinished

up his image
of excellent

of a great stone (of Gebel

Ahmar)
ever

at Seti's death,

and joined

in the dedication.

acting as a son

workmanship to who does what


is
I.

last
is

for

to this on

large scale

may be

generous, and

searches out what

fitting.""
;

The

fifth"

line

found in the temple of Qtirnah, dedicated to Rameses I. by Seti I., who is accompanied by

addresses Rameses

the last three are the

grants to him from Harmachis,


of

Tum, and Horus


lioalth

Mesen.

Harmachis promises

and
with

happiness;

Tum
all

promises food

of

nil

kinds,

Rameses II. The second mdnunicnt was also of sandstone. The remains of it consist of two fragments from the upper part of the back, which fit together.

and Horus of Mesen promises long


dominion over
countries.

life,

They lie close together in the middle of the mound. The sides are straight, and are surmounted by a cornice, beneath which run tlirec
lines of

'

m bat
sides.
t'iiT

uat on one side.

Mesen with and without the n

inscription, terminating in the centre

written, and

Ka men peh

portant variants in

most imthe remains of the inscriptions on the


pli [>h,

Ea men

are the

of the back.

The top
cornice

is

flat

two
*

Below
inches.

the

the

back measures
remain
of

and unpolished. 38
the

hu

iifjer.

Nearly

40

inches

CHAP. XIV. Q.VNTARAII.


length.^
It pei-liaps served as
tlie

pedestal of

of a lion with the face of a

man and

with

its

a colossal hawk,

made

in a separate block.

The
it

fi'ont is

completely destroyed.

Perhaps

claws like knives, af mci des, jjursued them as they fled into the desert, and slew many, and

was ornamented with a scene of


of Rameses.

offering, or

took numerous prisoners.

After this victory

with, the titles

The

side inscrip-

tions

end

in the

middle of the back.


'f'^''
'I'-''

commemorative titles were given to the god, and the place was named Tal and Khent abt.*

First line; left: (^-f^x

'"^xO '"^^ ""'^ ^"^

The gods then re-embarked, and


pui'suit of part of the fugitives that

sailed

in

xbt

Ba usermaa,

&c., da

an^ hor neb mesen mr


mr'i
iib

had taken

da anx '>" ? Eight: (An-x) hor qa uexf maii Ba user maa, &c., da aux (hor) her
&c.

to the water.
sut
^

They

sailed

upon the water of


last

x/'i

Sqedl for several days, and then having reached


Ethiopia, attacked
of the

xht

mr,

and routed the

remnant

enemy.

Second line;
se ra

left: {NxJjt iiat' mule)

qemt

lutf set

Amen
:

mr'i, &c.,

ru

ma

hor nb sesu mr, &c.

refers

In this test the expression uf rnu des evidently to the same thing as m des a of the

Right
ses (sic)

{Tlor nub) us rnpt

aa nxt

se ra Barne-

Qautarah inscription.

The exact construction


is difficult

ra ma, hor Gem a mr, &c.


;

of both of these expressions

to see.

Third line

left

{Ar nef

m mennuf)

n t f hor
se ra

nb mesen

selia

nef semf

m an

n bd ar n nef

The general meaning is clear, and would suit a hawk as well as a lion. From the shape of
the Ramesside pedestals
it

Amen mr
Right
:

Bamessii.
identical with the last.

is

clear that they

cannot have supported

lions.

But
^bt,

this

same

The name
ments were
hor,

of the place in

which these monu-

god was a

lion,

Tarn

x^'^^

the lion

set up was the temple of Horns and the god of the temple was Horus, The same form of Horus, the lord of Mesen. winged disk of the sun, was worshipped at Edfu under the name of Horbehud, and the inscriptions on the temple at Edfu relate the history

watching over Egypt, good guardian of the

Pa

two lands, the protector of Egypt

(Naville,
is

Mythe d'Horus,
is

pi.

ii.)

the form

repre-

sented by the limestone lion that I found, and

perhaps

referred

to in the epithet

0em a

of the second pedestal, which,

seems to be con-

of a

war

in

of his

father

which he drove out the enemies Harmachis from Egypt. These


in the sculptures of

trasted with the epithet


epithet
is

7ieb

mesen.

The former
to

obscure, but might refer

the

rebels

have the appearance

gathered up, sheathed claws of the victorious


lion

According to the legend, Horbehud and Harmachis, accompanied by other gods in the bark of Ra, attacked and defeated them Driven thence the four times in Upper Egypt.
Asiatics.

asleep, or resting,

and watching at the

gate of Egypt.
to this

Warlike kings are compared

form of Horus.

enemy

fled

eastward along the Pelusiac arm,


stopped

102. This city of Tal, which

and only

when

they

reached

the

passed

in

his

twenty

second

Thothmes year on

III.

his

heights afterwards called Tal.

There the gods

found them, and Horbehud, assuming the form


'

way to Syria, was capital of the fourteenth nome Xent abt (beginning of the East). The
determinative of
its

name, and the account

These 40 inches

inscriptions

would be sufficient on the sides, and therefore

to complete the
are

mentioning a
that
it

hill

in the

Edfu

texts, suggest

the

original

measurement.
remains.
'

Ko

portion,

however,

of the front

face

was

in the desert

on the edge of the

Delta.
title of

The waters

of Sqedi leading to Ethiopia

This

birthplace,

Horus and the following one refer to his Chemmis, near Bute, and the marshes in which

would, moreover, suggest a communication with.


'

he was hidden.

Mesen

in this account

is

figured as a rectangular pedestal.

QAXTARAII.

the Eed Sea.

All

tliis

points cither to the region


that about Pelusium

drove them out


to the fort of

of

number

of fortresses,

of "Wadi Tumilat

or to

extending from this frontier fortress of Egypt

as the situation of the


is,

nome.

The former place


space nor the

Kanana.

It is clear

from the
and papyri

however, excluded by the discovery that


there, for

context that the fort existed before that time.


It is also

Pithom lay

neither

mentioned
of

in inscriptions
II.

order of the nomes

-will

allow the fourteenth

of the time

Eamescs
at

and Merenptah,

nome

to be placed there as well.

but certainly not after the nineteenth dynasty.

But there are no such reasons against concluding that the fourteenth nome was in the Perhaps district which I have been describing. the canal (?) of Sqedi had been successfully cut through the rocks of El Gisr and to the Red Sea, or perhaps the gods sailed up the Pelusiac branch, and then turned into the ancient canal
cut by Sesostris in the "Wadi Tumilat.

The sculptures

Karnak representing the

triumphal return of Seti show

Paxdm

n Tal as

a large fort built on both sides of a fresh-water


canal,

Ta denat,
fish

filled

with

crocodiles

and
filled

running northwards into a lake or sea


with

(Menzaleh

?).

There

is

a bridge

across the canal, the larger pai*t of the fort

But although we
of Tal at Tell

find a temple of the

god

abu Sefe, we must not immediately

W. end of the bridge. The canal was cut perhaps between Lakes Balah and Menzaleh, and the fort guarded the point where
lying at the

conclude that
itself.

we have found the city of T'al The name Sile or Sella with which the
is

the

Syrian road crossed the canal

and the
place,

frontier.
Ij'ing

The

importance of the

as

mound
nome

now

satisfactorily identified

might
to the

on the isthmus between the lakes, and on


shortest

correspond

to T'al.

But

if

we turn

the

route

from Syria, must


left

have

lists of

Ptolemy,

we

occupying that part of the

nome X.E. corner of Lower


find tliat the

engaged the attention of the monarch s of the


twelfth dynasty,

who

Egypt which lay outside the Pelusiac branch was called the Sethroite, and the capital of the This city, Sethroite nome was Heracleopolis. as we have seen (p. 103, note 2), lay at or near Tell Belim, and cannot possibly have been Sile. And the name suggests the worship of a god victorious in many combats like Horus of
Mesen, and very likely
there
are
it

in the east of the Delta.

so many monuments But nothing now can

be traced of their work or of that of succeeding


dynasties

down

to

the Ptolemies,
stone

with the

exception of

monuments of the magnificent Pharaohs, Seti I. and Rameses II., who founded and adorned a chapel to the heroUnder Merenptah it was a god of llesen.
the
station

is

Tal

itself,

for

on the road from one

part

of

his

ridges of sand leading up to Tel

Belim
or

in conformity

with the Edfou account.

T'al,
hill

determined with the sign of the desert

For a long period after the nineteenth dynasty it must have lain in ruins. The twenty-sixth dynasty no doubt
dominions to another.
learned a lesson from the Assyrian invasion,

country, was also the ancient

name

of

the half-desert district afterwards included in

but with the growing importance of the naval

the

Sethroite

nome.

In

it

was a

fortress,

Paxelm n Tal or I'axetm u nti m Tal, " the fort of T'al " or " which is in T'al," frequently mentioned in tbe inscriptions and papyri of the nineteenth dynasty, and the history of this fort agrees exactly with the remains at Tel abu Sefe. It is first mentioned in a campaign of the first
year of Seti
I.

powers of the Mediterranean and of intercourse with other countries by sea, it became of more importance to the kings of this and following
dynasties to defend the sea coast

and river

mouth even than the land


this period at Tel

route.

Thus, instead of finding extensive works of

abu

Sefe,

against the Shasu, in which he

Pelusium as the strongly

fortified

wo must look "key

to

of

CHAP. XIV. QANTARAH.

107

Egypt," and instead of the little fort at tlie " bridges," we find a great camp established at
Defeueh, from which
all

8.

rain of heaven

the

13th day

of Pharmouthi.
to

points that needed

the

sove-

defence could be easily reinforced, while provisions conld be obtained in sufficient abundance.

reign lord

10

according to the
of
.

When

under the Ptolemies the place began

measure

again to be inhabited, the ancient walls had

n.
thing.

probably entirely disappeared, or

if

any founda-

]\Iajesty

tions remained they were cleared out for

new

his Majesty. The heart of his was pleased with it more than anyThe soldiers began to adore his
.

buildings.

The settlement
of

witli

its

garrison

Majesty.
12. (saying)
. . .

flourished through, the


is

Roman

period, but there


If

thy

spirits,

mighty king,
marvel

no trace

Arab occupation.

any Arab

chief beloved of all the gods, a great

bricks have existed there, they have been carried


off to

took
13.

(?)

place in thy reign.


of,

Qantarah.

such as had not been seen or heard

With regard to the extent of the nome of Khent abt, we have two points to help us in The Sethroite nome under the fixing it. Eoman Empire lay on the E. of the Pelusiac The south-western end of Khent abt branch. lay perhaps between Defeneh and Menagi at the latter place the Pelusiac arm touched the edge of the desert, and the nome goddess Uat
;

the heavens rained upon the

mount

of Punt,

rain being scanty in the fields of the south.

14 ...

in

this

month

in

which the

rainfall

took place at a time when rain was out of season

even in the north land,


15.

thy mother Neith of the temple of Sais


to thee to conduct to thee the Nile giving

came
life

to thy soldiers.

of the nineteenth

nome

appears.

16.

The king made


all

a great sacrifice and a

great offering to
103. In connection with this nome, however,

the gods of this land, and


of) giving life stability,

performed (the service


purity,
17.

must discuss one other place, and that is Defeneh, and the inscription which Mr. Petrie
I

and

eternity.
set

His Majesty commanded to


Coptos
of

up

this

found there.

tablet of white heiiuu stone in the temple of

The sandstone monument upon which the inis cut has been a large stela. The upper part is entirely destroyed, and the rest,
scription

Khem, lord of making it stand


There can be
remains of the

(?)
!

Khem

(?)

there for ever


little

doubt that the name of

with the exception of the last six


mutilated.

lines, is

much
lost.

Coptos has to be restored in the last Une.

The
tail of

The

date and king's name, with

name show
is

the legs and


ti

which
1.
.

it
.

undoubtedly began, are therefore


.his Majesty
. . .
.

a hawk-like bird, therefore probably

of Qebti.

The date
. .

of the stela

given roughly by the


It

2.

which

is

in Sais of !N"eith

prominent introduction of Sais and Neith.


his

3.

.it

was good.

They

said

to

Majesty

...
.on
.

must belong to the period dynasty. The inscription


that but
little

of the twenty-sixth
is

so fragmentary
its
its

4
5.
.

can be certainly made out of


distinct

this hill (Defeneh?).

His Majesty

purport.

No

reason appears for

said
6.

being found at Defeneh.


.

The

last lines

mention

soldiers ?
.

cycle of years.

He

an extraordinary
district,

fall

of rain in the

Red Sea
it

had not ascended


7

the land of Punt.

Perhaps

was

in

commemoi'ation of
2

this that a

copy of the

stela,

QANTARAH.
if

not

tliis

stela itself,

was

set

up

at the repreat

present state of our knowledge

it

is

perhaps

sentative

city

of

Coptos, "wliicb lay

the

impossible to settle absolutely the hieroglyphic


equivalent of

entrance of the road to Punt.


line

The

fifteenth

Defeneh,

Daphnae, Tahpanhes.
identifica-

may

refer to the opening of a

canal at

There are already several plausible


tions.

Defeneh. Perhaps the completion and formal " opening " of the palace and camp there was
the event chiefly intended to be recorded, while
the rainfall in the same

month on the eastern

But I will offer a further suggestion. Bennu, "the phoenix," was the name of the iiu of the fourteenth nome, and it is quite possible that there was a Ta ha pa hennu
Daphnae

mountains was taken as a sign of the favour of heaven upon the undertaking. On this view
the stela would have been set up by Psam-

("house

of

the

phoenix") in the

desert portion of the


it

nome.

To

distinguish
it

from the

Ha

bennu of Hehopolis,

may

metichus

I.

This will agree with the trace

sometimes have been called Ta ha pa hennu


her
set,

which Mr. Petrie thinks he discovered of the name of Psemthek upon a fragment of the
stela.

" The house of the jjhocnix

in tlic desert

Ta-hapanhes''

The phoenix
of DaphnjB

or

bennu bird may possibly


willi

The name
one that
Tal.'
is

may

be compared to

have some connection

the

black ibises

found in connection with the nome of

mentioned

in

Hdt.

ii.

75,

which met and denear Buto.

Ptolemaic block, Tanis

In a geographical inscription at Phila3 (cf II. pi. X.) Horus appears

stroyed the yearly flight of winged serpents in


a narrow pass in the Arabian
hills

as the chief god of the fourteenth


called

nome

in a city

This Buto cannot be the well-known city in the

Bennut or Ta Beunut. This might well But Bennut seems to be the capital of the nome, and the same as Tal, which
stand for Daphnse.
certainly
'

N.W.

of the Delta, but must,


it,

if

Herodotus's

account have any truth in


of the goddess at

be the other seat

Ncbcsheh, which
classical

may there-

was not the same as Daphnce.


The name Tal may be pronounced
Zal.

In the

fore bo called the Eastern Buto, in the absence


of

any other known

name.

Since the above was printed I have received a notice of the Qantarali inscription by M. Mowat, inserted in the "Bulk-tin Epigraphique " (vol. vi. 1886, pp. 243247).

It

was

originally
:

formed in IMauretania
thus at
first
it

of auxiliaries

recruited in Thrace
of Africa.

belonged to the army


collii^

The learned author restores the text from the inscription of " Hieraconpolis " (meaning that of Manfalut, see p. 98), and
quotes a diploma of Domitian (C.
I.

It Wiis then detached

and despatched to Judfea to

operate in the repression of the revolt of the Jews in year 70.

L.

iii.

dipl. 14, p. 8.57),

which shows that the ala 1 Thracum Mauretana (of Qantarah) was in the year 86 in Judsea, together with the cohors 1 Aug. Pnct. Lusit. of the Manfald^ inscription.
there written This proves satisfactorily that out in full is to be restored in the Qantarah inscription.

Later
timius

it

is

found in garrison

at Alexandria,

under

Sc])-

Severus.

This authoritative interpretation of the


'

inscription mentioned in the note

on

p.

98 must,

I suppose,

MAVRETANA
name

be accepted as the true one. Lastly, in a.d. 288, it was


[As to the
at

in garrison at Qantarah.

M. Mowat's
slightly

intcrjiretation of the

of the ala differs

citizen Lusitanian cohort, this is fiiund again

fiom that given in llarquardt and Mommsen, whose view of the meaning of such titles I had followed. lie draws the following conclusions with regard to the
history of the ala
:

Hieraconpolis at

the

time of the compilation of the

Notitia.
el

Hieraconpolis was certainly not far from

Dcr

Gebrawi and- JIanfalftt.]


Y. Ll. G.

.Mr.

1!.

140122

u.c, another of Jfaximian, and

V. Head has kindly examined the coins which I picketl up at Tell abu Sefe. They include a Ptolemaic coin, two of the family of Constantino; with others of eariier Roman emperors not

identifiable.

An

Arabic coin which was in the packet was, I believe, from one of the neighbouring

sites.

It

seems probable

that the military station was given

up soon

after the Notitia

was compiled.

NEW

imTJ

CONTENTS OF SOME PLATES.


Plate
1.
2. ^^II.

1015. Gold
18, 19.

foil

amulets from one tomb.

Blue glazed pot.


Alabaster pot.

Gold earring and scarab from tomb 26.


Amulets,
bead,

20 29

28.

and

scarabs

found

3.

Bronze standard.
Bronze
bell.

together.

4.
5.

83. Various scarabs.

Pottery lamp.

6.

Bronze bowl.

Plate XX.
1.

7.

Bone
(All

figure.
flask.

One

of the bronze sockets of the large shrine.


reflector.

8.

Blue glazed

2.
3.

Lamp

above from House 100, 230 b.c.

Bronze Ptah.
Hinges of shrine of Ptah.
Hind-quarters
bronze.
(1 to

9.

Incised pottery.

3a.

10. Figure suckling apes.

3b. Capitals of shrine of Ptah.


4.

11. Pottery sistrum-mould. 12. Figure holding breasts. 13. Incised pottery.
14. 15. Iron pruning hooks.
16.

of

animals

from

stand

4 from Gemayemi.)

6.

Bronze

pail

and cover, twenty-sixth dynasty.

Small

flask, pottery.

Tomb

16.

17. 19. Pottery heads of animals.


18. Disc of blue or of white paste. 20.

Plate XXIV.
1. 2.

Unusual pottery

figure.

Limestone horseman.
Pottery figure.

21. Piece of trachyte corn rubber. 22.

Dark brown hard pottery bowl.

3. 4.
5.

Limestone

figure.

23. Figure with vase at side.

Pottery figure.

Whetstone with characters.


Piece of early pottery.

Plate VIII.
1.

6.

Glass necklace of fourth century a.d.

7. 8.

Heads

of warriors in red i3ottery.

2.

Blue glazed plaque with

deities.

13. Pottery found in plain east of Kasr.

3.
4. 5.

Aegis of Bast, yellow on blue glaze.


Silver ring with

Horus

of

Am.
1. 2.

Plate XXXVI.
Seal of Psamtik I. Seals of Nekau.

Silver ring ^vith gold foil bezel.

6.
7.

Lotus in blue paste, hard.

Amulet

of green glaze

KalanfiJm ?

3. 4.
5.

Seal of Psamtik IL
Seals of inspectors, on inner side. Seals of Aahmes.

8.
9.

Gold pendant.

Man

bearing a lamb, green glaze.

TELL DEFEXXEII.

Plate XXXYII.
1, 2.

9.

Gold statuette found Gold handle of a


been bent
the whole

in the shrine

No.

8.

Horses'

10.
bits.

tray, the long ends

having
:

3. 4.

Trident.

at right angles
is cast,

beneath the tray

Lance-head.
Pieces of horses' bits.

excepting the ribs of the

petals for holding the inlay, which are strips

5. 5a, 6. 7.

Sword.

soldered on.

Found, evidently looted, along


silver, in

S 11.
12

Helmet peaks
Arrow-beads.

with lumps of
?

the

camp on

the east

16.

of the Kasr. 11.

Defenueh.

17. Large knife.


18.

Silver ram's head, probably

from a statuette

Swivel ling.
12.

of

Khuum.

Camp, Defenueh.
earring,
trihedral

19. 19a, 19b. Scale armour.


20.

Gold earring, open work of soldered globules.


pjTamid of

Large

13. Part of gold


knife.

soldered globules.

Plate
1. 2.

XXXYIH.

14.

Gold bead of two pentagonal


together.

discs soldered

Pickaxe.
Chisel.

15.
16.

Gold Gold

foil,

thick ribbed; from an earring ?

foil, floret.

3. 4.
5.

Socket of chisel.

17.

Gold bead, soldered

globules.
;

Auger
Large

18. Piece of gold chain, a pendant

probably a

Bident.
knife,

glass bead lost from end.

C. 7.

chamber 19

a.

19

23.
link.

Gold

foil

ornaments.

Sail needle ? or netting needle.

24. Piece of gold chain with a band round each

8. Piazor.

9. 10.

Cones of sheet

iron,

punched

rasps.

25. Piece of gold cliain with pendant.

11. Chisel. 12. Poker.


13.

20.

Gold symbolic eye

hollow, sheet,

same both

sides, ribs soldered on.

Spring?

27. Gold pendant, hollow,

flat

back.

14. Fish-hook.

28. Gold wire, square, twisted.


29. 30.

1520.

Chisels.

Gold setting of a gem. Gold symbolic


oj-e.

21. Plough-ii-on. 22. Chisel.

31. Dioptase in gold setting with row of globules.

23. Knife.
24. Axe.

Plate

XLL
tells,

32. Silver ring of a

"

priest of

nefer-neb-teshert " (or


(Objects from Defenueh and neighbouring
tik IL, lord of the red

"the
crown

Amen, Hon-Ra-abslave of Psam").

unless specified.)
1.

33. Silver bezel of ring of " Anch-hor-meiddi-ab,


firstpriest of

Small gold finger ring.

Tum"

(?).

2.

Gold can-ing, hollow.


7.

33a. Silver bezel of Teta-nub-hotep.


34.
Silver bezel of ring of a " servant of Xoit,

Gold earrings,

solid.

8.

Silver amulet case or shrine, with sliding lid

Psamtik-se-Ncit."
35. Silver bezel of ring of " servant of Neit, Hai--

partly

drawn up and pressed


Dcferuiclt.

in,

as

when

found.

em-heb."

CONTEXTS OF SOME PLATES.


36. Silver bezel
scarabsBus. of riug,

engraved with wiuged

GO. Scarab of Psamtik

schist.

61

67. Scarabs.

37. Silver rinff with silver scarab.

68, 69. Scarabs of blue paste, probably

made

at

Naukratis.

69 seems to have the winged

sphinx walking, found on such scarabs.


38. Star of lapis-lazuH.
39. Lion-headed urfeus of
Lapis-laziili.

70,

Combination of Khuum, Ptah-sokar, and hawk.

most

delicate work.

Chamhcr 2
71
i

or 3, Kasr.

72.

Eye plaque and

Taurt.

Chamhcr

7,

Kasr,

40.

Crystal ofIceland-s2mr(calcite),with cartouche


of " Ket " and

Dcfennch.
73,

" nefrui " on

reverse.

Seal of green glazed ware.

Chamber

7,

Kasr,

41. Part of bezel of violet glazed pottery.


'

DefClinch.
74,

Block

for a seal,

damaged
white

in drilling.

Pale

green, translucent, calcite.


42. Part of a scarab of dark green paste, imitating
jasper.

75. Block for a seal


76.

calcite.

Bronze

seal of

Aahmes.

Chamber 19a, Kasr,

43

54.

Scarabs.
11.

Dcfennch.

65. Scarab of Sheshouk IV.


56. Scarab of Psamtik
I.

Amber-coloured

glass,

stamped with cupid

or Haa-ab-ra.

Dark
79.

on

lion.

Eoman.
Eoman.
stamped on clear green

green jasper.
57. Scarab of Ra-nefer-ankh, fourteenth dynasty?

78. Baubo, clear light green glass.

Term,

in clear dark blue glass.

Obsidian.
58. Scarab of

80.

Head
glass.

of Anubis,

Ea-men
;

green jasper. green pottery.

Eoman.
glass,

59. Scarab of Ea-ar

Twenty-

81. Amber-coloured
driving coat.

stamped with cupid

fourth or twenty-fifth dynasty ?

Tiomau.

E E K A T A.
The
arrival of the

monuments
sign seps

frrn

NcVicshcli (!n:iblos

mc

PI. xi. IGrt.

The

is

joined to the

tail

of

to correct

some
:

errors.

PL

X. 5a, G

The

li:is

apparently lion-headed.
PI.

The name
PI. xi. IG'/.

is

The

figure

<m the right

is

certainly of a god.

T)ic erasure suggests Ret.


PI. X. 7.

There seems

to be a c/iihl

behind

Cf.

p.

col. 1, line 3.

Mr. Potric

h:is

pointed
Ht;itue
:

liini.

out to
it

me

that there

a bracelet on tho arm of the

PI. xii. 18.

The

figures of tlie genii shoulil be represented

must, therefore, be of a godde

walkin-.

F.-Ll. G.

INDEX.

PAGE
Nebeslieh
:

pylon
foundation deposits
altar

cemetery

town
plan
inscriptions
stela

Nebucliadrezzar's invasion

...

Nekau

at Daphua; Nike on vase

Orientation of tombs

Pail of bronze

Pavement
Pelusium

at Defenneli

. .

Pentagon, incised
Phoenician characters

Venus,
Pilgrim bottle type
Plaster models,

figures

Physical changes in Delta

Gemaiyemi

Pottery of Defenneli
(.e.

Vases).

inscribed

Psamtik

I.

founds fort
deposits of
jar sealiugs
stela of
. .

Psamtik

II.

sealings of

scarabs of

Ptolemaic house and coins

Qantara

monuments

Ea, statuette, gold

Eamessu

11. dedicates statue of

Uati

buildings by
statues

headof(?)
at Qantara

Eamessu
Easps

III.

inscription

Eamesside tombs

Saite tombs,

&c

Sand, denuded
Sarcophagi: basalt
limestone
Scale armour, iron

r.4

BESHEH. FUNEREAL OBJECTS XX-XX V

DY NASTY.

PI

i:4

NEBESHEH. CHAM BERS

3,5,7,ab8,(on E

tomb)

xx^"

dynasty

PL

11

r.., cc^ott>.

c^co^a

Su^clih

Ti.rra.coCU

Limsr^m

Ur

/T

^A,

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i:4
To-mhsl.l

NE BESH EH. CYPRIOTE TOMBS

VI!-VCtNT

B.C.

PI

III.

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to

th,

toyy.l>^
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UNIVERSITY
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LIBRARY

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XXVI DYN.

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NEBESHEH. FOUNDATION DEPOSITS OFAAHMES

XXVT" DYNASTY.

Pi.

V.

1 1 1
El.

'

tv.

M.

F P del.

NJEBESHEH. PLANS OF FOUNDATION

DEPOSITS
,^.JU.T,i.l.-U'

Pl.VI.

a..-)

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&

toHcy^ of PI

SI.

to^

yet ^

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TELL NEBESHEH
SCALE
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friiK /;>*.

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M^.

j(

t-t.

1:200

NEBESHEH. TOMBS

PI.

XVI

-^

Pt

XVII

W]

^^\

M.

F. P. de.1.

A Y

E:

FOUNDATION DEPOSITS.

Pl.XIX

NEBESHEH. BUILDING

IN

CEMETERY. See

PL. VI

PLAN.

ac0

'zCTTK
=1;

L=j

Q
:.T~
r-^ii.-r

u
e,v^

.wtu
re:.n. bci

NEBESHEH

AND

GtMAYEMi BRONZES

PL.

XX

iijy

PI.

XXI

>-

<
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0-)

h-

m:..

DEFENNEH. FOUNDATION DEPOSITS


i:i

OF

KASR.PSAMTIKI.

XXVI DYN.

PLXXII.

.^'^

^^

S%
E

tl
OI^E

AD ORE.

iOPPER

BONES

OF

THE

OWER, Cot>,N

fkUBBEP,

W.M.F.P.

dU.

i:io

DEFEMNEH.

PLANS OFFOUNDATI ON DEPOSITS

PL.

XX

II

ti

o n.. 5.E.

P
////^^^/o

cu

rx.

S.E.

5^^"
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cLc
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of

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J-il.

iNtWYORlUJ

SITY

r.z

DEFENNtH. EAST OF KASR.

^^
1

C E N

T.

B.C.

Pl.XKIV.

i:3

DEFENNEH. KA3R,

17.

Pl.XXV

UNIVERSITY INEW YORK

DAPHNIOTE WARE

PI XXVI

1:3

FENNEH.KASR.

Pi.XXVll

-^^r^

-.3

DEFENNEH. KA5R

PI. XXVIII

SWMMF

On Shou-Uty

o/

cc

s,:.^iL.y

VoLii

:^

Puttfr>^ on sh.o^LoLty

OLy^cL

Piqu-re^^ on SLrr^iUr

mmmmi

W Mr. /^

p. elt.1.

V.l

DtFENNEH. KASR

PLXXIX

iN

M r P

de-i.

1:2

DEFENNEH,

KASR

PLXXX

WM r

p. di-L

:.S"

DEFENNEH, KASK

Pl.XXKI

M. r. P-

J-

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1:4-

PI. XXXII

M.M.F.P.

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PI. XXXIII.

DEFeNNEH.

PLXXXIV

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PLXXXV

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DEFENNEH.

JAR-LIDS AND

A L N
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S. XXVI DYN.

PL.XXXVl,

Mr

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DEFENNEH, MILITARY IRONWORK.

Pl.XXXVil.

-.2.

D E F

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CIVl L

IRONWORK.

PI.

XXXVIII

y^Si

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DEFENNEH

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PI

XXXIX.

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TYPES

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